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Sample records for carbofuran

  1. Determination of carbofuran in water by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guonian; Wu Huiming; Yang Ting; Hu Xiuqing

    2004-01-01

    A competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) method was established to detect carbofuran in water samples. Compared with traditional analytical methods RIA provided a easy procedure with higher sensitivity. The detective limitation of RIA for carbofuran was proved to be 0.175 ng/ml. A study was performed to test validation of the RIA. In this study carbofuran residues in water samples were detected simultaneously by RIA and by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The linear correlation coefficient of the test results was measure to be 0.9985. (authors)

  2. Characterization of carbofuran-degrading bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workstation

    Key words: Pesticides, carbofuran, methomyl, biodegradation, bacteria. INTRODUCTION .... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequence analysis of ..... Beutel KK (1986). Chlorinated hydrocarbon, In W. Gerhartz (ed.),.

  3. Biodegradation of carbofuran in pretreated and non-pretreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camper, N.D.; Fleming, M.M.; Skipper, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,2-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranylmethyl-carbamate) is a broad spectrum insecticide which is effective against soil insects in corn, rice, sugar cane, peanuts, cotton and pests on potatoes. Decreased effectiveness of insect control in soils treated with carbofuran was observed after soils had been treated for a number of years. Loss of efficacy was not related to insect resistance or soil leaching. Irreversible adsorption was not involved; however, the carbofuran levels in the soil were lower than expected. Repeated applications of carbofuran increased the rate of degradation. The objective of these experiments was to study the potential of enhanced 14 C-carbofuran degradation in two South Carolina soils which had been treated for several successive years. The degree of degradation and type of degradation products were also determined

  4. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran radioactivity in soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Nashriyah Mat

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran insecticide or nematicide sprayed onto soil in the agroecosystem will be taken up by plant. Carbofuran residue will pollute the environment and organisms in the food chain. Extraction and analysis of 14 C-carbofuran in soil from lysimeter were carried out. The Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was used to measure radioactivity of 14 C-carbofuran in soil sample. (Author)

  5. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  6. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, mancozeb and their formulations to the tropical earthworm Perionyx excavatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Silva, P.M.C.S.; Pathiratne, A.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, mancozeb and their formulated products on survival, growth and reproduction of the tropical earthworm Perionyx excavatus were investigated in standard artificial soil. The toxicity of the three chemicals decreased in the order carbofuran > chlorpyrifos >

  7. 14C Carbofuran residue in rice-fish ecosystem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, M.; Soekarna, D.; Suhanda; Kuswadi, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    14-C-carbofuran in the form of 14-C-Furada 3G was applied with doses of 0, 2, and 4 g/m2 to a rice-fish ecosystem model consisting of water, soil, rice, plant, and fish (Cyprinus carpio) in tanks of the size 1 m length, 1 m width, and 0.5 m depth. 14-C-carbofuran was released from 14-C-Furadan 3G, entered into the water, absorbed by plant root, and then distributed into the whole plant. A part of the 14-C-carbofuran was absorbed and retained by soil. In both doses of 4 and 2 g/m2, the 14-C-Furadan 3G was toxic to Cyprinus carpio under this experiment condition. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Determination of plant species for the phytoremediation of carbofuran residue in rice field soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study searched for plant species suitable for accumulating carbofuran residue in rice field soil. Three groups of plant, i.e. grass crops, upland crops, and vegetable crops, were grown in 8 inches diameter plastic pots filled with soil containing 5 mg/kg carbofuran. Parts of plants (stems and leaves, roots, fruits were harvested at day 120 and analyzed for carbofuran residue using HPLC. The results indicated that Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower was the most suitable species for phytoremediation of carbofuran residue in rice field soil because it highly accumulated carbofuran up to 93.4 μg/kg dry weight in its stems and leaves. In addition, H. annuus L. (sunflower could tolerate carbofuran since it showed similar physical appearance (circumference and height to control not receiving carbofuran.

  9. Bioavailability in rats of bound residues from radishes treated with either radiolabeled dieldrin or carbofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Kacew, S.; Dupont, S.; Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability of bound residues from radishes treated with [ 14 C]dieldrin and [ 14 C]carbofuran was investigated by feeding the rats 14 C material obtained after exhaustive solvent extraction. For comparison, nonextracted radishes were also fed to rats. The 14 C residues were predominantly excreted in feces. Urinary excretion of 14 C from rats fed nonextracted material was relatively greater than from those fed extracted radishes. The excreted material from rats fed dieldrin-treated radishes contained mainly parent compounds as residue. However, carbofuran and two of its metabolites, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, were present in feces and urine samples of rats fed carbofuran-treated radishes. These data demonstrated that bound residues in radishes treated with dieldrin and carbofuran have a low degree of bioavailability in rats. The results also show that bound residues in dieldrin-treated radishes would be more bioavailable than in the carbofuran-treated samples

  10. The Potency of Local Bacterial Isolates Encapsulated Within Sodium Alginate in Carbofuran Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyani, Nunuk; Pratiwi, Dian; Suryanto, Dwi

    2018-03-01

    Research on the viability of bacteria encapsulated within sodium alginate and their potential in carbofuran degradation has been done. A total of 8 bacterial isolates have been isolated from slaughter house waste. A 100 ml of Bushnell-Hass Broth (BHB) medium containing 146.982 ppm of carbofuran was used as a medium. As much as 2 gr of beads which equal to 108cells.ml‑1 was inoculated into each medium culture and incubated for 15 days at ambient temperature and was shaken at 100 rpm. Analysis of carbofuran residues using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) showed that the best 2 isolates, DN 1 and OR 2, were able to decrease carbofuran phenol concentration up to 30.37 % and 32.09% respectively compared to control. These results suggested that no significant different from the ability of free cell which decreased carbofuran phenol concentration up to 32.54% and 28.29%.

  11. Determination of carbofuran on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using TSK gel amide 80 as stationary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Kurnia; LW Lim; T Takeuchi

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to environmental friendly capillary liquid chromatography was employed to investigate retention behavior of carbofuran. Aim of this research is to investigate retention behavior of carbofuran using TSK gel amide 80 as stationary phase. Several condition was conducted to investigate retention behavior of carbofuran such as comparison study of TSK gel amide 80 with other polar column, comparison study retention behavior of carbofuran on various system wavelength, water content effect in HILIC mode, effect of buffer concentration on HILIC mode, and analytical performance. Results showed that TSK gel imidazole was superior compare to other polar stationary phase on determine carbofuran, wavelength 251 and 254 nm was resulting higher absorbance for carbofuran than others, increase of water content on mobile phase was decrease the retention time, also increase buffer salt concentration was decrease the retention time and according to analysis performance that is the accuracy was 101±10,1, the LOD 0.66 ppm while LOQ 2.22 ppm. As conclusions that TSK gel amide 80 was offering good determine on carbofuran even using capillary liquid chromatography with 10 cm length of column. (author)

  12. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nano tubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sh.; Li, Sh.; Ma, J.; Xiong, F.; Qu, S.; Zhang, Sh.; Li, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with chitosan (CS) by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from 10 -10  g/L to 10 -3  g/L with a detection limit of 10 -12  g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis

  13. Dissipation, degradation and uptake of 14C-carbofuran in a Panamanian Alfisol soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.E.; Saiz, E.B. de; Gonzalez, L.; Perez, O.; Caballos, J.

    1999-01-01

    The dissipation, degradation and leaching of carbon-14 labelled carbofuran was studied in a micro-lysimeter system with disturbed and undisturbed soil cores of an Alfisol from El Ejido, Panama. The micro-lysimeters were conditioned under the environment prior to the application of the insecticide. Each lysimeter was treated with 14C-labelled carbofuran at a concentration of 1.7 μg carbofuran/g soil and maize seed were sown in the treated soil. Samples of soil were taken at 0, 8, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 180 days after treatment. The plant material was separated and the soil was analyzed by radiometric techniques for total, extractable and non-extractable residues. The total 14C-radioactivity decreased with time to 30% of the originally applied activity. Extractable residues decreased with time to 2.5% whereas, the un-extractable residues increased to 35.5% of the original. Residues in the plant foliage were in the range of 0.5 to 0.9 μg/g and showed highest concentration during the first 30 days after germination. Extractable residues included carbofuran, 3-hydroxy-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran. The amount of radioactivity leached was in the range of 19.2 to 22.8% of original. It is concluded that carbofuran residues move easily in soil-maize system. Maize plants rapidly absorb the insecticide and C14-activity predominates 15 to 30 days post-treatment. Dissipation of carbofuran occurs soon, with a halflife of 30 days. (author)

  14. Vitamin C acts as a hepatoprotectant in carbofuran treated rat liver slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Ansari, Md Dilshad; Siddiqi, Nikhat J; Sharma, Bechan

    2017-01-01

    Carbamates, most commonly used pesticides in agricultural practices, have been reported to produce free radicals causing deleterious effects in animals. The present study was designed to assess the carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat liver slices in vitro and also to evaluate protective role of vitamin C by incubating them in Krebs-Ringer HEPES Buffer (KRHB) containing incubation media (Williams medium E (WME) supplemented with glucose and antibiotics) with different concentrations of carbofuran. The results demonstrated that carbofuran caused significant increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibition in the activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) in concentration dependent manner. The data with incubation medium reflected that carbofuran at lowest concentration caused an increase in SOD activity followed by its inhibition at higher concentration. Carbofuran treatment caused inhibition in the activity of catalase in liver slices and WME incubation medium. Pre-incubation of liver slices and the WME media with vitamin C restored the values of biochemical indices tested. The results indicated that carbofuran might induce oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The pretreatment with vitamin C may offer hepatoprotection from toxicity of pesticide at low concentration only.

  15. The Experiment of Carbofuran Controlled Release Formulation Insecticide Application on Rice Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistyati, M.; Ulfa TS; Sofnie M Ch; Kuswadi AN

    2004-01-01

    Field test of carbofuran insecticide (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate) controlled release formulation on rice plants of IR-64 variety was carried out in Pusakanegara, West Java. This insecticide formulation was made by using the mixture of activated charcoal, tapioca, kaolin, Na-alginate as a filler matrix. Insecticide formulation was applied one week after transplanting. The observations were conducted on the number of tillers, damage level caused by Orseolia oryzae (Wood/Mason), Chilo suppressalis (Walker), and Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guen) on new young plants. The observation were carried out on three weeks after application of carbofuran insecticide formulation then every two weeks until harvest. The number of tillers were occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 20kg/ha, 30kg/ha, and 40kg/ha dose rate on the third weeks, it was showed significant difference compared with commercial carbofuran, and the following weeks were no significant difference between the treatments. The attack of Orseolia oryzae was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation with dose rate of 30 kg/ha and 40 kg/ha on the seventh weeks, ninth weeks, and eleventh weeks, those attacks were significantly difference found compared with commercial carbofuran. The attack of Chilo suppressalis was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 40kg/ha dose rate on the fifth weeks, it was showed significant difference which was compared to untreated carbofuran. The attack of Cnaphalocrosis medinalis was occurred on the ninth weeks, three dose rate of controlled released formulation were showed significant differences which compared with commercial carbofuran and were showed 50% less than commercial carbofuran, while the grains dry weight were no significant difference between the treatments. (author)

  16. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  17. Uptake of 14C-carbofuran from rice plants by brown planthopper (nilaparvata lugens stal) and green leafhopper (Nephotettix virencence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, M.; Anwar, E.; Kuswadi, A.N.; Soekarna, D.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the amount of 14-C-carbofuran taken up by brown planthopper (BPH) and green leafhopper (GLH) from ride plants containing 14-C-carbofuran. The roots of 30 days old rice plants were immersed in Kimura B solution containing carbofuran (0.6ug/ml) with activity of 18600 pCi/ml. After 3 days, 20 BPH and 20 GLH released onto the rice stems and leaves. The mortalities of BPH and GLH were similar after 24 and 48 hours of the release. The average radioactivity found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living BPH. And in dead GLH was 3.2 times on those in dead BPH. Radioactivity in rice leaves was 3.5 times of those in stems. This layer chromatograph of extracts of Kimura B solution, stems, and leaves showed that small amounts of carbofuran had degraded to substances like 3-OH-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran. The percentage of radioactivity found as carbofuran decreased with time, while the amount of 3-ket-carbofuran increased. (authors). 6 refs, 2 figs, 6 tab

  18. Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, J.M.; Hameed, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from banana stalks (BSAC) waste to remove the insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial carbofuran concentration, solution pH and temperature (30, 40 and 50 deg. C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of carbofuran on BSAC were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (ΔH o ), standard entropy (ΔS o ) and standard free energy (ΔG o ) were evaluated. Regeneration efficiency of spent BSAC was studied using ethanol as a solvent. The efficiency was found to be in the range of 96.97-97.35%. The results indicated that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability characteristics and can be used as alternative to present commercial activated carbon.

  19. Curcumin mediated attenuation of carbofuran induced toxicity in the heart of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, S K; Gupta, V K; Siddiqi, N J; Sharma, B

    2017-07-31

    Carbofuran is used to improve the agricultural productivity as well as to protect the house hold and industrial products, but due to accumulation in the biological system, it causes serious side effects in many non-targets mammalian systems. The aim of present study is to evaluate the carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat heart and its attenuation by using herbal product curcumin. Rats were divided into four groups; one group received 20 % LD50 of carbofuran another group of rats received same doses of carbofuran was  pretreated with curcumin (100 mg kg-1 body weight) and remaining two other groups served as control and curcumin treated animals. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the heart tissues and serum was evaluated and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was estimated in the heart tissues. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in heart tissues was also measured. The Total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured in the serum of the entire animals group. The results of present study showed that the activity of LDH in heart tissues were decreased and in serum was elevated. The MDA level was significantly elevated due to exposure of carbofuran. The enzymatic antioxidants, SOD and CAT activities were also inhibited. The ratio of pro-oxidant (P)/antioxidant (A) was also found to be sharply increased in the rat heart tissues of carbofuran exposed animals. The alterations in all the parameter were recovered by the pretreatment of curcumin (100 mg kg-1 body weight).

  20. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Rozo, José; Sánchez Nieves, Jimena; Uribe Vélez, Daniel; Moreno Chacón, Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz, Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofuran degradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soils cultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum) in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different records of pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for their ability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mg L-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/ or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtai...

  1. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniappan, S.; Balasubramanian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  2. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  3. Solar photo-Fenton optimisation in treating carbofuran-contaminated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Hernández-Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Box-Benkhen design response-surface methodology was developed to optimise photo-Fenton degradation of carbofuran (C12H15NO3 by using a compound parabolic collector pilot plant. The four variables considered in Box-Benkhen design model included carbofuran degradation percentage, initial carbofuran concentration, hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] concentration and iron [Fe2+] concentration. Degradation was monitored by using total organic carbon concentration and high-performance liquid chromatography. A 93.2 mg l-1 carbofuran concentration was completely degraded in t30W = 15 min with 17.1 mg l-1 Fe2+ and 121.6 mg l-1 H2O2. Photo-Fenton degradation led to 76.7% mineralisation. Biodegradability during optimisation was evaluated by using the BOD5/COD ratio; this value increased from 0.04 at the beginning of the process to 0.52 in t30W = 20 min, thereby showing the effectiveness of using biological treatments.

  4. Evaluation of toxicity and translocation of Carbofuran in a simulated rice-fish ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikder, M.Q.; Nabi, M.R.; AminUddin, M.; Rahman, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Toxic effects of 14 C-carbofuran on climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), its translocation and residual accumulation in a rice-fish ecosystem under simulated conditions in an aquarium was studied. Mortality trial showed that carbofuran concentration of 4 ppm acutely toxic and kill the fish until the fifth day and after five days, residual concentration in water was not lethal to fish. Carbofuran was applied in the soil in glass aquarium planted with paddy at the rate of 0.75 kg a.i./ha. Maximum radioactivity was observed in water on day 1 (0.07 μg/l) and day 3 (0.07μg/l) after application of the pesticide. In soil sample radioactivity increased gradually and reached peak level of 1.134 μg/g on day 98 after pesticide application. In rice plants, the emergent portion was found highest level of 33.6 μg/g on day 71 and in the submerged portion it was 2.336 μg/g on the same day. Highest level of radioactivity was recorded in muscle tissue (0.252 μg/g) and visceral tissue of the fist (0.724 μg/g) on day 66 after carbofuran application.(author)

  5. Production and Identification of High Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Against Pesticide Carbofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To produce high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against pesticide carbofuran, and the develop immunochemical assays for people's health and environmental protection, the hapten 4-[[(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy) carbonyl]-amino]-butanoic acid (BFNB) of carbofuran was synthesized and Balb/c mice were immunized by the hapten-carrier (BFNB-bovine serum albumin, BFNB-BSA) conjugates. The splenocytes of immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 cells and the cultural supernatants of hybridoma cells were screened by the indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), based on BFNB-ovoalbumin conjugates (BFNB-OVA). Purified monoclonal antibody (McAb) was obtained from fluids of ascites, deposited by octanoic acid and ammonium sulfate. The affinity and the specificity of McAb were characterized by ELISA or indirect competitive ELISA. A hybridoma cell line (5D3) secreting anti-carbofuran McAb had been established. The titer of culture medium and ascites was up to 1:2.048 × 103 and 1:1.024 × 106, respectively, and the subtype of the McAb was IgG1. The affinity constant of the McAb was about 2.54 × 109 L mol-1, with an IC50 value of 1.18 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL-1. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the McAb was quiet specific for carbofuran, as among the four analogous compounds, they were all hardly recognized (4.59 × 10-4% for 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol and less than 3.0 × 10-4% for others). The prepared McAb had a very high affinity and specificity,and it could be used to develop ELISA for rapid determination of carbofuran.

  6. Effects of diuron and carbofuran and their mixtures on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, Adrislaine S; Moreira, Raquel A; Dornfeld, Hugo C; Freitas, Emanuela C; Vieira, Eny M; Sarmento, Hugo; Rocha, Odete; Seleghim, Mirna H R

    2017-08-01

    In aquatic environments, organisms are often exposed to mixtures of several pesticides. In this study, the effects of carbofuran and diuron and their mixtures on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata were investigated. For this purpose, toxicity tests were performed with the single compounds (active ingredients and commercial formulations) and their combinations (only active ingredients). According to the results, the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations to R. subcapitata was similar. In the single exposures, both carbofuran and diuron inhibited significantly the R. subcapitata growth and caused physiological (chlorophyll a content) and morphological (complexity and cell size) changes in cells, as captured by flow cytometry single-cell properties. Regarding the mixture toxicity tests, data fitted to both reference models, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), and evidenced significant deviations. After the CA fitting, dose-ratio dependent deviation had the best fit to the data, demonstrating synergism caused mainly by diuron and antagonism caused mainly by carbofuran. After fitting the IA model, a synergistic deviation represented the best fit for the diuron and carbofuran mixtures. In general, the two reference models indicated the occurrence of synergism in the mixtures of these compounds, especially when diuron was the dominant chemical in the combinations. The increased toxicity caused by the mixture of these pesticides could pose a greater environmental risk for phytoplankton. Thus, exposure to diuron and carbofuran mixtures must also be considered in risk assessments, since the combination of these compounds may result in more severe effects on algae population growth than single exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaching of 14-Carbofuran into sub-surface water in vegetable agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Misman Sumin; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir; Kubiak, R.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental setup was constructed to investigate leaching of 14C C arbofuran into sub-surface water through Bungor series sandy loam soil. The indoor lysimeter was constructed using homogenous and packed disturbed soil column. The outdoor lysimeter was constructed using undisturbed soil column. In the field, leachate production was influenced by rainfall intensity but tracer transport was independent of water transport to a certain degree. A high rainfall intensity at 39 DAA has not enhanced tracer leaching into sub-surface water in vegetable agroecosystem whereas a lower rainfall intensity at 21 DAA has enhanced its leaching. Indoor lysimeter behaved incoherently and showed non-parallel relationship between applied water and also volume of leachate produced with tracer transport. In both types of lysimeter, tracer transport and carbofuran transport generally correlated. Carbofuran and tracer were leached at a lower magnitude in outdoor lysimeter compared to the indoor lysimeter. The maximum total radioactivities leached were 1.1% and 0.4% of applied radio activities from indoor lysimeter and outdoor lysimeter at 35 and 21 DAA respectively. The maximum total carbofuran equivalent leached were 193.9 μg/L and 39.3 μg/L at 35 DAA and 21 DAA from indoor lysimeter and outdoor lysimeter respectively. (author)

  8. Lethal concentration of carbofuran to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and green leaf-hopper (Nephotettix virecence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuswadi, A.N.; Sumatra, M.; Anwar, E.; Soekarna, D.

    1988-01-01

    An oral toxicity test of carbofuran to brown planthopper and green leaf-hopper using sucrose solution as feed given to the hopper through a membrane feeding system was conducted in the laboratory, pure carbofuran was dilute in the feeding solution. The 50 percent lethal concentration (LC-50) of this insecticide to adult and nymph of brown planthopper were 0.21 and 0.43 ppm, respectively, while those to adult and nymph of green leaf-hopper were 0.43 and 0.58 ppm. The LC 90 were 0.56 an 0.90 ppm to adult and nymph of brown planthopper, and 1.20 and 1.60 ppm to adult and nymph of green leaf-hopper, respectively. The brown planthopper was found to be more susceptible than the nymph. When carbofuran was applied to rice plant, this insecticide was accumulated more in the leaf than in the stem, so that green leaf-hopper got more toxicity than the brown planthopper. (authors). 5 refs, 7 figs

  9. Development and validation of an enviromentally friendly method for the determination of carbofuran in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lucía Chaparro-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an environmentally friendly analytical method was developed and validated for the extraction and quantification of N-methylcarbamate carbofuran in soil samples taken from orchards cultivated with a local potato variety. The extraction was carried out with a Matrix solid-phase Dispersion (mspd technique. Gas chromatography with micro electron capture detector (μ-ecd was used for the quantifi-cation of carbofuran residues in the samples, using the external standard method. Results obtained from this method were then compared with the Soxhlet technique used for samples contaminated with the commercial product Furadan® 3SC. DifferentResumoEm este trabalho desenvolveu-se e validou um método analítico ambientalmente amigável para a extração e quantificação do N-metilcarbamato carbofurano, em amostras de solos cultivados com batata crioula. A técnica usada para a extração foi dispersão de matriz em fase sólida (mspd. A quantificação dos resíduos de carbofurano levou-se a cabo por cromatografia de gases com detector de microcaptura de elétrons (μ-ecd, com o método do padrão externo. Este método foi comparado com a técnica de extração Soxhlet para amostras contaminadas com Furadam® 3SC. Avaliaram-se diferentes parâmetros que afetam o processo de extração mspd, como a fase estacionária, o solvente parameters affecting the mspd extraction process were evaluated, such as the stationary phase, the solvent and elution volume in soil samples trea-ted with Furadan® 3SC to a final concentration of 50 mg/kg-1 of active ingredient (carbofuran. The recovery rate was used as a response variable. The best carbofuran extraction conditions for these matrices were obtained with 0.2 g of macerated sample with 0.8 g of silica gel as adsorbent in a 1:4 sample/adsorbent ratio. Samples were extracted on a cartridge with 5 ml of hexane-acetone at a 8:2 ratio as an elution solvent. The proposed method allowed to determine trace

  10. Design of an optimized biomixture for the degradation of carbofuran based on pesticide removal and toxicity reduction of the matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide biopurification systems contain a biologically active matrix (biomixture) responsible for the accelerated elimination of pesticides in wastewaters derived from pest control in crop fields. Biomixtures have been typically prepared using the volumetric composition 50:25:25 (lignocellulosic substrate/humic component/soil); nonetheless, formal composition optimization has not been performed so far. Carbofuran is an insecticide/nematicide of high toxicity widely employed in developing countries. Therefore, the composition of a highly efficient biomixture (composed of coconut fiber, compost, and soil, FCS) for the removal of carbofuran was optimized by means of a central composite design and response surface methodology. The volumetric content of soil and the ratio coconut fiber/compost were used as the design variables. The performance of the biomixture was assayed by considering the elimination of carbofuran, the mineralization of (14)C-carbofuran, and the residual toxicity of the matrix, as response variables. Based on the models, the optimal volumetric composition of the FCS biomixture consists of 45:13:42 (coconut fiber/compost/soil), which resulted in minimal residual toxicity and ∼99% carbofuran elimination after 3 days. This optimized biomixture considerably differs from the standard 50:25:25 composition, which remarks the importance of assessing the performance of newly developed biomixtures during the design of biopurification systems.

  11. Role of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon in prevention of carbofuran- induced oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D K; Sharma, R K; Rai, P K; Watal, G; Sharma, B

    2011-02-12

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of aqueous extract of C. dactylon on carbofuran induced oxidative stress (OS) and alterations in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of rats. Vitamin C was used as a positive control. Wistar rats were administered with single sub-acute oral dose (1.6 mgkg-1 b.wt.) of carbofuran for 24 h. The OS parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and that of AChE were studied in brain. Carbofuran treatment significantly increased the activities of SOD and CAT by 75 and 60%, respectively. It also induced the level of LPO by 113%. In contrast, the activities of GST and AChE were recorded to be diminished by 25 and 33%, respectively. Pretreatment of the rats with aqueous extract of C. dactylon (oral; 500mgkg-1) restored SOD activity completely but CAT activity only partially (7%). Carbofuran induced LPO was moderated by 95% in the brain of C. dactylon treated rats. The observed changes in OS parameters in C. dactylon treated group were comparable to that observed in vitamin C (200 mg-kg-1 b. wt.) treated group. Surprisingly, C. dactylon treatment significantly recovered the activity of AChE to a similar level as observed in the brain of control group. In contrast vitamin C treatment did not cause significant change in the activity of AChE in carbofuran treated group. There were no noticeable changes in the aforementioned study parameters in the brain of rats receiving C. dactylon and vitamin C, only. The results suggest that the study is extremely important in the context of development of new anticholinestesterase and antioxidant antidotes against carbofuran from C. dactylon.

  12. Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaud, S; Toutant, J P; Saglio, P

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three widely used pesticides; carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and molecular forms of AChE were first characterized in brain and skeletal muscle of unexposed fish. Skeletal muscle had higher AChE activity than brain (306 and 215 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). In brain, four molecular forms of AChE were found: A12, G4, G2, and G1. In the muscle, three molecular forms were found A12, A8, and G2. AChE activity was then evaluated in both tissues of fish exposed to different concentration of pesticides (5, 50, and 500 microg/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. In brain, AChE activity was significantly inhibited during all the periods of exposure in response to 50 microg/L (19-28%) and 500 microg/L (85-87%) carbofuran. Such effect was observed in the muscle only at 500 microg/L (86-92%). Carbofuran had no effect on the distribution of molecular forms. Significant inhibitions (9-12%) of brain AChE activity were also observed in response to diuron and nicosulfuron at 500 microg/L during all periods of exposure and for 50 microg/L nicosulfuron after 24 and 48 h. This study pointed out short-term effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the three pesticides, ranging among different chemical families, on brain and muscle AChE in goldfish. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Fate of Carbofuran and Interaction with Agricultural Chemicals in a Soil-Crop-Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, M.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: The fate, movement, and metabolism of 14 C-(ring)-carbofuran and its interaction with agricultural chemicals was studied in a soil-corn-water system. Movement of carbofuran through soils occurred under both percolating and non-percolating conditions. Under percolating conditions 49.13% of applied 14 C leached through the soil into the aquaria. Thus, less 14 C-residues were recovered from percolated soils than from nonpercolated soils, 25.85 and 57.90% of applied C, respectively. The control corn contained more than twice as much 14 C-residues as the corn grown under percolating conditions, 22.16 and 10.78% of applied C, respectively. 14 C-(ring)-carbofuran residues added to aquaria containing a layer of lake mud rapidly disappeared from the water and the majority became bound to the lake mud or was metabolized by the Elodea plants to water-soluble or bound 14 C-residues. After 3 weeks incubation 14 C-residues associated with the water, lake mud, Elodea plants and guppies were 2.14, 19.17, 3.65, and 0.19% of applied 14 C, respectively. Initially, the percolated water containing 14 C-residues was toxic to both guppies and Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae. However, guppies and Aedes larvae introduced after 9 days incubation survived for the remainder of the experiment. This indicated that toxic 14 C-residues had either degraded to non-toxic compounds or were no longer associated with the water. (author)

  14. Facile and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Technique for the Determination of Carbofuran in its Formulations, Water and Grain Samples with Substituted Anilines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Harikishna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are described for the determination of carbofuran in its formulations, in water and grain samples by the diazotization coupling spectrophotometric technique, using substituted anilines such as 4-bromoaniline, 4-methylaniline and 4-aminobenzaldehyde as the coupling agents. The orange red colour formed with 4-bromoaniline shows maximum absorption at 478 nm, yellow colour obtained with 4-methylaniline have maximum absorption at 465 nm whereas a red colour derivative formed with 4-aminobenzaldehyde shows λmax at 472 nm. The methods could be successfully applied for the determination of carbofuran in its formulations, water and grain samples.

  15. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  16. Effects of simulated rain on the transport of fonofos and carbofuran from agricultural soils in the three-part environmental microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenstein, E.P.; Liang, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of simulated rain on the transport and metabolism of [ 14 C]fonofos and [ 14 C]carbofuran from insecticide-treated soil through deeper insecticide-free soil layers into surface waters were studied under laboratory conditions in a three-component microcosm. Radiocarbon derived from both [ 14 C]fonofos and [ 14 C]carbofuran was transported with soil runoff water from the place of the insecticide soil application through previously insecticide-free deeper soil layers into aquaria water and its sediments. Due to the lower water solubility of fonofos, less of this chemical was transported with water than did occur with carbofuran. Water, after its percolation through insecticide-free soil, contained 1.3% and 15.3% of the originally applied fonofos- and carbofuran-derived radiocarbon and 14 C]fonofos-treated soils resulted in lower insect mortalities than did exposure of larvae to comparable water samples from [ 14 C]carbofuran-treated soils. Thirty-six days after the start of the experiments and 21 days after the last rain application, aquaria water plus sediments from [ 14 C]fonofos- or [ 14 C]carbofuran-treated soils contained a total of 1.3% and 6.0% of the originally applied radiocarbon, respectively, but no fonofos and less than 0.1% of the originally applied carbofuran

  17. Can Carbamates Undergo Radical Oxidation in the Soil Environment? A Case Study on Carbaryl and Carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwieląg-Piasecka, Irmina; Witwicki, Maciej; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Jezierska, Julia

    2017-12-19

    Radical oxidation of carbamate insecticides, namely carbaryl and carbofuran, was investigated with spectroscopic (electron paramagnetic resonance [EPR] and UV-vis) and theoretical (density functional theory [DFT] and ab initio orbital-optimized spin-component scaled MP2 [OO-SCS-MP2]) methods. The two carbamates were subjected to reaction with • OH, persistent DPPH • and galvinoxyl radical, as well as indigenous radicals of humic acids. The influence of fulvic acids on carbamate oxidation was also tested. The results obtained with EPR and UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that carbamates can undergo direct reactions with various radical species, oxidizing themselves into radicals in the process. Hence, they are prone to participate in the prolongation step of the radical chain reactions occurring in the soil environment. Theoretical calculations revealed that from the thermodynamic point of view hydrogen atom transfer is the preferred mechanism in the reactions of the two carbamates with the radicals. The activity of carbofuran was determined experimentally (using pseudo-first-order kinetics) and theoretically to be noticeably higher in comparison with carbaryl and comparable with gallic acid. The findings of this study suggest that the radicals present in soil can play an important role in natural remediation mechanisms of carbamates.

  18. Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-04-01

    Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks in age weighing between 120-150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD(50)) and carbofuran (50% LD(50)) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD(50) of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms of serum lipid parameters such as high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Treatment with individual doses of carbofuran (50% LD(50)) and cartap (50 % LD(50)) caused significant alterations in the levels of serum lipid parameters. The pesticides treatment resulted in marked decrease in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein where as that of other lipids got significantly elevated. Further, the rats exhibited relatively higher impact of pesticides when treated with the compounds in combination (25 % LD(50) of each). The results indicated that these compounds when used together may exert enhanced effect on the levels of serum lipids in rat.

  19. A Sensitive Determination of Carbofuran by Spectrophotometer using 4, 4-azo-bis-3, 3′5, 5′-tetra bromoaniline in various Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bhargavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric technique was developed for the determination of carbofuran in its formulations, water and grain samples. The method was based on the alkaline hydrolyzed product of carbofuran phenol interacted with diazonium salt of 4,4-azo-bis-3,3′5,5′-tetra bromo aniline. The maximum absorbance of the red coloured derivative was measured at 470 nm. The beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.1-16.0 µg/mL. The interference of the non target species were studied on the determination of carbofuran which increases the selectivity of the method. The present method was successfully applied for the determination of carbofuran in its formulations, water and grain samples.

  20. EPA CRL MS014: Analysis of Aldicarb, Bromadiolone, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Methomyl in Water by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Liquid Chromatography / Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method MS014 describes procedures for solvent extraction of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl from water samples, followed by analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

  1. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of lindane, carbofuran and methyl parathion on various Indian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Krishna, K.; Philip, Ligy

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption characteristics of three insecticides on four Indian soils were studied. Insecticides used were representative of organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbomate groups. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: lindane > methyl parathion > carbofuran. Compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. The order of adsorption capacity of various soils were: compost soil > clayey soil > red soil > sandy soil. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted to Freundlich model and K f values increased with increase in organic matter content of the soils. Thermodynamic parameters indicated favorable adsorption of all the three pesticides in four different soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Distilled water desorbed 30-60% of adsorbed pesticides whereas; organic solvents were able to affect 50-80% of sorbed pesticides. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. Hysteresis effect was observed in red, clayey and compost soils. Hysteresis effect increased with increase in organic matter and clay content of the soils

  2. Soil plant transfer coefficient of 14C-carbofuran in brassica sp. vegetable agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Kubiak, R.

    2006-01-01

    The soil plant transfer coefficient or f factor of 14 C-carbofuran pesticide was studied in outdoor lysimeter experiment consisting of Brassica sp. vegetable crop, riverine alluvial clayey soil and Bungor series sandy loam soil. Soil transfer coefficients at 0-10 cm soil depth were 4.38 ± 0.30, 5.76 ± 1.04, 0.99 ± 0.25 and 2.66 ± 0.71; from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 0-25 cm soil depth, soil plant transfer coefficients were 8.96 ± 0.91, 10.40 ± 2.63, 2.34 ± 0.68 and 619 ±1.40, from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 77 days after treatment (DAT), the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in riverine alluvial soil than Bungor soil whereas shoot and root growth was significantly higher in Bungor soil than in riverine alluvial soil. At both 0-10 cm Brassica sp. rooting depth and 0-25 cm soil depth, the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in 2X recommended application rate of 14 C-carbofuran as compared to IX recommended application rate, in both Bungor and riverine alluvial soils. (Author)

  3. EFFECT OF GIVING MIXED INSECTICIDE CARBOFURAN IN COW FECES TOWARDS CONSUMPTION RATE AND ASSIMILATION EFFICIENCY EARTHWORM Pheretima javanica Gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Nofyan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about “Giving a mixture of Insecticide Carbofuran in cow feces to the Rate of Consumption and the Efficiency of Absorption on Land Worm Pheretima javanica Gates was held on June to August 2016 at Animal Physiology Laboratorium, Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, South Sumatera. The purpose of this research is to learn the effect of Insecticide Carbofuran to the rate of consumption and the efficiency of absorption on land worm Pheretima javanica Gates. Contribution of this research gives the information to farmer about the effect of insecticide carbofuran to non-target animal, especially to land worm Pheretima javanica Gates. This research used Completely Randomized Design with 6 treatments and 5 times repetition. Treatment that was given to sample are the insecticide carbofuran with concentration of  0 % (control; 0.1% ;  0.2 % ; 0.3 % ;  0.4 % ; 0.5 %. Data analysis was using Varians Analysis. If there was real difference then data analysis continued with The Duncan Test on level of confidence of  95%. The results of this research show us that several concentration of insecticide carbofuran have the real effect to the average of consumption rate and the efficiency of absorption. The lowest average of consumption rate on land worm  Pheretima javanica is on concentration of 0,5 % (0.23 ± 0.02  mg/g day and the highest average of consumption rate on land worm  Pheretima javanica is on concentration of 0% (control (2.53 ± 0.05 mg/g day. The lowest average of absorption efficiency on land worm  Pheretima javanica is on concentration of 0 % (control (40.78  ± 2.56 % and the highest average of absorption efficiency on land worm  Pheretima javanica is on concentration of 0,5 % (70.76  ± 3.67 %.   Keywords: carbofuran, the rate of consumption, the efficiency of absorption, Pheretima javanica Gates.

  4. Bound residues of 14C-carbofuran and 14C-malathion in stored soybean seeds and their toxicological effects on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; Taha, H.

    2005-01-01

    Soybeans treated with 1 4C -carbofuran or 1 4C -malathion at a dose of 30 mg/kg and stored for 30 weeks showed that the organophosphorus insecticide malathion had a higher binding tendency to soybean seeds than the carbamate insecticide carbofuran. The amount of malathion bound 1 4C -residues were almost three times higher (as percentage of applied dose) than carbofuran bound residues. Sub-chronic feeding experiments on mice for 90 days with a diet containing the bound 1 4C -residues at a dose of 0.91 and 2.39 ppm/day/mouse for carbofuran and malathion, respectively, caused non-significant symptoms of toxicity during the period of the experiment. A slight inhibition in plasma and erythrocyte choline esterase activities was observed during the second and third months in both treated mice fed on carbofuran or malathion. Liver enzymes, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides and kidney functions showed non-significant differences from control values in case of mice fed on 1 4C -bound carbofuran residues. However, these mentioned blood parameters showed only slight increase, as compared with controls, in treated mice fed on 1 4C -bound malathion residues

  5. Bioconcentration of 14 C-Carbofuran and 14 C- Lindane in fresh water Tilapia Nilitica and the bioavailability of their residues to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Tilapia Nilotica were exposed to 14 C- carbofuran (125 MUg/1) and 14 C - lindane (80 MUg/1) for 96 h. Uptake period followed by 8 days depuration period. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for carbofuran reached 32.4 at 12 h and 82 for lindane at 48 h. The amount of 14 C-activity found in fish treated with 14 C - carbofuran after the uptake period showed the following descending order: viscera > remaining parts > gills > muscles. In case of 14 C - lindane treated fish the recovered amount followed the order; remaining parts> viscera > gills muscles. During the depuration period, carbofuran residues taken up by fish were eliminated in 2 phases, an initial rapid phase followed by a slower gradual one. However, the rate of elimination in case of lindane was much slower especially during the first 2 days. At the end of the depuration period (8 days), the muscles (edible portion) contained 10% and 58% of 14 C -activity in case of carbofuran and lindane treated groups, respectively. Both insecticides proved to be bioavailable when rats were fed treated fish. Of the administered dose, 44.1% and 53.0% were excreted in urine and feces case of 14 C-carbofuran while in case of 14 C - lindane it was 30.9% and 41.7% for urine and feces, respectively. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records / Caracterización de Bacterias Degradadoras de Carbofuran Obtenidas de Suelos Bajo Cultivo de Papa y con Diferente Histor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos Rozo José

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofurandegradation activity (Furadan®3SC were obtained from soilscultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosumin Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia, with different recordsof pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for theirability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mgL-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtained, grew in the culture media. Eight of theses isolates were obtained from soils with a high pesticide exposure (eight years of application, and identified, by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characteristics, as Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The other two were obtained from soils with three years and one year of application and were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, respectively. Subsequently, these bacteria were tested for their ability of hydrolytic degradation of Carbofuran; the results show that the pesticide was degraded only by the isolates of Sphingomonas paucimobilis for 72 h. The results obtained in the in vitro tests show the bacterial metabolic capacity for the biodegradation of Carbofuran, highlighting the potential use of the bacteria for future field evaluation tests in places where residues of the pesticide may exist, as an alternative to control the impact that N-methyl carbamate pesticides have on the environment and human health. / Resumen. Ochenta y dos aislamientos bacterianos con actividad potencial de degradación de Carbofuran (Furadan®3SC, fueron obtenidos de suelos, cultivados con papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Única, del municipio de Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia con diferente historia de aplicación del plaguicida. Las bacterias fueron seleccionadas por su capacidad para crecer a 25 °C durante 72 h, en medios de cultivo conteniendo 200 mg L-1 de Carbofuran analítico como

  7. Effects of diuron and carbofuran pesticides in their pure and commercial forms on Paramecium caudatum: The use of protozoan in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, Adrislaine S; Moreira, Raquel A; Pierozzi, Mayara; Oliveira, Thiessa M A; Vieira, Eny M; Rocha, Odete; Regali-Seleghim, Mirna H

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of diuron and carbofuran on Paramecium caudatum were evaluated. Acute and chronic tests were conducted with diuron and carbofuran active ingredients and their commercial formulations, Diuron Nortox(®) 500 SC and Furadan(®) 350 SC, respectively. The sensitivity range of P. caudatum to reference substance sodium chloride was established. A preliminary risk assessment of diuron and carbofuran for Brazilian water bodies was performed. The tests indicated that toxicity of pure diuron and its commercial formulation was similar, while the commercial product carbofuran was more toxic than its pure form. In acute tests, readings were carried out at 2, 3, 4 and 6 h and showed an increase of mortality with increasing exposure time. The sensitivity of P. caudatum to NaCl ranged from 3.31 to 4.44 g L(-1), averaging 3.88 g L(-1). For diuron, the 6 h LC50 was 64.6 ± 3.3 mg L(-1) for its pure form and 62.4 ± 2.5 mg L(-1) for its commercial formulation. Carbofuran active ingredient was less toxic than that of diuron, presenting a 6 h LC50 of 142.0 ± 2.4 mg L(-1) for its pure form and 70.4 ± 2.2 mg L(-1) for its commercial product. Chronic tests showed that these pesticides cause significant decrease on population growth, generation number and biomass of P. caudatum. The 24 h IC50 was 7.10 ± 0.58 mg L(-1) for pure diuron, 6.78 ± 0.92 mg L(-1) for commercial diuron, 22.95 ± 3.57 mg L(-1) for pure carbofuran and 4.98 ± 0.62 mg L(-1) for commercial carbofuran. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that diuron and carbofuran present potential ecological risks for Brazilian water bodies. P. caudatum was a suitable and sensitive test organism to evaluate diuron and carbofuran toxicity to freshwater protozooplankton and, taking into account the relevant role of protozoans in aquatic environments, we strongly recommend its inclusion in ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomic approach for optimization and toxicity evaluation of earthworm sub-lethal responses to carbofuran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to assess the soil ecotoxicity. Initially, we have optimized the extraction conditions which are suitable for high-throughput gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomics for the tissue of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Upon evaluation of five different extraction solvent systems, 80% methanol was found to have good extraction efficiency based on the yields of metabolites, multivariate analysis, total number of peaks and reproducibility of metabolites. Later the toxicity evaluation was performed to characterize the tissue specific metabolomic perturbation of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma after exposure to carbofuran at three different concentration levels (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of soil. Seventeen metabolites, contributing to the best classification performance of highest dose dependent carbofuran exposed earthworms from healthy controls were identified. This study suggests that GC-MS based metabolomic approach was precise and sensitive to measure the earthworm responses to carbofuran exposure in soil, and can be used as a promising tool for environmental eco-toxicological studies.

  9. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of lindane, carbofuran and methyl parathion on various Indian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama Krishna, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ramakrishnaiitm@gmail.com; Philip, Ligy [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ligy@iitm.ac.in

    2008-12-30

    Adsorption and desorption characteristics of three insecticides on four Indian soils were studied. Insecticides used were representative of organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbomate groups. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: lindane > methyl parathion > carbofuran. Compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. The order of adsorption capacity of various soils were: compost soil > clayey soil > red soil > sandy soil. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted to Freundlich model and K{sub f} values increased with increase in organic matter content of the soils. Thermodynamic parameters indicated favorable adsorption of all the three pesticides in four different soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Distilled water desorbed 30-60% of adsorbed pesticides whereas; organic solvents were able to affect 50-80% of sorbed pesticides. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. Hysteresis effect was observed in red, clayey and compost soils. Hysteresis effect increased with increase in organic matter and clay content of the soils.

  10. Avaliação da contaminação do carbofuran nos solos do Distrito de Irrigação do Gorutuba Assessment of carbofuran contamination in soil of the Irrigation District of Gorutuba

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    Edson de O. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência da associação da presença do carbofuran no perfil do solo com a forma e o tempo de aplicação do pesticida e, ainda, parâmetros de eficiência dos diversos sistemas de irrigação utilizados no Distrito de Irrigação do Gorutuba (DIG em Janaúba, MG. Selecionaram-se 14 propriedades, que apresentaram grande variabilidade nos parâmetros de desempenho da irrigação e na distribuição do carbofuran no perfil do solo. Dos parâmetros analisados, o TAP (tempo de aplicação do produto, a QIAAP (quantidade do ingrediente ativo aplicado e o Perc (Lâmina de irrigação percolada, apresentaram nítida associação com a distribuição do pesticida no perfil do solo. Esses parâmetros mostraram que produtores rurais dentro do DIG, os quais aplicam água em excesso via irrigação mal manejada e utilizam pesticidas de forma indiscriminada, não respeitando as recomendações técnicas nem o período de carência entre as aplicações, podem estar poluindo seriamente o solo e, em conseqüecia a água, comprometendo, a médio prazo, a sustentabilidade de suas atividades.The work was carried out with the objective of verifying the association of carbofuran presence in the soil profile analyzing both form and time of application with efficiency parameters of irrigation systems used in the District of Irrigation of Gorutuba (DIG in Janaúba, MG. Fourteen rural properties were selected that presented a great variability in the performance of irrigation parameters and in the distribution of the carbofuran in the soil profile. The parameters TAP (Time of application of the product, QIAAP (amount of the applied active ingredient and Perc (Depth of percolated water, presented a clear association with the distribution of the pesticide in the soil profile. These parameters showed that farmers of the DIG, who apply excess water through irrigation and have bad management and also use

  11. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records / Caracterización de Bacterias Degradadoras de Carbofuran Obtenidas de Suelos Bajo Cultivo de Papa y con Diferente Histor

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Rozo José; Sánchez Nieves Jimena; Uribe Vélez Daniel; Moreno Chacón Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofurandegradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soilscultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum)in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different recordsof pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for theirability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mgL-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those ob...

  12. Carbofuran biodegradation in brackish groundwater and its effect on the hydraulic properties of the porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiaz, Yanai; Ronen, Zeev; Adar, Eilon; Weisbrod, Noam

    2015-04-01

    A chalk fractured aquitard beneath an industrial site is subjected to intense contamination due to percolation of contaminants from the different facilities operating at the site. In order to reduce further contamination, draining trenches were excavated and filled with coarse gravel (3-4 cm in diameter) forming a porous medium, to which the contaminated groundwater discharges from the fractures surrounding the trenches. This research is aimed at establishing a biodegrading process of high efficiency and performance within the draining trenches. The research includes both field and laboratory experiments. An experimental setup of five columns (50 cm length and 4.5 cm in diameter) was constructed under highly controlled conditions. Over the course of the experiments, the columns were filled with different particle sizes and placed in a temperature controlled chamber. Filtered groundwater (0.2 µm) from the site groundwater, enriched by a model contaminant carbofuran (CRF), was injected to the columns; as two of the columns were inoculated by CRF degrading microorganisms native in the site's groundwater, two columns were inoculated by CRF degrading bacteria from the external environment, and one column was used as a control. During the experiment, measurements were taken from different locations along each column. These include: (a) CRF concentration and (b) hydraulic pressure and solution viscosity (in order to obtain the changes in permeability). A tracer test using uranine was carried out in parallel, in order to obtain the changes in hydraulic parameters. Correlating CRF concentration variations to changes of hydraulic parameters enable the deduction due to the effect that biological activity (under different temperature regimes) has on the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and its effect on the process of contaminant groundwater bodies' remediation. Preliminary results suggest that although biodegradation occurs, microbial activity has minor effect on

  13. Ecotoxicological analysis during the removal of carbofuran in fungal bioaugmented matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Barbieri, Edison; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Biomixtures are used for the removal of pesticides from agricultural wastewater. As biomixtures employ high content of lignocellulosic substrates, their bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a novel approach for their enhancement. Nonetheless, the decrease in the concentration of the pesticide may result in sublethal concentrations that still affect ecosystems. Two matrices, a microcosm of rice husk (lignocellulosic substrate) bioaugmented with the fungus Trametes versicolor and a biomixture that contained fungally colonized rice husk were used in the degradation of the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CFN). Elutriates simulating lixiviates from these matrices were used to assay the ecotoxicological effects at sublethal level over Daphnia magna (Straus) and the fish Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Elutriates obtained after 30 d of treatment in the rice husk microcosms at dilutions over 2.5% increased the offspring of D. magna as a trade-off stress response, and produced mortality of neonates at dilutions over 5%. Elutriates (dilution 1:200) obtained during a 30 d period did not produce alterations on the oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of O. mykiss, however these physiological parameters were affected in O. aureus at every time point of treatment, irrespective of the decrease in CFN concentration. When the fungally colonized rice husk was used to prepare a biomixture, where more accelerated degradation is expected, similar alterations on the responses by O. aureus were achieved. Results suggest that despite the good removal of the pesticide, it is necessary to optimize biomixtures to minimize their residual toxicity and potential chronic effects on aquatic life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Amperometric Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-Antibody Conjugate

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    Xiangyou Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  15. Differential toxic effects of Carbofuran and Diazinon on time of flight in pigeons (Columba livia): Potential for pesticide effects on migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasel, Jeffrey M.; Collier, Abby C.; Pritsos, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibiting compounds such as carbamates and organophosphate insecticides have been widely used in agriculture since the ban on organochlorines in the 1970s. Carbofuran, a carbamate, and diazinon, an organophosphate, are among the most commonly implicated cholinesterase inhibitors in episodes of accidental avian toxicity and mortality. Despite the apparent effects of these compounds, little work has been done to study effects of low-level, environmentally relevant doses at the population level in migratory bird species. In this study, homing pigeons were used as surrogate species to assess the differences in the effect of incrementally low doses (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) of carbofuran and diazinon on time of flight and determine whether there was a threshold dose of either or both xenobiotics when orally administered at these levels. The results indicate that there is a significant dose-dependent increase in flight time in pigeons dosed with carbofuran while diazinon exposed pigeons showed little effect. More profound effects were noted with carbofuran with pigeons falling off the pace of the flock and a dose for highly significant increase in flight time elucidated between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The results of the studies validate the homing pigeon as a good subject for comparative studies of cholinesterase inhibitors in birds and the need for further research on repeated low-level exposures on populations of avian species

  16. Efficacy of Carbofuran in Controlling Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica Whitehead, 1949 on Cultivars of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. in Yola, Nigeria

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    M. Y. Jada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc. is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.. Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo were evaluated using three application timings (at planting, 3 and 6 weeks after planting, and none. Results indicated that applying carbofuran at planting provided the greatest reduction in M. javanica population levels, which lead to increased yields in bambara groundnuts compared to the other two application timings. Furthermore, both Kwachanjiwa and Kwatolotolo provided similar high yields compared to Kwaheuma, which was most likely related to the M. javanica tolerance in these cultivars.

  17. Efficacy of Carbofuran in Controlling Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica Whitehead, 1949) on Cultivars of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Yola, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jada, M. Y.; Gungula, D. T.; Jacob, I.

    2011-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc.) is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.). Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo) were evaluated using three...

  18. Development and validation of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for forensic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vagner; Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Queiroz; de Siqueira, Adriana; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Ciscato, Claudia Helena Pastor; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice

    2017-10-15

    Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species. The following parameters of analytical validation were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. The method was linear at the range of 6.25-100μg/mL and the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) values were >0.9811 for all matrices. The precision and accuracy of the method was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative standard deviation error (RSE), and both were less than 15%. Recovery ranged from 74.29 to 100.1% for carbofuran and from 64.72 to 100.61% for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. There were no significant interfering peaks or matrix effects. This method was suitable for detecting 25 positive cases for carbofuran amongst a total of 64 animal samples suspected of poisoning brought to the Toxicology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Sao Paulo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, S.; Marshall, R.S.; Hunter, D.L.; Lowit, A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n = 4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r 2 = 0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r 2 = 0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ADSORCIÓN-DESORCIÓN DE 14C-CARBOFURAN Y FURADAN 3SC® EN TRES SUELOS DE CUNDINAMARCA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Valencia Chavarro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El plaguicida carbofuran es uno de los N-metilcarbamatos más efectivos y de mayor uso en los cultivos de fresa, en Colombia y debido a su toxicidad es importante evaluar su movilidad en los sistemas específicos de producción agrícola. En este  estudio se realizaron ensayos de adsorción y desorción de carbofuran analítico y carbofuran formulado (FURADAN mediante isotermas ajustadas al modelo de Freundlich, sobre el horizonte superficial de tres suelos productores localizados en el departamento de Cundinamarca, área de mayor producción de fresa en Colombia. Se utilizaron  concentraciones del plaguicida dentro del intervalo de aplicación comercial al cultivo (comprendidas entre 0,12 y 2,57 µg/mL En todos los casos se presentó buen ajuste al modelo. La adsorción del plaguicida en los tres suelos fue baja con valores de coeficientes de adsorción (log Kd entre 0,04 a 0,40. Los coeficientes de adsorción normalizados con el contenido de carbono orgánico del suelo (log Koc se encontraron en un rango desde  1,73 hasta 2,05. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas en la adsorción del plaguicida formulado (FURADAN  y analítico, encontrándose tendencias opuestas dependiendo del lugar de ensayo; Estas diferencias se  asociaron con el distinto grado de humificación de la materia orgánica de los suelos y la presencia de adyuvantes en el producto formulado. En ninguno de los suelos estudiados se presentó el fenómeno de histéresis.

  1. Characterization of carbofuran bound residues and the effect of ageing on their distribution and bioavailability in the soil of a sugar beet field in north-western Morocco

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    Mohamed Benicha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate distribution, fractionation, bioavailability and remobilization characteristics of bound soil-aged carbofuran and the effect of ageing in clay soil in a typical field of sugar beet at Loukkos in northwest Morocco. Results indicate that initially there were high levels of bound residues (BR in the humin fraction, which decreased with incubation time and ageing of the BR. While in the fulvic and humic acid fractions, the amount of BR increased with the ageing of the BR and occurred predominantly (60% in the fulvic acid fraction. The possibility of the mineralization and release of BR with ageing was studied using fresh soil and an incubation period of 90 days. The results indicate that the ageing of the residues have a great influence on the remobilization and mineralization rates of carbofuran BR; 9.45 to 14.90% of the total BR was released as extractable residues, and 1.95 to 4.15% was mineralized depending on the age of the residues in soil and the soil-aged carbofuran BR. The incorporation of the residues in the humin fraction is considered to be a threat to the environment. On the other hand, the clear prevalence of residues in the fulvic and humic acid fractions, may have an important effect on their bioavailability and movement in soil. Moreover, the re-extractability of BR could pose a potential environmental risk. Consequently, the BR remobilized must be taken into account when assessing for registration processes the environmental risk of pesticides persisting in soils.

  2. Protective mechanism of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on carbofuran-induced hematological and hepatic toxicities in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Sakib; Tanvir, E M; Prince, Maruf Billah; Paul, Sudip; Saha, Moumoni; Ali, Md Yousuf; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Karim, Nurul

    2017-12-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 μM Fe 2+ ) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.

  3. Nano carbon black-based screen printed sensor for carbofuran, isoprocarb, carbaryl and fenobucarb detection: application to grain samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pelle, Flavio; Angelini, Claudia; Sergi, Manuel; Del Carlo, Michele; Pepe, Alessia; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-08-15

    An electrochemical screening assay for the detection of phenyl carbamates (i.e. carbaryl, carbofuran, isoprocarb and fenobucarb) was developed and applied to grains samples (i.e. durum wheat, soft wheat and maize). Nano carbon black (CB) was strategically employed to realize an effective, reproducible, fouling resistant, low cost, delocalisable screen printed sensor (CB-SPE). CB-SPEs morphology (SEM and FEM) and electrochemical property (CV and EIS) were studied. The final pesticides analysis protocol consist of: (i) extraction of the analyte (just by mixing), (ii) alkaline hydrolysis (10 min R.T.), (iii) DPV detection directly of 100 µL of extract on the CB-SPE surface. Linear range between 1.0 × 10 -7 and 1.0 × 10 -4 mol L -1 , good determination coefficients (R 2 ≥ 0.9971) and satisfactory sensitivity (≥ 3.90 × 10 -1 A M -1 cm -2 ) and LODs (≤ 8.0 × 10 -8 mol L -1 ) were obtained for all the analytes. Excellent recoveries (78-102%) and accuracy (relative error vs. HPLC-MS/MS between 9.0% and -7.8%) resulted from the analysis of grains samples. The proposed CB-SPE based approach has demonstrated to be able to detect carbaryl at Maximum residue limits levels (MRLs), allowing class selective detection of commonly employed phenyl carbamates in food samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effets de l'exposition à un insecticide carbamate, le carbofuran, sur les performances de jeunes stades de brochet (Esox lucius L., 1758 : résultats préliminaires

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    AMBLARD G.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Des lots de jeunes brochets au stade embryon libre, stabulés dans des béchers en verre, ont été exposés en conditions statiques à des solutions (0-250 µg.L-1 de carbofuran, un insecticide carbamate inhibiteur de l'activité de l'acétylcholinestérase (AchE. A partir de 10 µg.L-1, une inhibition significative de l'activité globale de l'AchE des embryons libres a été constatée. A partir de 50 µg.L-1, une diminution significative de la hauteur moyenne de fixation des embryons libres sur les parois des béchers a été observée. L'exposition au carbofuran n'a pas eu d'effet significatif sur le nombre de proies zooplanctoniques ingérées par les jeunes brochets parvenus au début de la phase larvaire ; une diminution de ce paramètre en fonction de concentrations croissantes de carbofuran a cependant été enregistrée. A 250 µg.L-1 , la résorption de la vésicule vitelline ne s'effectuant plus que très partiellement, les embryons libres exposés ne se sont pas transformés en larves. Cette étude montre que l'exposition à des concentrations sublétales de carbofuran est susceptible d'affecter le développement ontogénétique et les performances de jeunes stades de brochet. Un approfondissement de ces travaux est envisagé dans différentes directions.

  5. VALIDACIÓN DE UNA METODOLOGÍA PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE CARBOFURAN EN SUELOS MEDIANTE CROMATOGRAFÍA LÍQUIDA DE ALTA EFICIENCIA CON DETECCIÓN ULTRAVIOLETA (CLAR-UV

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    Yenny Valencia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se validó una metodología analítica que permite cuantificar residuos de carbofuran en muestras de suelo. La extracción del plaguicida desde la matriz se realizó mediante agitación mecánica empleando acetato de etilo como solvente, los extractos obtenidos se sometieron a extracción en fase sólida (EFS utilizando cartuchos C18, finalmente, la determinación y cuantificación del carbofuran se llevó a cabo mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia con detección ultravioleta (CLAR-UV a una longitud de onda de 205 nm. La metodología validada es específica y selectiva para el carbofuran, lineal en el rango desde 0,47 hasta 2,36 mgKg-1, precisa con un coeficiente de variación típico (CVtip de 10,78%; exacta brindando un porcentaje de recuperación para la metodología global (porcentaje de R equivalente a 98,25±3,97% y sensible con límites de detección y cuantificación de 0,045 y 0,149 mgKg-1, respectivamente. También se verificó la robustez del método. Se analizaron dos muestras de suelo dedicados al cultivo de café, y se encontraron residuos de carbofuran durante los primeros 30 días después de su aplicación.

  6. Removal of carbofuran is not affected by co-application of chlorpyrifos in a coconut fiber/compost based biomixture after aging or pre-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Masís-Mora, Mario; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2016-08-01

    Biomixtures constitute the biologically active part of biopurification systems (BPS), which are used to treat pesticide-containing wastewater. The aim of this work was to determine whether co-application of chlorpyrifos (CLP) affects the removal of carbofuran (CFN) (both insecticide/nematicides) in a coconut fiber-compost-soil biomixture (FCS biomixture), after aging or previous exposure to CFN. Removal of CFN and two of its transformation products (3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran) was enhanced in pre-exposed biomixtures in comparison to aged biomixtures. The co-application of CLP did not affect CFN removal, which suggests that CLP does not inhibit microbial populations in charge of CFN transformation. Contrary to the removal behavior, mineralization of radiolabeled (14)C-pesticides showed higher mineralization rates of CFN in aged biomixtures (with respect to freshly prepared or pre-exposed biomixtures). In the case of CLP, mineralization was favored in freshly prepared biomixtures, which could be ascribed to high sorption during aging and microbial inhibition by CFN in pre-exposure. Regardless of removal and mineralization results, toxicological assays revealed a steep decrease in the acute toxicity of the matrix on the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (over 97%) after 8days of treatment of individual pesticides or the mixture CFN/CLP. Results suggest that FCS biomixtures are suitable to be used in BPS for the treatment of wastewater in fields where both pesticides are employed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of carbofuran and metsulfuron-methyl on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in flooded ricefields Efeito do carbofurano e metsulfuron-methyl sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de lavoura de arroz irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joele Baumart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the effect of the insecticide carbofuran and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a paddy ricefield. METHODS: To achieve this goal, two pesticide treatments [the insecticide carbofuran (IC and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (HM] and a control (Co treatment with no added pesticide were established in an experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. Soil samples were collected in triplicate from each treatment 30 days before and 1, 10, and 51 days after the pesticide application, for macrofauna identification. RESULTS: Among the 21 taxa identified, Trichoceridae was present only in Co, Hydroptilidae was recorded only in IC, and Corixidae in HM. In Co, the most abundant group was Annelida, while in IC and HM Diptera (Chironomidae was dominant. Significant differences were observed between Co and IC, in the density of Odontoceridae (Control>IC and Hydrophilidae (ControlHM and Hirudinea (ControlOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do inseticida carbofurano e do herbicida metsulfuron-methyl na abundância e diversidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em campo de arroz irrigado. MÉTODOS: Para isto, dois tratamentos com agrotóxicos [o inseticida carbofurano (IC e o herbicida metsulfuron-methyl (HM] e um controle (Co, tratamento sem pesticida, foram aplicados em uma área experimental no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em triplicatas em cada tratamento 30 dias antes (DBA e 1, 10 e 51 dias após a aplicação dos pesticidas, posteriormente a macrofauna foi identificada. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (21 taxa foram identificados, entre esses Trichoceridae esteve presente apenas em Co, enquanto que Hydroptilidae foi coletado apenas em IC, e Corixidae em HM. Em Co e IC, o grupo mais abundante foi Annelida, e em HM foi Diptera (Chironomidae que

  8. 40 CFR 180.254 - Carbofuran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... than 1 ppm is carbamates) 2 12/31/09 Pumpkin (of which not more than 0.6 ppm is carbamates) 0.8 12/31...

  9. Application Test OF Carbofuran Insecticide Controlled Release Formulation On Rice Plants Of Cilosari Variety Have Been Carried Out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulisyati, M.; Ulfa, T.S. et all

    2000-01-01

    this formulation was made by using a mixture of activated charcoal, tapioca, kaolin, Na-alginate as filter matrix and the second formulation using zeolite with couted shelak. The observation were done on the damage level caused by Orseo;ia oryzae (wood/mason), Chilo suppressalis (walker), and cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guen) on new young plants. The observation were done every two weeks after transplanting until harvest. Both formulation have the same results showed that new young plants on the early stage growth showed no differences among the treatments, then becoming more different between controlled release formulation and commercial formulation or untreated plants. The attack of orseolia oryzae could be observed on every week of the observation but only on the fifth weeks were significant difference found. The attack of Chilo suppressalis on the seventh week showed significant difference, while the attack of cnaphalocrosis medinalis appeared on the seventh and ninth weeks showing no differences

  10. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  11. Studies on the controlled release pesticide formulation for pest control in cotton using isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, F.F.; Qureshi, M.J.; Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1989-06-01

    Cotton plants were treated with 14C-carbofuran, cold carbofuran formulation and granular carbofuran pesticides. Sampling of soil and formulation pieces from the field was done at the end of experiment. Data for insect attack was also recorded throughout the crop season. Cotton plants treated with cold carbofuran formulation and granular carbofuran, their soil samples and residual cold formulation pieces were analyzed by HPLC. (A.B)

  12. Exposing of Trichoderma spp. to gamma radiation for stimulating its pesticide biodegradation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afify, A.E.M.R.; Ibrahim, G.M.; Abo El Seoud, M.A.; Helal, I.M.M.; Kassem, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    This work has been conducted to study the possibility of making use of fungi for degrading insecticide-carbofuran. Trichoderma spp. were showed highly potentiality to metabolize carbofuran (200 mg/ kg) to 3-ketocarbofuran in soil as a sole carbon and energy source within 14 days. Carbofuran and its main metabolite were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Studies on biodegradation in the soil showed that 81.5 % and 86 % of carbofuran degraded within 14 days of incubation by T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. The lowest dose of gamma irradiation 0.25 KGy enhanced the mycelial dry weight by 22.8 % and 16.2 % for T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. This indicated that the isolates of Trichoderma spp. were potentially useful for carbofuran bioremediation.

  13. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER — PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta™ POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta™ employs several compon...

  14. Adsorption Kinetics of Carbamate Pesticide in Rice Field Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soontree Khuntong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic extraction (75.55% with petroleum ether:acetone (1:1, v/v was employed for extraction of carbofuran in rice field soil. The amounts of carbofuran were determined by reverse phase HPLC. The analytical method provided high precision and accuracy with the relative error of 0.47%. The percentage of recoveries varied from 84% to 77% in the con¬centration ranges of 10–40 mg/L of spiked soil samples. The carbofuran residues in the rice field soil significantly decreased year by year because of pesticide properties, soil properties and degradation conditions. A high amount of residues was found in the plots that contained high organic contents. The adsorption of carbofuran in soil reached equilibrium within 23 h. The percentage of adsorption varied from almost 30% to 80% depending on concentrations of carbofuran. The adsorption of carbofuran agreed with Freundlich isotherms; q = 7.07 x 10-5Cf2.5092; with the correlation coefficient of 0.9281. Organic carbon coefficient, Koc, was 1.91 x 10-3 mg/L calculated from Kd, and half-life (8.9 d of adsorbed carbofuran. The GUS index (6.37 calculated from Koc presented a high lixiviation potential. The positive ΔG indicated the non-spontaneous reaction. Carbofuran rapidly desorbed from soil at the desorption rate of 0.0228 mg/kg soil d. Kinetic studies provided the first order reaction with the reaction rate of 0.0779 mg/d and half-life of 8.9 days.

  15. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N B; Thiele, L A; Garland, S C

    1998-07-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6-189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7-253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either or = 80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate meatball before exhibiting acute signs of toxicity. Fenthion-exposed owls and kestrels displayed a wide spectrum of meatball consumption (< 10-100%). Significant brain ChE inhibition was observed in dead and surviving kestrels exposed to fenthion and carbofuran and dead owls exposed to fenthion (P < 0.0001). Brain ChE activity of owls exposed to carbofuran that survived was not different from that of controls (P = 0.25). Data suggest: (1) slow feeding on a carbamate-contaminated item may provide limited protection from the toxicity of the chemical at certain rates of exposure; (2) the degree of ChE inhibition at neuromuscular junctions may be critical in determining the sensitivity of a species to a carbamate insecticide; (3) sensitivity may be a function of the ChE affinity for the carbamate inhibitor; and (4) the importance of neuromuscular junction ChE depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  16. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6–189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7–253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either ≤10% or ≥80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate ≤10% of the meatball before exhibiting acute signs of toxicity. Fenthion-exposed owls and kestrels displayed a wide spectrum of meatball consumption (<10–100%). Significant brain ChE inhibition was observed in dead and surviving kestrels exposed to fenthion and carbofuran and dead owls exposed to fenthion (P<0.0001). Brain ChE activity of owls exposed to carbofuran that survived was not different from that of controls (P=0.25). Data suggest: (1) slow feeding on a carbamate-contaminated item may provide limited protection from the toxicity of the chemical at certain rates of exposure; (2) the degree of ChE inhibition at neuromuscular junctions may be critical in determining the sensitivity of a species to a carbamate insecticide; (3) sensitivity may be a function of the ChE affinity for the carbamate inhibitor; and (4) the importance of neuromuscular junction ChE depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  17. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhy Rabindra N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp.

  18. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Nabakishore; Rath, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm) along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp. PMID:26038669

  19. Bird poisoning from misuse of the carbamate Furadan in a Texas rice field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Mitchell, C.A.; White, D.H.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    More than 100 birds consisting largely of dickcissels and savannah sparrows, as well as 9 other species of songbirds and sandpipers, died from feeding on planted rice seed treated illegally with Furadan 4F. Brain ChE activity was depressed between 32-85% in 44% of the birds. Carbofuran residues in GI tract contents of birds averaged 3.4 ppm (0.54-10 ppm). Two samples of planted rice seed contained 91 ppm and 22 ppm carbofuran. Known mortality of birds continued for about 2 weeks.

  20. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  1. INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF A THERMOSPRAY-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC/MASS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR SELECTED N-METHYL CARBAMATES, N-METHYL CARBAMOYLOXIMES, AND SUBSTITUTED UREA PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A thermospray-liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (TS-LC/MS) method was evaluated in an interlaboratory study for determining 3 N-methyl carbamates (bendiocarb, carbaryl, and carbofuran), 3-N-methyl carbamoyloximes (aldicarb, methomyl, and oxamyl), 2 substituted urea pestic...

  2. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  3. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER — ECOWATER SYSTEMS, INC. ERO-R450E WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EcoWater Systems ERO-R450E POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The ERO-R450E employs a reverse os...

  4. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  5. Vulture News - Vol 53 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poisoning of seventeen Eurasian Griffons by carbofuran on the Island of Rab, Croatia, in December 2004 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Gordana Pavokovic, Goran Susic, 24-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/vulnew.v53i1.37632 ...

  6. In vitro Studies of the Effectiveness of Five Plants Extracts Compared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude aqueous extracts of five plants, Cleome viscosa L. Hyptis suaveolens Poit, Crotalaria retusa L., Jatropha curcas L., and Jatropha gossypifolia l., and a synthetic nematicide Carbofuran were studied in-vitro for their efficacy in controlling the rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood.

  7. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  8. 77 FR 40039 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Flea & Gardona (cis- Tick Spray with isomer). Deodorant for Dogs III. 002596-00123 Hartz 2 in 1 Fast Gardona (cis- Acting Flea & Tick isomer). Spray for Cats With Rabon. 002724-00651 Farnam Natural Bug... the food or feed crops associated with the domestic use of carbofuran products, and there have been...

  9. Eficiência de inseticidas em tratamento de sementes de milho no controle da cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae em viveiro telado Insecticides efficiency in treatment of corn seeds to control leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Martins de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência de inseticidas no tratamento de sementes no controle da cigarrinha-do-milho em viveiro telado. Sementes de milho foram tratadas ou não com inseticidas (imidacloprid, thiamethoxan, thiodicarb + zn, thiodicarb, carbofuran, carbofuran + zn e carbosulfan e semeadas em vasos plásticos. Nas plantas, foram confinadas cigarrinhas sadias e avaliada a eficiência desses inseticidas no controle desse inseto, em diferentes intervalos de tempo e em períodos sucessivos. Os produtos imidacloprid e thiamethoxan foram os mais eficientes no controle da cigarrinha, proporcionando eficiência de controle de adultos de D. maidis igual ou superior a 70%, até o trigésimo dia de avaliação, após 4 a 24h de confinamento das cigarrinhas.This research was aimed at checking the efficiency of insecticide seed treatment on corn leafhopper control, at greenhouse. Maize seeds were treated with insecticides (imidacloprid, thiamethoxan, thiodicarb + zn, thiodicarb, carbofuran, carbofuran + zn and carbosulfan and sowed on plastic pots. On those plants healthy leafhoppers were confined, and the efficiency of those insecticides on its control was evaluated, at different intervals of time and in successive periods. The insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were the most efficient to control the corn leafhoppers, and provided control efficiency of D. maidis adults equal or upper 70% until the thirtieth day of evaluation, after 4 to 24h of leafhoppers confining.

  10. Termite Population Dynamics in Arenic Kandiudults as Influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result shows that carbofuran significantly (P=<0.0001) recorded least termite population per square meter after tuber harvest, whereas A. indica leaves and municipal waste increased termite population per square meter. Also, cassava tuber yield was significantly influenced with application of A. indica leaves and ...

  11. Assessment of pesticide residues in flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g(-1) for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  12. Responses of Hexaplex (Murex) trunculus to selected pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo, M.; Gharbi-Bouraoui, S.; Gnassia-Barelli, M.; Dellali, M.; Aissa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations (in whole soft body and in tissues) were measured in Hexaplex trunculus collected from the Bizerta lagoon in Tunisia. An evaluation of the biological effects of the most toxic metals (cadmium and copper) and of two organics (carbofuran and lindane), present in the sediments of the Bizerta lagoon, was attempted by measuring biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase: AChE, catalase: CAT and glutathione S-transferase: GST activities) in animals experimentally exposed for 48 or 72 h. The concentration ranges as follows: Zn > Cu > Cd. Copper concentrations are highly variable (8.0 to 235 μg g -1 d.w.) whereas cadmium (range 1.35-4.86 μg g -1 ) and zinc (range 360-1320 μg g -1 ) concentrations are less variable. The digestive gland and the gill take up more metal than the muscle. AChE activity in H. trunculus is decreased by exposure to carbofuran or the mixture carbofuran and cadmium, in the digestive gland and muscle and by copper and by lindane in the digestive gland. AChE is generally inhibited by carbamates but some other compounds may also decrease this activity as observed in this paper. An increase in CAT activity associated with a decrease in GST activity is noted in the muscle of H. trunculus exposed to cadmium, to carbofuran and to the mixture of cadmium and carbofuran, and in the digestive gland of animals exposed to lindane. These pollutants may act upon glutathione and decrease the GST activity that cannot detoxify them and CAT activity has a protective effect. On the contrary, copper increases CAT and GST activities in the digestive gland of exposed gastropods; these enzymes seem to cooperate and play together their role of anti-oxidant enzymes. If H. trunculus is not a bioindicator species for metal concentrations, due to a high variability in metal concentrations, nevertheless the biochemical responses to pollutants (cadmium, copper, carbofuran and lindane) represented by AChE, CAT and GST activities may act as

  13. Selection of sorption material for tests of pesticide permeation through protective clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Nazimek, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on selecting a solid sorption material for absorbing liquid crop protection agents which permeate samples of protective clothing fabrics. The sorption materials were investigated and selected with an assumption that they should have a high recovery coefficient for biologically active substances, used as active ingredients in crop protection agents, at a presumed, acceptably high level. The selected substances were determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (dichlorvos, cypermethrin and 2,4-D) and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (carbofuran). The tests demonstrated that polypropylene melt-blown type unwoven cloth had high recovery coefficients for all 4 active ingredients proposed for the study. The highest recovery coefficient, -.97, was obtained for carbofuran. The recovery coefficients obtained for the 3 remaining substances were lower: .89 for cypermethrin and 2,4-D, and .84 for dichlorvos.

  14. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang

    2016-11-01

    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeito de inseticidas na semeadura sobre pragas iniciais e produtividade de milho safrinha em plantio direto Effect of inseticides at sowing on seedling pests and yield off-season maize crop under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessi Ceccon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o aumento do complexo de pragas em lavouras de milho safrinha, foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos (A e B no município de Cândido Mota (SP. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de inseticidas sobre pragas de solo (percevejos-castanhos e corós, lagarta-do-cartucho na fase inicial da cultura e desenvolvimento das plantas. Os inseticidas utilizados na semeadura foram: thiamethoxam (Cruiser 700 WS, carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS + carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, fipronil (Regent 800 WG e thiodicarb (Semevin 350 RPA, nas doses recomendadas de cada produto, e a testemunha sem inseticida. As pragas de solo foram avaliadas aos 14 e 28 dias após a emergência das plantas (DAE, no experimento A, e aos 7 e 21 DAE, no experimento B. Os parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados aos 14 e 28 DAE, juntamente com o ataque por Spodoptera frugiperda, e também por ocasião da colheita dos grãos. Os inseticidas fipronil e carbofuran destacaram-se no controle do percevejo-castanho Scaptocoris castanea e o fipronil sobressaiu no controle dos corós (Phyllophaga spp. Os inseticidas carbofuran e thiodicarb reduziram o número de plantas danificadas pela lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda. O controle químico do complexo de pragas do solo e da lagarta-do-cartucho proporcionou aumentos significativos da produtividade de grãos de milho apenas na área A, onde o número de corós era maior.Due to an increasing pest diversity in maize crop during the off-season, two autumn-winter experiments were conducted in the Medium Paranapanema region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, designated as Fields A and B, both in Cândido Mota County. The aim of the experiments were to evaluate the effect of insecticides on the control of pests occurring in the initial plant development. Treatments were the recommended dosage of the insecticides thiamethoxam (Cruiser 700 WS, carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS

  16. Optical Biosensor with Multienzyme System Immobilized onto Hybrid Membrane for Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of optical biosensor based on simultaneous immobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase enzymes for the detection of pesticides residues is described. Different kinds of novel SiO2 hybrid membranes were synthesized to be suitable for optical biosensors using sol-gel techniques. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of a multi-enzyme system including acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase covalently immobilized on new hybrid membranes. The sensor exhibited a linear response to acetylcholine in a concentration range of 2.5 - 30 mM. Inhibition plots obtained from testing carbamate (carbofuran pesticides exhibited concentration dependent behaviour and showed linear profiles in concentration ranges between 5x10-8 - 5x10-7 M for carbofuran. The factors affecting the constructed optical biosensors were investigated.

  17. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  18. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Padhy Rabindra N.; Nayak Nabakishore; Rath Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical ferti...

  19. Determination of pesticide residues in tomato using dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Graziela C. R. Moura; Freguglia, Rosana M. O; Furlani, Regina P. Z; Torres, Nádia H; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2011-01-01

    Tomato crop is frequently damaged by diseases, pests and abiotic stresses, resulting in lower yielding and loss of fruit quality. The intensive use of pesticides in tomatoes without observation of good agriculture practices and regulations has caused great concern with a probable final product contamination. The QuEChERS method of sample preparation was used for the determination of six pesticides (buprofezin, carbofuran, endosulfan-α, endosulfan-β, endosulfan sulfate and monocrotop...

  20. Effect of radiation on the biodegradation of diazinon pesticide by using soil microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-bialy, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Carbofuran and diazinon are used for controlling pests in areas of intensive cultivation of economic valuable crops in Egypt. A series of experiments was conducted to examine short-term changes in soil bacterial and fungal populations after copmmercial carbofuran or diazinon application. Soil enrichment culture technique was used to isolate carbofuran or diazinon degraders which, can be used to decontaminate pesticide polluted soils or sites. The most active isolates were completely identified as Aspergillus flavus, A niger, A. terreus, Fusarium sambucinum and F. dimerum. Aspergillus flavus and A. Terreus showed highest ability to degrade diazinon even at high concentration (7500 p.p.m). Electron microscopy studies on the most active diazinon degraders showed that diazinon affected mainly on sporulation process and hyphal formation. Studing the physiological conditions effective for the diazinon degradation by A. flavus and A. terreus, the optimum pH was found to be 7, incubation temperature 300 C for seven days. Salinity over 3% highly decreased the diazinon degradation while the aerobic condition favorites it. Selected fungal isolates were able to utilize diazinon as sole source of C, N, P or S but their ability was maximized in complete medium containing all nutritional components plus diazinon

  1. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilms

  2. Pengaruh Bionematisida Berbahan Aktif Jamur Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 terhadap Serangan Pratylenchus coffeae pada Kopi Robusta

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    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on the effect of P. lilacinus on the infestation of P. coffeae on robusta coffee was conducted in Sumber Asin Experimental Garden, Malang. The treatments were dosages of bionematicide i.e. : 0 (control, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 g; carbofuran (3 % active ingredient 50 g/plant and organic soil treatment (OST at 100 g/plant. Each treatment was replicated four times, and each replication consists of five coffee trees. The results in second year observation revealed that the population of P. coffeae in the roots on PL 251 treatments was not significantly different compared to the control, whereas in soil samples the population of both P. coffeae and Rotylenchulus reniformis inclined to be lower than the control, although they were not statistically significant. The lowest infestation was observed on PL 251 treatment at a dosage level of 4.00 g/tree. On nematode infestation, no significant difference on treatments of carbofuran and OST compared to the control. The yield of green coffee (market coffee was the highest on the treatment of PL 251 at a dosage of 4.00 g/tree and significantly higher than the control and carbofuran treatments, with increasing levels of 225.3 and 198.9%, respectively. Keywords: bionematicide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (PL 251, Pratylenchus coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis

  3. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sofany, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H 2 O and MeOH: H 2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  4. Mineralization of 14C-labelled aromatic pesticide molecules in Egyptian soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Earghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.; Taha, H.; Soliman, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The mineralization of 2,4-D, carbofuran and pirimiphos-methyl in Egyptian soils was studied over a period of 90 days. Laboratory studies under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were conducted using 14 C-ring labelled pesticides. Under anaerobic conditions 10-14% of applied ring labelled 2,4-D mineralized during 90 days with no significant variations due to soil type. Under aerobic conditions, 2,4-D mineralized more readily in clay soil to reach 29-34% of applied dose within 90 days. In clay loam soil, 14 C-carbofuran and 14 C-pirimiphos-methyl mineralized at a rather slow rate to reach 12-14% and 12-13% of applied dose in 90 days, respectively under aerobic conditions. Generally, soils repeatedly treated with pesticides gave a slightly lower percentage of mineralization than control soils. In all studies, the soil extractable pesticide residues decreased with time and the bound residues gradually increased. The highest binding affinity of about 26-29% was observed with 2,4-D in clay soil under aerobic conditions in 90 days. Carbofuran, and pirimiphos-methyl, on the other hand, had lower binding capacity that did not exceed 16% of applied radioactivity. (author)

  5. Método para monitoramento de ninfas de cigarras e controle com inseticidas em reflorestamentos com paricá Method for monitoring nymphs of cicadas and control with insecticides in reforestations with paricá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um método para o monitoramento da população de cigarras (Quesada gigas e para a avaliação da eficácia de doses de thiamethoxam, carbofuran e imidaclopride no controle de ninfas, em reflorestamento com paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum. Foram utilizadas as seguintes dosagens de inseticidas: 2,0, 4,0 e 6,0 kg ha-1 do produto comercial Actara (250 WG, para o princípio ativo thiamethoxan; 7,15, 14,30, 21,45 L ha-1 de Furadan (350 FS, para o carbofuran; e 4,5, 9,0, 13,5 L ha-1 de Provado (200 SC, para o imidaclopride. As três dosagens de cada produto foram aplicadas em área total. Foram realizadas três avaliações quinzenais, posteriores à aplicação, em que foram contabilizados os números de buracos e de ninfas vivas, por meio da abertura, com implemento tratorizado, de trincheiras com 7 m de comprimento, 0,8 m de largura e 0,07 m de profundidade. Todos os princípios ativos testados foram eficientes na redução da população de ninfas de Q. gigas, mas não houve efeito significativo das doses avaliadas. Os princípios ativos carbofuran e thiamethoxan são os mais promissores, com controle de 75-80% da infestação de ninfas. A abertura de trincheiras com o implemento tratorizado é eficaz no monitoramento da população de ninfas de Q. gigas, em reflorestamentos com paricá.The objective of this work was to establish a method for cicad (Quesada gigas population monitoring and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of thiamethoxam, carbofuran and imidacloprid doses on the control of cicad nymphs, in reforestation with paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum. The following insecticide doses were used: 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg ha-1 of Actara (250 WG commercial product, for thiamethoxam active principle; 7.15, 14.30, and 21.45 L ha-1 of Furadan (350 FS, for carbofuran; 4.0, 9.0, and 13.5 L ha-1 of Provado (200 SC, for imidacloprid. The three doses of each product were applied in

  6. Acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on SnO2 nanoparticles-carboxylic graphene-nafion modified electrode for detection of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yang, Long; Wang, Guangcan; Yang, Yun

    2013-11-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs), carboxylic graphene (CGR) and nafion (NF) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection of methyl parathion and carbofuran has been developed. The nanocomposites of SnO2 NPs and CGR was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Chitosan (CS) was used to immobilize AChE on SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF/GCE and to improve electronic transmission between AChE and SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF/GCE. NF was used as the protective membrane for the AChE biosensor. The SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF nanocomposites with excellent conductivity, catalysis and biocompatibility offered an extremely hydrophilic surface for AChE adhesion. The AChE biosensor showed favorable affinity to acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) and could catalyze the hydrolysis of ATCl with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value of 131 μM. The biosensor detected methyl parathion in the linear range from 10(-13) to 10(-10)M and from 10(-10) to 10(-8)M. The biosensor detected carbofuran in the linear range from 10(-12) to 10(-10)M and from 10(-10) to 10(-8)M. The detection limits of methyl parathion and carbofuran were 5 × 10(-14)M and 5 × 10(-13)M, respectively. The biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and acceptable stability, thus providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  8. A Comparative Study of the Persistence, Movement and Metabolism of Six Insecticides in Soils and Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhremann, T.W.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Two soil types and oat plants grown in these soils were incubated under identical environmental conditions. The insecticides used in order to increase the water solubility were 14 C-DDT, 14 C-lindane, 14 C-fonofos, 14 C-parathion, 14 C-phorate and 14 C-carbofuran. Total amounts of 14 C-residues recovered from insecticide-treated loam soils plus oats grown in these soils were similar with DDT and oarbofuran. They were also higher than those observed with the other insecticides. While most of the 14 C-DDT residues remained in the soils, most of the 14 C-carbofuran residues were recovered from oat leaves in the form of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran. 14 C-residues of all insecticides were more persistent in loam than in sandy soil and sand-grown oats took up more 14 C-insecticide residues than loamgrown oats. The more water-soluble insecticides, 14 C-phorate and Ccarbofuran were more mobile and were metabolized to a greater extent than insecticides of lower water solubilities. Unextractable (bound) 14 C-residues in loam soil ranged from 2.8% to 29.1% of the applied doses of 14 C-DDT and 14 C-parathion, respectively. Bound 14 C-residues were lower in the sandy soil than in the loam soil, however, plant-bound 14 C-residues were higher in oats grown in the sandy soil than in loam grown oats. Insecticide metabolites recovered from soils and plants were identified and quantitated whenever possible. The oxygen analog metabolites of the organophosphorus insecticides were most abundant in the sandy soil and in oats grown therein. Data illustrate the importance of chemical structure, water solubility and soil type in predicting the comparative environmental behaviour of pesticides. (author)

  9. Black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) brain cholinesterase characterization and diagnosis of anticholinesterase pesticide exposure in wild populations from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Jaime Rendón-von; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2005-02-01

    Rice is the main crop in the subbasin of the fluvial lagoon system of Palizada River (FLSPR) in the state of Campeche, Mexico. The pesticides used to control pests of this crop mainly are carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate. Black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) is an ecologically and economically important species in the area. This duck is consumed by local inhabitants throughout the year, despite its potential exposure to pesticides. Due to its feeding habits, abundance, and nutritional value, D. autumnalis is a good indicator of environmental contamination and a potential route of human exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. In this study, the brain cholinesterase (ChE) in the frontal cerebral cortex of autochthonous ducks was characterized. In addition, the potential of the three locally used pesticides and mixtures to inhibit ChE activity was investigated and the exposure of the wild duck population during intensive pesticide applications in rice fields was evaluated. We found that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) seems to be the predominant ChE form in the biological fraction analyzed. Carbofuran was the most potent ChE inhibitor of D. autumnalis brain ChE activity from the three pesticides analyzed. Cholinesterase inhibition after exposure to pesticide mixtures predominantly was due to carbofuran. A decrease (p 30%) was apparent in wild ducks compared to reference ducks, with recovery of ChE inhibition in wild ducks occurring months later when no pesticides were applied in the field. Dendrocygna autumnalis brain ChE is a suitable parameter for inclusion in biomonitoring programs for both environmental protection and human safety.

  10. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  11. Pesticide residues and microbial contamination of water resources in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah Uan Boh; Lum Keng Yeang

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the water resources of the Muda rice growing areas revealed evidence of pesticide residues in the agroecosystem. While the cyclodiene endosulfan was found as a ubiquitous contaminant, the occurrence of other organochlorine insecticides was sporadic. The presence of 2,4-D, paraquat and molinate residues was also evident but the occurrence of these herbicides was seasonal. Residue levels of molinate were generally higher than those from the other herbicides. The problem of thiobencarb and carbofuran residues was not encountered. Analyses for microbial contamination revealed that the water resources were unfit for drinking; coliform counts were higher during certain periods of the year than others. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of insecticides in different dosages to control cicadas in parica plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odineila Martins Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the more efficient and economically viable dosage of chemical insecticide to control Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae nymphs in parica plantations. Three dosages of three products (carbofuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were tested based on the maximum recommended dosage for the control of cicadas in coffee plants and applied in total area. The dosage of one kilogram of a commercial product based in thiamethoxam per hectare was more efficient economically and environmentally to control nymphs of Q. gigas in parica plantations.

  13. Evaluación del riesgo ambiental de carbofurano en bioensayos con organismos no blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Iannacone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El carbofurano es uno de los plaguicidas más empleado en la agricultura peruana. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el riesgo ambiental del carbofurano en bioensayos de toxicidad, sobre once especies no destinatarias. La siguiente secuencia relativa de mayor a menor cocientes de riesgo (CR del carbofurano para los 19 puntos finales de efecto en once especies fue encontrada: Daphnia magna (mortalidad > Lemna minor (inhibición de formación de las hojas > Paracheirodon innesi (nado extraño = P. innesi (incremento del movimiento opercular > Chironomus calligraphus (mortalidad > L. minor (necrosis > P. innesi (mortalidad > L. minor (clorosis > Tetrapygus niger (inhibición de la fecundación > Coturnix japonica (mortalidad > Oncorhynchus mykiss (incremento de coloración > Ceraeochrysa cincta (no eclosión de huevos > O. mykiss (mortalidad con oxígeno > O. mykiss (mortalidad sin oxígeno > Trichogramma pretiosum (mortalidad > C. cincta (mortalidad > T. pretiosum (no emergencia de adultos > Trichogramma pintoi (mortalidad > Beauveria bassiana (inhibición del crecimiento. Los cocientes de riesgo (CR indicaron en todos los casos un alto riesgo del carbofurano principalmente en el ambiente acuático en comparación con el terrestre.Carbofuran is one of the most employed pesticides in Peruvian agriculture. This research aimed to evaluate the risk assessment in bioassays of carbofuran on eleven non-target species. The following relative sequence in decreasing ecotoxicity order in terms of RQ (Risk quotient to carbofuran to 19 end points on 11 species was found: Daphnia magna (mortality > Lemna minor (inhibition of new fronds > Paracheirodon innesi (strange swim = P. innesi (increase of opercula movement > Chironomus calligraphus (mortality > L. minor (necrosis > P. innesi (mortality > L. minor (chlorosis > Tetrapygus niger (inhibition of fertilization> Coturnix japonica (mortality > Oncorhynchus mykiss (increase of coloration > Ceraeochrysa

  14. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  15. Isolation of oxamyl-degrading bacteria and identification of cehA as a novel oxamyl hydrolase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina eRousidou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation is the main process controlling the environmental dissipation of the nematicide oxamyl. Despite that, little is known regarding the microorganisms involved in its biotransformation. We report the isolation of four oxamyl-degrading bacterial strains from an agricultural soil exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of oxamyl. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA assigned the isolated bacteria to different subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas. The isolated bacteria hydrolyzed oxamyl to oxamyl oxime, which was not further transformed, and utilized methylamine as a C and N source. This was further supported by the detection of methylamine dehydrogenase in three of the four isolates. All oxamyl-degrading strains carried a gene highly homologous to a carbamate-hydrolase gene cehA previously identified in carbaryl- and carbofuran-degrading strains. Transcription analysis verified its direct involvement in the hydrolysis of oxamyl. Selected isolates exhibited relaxed degrading specificity and transformed all carbamates tested including the oximino carbamates aldicarb and methomyl (structurally related to oxamyl and the aryl-methyl carbamates carbofuran and carbaryl which share with oxamyl only the carbamate moiety

  16. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

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    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena (n=16, purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50% of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.

  17. Uso de plaguicidas en cultivos agrícolas como herramienta para el monitoreo de peligros en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virya Bravo Durán

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica ha incrementado el uso de plaguicidas de mayor toxicidad, debido entre otras cosas al desarrollo de plagas más resistentes y la necesidad que tienen algunos productos agrícolas de exportación de mantener su posición en el mercado internacional. El ser humano al entrar en contacto con los plaguicidas puede experimentar efectos adversos en su salud desde agudos hasta crónicos que se manifiestan en diferentes grados. Para generar indicadores de peligro en salud en algunos cultivos por el uso de estas sustancias, se utilizaron la cantidad de plaguicidas aplicada y su toxicidad. Los datos de uso se recopilan directamente de los productores, a través de un cuestionario, los ingredientes activos identificados se caracterizaron por su toxicidad y se clasificaron por la manifestación de los efectos. Se calculó como indicador la cantidad de plaguicidas aplicada (kg ia/ha/año por las clases de toxicidad consideradas más peligrosas: 1. Efectos de toxicidad aguda en grado de alto a extremo y 2. Tres o más efectos crónicos positivos. Se recomienda vigilar el uso de bromuro de metilo, metam sodio, terbufos, etoprofos, endosulfan, MCPA y carbofuran por toxicidad aguda de alta a extrema y mancozeb, paraquat, diazinon, 2,4-D y carbofuran por efectos crónicos.  

  18. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, 14 C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle

  19. Rapid Detection Technology for Pesticides Residues Based on Microelectrodes Impedance Immunosensor

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    Wen Ping Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional methods, electrochemical immunosensors have many advantages, such as low cost, high sensitivity, and rapid detection, and has certain prospects for realizing real-time-monitoring. In this paper, a design of portable pesticide residues detection instrument was presented based on an electrochemical impedance immunosensor. Firstly, we studied on an impedance immunosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM coupled with magnetic nanobeads-antibody conjugates (MNAC for the pesticide detection. Magnetic nanobeads (diameter 150 nm coated with anti-carbofuran antibodies were used for further amplification of the binding reaction between antibody and hapten (carbofuran. Secondly, in order to develop a portable pesticide residue apparatus, we designed the impedance detection electric circuit. Main work included designing and constructing of the system circuit, designing and debugging of the system software and so on. Thirdly, the apparatus was used for the standard pesticides solutions testing combined with immunosensor to test the reliability and stability. The pesticide added standard recovery was more than 70 % and the impedance test error was less than 5 %. The results showed that the proposed instrument had a good consistence compared with the traditional analytical methods. Thus, it would be a promising rapid detection instrument for pesticide residues in agricultural products.

  20. Wheat bran soil inoculant of sumateran nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita on deli tobacco (nicotiana tabaccum l) cv. deli 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Sri Hastuti, Liana; Faull, Jane

    2018-03-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to test the effectiveness of nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) isolated from Sumatera for controlling infection by the root-knot nematode (RKN) on Deli tobacco plant. Wheat bran soil containing 109 conidia of Arthrobotrys. oligospora, Candellabrella musiformis and Dactylella eudermata was added to the soil as a dry inoculum. Carbofuran was also applied as chemical agent and comparison treatment. Seedling tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv. Deli 4 was inoculated with root knot (Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood.) seven days after the plant were transplanted to the pots. A. oligospora, C. musiformis and D. eudermata were found to be reliable as biocontrol agents, reducing the number of vermiform nematodes, swollen root, sausage shaped and galls in tobacco plant after 7, 15 and 30 days of infection with M. incognita. Treatment with NTF produced results that were comparable with Carbofuran® as a control agent in the reduction of the number of infections in tobacco plant caused by M. incognita in Nicotiana tabacum var. Deli 4. They also optimize the growth of the tobacco plants especially up to 15 days after infection.

  1. ESSAY ON Elasmopalpus lignosellus (ZELLER, 1848 AND TO Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp., AND Cornitermes spp. CONTROL IN MAIZE BY SEED TREATMENT ENSAIO DE CONTROLE À LAGARTA DO COLO Elasmopaplus lignosellus (Zeller, 1984 E AOS CUPINS Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp. E Cornitermes spp., NA CULTURA DO MILHO, VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Corrêa de Oliveira Júnior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study presents the results of the field experiments carried out in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, in 1985/86, to estimate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling the Lesser Cornstalk (Elasmopaplus lignosellus and the termites Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp. and Cornitermes spp. which attack corn plants, by seed treatment. The results show that benfuracarbe, carbofuran and thiodicarbe, respectively, were highly efficient in controlling both pests, lesser cornstalk borer and termites up to 21 days after seed germination.

    Foi realizado um experimento com milho no município de Goiânia, Goiás, safra 1985/86, visando ao controle da lagarta do colo Elasmopaplus lignosellus e cupins  Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp. e Cornitermes spp., via tratamento de sementes. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que Thiodicarbe na dose de 700 g. i.a. (gramas de ingrediente ativo; Carbofuran na dose de 700 g. i.a. e Benfuracarbe nas doses de 800 e 1000 g. i.a. / 100 kg de sementes deram 84,3 , 97,1 e 96,5% de controle a E. lignosellus, respectivamente, e controlaram 82,7 , 100,0 e 96,0% de cupins, na mesma ordem, até 21 dias após germinação das sementes.

  2. Kajian Bioekologi Pasteuria penetrans

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    Mulyadi Mulyadi

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In bioecological studies of P. penetrans, six experiments were done i.e. study the nematode hosts of P. penetrans; the effect of temperature, soil moisture, spores storage length, soil chemicals (compound  fertilizer, carbofuran, and mancozeb and methods of application on the pathogenicity of P. penetrans. The research results are as follows:  (1 nematode hosts of P. penetrans are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. graminicola; (2 temperature tested up to 100oC did not affect on the infectivity of P. penetrans; (3 the highest infectivity of P. penetrans was found on soil moisture 45% than on 0%-30%; (4 spores storage for one, two, and three year after effected the infectivity of P. penetrans; (5 treatment with carbofuran, mancozeb, and compound fertilizer did not affect on the infectivity of P. penetrans; and (6 the used of spores of P. penetrans in grounded tomato roots more effective than in soil and water suspension and more efficient than in soil. Key words; bioecology, P. penetrans

  3. Uji Patogenisitas Bakteri Pasteuria Penetrans terhadap Nematoda Puru Akar (Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi Mulyadi

    1996-12-01

    nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. in micro plot and in the field. The pathogenicity study in micro plot was done in Banguntapan, and field experiment was done in Ngipiksari, Pakem, Steman, Yogyakarta. The plots were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications. The treatments used in the research were: isolat no. 2 and 3 of P. penetrans; carbofuran nematicide. and control. The results in micro plot test were: 1 root damage caused by root-knot nematodes in plot treated with P. penetrans lower than the control, and 2 percentages of parasitism of P. penetrans were 63.57 % (in isolate no. 2 and 53.46 % (in isolate no. 3. In field experiment the results showed: 1 P. penetrans found to be effective in reducing root damage caused by Meloidogyne spp. especially in 45 days old of tomato plant, whereas in 90 days old the effectiveness were decreased; 2 P. penetrans was able to grow and reproduction in the field: 3 the level of parasitisms of P. penetrans were increased rapidly during the experiment: and 4 the highest yield was found in tomato treated with carbofuran and followed by isolate 2, isolate 3, and control.

  4. Amperometric Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor Based on Multilayer Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes-chitosan Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia SUN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with five layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-chitosan (CHIT composite was proposed, and thus a fast, sensitive and stable amperometric sensor for quantitative determination of pesticides was developed. Five layers of MWNTs-CHIT promoted electron transfer reactions at a lower potential and catalyzed the electro-oxidation of thiocholine, thus, it improved the detection sensitivity of biosensor. Based on the inhibition of pesticides to the enzymatic activity of AChE, using carbofuran as a model compound, under optimal conditions, the inhibition of carbofuran was proportional to its concentration in two ranges, from 5×10-4 to 7.5 μg/mL and 7.5 to 20 μg/mL with a detection limit of 1×10-4 μg/mL. The constructed biosensor showed prominent characteristics and performances such as good precision, acceptable stability, fast response and low detection limit, which provided a new promising tool for pesticide analysis.

  5. Beauveria bassiana strains for biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastião de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the "Recôncavo" and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4 g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  6. Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. in plantain farms (cv. Terra of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416 were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  7. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  8. Multivariate curve-resolution analysis of pesticides in water samples from liquid chromatographic-diode array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Rubén M; Damiani, Patricia C; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2011-01-30

    Liquid chromatographic-diode array detection data recorded for aqueous mixtures of 11 pesticides show the combined presence of strongly coeluting peaks, distortions in the time dimension between experimental runs, and the presence of potential interferents not modeled by the calibration phase in certain test samples. Due to the complexity of these phenomena, data were processed by a second-order multivariate algorithm based on multivariate curve resolution and alternating least-squares, which allows one to successfully model both the spectral and retention time behavior for all sample constituents. This led to the accurate quantitation of all analytes in a set of validation samples: aldicarb sulfoxide, oxamyl, aldicarb sulfone, methomyl, 3-hydroxy-carbofuran, aldicarb, propoxur, carbofuran, carbaryl, 1-naphthol and methiocarb. Limits of detection in the range 0.1-2 μg mL(-1) were obtained. Additionally, the second-order advantage for several analytes was achieved in samples containing several uncalibrated interferences. The limits of detection for all analytes were decreased by solid phase pre-concentration to values compatible to those officially recommended, i.e., in the order of 5 ng mL(-1). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of repeated long term application of atrazine on soil properties and bound residues formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behki, R.; Khan, S.U.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of repeated long term application of the herbicide atrazine on the activities of microorganisms, enzymes, as well as on the bound residues formation, was investigated. Bacteria, fungi and soil respiration were in general inhibited in the first year of application. However, in the second and third year no such trend was observed. Similarly, a decreasing trend in the Fe(III)-reduction, nitrification and arginine deamination was observed in the first year whereas in the subsequent two years no such trend was prominent. The dehydrogenase and arylsulfatase activities showed an increasing trend after the application of the herbicide. Column studies showed that extractable residues of atrazine and carbofuran gradually decreased after the application of the pesticides. Amendments of the soil containing 14 C-bound residues did not increase 14 CO 2 evolution. Unextractable 14 C was higher and mineralization of 14 C-2,4-D was lower in previously untreated soil than in soils with histories of atrazine and carbofuran application. (author)

  10. Effect of accelerated electron beam on pesticides removal of effluents from flower plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, T.; Armas, M.; Uzcategui, M.

    2006-01-01

    Flower industry in Ecuador uses a great quantity of pesticides for flowers growing; many of them are toxic and no biodegradable, which contaminate the different effluents. The study of this research is focused to the possibility of using electron beam radiation generated by electron accelerator in order to decrease the concentration of pesticides in effluents both from flower cultivation and from treatment of flowers. The research is initiated with a survey to twelve flower plantations located in the provinces of Pichincha and Cotopaxi (Ecuador), with the purpose of knowing the class of used pesticides, its form of utilization before, during and after fumigation process, the class of staff working in flower industry and the methods of effluents treatment that are using. The information on importation of pesticides and exportation of different classes of flowers was carried out, as well as the flowers sales, with the purpose of selecting the pesticides to be studied. The study of electron beam influence was realized with 6 pesticides considered toxic (Diazinon, procloraz, imidacloprid, dimetoato, carbofuran and metiocarb).The studied variables were: irradiation dose, pesticide concentration, irradiation atmosphere and pH effect. Besides, pH changes, formation of nitrites, nitrates, sulphates, sulfides, ammonium ion and cyanides, after irradiation process of pesticides in aqueous solutions were analyzed. In general, the obtained degradation of pesticides was 99 % for pesticides: procloraz, imidacloprid, carbofuran and dimetoato, and 67% for metiocarb pesticide, when the pesticide concentration was 50 ppm and 5 kGy irradiation dose. (The author)

  11. Distribution and function of carbamate hydrolase genes cehA and mcd in soils: the distinct role of soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousidou, Constantina; Karaiskos, Dionysis; Myti, Despoina; Karanasios, Evangelos; Karas, Panagiotis A; Tourna, Maria; Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic carbamates constitute a significant pesticide group with oxamyl being a leading compound in the nematicide market. Oxamyl degradation in soil is mainly microbially mediated. However, the distribution and function of carbamate hydrolase genes (cehA, mcd, cahA) associated with the soil biodegradation of carbamates is not yet clear. We studied oxamyl degradation in 16 soils from a potato monoculture area in Greece where oxamyl is regularly used. Oxamyl showed low persistence (DT50 2.4-26.7 days). q-PCR detected the cehA and mcd genes in 10 and three soils, respectively. The abundance of the cehA gene was positively correlated with pH, while both cehA abundance and pH were negatively correlated with oxamyl DT50. Amongst the carbamates used in the study region, oxamyl stimulated the abundance and expression only of the cehA gene, while carbofuran stimulated the abundance and expression of both genes. The cehA gene was also detected in pristine soils upon repeated treatments with oxamyl and carbofuran and only in soils with pH ≥7.2, where the most rapid degradation of oxamyl was observed. These results have major implications regarding the maintenance of carbamate hydrolase genes in soils, have practical implications regarding the agricultural use of carbamates, and provide insights into the evolution of cehA. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fenugreek hydrogel–agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang, E-mail: bhchiang@ntu.edu.tw

    2015-07-30

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10–20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel–agarose–acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. - Highlights: • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dip-strip biosensor fabricated to detect carbamates. • AChE entrapped in fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). • High enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and shelf life (half-life, 55 days). • Detection limits of carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl: 2, 21 and 113 nM. • The biosensor had good testing capabilities to detect carbamates in food samples.

  13. Responses of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Taiwan to a range of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2010-07-01

    Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Dog poisoning with furadan 35-ST (carbamate insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of poisoning of a dog with Furadan 35-ST in Serbia is described. The active ingredient of Furadan 35-ST is carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7- benzofuranyl methyl carbamate, a carbamate insecticide, acaricide and nematocide. This highly poisonous substance is classified by the World Health Organisation into Class 1 b and in Serbia into Group 1 of The List of Poisons. Pathological assessment revealed hyperaemia and degenerative and necrotic changes in the liver, kidneys and heart. In addition, lysis of the nuclei in the motor neurons, loss of tigroid substance and pericellular oedema in the ventral horns of the spinal cord, and acute pancreatitis were found. In addition to the non-specific changes (hyperaemia, degenerative and necrotic changes in the parenchymal organs, the ones in the ventral horns of the spinal cord and acute pancreatitis may lead to carbamate poisoning being suspected. The diagnosis was established on the grounds of toxicological-chemical conformation of carbofuran by means of GC-MS in addition to the macroscopic, microscopic findings in tissue samples taken from the stomach and the liver, which confirmed the suspicion of the dog having been poisoned with the carbamate insecticide. In the current case the results of the diagnostic procedures provided foundations for the initiation of criminal proceedings.

  15. Controle de Meloidogyne javanica em mudas de bananeira 'prata-anã' por compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Hanielle Carneiro dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de compostos orgânicos no controle de Meloidogyne javanica, e no desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeiras 'Prata-Anã. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, com dez repetições, e os tratamentos consistiram em quatro compostos constituídos de diferentes matérias-primas (restos da cultura da banana, cana-de-açúcar, esterco bovino, cascas de banana, plantas daninhas, capim andropogon, o esterco bovino, a torta de mamona e testemunhas (adubação mineral, carbofuran e testemunha absoluta (sem adição de composto orgânico. Em cada vaso, foram colocados 3 kg de solo autoclavado, incorporado com cada um dos tratamentos avaliados e inoculado com suspensão contendo 4.000 ovos de M. javanica. Após quatro dias, transplantou-se uma muda de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' micropropagada, e aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se: altura das plantas, diâmetro, número de folhas e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea, e número de galhas, massas de ovos, número de ovos e o número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2, por 100 cm³ de solo. Testou-se in vitro o efeito das frações húmicas dos quatro compostos (que não causaram fitotoxidez e esterco bovino sobre a mortalidade e motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. O ensaio foi montado em placas de ELISA em DIC, com cinco repetições. Os compostos orgânicos e o esterco bovino aumentaram o desenvolvimento das mudas. A torta de mamona provocou efeito fitotóxico às mudas. Menor número de variáveis nematológicas foi proporcionado pela torta de mamona e pelo carbofuran. O número de J2 também foi menor nas parcelas tratadas com carbofuran e também pelo Composto 3, constituído por plantas daninhas+restos de cana-de-açúcar+ esterco bovino e pelo adubo mineral. Para o teste in vitro, as substâncias húmicas conferiram efeito nematicida e nematostático. Dentre os compostos, o C3 mostrou-se promissor por reduzir o desenvolvimento do nematoides e não apresentar efeito fitotóxico.

  16. A novel miniaturized zinc oxide/hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a stir-brush microextractor device for carbamate pesticides analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkliang, Fonthip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Thammakhet, Chongdee

    2016-01-01

    A novel miniaturized “stir-brush microextractor” was prepared using a zinc oxide/hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ZnO/MWCNTs–OH) coated stainless steel brush connected to a small dc motor. The synthesized zinc oxide on each strand of stainless steel had a flower-like nanostructure when observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This structure produced a large surface area before it was coated with the hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent. Under optimal conditions, the developed device provided a good linearity for the extraction of carbofuran and carbaryl, in the range of 25–500 ng mL"−"1 and 50–500 ng mL"−"1, respectively, with low limits of detection of 17.5 ± 2.0 ng mL"−"1 and 13.0 ± 1.8 ng mL"−"1. It also provided a good stir-brush-to-stir-brush reproducibility (% relative standard deviation < 5.6%, n = 6). The device was applied for the extraction and preconcentration of carbamate pesticides in fruit and vegetable samples prior to analysis with a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC–FID). Carbofuran was found at 9.24 ± 0.93 ng g"−"1 and carbaryl was detected at 7.05 ± 0.61 ng g"−"1 with good recoveries in the range of 73.7 ± 10.0% to 108.4 ± 2.6% for carbofuran and 75.7 ± 10.0% to 111.7 ± 5.7% for carbaryl. - Highlights: • A brush as the sampling tool was first introduced. • A novel miniaturized and portable stir brush microextractor was developed for carbamate pesticides extraction. • Large surface area of ZnO flower-like nanostructure coated with MWCNTs–OH on each brush fiber was observed.

  17. Degradation and persistence of cotton pesticides in sandy loam soils from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2006-02-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of temperature, moisture, and microbial activity on the degradation and persistence of commonly used cotton pesticides, i.e., carbosulfan, carbofuran, lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan, and monocrotophos, with the help of laboratory incubation and lysimeter studies on sandy loam soil (Typic Ustocurepts) in Pakistan. Drainage from the lysimeters was sampled on days 49, 52, 59, 73, 100, 113, and 119 against the pesticide application on days 37, 63, 82, 108, and 137 after the sowing of cotton. Carbofuran, monocrotophos, and nitrate were detected in the drainage samples, with an average value, respectively, of 2.34, 2.6 microg/L, and 15.6 mg/L for no-tillage and 2.16, 2.3 microg/L, and 13.4 mg/L for tillage. In the laboratory, pesticide disappearance kinetics were measured with sterile and nonsterile soils from 0 to 10 cm in depth at 15, 25, and 35 degrees C and 50% and 90% field water capacities. Monocrotophos and carbosulfan dissipation followed first-order kinetics while others followed second-order kinetics. The results of incubation studies showed that temperature and moisture contents significantly reduced the t(1/2) (half-life) values of pesticides in sterile and nonsterile soil, but the effect of microbial activity was nearly significant that might be due to less organic carbon (0.3%). The presence of carbofuran and monocrotophos in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-150 cm) and the higher concentrations of endosulfan and lambda-cyhalothrin in the top layer (0-10 cm) showed the persistence of the pesticides. The detection of endosulfan and lambda-cyhalothrin in the 10-30 cm soil layer might be due to preferential flow. The data generated from this study could be helpful for risk assessment studies of pesticides and for validating pesticide transport models for sandy loam soils in cotton-growing areas of Pakistan.

  18. A novel miniaturized zinc oxide/hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a stir-brush microextractor device for carbamate pesticides analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkliang, Fonthip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Thavarungkul, Panote [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Thammakhet, Chongdee, E-mail: chongdee.t@psu.ac.th [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2016-04-21

    A novel miniaturized “stir-brush microextractor” was prepared using a zinc oxide/hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ZnO/MWCNTs–OH) coated stainless steel brush connected to a small dc motor. The synthesized zinc oxide on each strand of stainless steel had a flower-like nanostructure when observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This structure produced a large surface area before it was coated with the hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent. Under optimal conditions, the developed device provided a good linearity for the extraction of carbofuran and carbaryl, in the range of 25–500 ng mL{sup −1} and 50–500 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively, with low limits of detection of 17.5 ± 2.0 ng mL{sup −1} and 13.0 ± 1.8 ng mL{sup −1}. It also provided a good stir-brush-to-stir-brush reproducibility (% relative standard deviation < 5.6%, n = 6). The device was applied for the extraction and preconcentration of carbamate pesticides in fruit and vegetable samples prior to analysis with a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC–FID). Carbofuran was found at 9.24 ± 0.93 ng g{sup −1} and carbaryl was detected at 7.05 ± 0.61 ng g{sup −1} with good recoveries in the range of 73.7 ± 10.0% to 108.4 ± 2.6% for carbofuran and 75.7 ± 10.0% to 111.7 ± 5.7% for carbaryl. - Highlights: • A brush as the sampling tool was first introduced. • A novel miniaturized and portable stir brush microextractor was developed for carbamate pesticides extraction. • Large surface area of ZnO flower-like nanostructure coated with MWCNTs–OH on each brush fiber was observed.

  19. Evaluación de Varios Insecticidas para el Control del Cephaloleiaspcerca avagelineataPic, Plaga de la Palma Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urueta Sandino Eduardo

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se efectuaron varios ensayos para determinar el efecto de carbofuran 1.0, 1.5 y 2. 0 kg I. A./ha; carbaril 1.5 y 2. 0 kg I. A. /ha; lindano 1.0 y 1.5 kg I. A. /ha; diazinon 0.5 lt I. A./ha; dicrotofos 0. 5 lt I. A. /ha; fosfamidon 0.6 lt. I. A/ha; y fention 0.5 lt I. A./ha, sobre adultos y larvas de Cephaloleiasp. cerca avagelineataPic., una plaga de la palma africana en Colombia. Todos los insecticidas fueron efectivos para controlar larvas de Cephaloleiasp. en cogollos, hasta por periodos de más de 30 días. El carbofuran 2.0 kg I. A./ha carbaril 2.0 kg l . A./ha y lindano 1. 5 kg I.A. /hafueron los productos más eficientes para controlar adultos de Cephaloleia. sp. protegiendo por 15 días las hojas más jóvenes. Dicrotofos 0.5 lt I. A./ha; diazinon0.5 lt l. A./ha; fention 0.5 itI. A./ha y fosfamidon 0.6 lt I. A/ha, aparentemente no fueron efectivos para controlar las formas adultas de Cephaloleiasp. Ninguno de los insecticidas fue fitotóxico para la palma africana. /Abstract. Several tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of carbofuran 1. 0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg A.I./ha; carbaryl 1.5, 2.0 kg. A.I./ha; lindane 1.0, 1.5 kg. A.I./ha; phosphamidon 0.6 lt. A.I./ha; fenthion 0.5 lt. A.I./ha; dicrotophos 0.5 lt. A.I /ha; diazinon 0.5 lt. A.I./ha on larvae and adults of Cephaloleia. sp. near vagelineata Pic a Chrysomelidae that affects young oil palm (Elaeisguineensis leaves in Colombia. All of these insecticides controlled well Cepbaloleia sp. larvae for periods over a month. carbofuran 2 kg. A.I./ha; carbaryl 2kg. A.I./ha and lindane 1.5 kg. A. I./ha gave the best control of Cephaloleia. sp. adults, protecting young oil palm leaves up to 15 days. Dicrotophos 0.5 lts. A.I./ha; fenthion 0.5 lt. A. I./ha; phosphamidon 0.6 lt. A.I./ha; diazinon 0.5 lt. A.I./ha; apparently were not effective to control adults of Cephaloleia sp. None of the insecticides tested showed to be phytotoxic to the oil palm.

  20. The protection of the poppy plant (Papaver somniferum L. against poppy weevil (Stenocarus ruficornis Stephens by foliar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sikora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum L. is an annual autumn or spring plant. This crop is cultivated generally for seed which is used as a foodstuff in food processing industry. The biological efficacy of different tested active ingredients (lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, aplha-cypermethrin, DE-225 and combination chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin on poppy weevil (Stenocarus ruficornis S. was evaluated in comparison with reference active ingredient (carbofuran used as a standard treatment. The active ingredients were applied against the mentioned pest once in the season and were used in doses which were similar to those used against stem weevils in winter oil seed rape. Reference active ingredient was used in the dose which was authorised in the Czech Republic as standard ones against the poppy weevil. All active ingredients revealed efficacy which was measured (as a size of injuries both on leaves and roots. Two trials were performed in 2001–2002 in which efficacy and selectivity were assessed.

  1. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  2. Cholinesterase (ChE) response and related mortality among birds fed ChE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.; Hill, E.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Patterns of mortality and inhibition of brain and plasma ChE in birds treated with ChE inhibitors were studied in an attempt to determine the validity of using ChE activity as a monitoring and diagnostic technique. Analysis of brain ChE activity proved to be reliable for diagnosing and monitoring effects of selected ChE inhibitors in birds. Brain ChE inhibition exceeding 20% indicated exposure, and inhibition greater than 50% was sufficient for diagnosing cause of death. Individuals that died from dietary exposure to parathion or carbofuran had brain ChE activities below 55% of normal; although individuals could survive with brain ChE activity lower than 50%. Problems associated with collection, storage, and analysis of tissues for ChE activity are discussed.

  3. Evaluación biológica del manejo de picudos y nematodos fitopatógenos en plátano (Musa AAB Biological evaluation of the management of borers and phytopathogenic nematodes of plantain (Musa AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina González Cardona

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la granja Montelindo, municipio de Palestina (Caldas a 5° 05' N y 75° 40' O, a 1010 m.s.n.m., 23.5 °C, precipitación anual de 2100 mm y humedad relativa de 76%, con el fin de generar información sobre el manejo de picudos y nematodos fitoparásitos del plátano. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos por bloque, tres repeticiones y 24 plantas por repetición. Para el manejo de los picudos se hicieron aplicaciones de Carbofurán, Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae en trampas tipo columna. Para el control de nematodos se hicieron aplicaciones en el suelo de Carbofurán y dos cepas comerciales de Paecilomyces lilacinus. Se evaluaron el número de adultos de picudos en trampas, la infección de estos por los hongos empleados y la población de nematodos en suelo y raíces. Se encontró que las trampas tratadas con Carbofurán fueron significativamente más efectivas para la captura de insectos. En laboratorio se estableció que M. anisopliae tuvo una mejor capacidad para infectar adultos del insecto en el campo. La población de nematodos fue menor en suelo y raíces de las plantas tratadas con Carbofurán. Paecilomyces lilacinus no fue efectivo para reducir las poblaciones de nematodos. Los géneros de nematodos predominantes fueron Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne y Helicotylenchus.This work was carried out at the ‘Montelindo’ farm, municipality of Palestina (Department of Caldas, Colombia, located at 5° 05' N and 75° 40' W, at 1010 m.a.s.l., 23.5 °C, with 2100 mm of annual rainfall, and relative humidity of 76%, in order to generate information on the management of borers and parasitic nematodes of the plantain. A completely randomised block experimental design was used, with four treatments per block, three replicates and 24 plants per replicate. For the management of borers, applications of Carbofuran, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were made

  4. Comparative efficacy of a red alga solieria robusta, chemical fertilizers and pesticides in managing the root diseases and growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, V.; Haque, S.E.; Baloch, G.N.; Ara, J.

    2011-01-01

    Application of seaweed as soil amendment for the control of soil borne plant diseases has increased in recent years due to their environment friendly role. In screen house study, a red seaweed Solieria robusta used as soil amendment showed better suppressive effect on root rotting fungus Fusarium solani than Topsin-M, a fungicide, but was found less effective than Topsin-M against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani on soybean. Solieria robusta showed similar suppressive effect on root knot nematode as did carbofuran, a nematicide. Seaweed showed slightly better effect on plant growth than urea or potash by producing taller plants, better root length and number of flowers per plant. However, mixed application of S.robusta and Topsin-M produced greater number of flowers per plant and tallest plants. (author)

  5. Determination of pesticides in coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water and pulp using modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; Talamini, Viviane; Facco, Janice de Fátima; Rizzetti, Tiele Medianeira; Prestes, Osmar Damian; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan

    2016-12-15

    The use of pesticides is directly linked to improvements in productivity and to the preservation of coconut palms. However pesticide analysis is necessary to determine whether pesticide residues in the food products containing coconut are within the maximum residue limits (MRLs), ensuring the quality of these products. This work aimed to develop a method for multiresidue determination of ten pesticides in coconut water and pulp using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The method was effective in terms of selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, providing LOD of 3μgkg(-1), LOQ of 10μgkg(-1) and recoveries between 70 and 120% with RSD lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to 36 samples in which residues of carbendazim, carbofuran, cyproconazole and thiabendazole were found below the LOQ in coconut water and pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of some ricefield pesticides to the crayfish P. clarkii, under laboratory and field conditions in Lake Albufera (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Moliner, E S; Almar, M M; Legarra, I; Núñez, A

    1986-12-01

    Static toxicities in mature crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were determined, for eight insecticides, two herbicides and one fungicide which were frequently used in rice cultivation at Lake Albufera in Valencia (Spain). Three concentrations of each product were used: a) The concentration that was recommended by the dealer (in mg/L of active ingredient): Carbofuran 0.40, Carbaryl 0.80, Malathion 0.80, Trichlorfon 0.40, Endosulfan 0.56, Lindane 0.56, Fenitrothion 0.40, Cyfloxylate 0.02, Molinate-Thiobencarb 1.50, Copper Sulfate 0.42, b) Half of the recommended concentration. c) Double of the recommended concentration. In all three of the concentrations tested, only Fenitrothion and Cyfloxylate caused a considerable mortality. The other ones do not actually produce any important effects on P. clarkii in our conditions. Nevertheless, insecticides are more toxic than herbicides or fungicides, as the latter show a rather low toxicity.

  7. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Controlled release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollner, L.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a two weeks mission from 2 to 15 April 1991, and continued it from the 9 to 22 November 1991 at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of the National Atomic Energy Agency, BATAN in Jakarta. Expert discussed the project and carried out experiments together with the staff of the center, introducing shellac (description in part II) as a candidate for controlled release formulations. Formulations of carbofuran, butachlor, 2,4-D and diazinon were carried out, using sand and cocconut shells as carriers. Release rates of a.i. into water have been checked and further work has been discussed. Expert assessed further needs for supply of instruments, accessories and chemicals. (author)

  8. Prediction of bacterial growth on xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Andreas Libonati; Kästner, Matthias; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    to attain predictions closer to the experimentally observed yields [3]. However, this knowledge is seldom known for xenobiotics in the environment but is needed to assess the turnover leading to biomass production, i.e. for sludge production or biogenic residues. The objectives of the present study were...... method, we evaluated it with both simple substrates (e.g. acetate, methanol, and glyoxylate) and xenobiotics (e.g 2,4-D, linuron, carbofuran, carbon tetrachloride, and toluene). Experimental data for the simple substrates were taken from [4], for xenobiotics from [6] and own experimental data. For simple...... substrates, our approach predicts yields close to experimental values and also for xenobiotics the yield predictions for most of the compounds are close to the experimentally obtained values.Overall, with our method we were able to obtain yield predictions close to experimental values with a minimum of input...

  9. Valuation of solid phase extraction disks in the determination of pesticide residues in surface and groundwater in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, V.; Ramos de Jimenez, J.; Rojas, B.

    1999-01-01

    In Panama large quantities of pesticides are used in agriculture and livestock farming and there is increasing concern about their impact on public health and the environment. Chiriqui is the Province that registers the largest number of producers whose activities have impact on the environment, especially on surface and groundwater. Systematic monitoring programmes are non-existent due, in part, to the high cost of laboratory determination of environmental residues of pesticides. Within the framework of the FAO/IAEA/SIDA Coordinated Research Programme, efforts were focused on evaluating and optimising the use of solid phase extraction C 18 membrane disks in the analysis of surface and groundwater samples to determine pesticide residues. Factors studied were the effect of pre-washing and conditioning of the disks, flow rates, concentration level and matrix effects of field samples. Four pesticides, carbofuran, chlorothalonil, ametryn and chlorpyrifos were selected for these tests because preliminary analysis showed their presence in surface and groundwater. The technique significantly reduces the amount of organic solvents used as compared with the liquid-liquid extraction method. Quantifiable detection limits (Q L ) for the method were found to be 0.003 μg/L carbofuran, 0.016 μg/L chlorothalonil, 0.007 μg/L ametryn and 0.003 μg/L chlorpyrifos, when using standard spiked solutions. Recovery (%) was high when standard mixtures were used for the test runs but low when real surface water samples were tested, especially for chlorothalonil which was not recovered at all. (author)

  10. Evaluación nematicida del aceite esencial de Tagetes zypaquirensis en el manejo del nematodo Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eduardo Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. es un frutal andino de gran importancia económica en Colombia, sin embargo, las áreas sembradas y rendimientos han sufrido una evidente reducción debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo Meloidogyne spp., que ha ocasionado pérdidas de hasta 50%. En la naturaleza existen diferentes recursos vegetales con propiedades nematicidas, destacándose al género Tagetes. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad nematicida del aceite esencial de Tagetes zypaquirensis sobre Meloidogyne spp. Bajo condiciones de invernadero se evaluaron cuatro concentraciones del aceite esencial (100, 200, 400, 800mg/kg de suelo las cuales fueron aplicadas a un suelo con juveniles de segundo estadio del nematodo +400 J2/100g. Además, se establecieron tres comparadores: un tratamiento sin aplicación de aceite esencial, un suelo sin nematodo y un suelo tratado con i.a carbofuran (33,2% bajo una dosis de 2cc/L. Para cada tratamiento, las variables a evaluar fueron: severidad, altura de planta, peso fresco y seco al aire, peso fresco radical, número de huevos del nematodo/100g raíz y número de J2/100g de suelo. Los componentes mayoritarios del aceite esencial de T. zypaquirensis fueron dihidrotagetona y E-tagetona con una proporción relativa de 42,2 y 22,9%, respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron, que la concentración 800mg/kg de aceite esencial presentó la misma acción nematicida que el suelo tratado con carbofuran al reducir las poblaciones de Meloidogyne spp. y presentar valores similares en las variables fitométricas. Se concluye que el aceite esencial T. zypaquirensis puede ser una alternativa para el manejo de la enfermedad del nudo radical.

  11. Nematicides control rice root-knot, caused by Meloidogyne graminicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeebur Rahman KHAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine damage potential of Meloidogyne graminicola on the commonly grown rice cv. Sugandh-5 and to devise an effective management strategy. The nematicides were applied through root-dip (200 ppm solution and soil application of 2 kg ha-1 phorate 10G (25 mg a.i./pot, carbofuran 3G (83.3 mg a.i./pot and 1 L ha-1, carbosulfan 20EC (5µL/pot and chlorpyriphos 20 EC (6.25 µL/pot in both nematode infested and non-infested soil with five modes of application viz., root-dip, single soil application (15 days after transplanting, root-dip + one soil application, two soil applications, and root-dip + two soil applications (15 and 30 days. Application of nematicides did not cause any toxicity symptoms on rice plants. In nematode infested soil, terminal and spiral galls developed on the rice roots, and plants suffered 20−31% decrease in the plant growth parameters. Carbofuran and phorate through root-dip plus single soil application provided greatest suppression in galling (16−20%, egg mass production (18−22% and soil population (27.5−58.2% of M. graminicola, and subsequently increased all the plant growth variables by 9−19%. Root-dip + two soil applications increased plant growth and suppressed nematodes, but was equal to root dip + one soil application. Root-dip treatment alone with carbosulfan also significantly suppressed root galling (10−12% and improved the dry weight of roots and shoots (7−10%.

  12. TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM INSETICIDA E A QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIAN GOMES DE MORAES DAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment with insecticides is a routine practice that helps control initial field pests. However there is little information on the effects of insecticides on physiological quality of soybean seeds. Thus, this paper was to evaluate the effect of seed treatment with insecticides on the germination and vigor of soybean seeds. The design was completely randomized consisting of 7 treatments with 4 repetitions. The seeds of the cv. M-soy-6101 were treated with the insecticide thiamethoxam on the rate of 0.15 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds, fipronil in the rate of 0.37 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds, imidacloprido in the rate of 0,10 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds; [thiodicarb + imidacloprid] at a rates of 0.14 + 0.13 kg of a.i./ha-1, carbofuran of rate 0.52 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds, acephate at a rate of 0.75 kg of i.a./100 kg of seeds and a control without treatment. The variables analyzed were: germination, emergence speed, root length and seedling and percentage of normal seedlings in the accelerated aging. In the greenhouse (pot of 6 dm-3 of soil were obtained levels of phytotoxicity, height and dry mass of shoots. Treatment with insecticides thiamethoxam, fipronil and imidacloprid provides adequate quality of the seeds and do not negatively affect the early development of plants. Insecticides [imidacloprid + thiodicarb], acephate and carbofuran affect the germination and vigor of soybean seeds.

  13. Comparative effect of pesticides on brain acetylcholinesterase in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Carvalho, Elba Veronica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2012-12-15

    Monitoring of pesticides based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition in vitro avoids interference of detoxification defenses and bioactivation of some of those compounds in non-target tissues. Moreover, environmental temperature, age and stress are able to affect specific enzyme activities when performing in vivo studies. Few comparative studies have investigated the inter-specific differences in AChE activity in fish. Screening studies allow choosing the suitable species as source of AChE to detect pesticides in a given situation. Brain AChE from the tropical fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized and their activities were assayed in the presence of pesticides (the organophosphates: dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, temephos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate- TEPP and the carbamates: carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC₅₀ and Ki) for each species were found and compared with commercial AChE from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). Optimal pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 35-45 °C, respectively. A. gigas AChE retained 81% of the activity after incubation at 50 °C for 30 min. The electric eel enzyme was more sensitive to the compounds (mainly carbofuran, IC₅₀ of 5 nM), excepting the one from A. gigas (IC₅₀ of 9 nM) under TEPP inhibition. These results show comparable sensitivity between purified and non-purified enzymes suggesting them as biomarkers for organophosphorus and carbamate detection in routine environmental and food monitoring programs for pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  15. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water.

  16. Control químico del Nematodo quiste Heterodera trifolii en clavel miniatura Chemical control of the cyst nematode, Heterodera trifolii in miniature carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marroquin Alicia

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Una de las enfermedades en el cultivo del clavel recientemente registradas en Colombia es el nemátodo quiste, Heterodera trifolii. Un aumento del marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporumof. sp. dianthi se ha observado en algunas fincas afectadas por los dos patógenos. La investigación se realizó para evaluar el efecto de varios productos químicos en el control del nemátodo, en un invernadero comercial con clavel miniatura de la variedad Red Baron. Los fumigantes DD-metilisotiocianato, Dazomet y Metan sodio se aplicaron al suelo antes de la siembra, solos y en combinación con tres nemáticidas no fumiqantes Aldicarb, Carbofuran y Oxamil, en tres épocas de aplicación. Los fumigantes fueron máseficientes para la reducción de la población del nemátodo en el suelo que los nematicidasno fumigantes. El mejor tratamiento fue DD-metilisotiocianato con una reducción del 52% de la población de quistes viables y de 38% en la población de larvas en el suelo, un adelanto de 15 días en la cosecha, un aumento del 9% en rendimiento y del 19% en ingresos netos, en comparación con el Testigo no tratado. Entre los nematicidas no fumigantes, los mejores tratamientos fueron Aldicarb y Carbofuran aplicados en el momento de la siembra y Oxamil aplicado 30 días después de la siembra. La combinación de los fumigantes y de los nematicidas no fumigantes no mejoró el control del nemátodo, el rendimiento y la calidad de las flores, pero si aumentó notablemente los costos de producción.
    One of the diseases recently registered on carnation in Colombia is the cystnematode caused by Heterodera trifolii. An increase of the vascular wilt was observed in some farms affected by the two pathogens. A trial was carried out in a commercial greenhouse with miniature carnation of the variety Red Baron. The fumigants DD memethylisothiocianate, Dazomet and Methamsodium applied to the soil before planting were used alone and in combination with

  17. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência na cultura de cana-de-açúcar tratada com nematicidas Selectivity of pre-emergence herbicides to sugarcane treated with nematicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Negrisoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a seletividade de herbicidas para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar quando aplicado em culturas tratadas com nematicidas. O experimento foi instalado em área pertencente à Usina São José, município de Borebi-SP, ano agrícola de 2000/01. A variedade de cana-de-açúcar utilizada foi a RB855113. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Cada parcela correspondeu a 27 linhas de 10,0 m, espaçadas em 1,0 m, sendo dividida em três subparcelas. As parcelas corresponderam aos tratamentos com os herbicidas, e as subparcelas, à aplicação ou não dos nematicidas carbofuran (2,10 kg ha-1 e terbufós 2,25 kg ha��. Os herbicidas testados foram: tebuthiuron (1,12 kg ha-1, ametryne (1,75 kg ha¹, sulfentrazone (0,8 kg ha-1, metribuzin (1,92 kg ha-1, isoxaflutole (0,0525 kg ha¹, clomazone (1,25 kg ha¹, oxyfluorfen (0,36 kg ha-1 e azafenidin+hexazinone (0,1575 + 0,2025 kg ha-1, sendo todos aplicados em pré-emergência, além de uma parcela como testemunha. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que os herbicidas oxyfluorfen e azafenidin+hexazinone causaram os maiores níveis de fitotoxicidade na cana-de-açúcar, independentemente do uso dos nematicidas carbofuran e terbufós. Os herbicidas tebuthiuron, ametryne, sulfentrazone, metribuzin, isoxaflutole, clomazone, oxyfluorfen e azafenidin+hexazinone, aplicados em doses representativas das comercialmente utilizadas, mostraram-se seletivos à cana-de-açúcar, não afetando seu crescimento, sua produtividade e suas características tecnológicas. Os nematicidas não interferiram nos níveis de intoxicação provocados pelos herbicidas utilizados na cultura.The objective of this work was to study the selectivity of herbicides to sugarcane when applied in crops treated with nematicides. The experiment was carried out in Borebi, São Paulo-Brazil, during the growing season 2000/2001. The sugar cane variety

  18. Time of planting and choice of maize hybrids in controlling WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, F; Videnovic, Z; Erski, P; Stankovic, R; Dobrikovic, Danica

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the length of growing season of maize hybrids (FAO maturity groups 400, 500, 600 and 700) and planting dates on the maize crop, as an attractive supplemental feeding for western corn rootworm (WCR) beetles and larval survival, were observed in two locations of South Banat, during a three-year (1997-1999) and a two-year period (2001 and 2002). The feeding attraction of the maize crop for WCR beetles and survival of larvae were evaluated in dependency of the variable "plant lodging". The following results were obtained: First location: A. Plant lodging over time of planting and applied insecticides. 1. Early planting: 44.2%, 77.6%, and 76.7% for FAO 400, 500 and 600, respectively. 2. Late planting: 4.7%, 14.9%, and 7.9% for FAO 400, 500 and 600, respectively. B. Plant lodging over time of planting and cropping practices: 1. Early planting without insecticide application 72.2%, and with insecticide application 7.3%. The efficacy of application of insecticide carbofurane (Furadan 350 FS, dosage 4.0 liter/ha) in larval control was 89.9%. 2. Late planting without insecticide application, plant lodging was 47.7%, and with insecticide application 8.1%. The efficacy of application of insecticide carbofurane (Furadan 350 FS, dosage 4.0 l/ha-1) in larval control was 83.0%. Early planting resulted in greater survival of larvae; hence plant lodging was 10 times greater in early than in late planting. The percentage of lodged plants indicates that the maize crop in late planting was more attractive to imagoes. Therefore, more lodged plants were observed in the treatment where late planting preceded. Second location: Plant lodging as dependent on "treatments" 1. Regular plantings: 90.7% in untreated control and 76.2% in insecticide treated variant. The efficacy of insecticide application in control of high larval population was 16.0%. 2. Replanting date: 12.2% in untreated and 4.4% in treated variant. The efficacy of insecticide in control of low larval population

  19. INSETICIDAS APLICADOS VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES VISANDO AO CONTROLE DAS MOSCAS BRANCAS (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. E MINADORA (Liriomyza sp. NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE WHITE FLY Bemisia tabaci GENN. AND LEAFMINER Liriomyza sp. IN BEAN CROPS BY SEED TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se o presente experimento no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de março a maio de 1993, para avaliar o controle das moscas brancas (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. e minadora (Liriomyza sp. na fase inicial da cultura do feijoeiro, com produtos aplicados via tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos constaram de: imidacloprid 700 PM nas dosagens de 140, 210, 280 e 350 gramas de ingrediente ativo (i.a/l00 kg de sementes; carbosulfan + zinco 250 TS nas dosagens de 375 e 500g i.a./100kg de sementes, comparados com o carbofuran 350 TS na dosagem de 525 g i.a./100kg de sementes (padrão. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle da mosca minadora, com porcentagens de eficiência que variaram de 93 a 99%. Imidacloprid, a partir de 280g i.a./100kg de sementes, foi igual aos outros produtos em eficiência no controle da mosca branca, com porcentagens de controle variando entre 83 a 89%.

    A trial to control the white fly Bemisia tabaci, GENN. and leafminer Liriomyza sp. was carried out in Goiânia, state of Goiás. The treatments and dosages of the insecticides per 100kg of seed were: imidacloprid (140, 210, 280 and 350g a.i., carbofuran (525 g a.i., carbosulfan (375 and 500g a.i, plus an untreated check. The application of the treatments were made on the seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the leafminer at all dosages tested and imidacloprid at the dosages of 280 and 350g a.i. per 100kg seed was similar in controlling the white fly in bean crops.

  20. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units≥-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  2. High-throughput screening and confirmation of 22 banned veterinary drugs in feedstuffs using LC-MS/MS and high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xufeng; Liu, Yanghong; Su, Yijuan; Yang, Jianwen; Bian, Kui; Wang, Zongnan; He, Li-Min

    2014-01-15

    A new analytical strategy based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with accurate mass high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HR-Orbitrap MS) was performed for high-throughput screening, confirmation, and quantification of 22 banned or unauthorized veterinary drugs in feedstuffs according to Bulletin 235 of the Ministry of Agriculture, China. Feed samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, followed by cleanup using solid-phase extraction cartridge. The extracts were first screened by LC-MS/MS in a single selected reaction monitoring mode. The suspected positive samples were subjected to a specific pretreatment for confirmation and quantification of analyte of interest with LC-MS/MS and HR-Orbitrap MS. Mean recoveries for all target analytes (except for carbofuran and chlordimeform, which were about 35 and 45%, respectively) ranged from 52.2 to 90.4%, and the relative standard deviations were screening of real samples obtained from local feed markets and confirmation of the suspected target analytes. It provides a high-throughput, sensitive, and reliable screening, identification, and quantification of banned veterinary drugs in routine monitoring programs of feedstuffs.

  3. Pesticides in surface water measured at select sites in the Sacramento River basin, California, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides were measured in one urban stream, one agricultural stream, one site on the Sacramento River, and one large flood control channel over a period of 18 months during 1996-1998. All sites were located within the Sacramento River Basin of California. Measurements were made on 83 pesticides or pesticide transformation products by either gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light spectrometry. Some pesticides were detected frequently at the agricultural stream and downstream in the Sacramento River and at the flood control channel of the Sacramento River. These were pesticides related to rice farming (molinate, carbofuran, thiobencarb, and bentazon); herbicides used both agriculturally or for roadside maintenance (diuron, simazine, and metolachlor); or insecticides used on orchards and row corps (diazinon and chlorpyrifos). No pesticide concen-trations above enforceable water quality criteria were measured at either the agricultural site or the Sacramento River sites. In contrast to the agricul-tural site, insecticides used for household, lawn, or garden maintenance were the most frequently detected pesticides at the urban site. Diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, exceeded recom-mended criteria for the protection of aquatic life, and the diazinon levels were frequently above known toxic levels for certain zooplankton species at the urban site. Because of the low discharge of the urban stream, pesticide concentrations were greatly diluted upon mixing with Sacramento River water.

  4. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, Christel [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, Unite PSH, F- 84914 Avignon (France); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Mazzia, Christophe [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France)], E-mail: mazzia@avignon.inra.fr

    2009-01-15

    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (K{sub m} = 77.2 mM; V{sub max} = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (K{sub m} = 222 mM, V{sub max} = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10{sup -5}-3.80 x 10{sup -8} M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10{sup -5}-2.98 x 10{sup -8} M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposure.

  5. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  6. An investigation of homogeneous and heterogeneous sonochemistry for the destruction of hazardous substances. Progress report, 1996 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, I.

    1997-01-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to acquire a deeper fundamental knowledge of acoustic cavitation and cavitation chemistry, and in doing so, to ascertain how ultrasonic irradiation can be more effectively applied to environmental problems. Four on-going projects will be described in this progress report, The first project is the destruction of carbofuran in a Near-Field Acoustical Processor (NAP), and the hydrodynamic characterization of the reactor. The second project is a comprehensive study of how ultrasonic frequency influences sonochemical reaction rates; the substrate it, the preliminary portion of this study has been hydrogen peroxide formation. The third project in progress is destruction of four polychlorinated biphenyls at 20 kHz. Work so far has been at 20 kHz, but the most significant portion of this project will involve a multi-frequency (ultrasonic frequency) study. Finally, the destruction of a pesticide, dichlorvos, during sonication at 500 kHz will be described. Preliminary work during the first year has emphasized determination of kinetics; further work (years 2--3) will be focused upon closing mass balances and identifying transformation products.'

  7. Effect of pesticides on soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Chu

    2010-07-01

    According to guidelines for the approval of pesticides, information about effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms and soil fertility are required, but the relationships of different structures of pesticides on the growth of various groups of soil microorganisms are not easily predicted. Some pesticides stimulate the growth of microorganisms, but other pesticides have depressive effects or no effects on microorganisms. For examples, carbofuran stimulated the population of Azospirillum and other anaerobic nitrogen fixers in flooded and non-flooded soil, but butachlor reduced the population of Azospirillum and aerobic nitrogen fixers in non-flooded soil. Diuron and chlorotoluron showed no difference between treated and nontreated soil, and linuron showed a strong difference. Phosphorus(P)-contains herbicides glyphosate and insecticide methamidophos stimulated soil microbial growth, but other P-containing insecticide fenamiphos was detrimental to nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the following review presents some data of research carried out during the last 20 years. The effects of twenty-one pesticides on the soil microorganisms associated with nutrient and cycling processes are presented in section 1, and the applications of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for studying microbial diversity are discussed in section 2.

  8. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  9. Method development for determination of herbicides and insecticides in surface waters using solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebre, Daniel Temponi

    2000-01-01

    Determination of low concentrations of pesticides in surface and ground waters requires high sensitivity analytical techniques. Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) has been successfully employed to pre concentrate and extract pesticides compounds from water samples. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV/Vis detector was used to separate and quantify the extracted compounds. In this work, samples of surface waters with known concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine and trifluralin) and insecticides (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) were extracted by using SPE off-line technique. The compounds were separated and quantified by reverse phase HPLC with UV detection at 220 ηm. The extraction efficiency was compared between two columns filled with different materials: C 18 -bonded silica phase (500 mg) and copolymer styrenedivynilbenzene resin (250 mg). The results were evaluated as the percent recovery of compounds obtained using different solvents at different concentrations. The results showed that recovery of the analytes greater than 80 % were obtained in SPE columns filled with C 18 bonded silica phase with 6 mL of acetonitrile. Once the optimum conditions were chosen for simulate water samples, the method was validated through analytical and statistical procedures and applied for surface waters. The suitability of the method was verified for the studied compounds showing good sensitivity, i. e., concentrations within the range of 0.4 to 4.0 μgL -1 of pesticides could be quantified attending the limits proposed by official regulations. (author)

  10. [Reactivity of several classes of pesticides with UV, ozone and permanganate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Qiang, Zhi-min; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of eight classes of 26 extensively used pesticides, namely, organochlorines, thiadiazole, dinitroanaline, acetamides, triazines, uracil and carbamates, with three common disinfectants or oxidants including UV254 (average intensity of 10.8 mW x cm(-2)), ozone (dosage of 4.1 - 6.2 mg x L(-1)) and permanganate (dosage of 15.8 mg x L(-1)) was investigated. The reactions were allowed to proceed for 30 min at pH 7.0 and ambient temperature (25 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C). Results indicate that under the applied experimental conditions, more than 95% of chlorobenzilate, etridiazole, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, propachlor, atrazine, simazine, aldicarb, oxamyl and methiocarb could be effectively removed by UV254; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides were in a range of 12.9%-77.7%. Ozone could completely degrade chloroneb, dichlorvos, bromacil, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, oxamyl and methiocarb; prometon and aldicarb sulfone were resistant to ozonation; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides varied from 19.0% to 93.1%. Permanganate could fully degrade dichlorvos, aldicarb and methiocarb; organochlorines, dinitroanaline, thiadiazole, acetamides and other carbamates were resistant to permanganate oxidation; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides ranged from 16.0% to 88.2%. If the practical dosage applied in drinking water treatment is considered, it is expected that most of the pesticides will be completely degraded by ozone, a few by permanganate, but probably none by UV254 .

  11. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that π-π interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

  12. Wet air oxidation of seedcorn wastes containing pesticides and insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, M.; Schlaefer, O.; Onyeche, T.I.; Schroeder, C.; Bormann, H.; Schaefer, S. [CUTEC-Inst. GmbH (Clausthal Environment Technology Inst.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wet air oxidation as an alternative treatment process to pyrolysis and combustion of seedcorn wastes was investigated in lab-scale experiments. Due to solid condition of the seed corn waste, the process has been adapted by repeated spraying of water on the seed corn bulk to avoid the production of sludge and its subsequent dewatering. Original seed corns from industrial production plants were used for a degradation kinetic study under smooth wet air oxidation conditions. The temperatures were between 80 and 150 C, the pressure from 1 to 4.5 bar and the pH at different values from 3 to 13. Degradation rates for five different compounds of pesticides and insecticides, namely Imidacloprid, Thiram, Hymexazol, Carbofuran and Tefluthrin were conducted. These compounds represent the recently used in agricultural seedcorn applications. The degradation rate depends linearly on temperature between 80 and 150 C. At 120 C the lowest degradation rate was found for Tefluthrin by 25 mg/h per L reaction volume while the highest degradation rate to be conducted was for Imidacloprid at 363 mg/h L. (orig.)

  13. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

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    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  14. Bioefficacy, dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of selected insecticides in Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas P, Satya; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Ghaste, Manoj S; Lawande, K E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the bioefficacy of selected insecticides against thrips and their pre-harvest intervals (PHI) in onion pertaining to their recommended application rates and maximum residue limits. Profenophos, methomyl and imidacloprid showed comparatively higher bioefficacy against thrips. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS-based residue analysis methods in onion bulbs and composite matrix of bulbs+leaves were thoroughly validated. The residue data for bulb+leaves was assessed with reference to the EU-MRLs applicable for spring onion. Dimethoate was the most stable chemical with PHI of 52.5 days, followed by monocrotophos (24 days) and carbofuran (20.5 days). The PHIs of profenophos, chlorpyrifos, methomyl and cypermethrin were similar and within the range of 10-13 days. Imidacloprid and λ-cyhalothrin had similar PHI of 4.5 days. Spinosad was the fastest-degrading chemical with PHI of 2 days. The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of these insecticides for the management of thrips in onion, help in scheduling their applications in pest management program as per relative PHIs and minimize the residue accumulations at harvest. The dietary exposure was less than the maximum permissible intake for most of the insecticides on all sampling days except for dimethoate and monocrotophos.

  15. Development and validation of a simple GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides in blood--clinical and forensic toxicology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Ioannis; Mendonis, Marcela; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Pistos, Constantinos; Maravelias, Constantinos; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2012-05-01

    Anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used, and as a result they are involved in numerous acute and even fatal poisonings. The aim of this study was the development, optimization, and validation of a simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides (aldicarb, azinphos methyl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dialifos, diazinon, malathion, methamidophos, methidathion, methomyl, and terbufos) in blood. Only 500 μL of blood was used, and the recoveries after liquid-liquid extraction (toluene/chloroform, 4:1, v/v) were more than 65.6%. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) ≥ 0.996). Limit of detections and limit of quantifications were found to be between 1.00-10.0 and 3.00-30.0 μg/L, respectively. Accuracy expressed as the %E(r) was found to be between -11.0 and 7.8%. Precision expressed as the percent relative standard deviation was found to be forensic and clinical cases of accidental or suicidal poisoning with these pesticides. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Assessment of human exposure to pesticides by hair analysis: The case of vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Oltramare, Christelle; Nfon Dibié, Jean-Jacques; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2018-02-01

    The present work assesses human exposure to pesticides in vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso, using hair as an indicator. The study design includes a comparison between operators who are occupationally exposed while working in the fields and a reference population (i.e. not occupationally exposed) to evaluate both occupational and indirect exposures. Hair samples from volunteers (n=101) were positive for 17 pesticides (38 analyzed). Acetamiprid, desethylatrazine, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were detected for the first time in field samples. With a maximum of 9 residues per sample, pesticide exposure was ubiquitous in both populations. Contamination by acetamiprid, cypermethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (used in vegetable production) prevailed in operator samples. For other pesticides, such as imidacloprid and deltamethrin, no significant difference was found. This indicates a potentially large environmental exposure (dietary intake or atmospheric contamination) or the prevalence of other contamination sources. The present findings are concerning, as detected levels are globally higher than those previously reported, and indicate exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and probable carcinogens. Hair was found to be a suitable matrix for biomonitoring human exposure to pesticides and assessing dominant factors (i.e. sex, age, and protective equipment) in subgroups, as well as identifying geographical contamination patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of management strategies for squash bugs (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Roberts, B Warren; Pair, Sam; Edelson, J V

    2004-12-01

    Two watermelon pest management practices, a squash trap crop and a standard recommendation using soil-applied carbofuran, were compared using large-scale field plots to assess trap crop suitability as a replacement for the standard in 2000, 2001, and 2002. In both systems, foliar insecticide applications were used to control squash bugs when populations exceeded threshold levels. During 2001 and 2002, a treatment of untreated watermelon was used. Early season adult insects, from seedling to fruit set, are most critical for watermelon. Significantly fewer early adult bugs were found on watermelon in the trap crop than in the standard recommended practice in 1 of 3 yr. In both years, significantly fewer adult squash bugs were found in watermelon in the trap crop than in untreated fields. The standard recommended practice significantly reduced adult squash bugs in watermelon compared with the untreated in 1 of 2 yr. There was no significant correlation of watermelon yield and squash bug density, indicating that squash bug densities were too low to impact yield. Although squash bugs were reduced significantly by the trap crop, marketable watermelon yields were lower in the squash trap crop than in untreated watermelon, suggesting that pest management treatments may interfere with crop productivity factors other than squash bug colonization. Results suggest that mid-season production squash bug should be managed by monitoring populations and using insecticides as needed rather than using at-plant treatment. Further research is needed to compare treatments during early-season production.

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF BEST ACTION, FURADAN, AND NEEM EMULSION IN THE CONTROL OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF COWPEA [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments to determine the efficacy of Best Action (30g/litre cypermethrine plus 250g/litre dimethoate as water emulsifiable concentrates, Furadan 10G (carbofuran, Neem emulsion (Azadiracta indica as insecticide treatments in the control of major insect pests of cowpea were conducted in two agro-environments simultaneously in Enugu Area, South Eastern Nigeria in 2014 cropping season using two cowpea varieties (Ife brown, and Potiskum as test crops. The experimental design was a split plot in a randomized compete block (RCB replicated three times. Best Action was more effective in controlling cowpea insect pests, followed by Furandan 10G, and Neem emulsion respectively and their effectiveness was not affected by climatic factors variations in the two agro-environments (Nsukka and Agbani. Ife brown and Potiskum did not significantly resist the attack of major insect pests of cowpea. Insecticides and cowpea varieties did not have a significant interaction effect on the control of major insect pests of cowpea.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC 50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  20. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  1. Dietary risk assessment of pesticides from vegetables and drinking water in gardening areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Turrero, Nuria; Kolia, Marius; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2017-12-01

    Vegetables and water samples have been collected around the lake of Loumbila in Burkina Faso. Pesticides residues in food commodities were analyzed using a modified QuEChERS extraction method prior analysis on GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS of 31 pesticides. Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) were exceeded in 36% of the samples for seven pesticides: acetamiprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, dieldrin, imidacloprid and profenofos. Exceedance of MRLs suggests a risk for the consumers and limits the opportunities of exportation. In order to define estimated daily intake, dietary surveys were conducted on 126 gardeners using a 24hours recall method. Single pesticide and cumulative exposure risks were assessed for children and adults. Risk was identified for: chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin in acute and chronic exposure scenarios. Hazardous chronic exposure to the endocrine disruptor and probable carcinogen dieldrin was also detected. In the studied population, cumulative dietary exposure presented a risk (acute and chronic) for children and adults in respectively >17% and 4% of the cases when considering the worst case scenarios. Processing factor largely influenced the risk of occurrence suggesting that simple washing of vegetables with water considerably reduced the risk of hazardous exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pesticides in shallow groundwater of Bahawalnagar, Muzafargarh, D.G. Khan and Rajan Pur districts of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2004-06-01

    In Pakistan there is little data on environmental contamination of rural water sources by pesticides. This study evaluated pesticide contamination of groundwater in four intensive cotton growing districts. Water samples were collected from 37 rural open wells in the areas of Bahwalnagar, Muzafargarh, D.G. Khan and Rajan Pur districts of Punjab and analysed for eight pesticides which are mostly used. Information on types of pesticide used and distance to nearest pesticide mixing area and application areas was obtained for each site. From the eight pesticides analysed, six pesticides were detected in the water samples. Only cypermethrin and cabosulfan were not detected. The percentage of detection of bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, carbofuran, endosulfan, methyl parathion and monocrotophos was, respectively 13.5%, 5.4%, 59.4%, 8%, 5.4% and 35.1% in July; 16.2%, 13.55%, 43.2%, 8%, N.D. (not detected) and 24.3% in October. Maximum contamination levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were not exceeded. The study has shown the need for monitoring pesticide contamination in rural water resources, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in Pakistan. The conclusions and recommendations will be disseminated to senior decision makers in central and local governments, extension agents and farmers.

  3. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes by using a derivatisation step and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Nief, Marie; Fabritius, Marie; Racault, Lucie; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2011-11-04

    This work presents a new method to analyse simultaneously by GC-MS 31 pesticides from different chemical classes (2,4 D, 2,4 MCPA, alphacypermethrin, bifenthrin, bromoxynil, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, clopyralid, cyprodinil, deltamethrin dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, diflufenican, diuron, fenoxaprop, flazasulfuron, fluroxypyr, ioxynil, isoxaben, mecoprop-P, myclobutanil, oryzalin, oxadiazon, picloram, tau-fluvalinate tebuconazole, triclopyr, trifluralin and trinexapac-p-ethyl). This GC-MS method will be applied to the analysis of passive samplers (Tenax(®) tubes and SPME fiber) used for the evaluation of the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by non-agricultural pesticides. The method involves a derivatisation step for thermo-labile or polar pesticides. Different agents were tested and MtBSTFA (N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide), a sylilation agent producing very specific fragments [M-57], was retained. However, diuron could not be derivatised and the isocyanate product was used for identification and quantification. Pesticides which did not need a derivatisation step were not affected by the presence of the derivatisation agent and they could easily be analysed in mixture with derivatised pesticides. The method can be coupled to a thermal-desorption unit or to SPME extraction for a multiresidue analysis of various pesticides in atmospheric samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Elevated expression of esterase and cytochrome P450 are related with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and lead to cross resistance in Aphis glycines Matsumura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinghui; Pan, Yiou; Bi, Rui; Gao, Xiwu; Chen, Xuewei; Peng, Tianfei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Xiaoyue; Shang, Qingli

    2015-02-01

    A resistant strain of the Aphis glycines Matsumura (CRR) has developed 76.67-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared with the susceptible (CSS) strain. Synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-Tributyltrithiophosphate (DEF) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the resistant strain. Bioassay results indicated that the CRR strain had developed high levels of cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos (11.66-fold), acephate (8.20-fold), cypermethrin (53.24-fold), esfenvalerate (13.83-fold), cyfluthrin (9.64-fold), carbofuran (14.60-fold), methomyl (9.32-fold) and bifenthrin (4.81-fold), but did not have cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, diafenthiuron, abamectin. The transcriptional levels of CYP6A2-like, CYP6A14-like and cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 9-like increased significantly in the resistant strain than that in the susceptible. Similar trend were observed in the transcripts and DNA copy number of CarE and E4 esterase. Overall, these results demonstrate that increased esterase hydrolysis activity, combined with elevated cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxicatication, plays an important role in the high levels of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and can cause cross-resistance to other insecticides in the CRR strain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation and assessment of matrix effect and uncertainty of a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method for pesticides in papaya and avocado samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Susana Pano-Farias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of using the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (GC–MS was developed for the analysis of five frequently applied pesticides in papaya and avocado. The selected pesticides, ametryn, atrazine, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methyl parathion, represent the most commonly used classes (carbamates, organophosphorous, and triazines. Optimum separation achieved the analysis of all pesticides in 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ in papaya ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.35 mg/kg and from 0.06 mg/kg to 0.75 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile for avocado, LOD values varied from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.28 mg/kg and LOQ values ranged from 0.22 mg/kg to 0.40 mg/kg. Recoveries obtained for each pesticide in both matrices ranged between 60.6% and 104.3%. The expanded uncertainty of the method was < 26% for all the pesticides in both fruits. Finally, the method was applied to other fruits.

  8. Surface properties of self-assembled monolayer films of tetra-substituted cobalt, iron and manganese alkylthio phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinbulu, Isaac Adebayo; Khene, Samson [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.z [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2010-09-30

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of iron (SAM-1), cobalt (SAM-2) and manganese (SAM-3) phthalocyanine complexes, tetra-substituted with diethylaminoethanethio at the non-peripheral positions, were formed on gold electrode in dimethylformamide (DMF). Electrochemical, impedimentary and surface properties of the SAM films were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the films. Ability of the films to inhibit common faradaic processes on bare gold surface (gold oxidation, solution redox chemistry of [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+}/[Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} and underpotential deposition (UDP) of copper) was investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), using [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} redox process as a probe, offered insights into the electrical properties of the films/electrode interfaces. Surface properties of the films were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films were employed for the electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide, carbofuran. Electrocatalysis was evidenced from enhanced current signal and less positive oxidation potential of the pesticide on each film, relative to that observed on the bare gold electrode. Mechanism of electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide was studied using rotating disc electrode voltammetry.

  9. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  10. The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU, 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment, and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs.

  11. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  12. Acute toxicity of four anticholinesterase insecticides to American kestrels, eastern screech-owls and northern bobwhites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius), eastern screech-owls (Otus asio), and northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) were given single acute oral doses of four widely diverse anticholinesterase pesticides: EPN, fenthion, carbofuran, and monocrotophos. LD50s, based on birds that died within 5 d of dosage, were computed for each chemical in each species. Sex differences in the sensitivity of northern bobwhites in reproductive condition were examined. American kestrels were highly sensitive to all chemicals tested (LD50s 0.6--4.0 mg/kg). Eastern screech-owls were highly tolerant to EPN (LD50 274 mg/kg) but sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 1.5-3.9 mg/kg). Northern bobwhites were highly sensitive to monocrotophos (LD50 0.8 mg/kg) and less sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 4.6--31 mg/kg). Female bobwhites (LD50 3.1 mg/kg) were more sensitive to fenthion than males (LD50 7.0 mg/kg). Mean percent depression of brain cho[inesterase (ChE) of birds that died on the day of dosing exceeded 65% for all chemicals in all species. The response of one species to a given pesticide should not be used to predict the sensitivity of other species to the same pesticide. The need for research on several topics is discussed

  13. Direct surface analysis of pesticides on soil, leaves, grass, and stainless steel by static secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E.; Olson, J.E.; Miller, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Direct surface analyses by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed for the following pesticides adsorbed on dandelion leaves, grass, soil, and stainless steel samples: alachlor, atrazine, captan, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorosulfuron, chlorthal-dimethyl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, malathion, methomyl, methyl arsonic acid, mocap, norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, paraquat, temik, and trifluralin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate static SIMS as a tool for pesticide analysis, principally for use in screening samples for pesticides. The advantage of direct surface analysis compared with conventional pesticide analysis methods is the elimination of sample pretreatment including extraction, which streamlines the analysis substantially; total analysis time for SIMS analysis was ca. 10 min/sample. Detection of 16 of the 20 pesticides on all four substrates was achieved. Of the remaining four pesticides, only one (trifluralin) was not detected on any of the samples. The minimum detectable quantity was determined for paraquat on soil in order to evaluate the efficacy of using SIMS as a screening tool. Paraquat was detected at 3 pg/mm{sup 2} (c.a. 0.005 monolayers). The results of these studies suggest that SIMS is capable of direct surface detection of a range of pesticides, with low volatility, polar pesticides being the most easily detected. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515 tratada com nematicidas Selectivity of herbicides applied on pre-emergence of nematicide-treated sugarcane crop (RB 867515

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Barela

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação simultânea de duas ou mais classes de defensivos sobre uma cultura agrícola pode provocar toxicidade às plantas. Assim, conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas à cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515, quando aplicados em condição de pré-emergência, em áreas previamente tratadas com nematicidas no sulco de plantio. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área comercial de produção de cana-de-açúcar, no município de Piracicaba - SP, entre abril de 2003 e julho de 2004. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre nove fatores herbicidas e quatro fatores nematicidas. Os herbicidas usados no experimento foram: sulfentrazone, tebuthiuron, metribuzin, ametrina, diuron, clomazone, pendimethalin e diuron + hexazinone, além de uma testemunha capinada. Os nematicidas utilizados foram: carbofuran, terbufós, aldicarb e uma testemunha sem nematicida. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade das diferentes combinações aos 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a brotação, o rendimento (t ha-1 e os parâmetros tecnológicos qualitativos. Observou-se que a seletividade inicial dos herbicidas foi prejudicada em função da interação das diferentes classes de defensivos utilizadas. Os sintomas de fitotoxicidade foram agudos, e os casos mais evidentes se originaram da associação dos nematicidas com clomazone, pendimethalin e tebuthiuron. Contudo, os danos fitotóxicos não se refletiram em perdas significativas de rendimento ou de qualidade de colmos, fato esse que pode ter sido influenciado pela capacidade de recuperação de injúrias apresentada pela variedade RB 867515, pela ocorrência de altas infestações de nematóides ou pela elevada variabilidade experimental.Simultaneous applications of two or more classes of herbicides on a crop may promote ,totoxicity in the plants. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide selectivity in sugarcane, when applied under pre-emergence condition, in

  16. Resíduos de agrotóxicos na água de rios da Depressão Central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Residues of pesticides in the water of the Depression Central rivers in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchesan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A atividade orizícola é conduzida com uso intensivo de agrotóxicos, os quais, dependendo do manejo e das precipitações pluviais, podem chegar até os rios. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar resíduos dos herbicidas clomazona, quincloraque, propanil, bentazona, 2,4-D e imazethapyr e dos inseticidas carbofurano e fipronil nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim, situados na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, nas safras de 2003/04 a 2007/08, com coletas realizadas de novembro a fevereiro (cultivo do arroz. As análises dos herbicidas e do carbofurano foram realizadas por HPLC-DAD, e a análise do fipronil foi realizada por GC-ECD. Na safra 2003/04, em ambos os rios, os herbicidas clomazona, 2,4-D e propanil foram os mais frequentes nas amostras de água. Na safra 2004/05, o quincloraque foi detectado em maior número de amostras, já nas safras 2005/06 e 2006/07 fipronil foi o agrotóxico mais frequente nas amostras nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim. Na safra de 2007/08, houve menor presença de resíduos de agrotóxicos nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim. Há presença de agrotóxicos utilizados na lavoura de arroz nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim durante o período de cultivo de arroz irrigado, destacando-se, entre os analisados, os herbicidas clomazona e quincloraque e o inseticida fipronil.The rice-growing activity is conducted out with intensive use of agrochemicals, which, depending on the management and rainfall can reach rivers. The study aimed to determine the residues of herbicides clomazone, quinclorac, propanil, bentazone, 2,4-D and imazethapyr and insecticides carbofuran and fipronil in the Vacacaí and Vacacaí-Mirim rivers, located in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul, in the crop of 2003/04 untill 2007/08. Samples were collected from November to February (rice growing season. Analysis of herbicides and carbofuran were performed by HPLC-DAD and fipronil by GC-ECD. During 2003/04, in both rivers, the herbicide

  17. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FENOTÍPICA DE BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS ENDOFÍTICAS ISOLADAS DE CANA DE AÇÚCAR PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIAS ISOLATED OF SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Cavalcante de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inoculantes contendo microrganismos diazotróficos na cana-de-açúcar pode contribuir para a promoção do crescimento destas plantas e promover ganhos significativos na produtividade. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho caracterizar bactérias diazotróficas isoladas de colmos cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados os meios de cultivo semi-sólidos NFb e JNFb sem adição de nitrogênio. Foram isoladas cinco estirpes nativas de bactérias diazotróficas as quais foram avaliadas microscopicamente pela coloração de Gram e em relação à resistência intrínseca aos antibióticos; fungicida furadan (i.a. carbofuran e inseticida regente (i.a. fipronil, e à capacidade de fixar o nitrogênio em condições de casa-de-vegetação e campo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que todos os isolados apresentaram características de bacilos Gram-negativos, e ampla resistência aos antibióticos. A estirpe nativa UCCBc5 apresentou resistência ao fungicida furadan e ao inseticida regente. As bactérias isoladas UCCBc1 e UCCBc5 apresentam capacidade e eficiência de fixar o nitrogênio atmosférico em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Verificou-se que a estirpe UCCBc5, resistente ao furadan e ao regente apresentou capacidade fixadora do nitrogênio atmosférico, em condições de campo. Na avaliação de doses de inoculante observou-se que existe relação dose de inoculante/ eficiência de fixação de nitrogênio. Estes resultados permitiram afirmar que as bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas podem ser utilizadas, em alguns casos, como substituto da adubação nitrogenada, na cultura de cana-de- açúcar.The use of inoculants containing diazotrophic microorganism in sugarcane can contribute to promoting the growth of these plants and tp promote significant gains in productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize diazotrophic bacteria isolated from stalks of sugarcane. We used the means of a semi-solid NFB and JNFb

  18. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.K.; Azar, I.; Naser, CH.; Akikki, B; Ibrahim, L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes.The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%). All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%), followed by citrus (97.6%), apple (88.7%), pear and quince (85.7%), and cherry (81.4%). The lowest infection (66.6%) was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including:root-knot nematodes (Meloidogynespp.), Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide) was the most effective (88.48%) in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52%) followed by Tageta patula (72.0%), Cucurbita maxima (71.84%) and Inula viscosa (63.96%). Origanum syriacum (55.04%)d Thymus (53.72%) were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials. (author)

  19. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.

  20. Chromogenic platform based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase for visible unidirectional assay of organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Zheng [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Chi Chensen [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Bor Luh Food Safety Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Bai Bing; Liu Gang; Rao Qinxiong [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Peng Shaojie [Institute of Shanghai Food and Drug Supervision, 615 Liuzhou Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Liu Hong [Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai 200336 (China); Zhao Zhihui [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Zhang Dabing [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Bor Luh Food Safety Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu Aibo, E-mail: wuaibo@saas.sh.cn [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A visible chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of OP and CM insecticide residues was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement and quantitative analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitivity, capabilities of resisting interferences and storage stability were desirable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix effects were acceptable and detection performance was satisfactory in real application. - Abstract: In this study we propose a chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) insecticide residues, based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase (R-DmAChE) as enzyme and indoxyl acetate as substrate. The visible chromogenic strip had the advantages identical to those of commonly used lateral flow assays (LFAs) with utmost simplicity in sample loading and result observation. After optimization, depending on the color intensity (CI) values, the well-established assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement via naked eyes and quantitative analysis by colorimetric reader with the desirable IC{sub 50} values against the tested six insecticides (0.06 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of carbofuran, 0.28 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of methomyl, 0.03 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of dichlorvos, 31.6 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of methamidophos, 2.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of monocrotophos, 6.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of omethoate). Acceptable matrix effects and satisfactory detection performance were confirmed by in-parallel LC-MS/MS analysis in different vegetable varieties at various spiked levels of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 1} {mu}g g{sup -1}. Overall, the testified suitability and applicability of this novel platform meet the requirements for practical use in food safety management and environmental monitoring, especially in the developing world.

  1. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  2. Hair analysis for the biomonitoring of pesticide exposure: comparison with blood and urine in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, Brice M R; Hardy, Emilie M; Grova, Nathalie; Chata, Caroline; Faÿs, François; Briand, Olivier; Schroeder, Henri; Duca, Radu-Corneliu

    2017-08-01

    Urine and plasma have been used to date for the biomonitoring of exposure to pollutants and are still the preferred fluids for this purpose; however, these fluids mainly provide information on the short term and may present a high level of variability regarding pesticide concentrations, especially for nonpersistent compounds. Hair analysis may provide information about chronic exposure that is averaged over several months; therefore, this method has been proposed as an alternative to solely relying on these fluids. Although the possibility of detecting pesticides in hair has been demonstrated over the past few years, the unknown linkage between exposure and pesticides concentration in hair has limited the recognition of this matrix as a relevant tool for assessing human exposure. Based on a rat model in which there was controlled exposure to a mixture of pesticides composed of lindane, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, pentachlorophenol, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, propiconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, diflufenican, trifluralin, carbofuran, and propoxur, the current work demonstrates the association between exposure intensity and resulting pesticide concentration in hair. We also compared the results obtained from a hair analysis to urine and plasma collected from the same rats. Hair, blood, and urine were collected from rats submitted to 90-day exposure by gavage to the aforementioned mixture of common pesticides at different levels. We observed a linear relationship between exposure intensity and the concentration of pesticides in the rats' hair (R Pearson 0.453-0.978, p pesticide concentrations in the matrix. Therefore, this study strongly supports hair analysis as a reliable tool to be used during epidemiological studies to investigate exposure-associated adverse health effects.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Review and analysis of available pesticide information, 1968-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, R.L.; Brown, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin study unit was among the first 20 study units in which work began under full-scale program implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. A retrospective assessment was undertaken to review and analyze existing pesticide data and related environmental factors. Population and land-use data indicate human modifications to the landscape and hydrologic system of the study area during the period 1968–91. A variety of crops treated with pesticides were identified, with wheat and cotton accounting for the largest number of acres treated annually (541,250 and 519,870 acres, respectively). Agricultural-use estimates for the later period covered by this report (1988–90) indicate that 105 different pesticides were used and that 24 pesticides accounted for 75 percent of average agricultural use in the study area. Sorghum was treated by the largest number of the 24 mostused pesticides, and cotton was treated by the second largest number of those pesticides. Dimethoate and methyl parathion were the most heavily used of the organophosphate class pesticides. The herbicide 2,4–D was the most heavily used chlorophenoxy pesticide. Carbamate pesticides are used extensively in the study area, with carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, and thiodicarb accounting for the majority of the use of this class of pesticide. Miscellaneous pesticides included alachlor, arsenic acid, picloram, and glyphosate, among others. The data indicate that herbicide use generally is proportionally higher in the study area than in the Nation, and that insecticide use in the study area generally is proportionally lower than in the Nation.

  4. Agricultural effluent treatment in biobed systems using novel substrates from southeastern Mexico: the relationship with physicochemical parameters of biomixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Echeverría, Virgilio René; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Quintal-Franco, Carlos; Giácoman-Vallejos, German; Ponce-Caballero, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Misuse of pesticides in farming activities leads to contamination of drinking water sources and is responsible for animal and human health problems. The biobeds are practicable option to minimize contamination by pesticides during preparation, use and washing of equipment for pesticide treatments. This research aimed at testing substrate mixtures to optimize biobed efficiency to remove pesticides under the climate of the Yucatan (México). Agricultural soil and 11 mixtures adding vegetable compost, sisal pulp, corn stover and seaweed were tested under controlled conditions. Each biomixture was exposed to a mixture of five pesticides (2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid "2,4-D" [1.08 mg cm -3 ], atrazine [2.50 mg cm -3 ], carbofuran [0.23 mg cm -3 ], diazinon [0.34 mg cm -3 ], and glyphosate [0.36 mg cm -3 ]) in a period of 41 days. Monitoring of the dissipation of pesticide residues showed that pesticides were quickly dissipated in soil at microcosm level experiment, while at two critical times of 20 and 41 days, all mixtures of substrates (biomixtures) were efficient in dissipation of high concentrations of pesticide in a short time (>99%). Time, biomixture and type of pesticide were shown to be the main parameters influencing pesticide dissipation (P < 0.05). Several other physicochemical parameters of the biomixtures, such as organic matter (OM), lignin, water holding capacity (WHC), and pH, were also significant on pesticide dissipation (P < 0.05), being pH the most significant.

  5. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  6. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  7. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  8. Toxicological and biochemical characterizations of AChE in phosalone-susceptible and resistant populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ali; Talebi-Jahromi, Khalil; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The toxicological and biochemical characteristics of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in nine populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were investigated in Kerman Province, Iran. Nine A. pistaciae populations were collected from pistachio orchards, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), located in Rafsanjan, Anar, Bam, Kerman, Shahrbabak, Herat, Sirjan, Pariz, and Paghaleh regions of Kerman province. The previous bioassay results showed these populations were susceptible or resistant to phosalone, and the Rafsanjan population was most resistant, with a resistance ratio of 11.3. The specific activity of AChE in the Rafsanjan population was significantly higher than in the susceptible population (Bam). The affinity ( KM ) and hydrolyzing efficiency ( Vmax ) of AChE on acetylthiocholine iodide, butyrylthiocholine iodide, and propionylthiocholine odide as artificial substrates were clearly lower in the Bam population than that in the Rafsanjan population. These results indicated that the AChE of the Rafsanjan population had lower affinity to these substrates than that of the susceptible population. The higher Vmax value in the Rafsanjan population compared to the susceptible population suggests a possible over expression of AChE in the Rafsanjan population. The in vitro inhibitory effect of several organophosphates and carbamates on AChE of the Rafsanjan and Bam populations was determined. Based on I50, the results showed that the ratios of AChE insensitivity of the resistant to susceptible populations were 23 and 21.7-fold to monocrotophos and phosphamidon, respectively. Whereas, the insensitivity ratios for Rafsanjan population were 0.86, 0.8, 0.78, 0.46, and 0.43 for carbaryl, eserine, propoxur, m-tolyl methyl carbamate, and carbofuran, respectively, suggesting negatively correlated sensitivity to organophosphate-insensitive AChE. Therefore, AChE from the Rafsanjan population showed

  9. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae, Hemiptera (Anthocoridae, Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae, and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae. These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet, carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl, pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt® WG, DuPont Corp. ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury®, FMC Corporation received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan® 70W, Gowan Co. and methidathion (Supracide® 25W, Gowan Co. ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol® 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co. and carbaryl (Sevin® XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co. ranked very low for IPM

  10. Testing of leachability and persistence of sixteen pesticides in three agricultural soils of a semiarid Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, I.; Vela, N.; Fenoll, J.; Navarro, G.; Pérez-Lucas, G.; Navarro, S.

    2015-07-01

    Leaching, the movement of water and chemicals into deeper soil layers and groundwater is a subject of worldwide interest because a high percentage of drinking water is extracted from groundwater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential leaching and persistence of sixteen pesticides (one fungicide, three nematicides/insecticides, and twelve herbicides) for three Mediterranean agricultural soils with similar texture (clay loam) but different organic matter content (1.2-3.1%). Adsorption was studied in batch experiments and leaching was tested using disturbed soil columns (40 cm length × 4 cm i.d.). Degradation studies were carried out during 120 days under laboratory conditions. Mobility experiments showed that pesticides can be grouped according to their potential leaching. Thus, pesticides showing medium leachability were included in group 1 (referred as G1) while those with high leachability were termed as G2. The differences observed in the leachability can be attributed to the different organic carbon (OC) content in the soils (0.7-1.8%). Values of log KOC were higher in the order: soil C > soil B > soil A, which agrees with the OC content in each soil. The calculated half-lives ranged from 4.2 days for carbofuran in soil A to 330 days for prometon in soil C. As a general rule, when higher OC content in the soil the greater persistence of the pesticide was observed as a consequence of the increased adsorption. The first order kinetics model satisfactorily explains the disappearance of the studied pesticides in the soil. (Author)

  11. ANÁLISE DE RISCO DE PRAGUICIDAS EM LEITE CRU E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO USO EM PROPRIEDADES LEITEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização do uso de praguicidas em propriedades leiteiras no agreste de Pernambuco e estudar a contaminação do leite cru por praguicidas organofosforados (OF e carbamatos (CB, estimando a ingestão diária provável desses resíduos pelo leite. Em 28 propriedades e em dois tanques resfriadores comunitários do agreste pernambucano foram coletadas 30 amostras de leite. A quantificação de praguicidas nas amostras foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa. Doze amostras (40% apresentaram resíduos, sendo seis (20% positivas para OF, cinco (16,7% para CB e uma (3,32% para ambos praguicidas. As médias dos praguicidas detectados no leite em ng/ml foram: 0,04 para coumafós, 0,01 para dimetoato, 0,06 para fention, 0,02 para malation, 0,02 para aldicarb, 0,02 para carbaril e 0,01 para carbofuran. Quando a Ingestão Diária Provável Média dos princípios ativos detectados no leite foi comparada à respectiva Ingestão Diária Aceitável, não houve risco para nenhuma faixa etária, considerando o consumo per capta Brasileiro, pernambucano e o consumo recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde de leite.

  12. Nitrogen fixation by free-living organisms in rice soils. Studies with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.R.; Charyulu, P.B.B.N.; Nayak, D.N.; Ramakrishna, C.

    1979-01-01

    Heterotrophic nitrogen fixation as influenced by water regime, organic matter, combined nitrogen and pesticides was investigated in several Indian rice soils by means of the 15 N 2 tracer technique. Soil submergence accelerated nitrogen fixation. Addition of cellulose to both non-flooded and flooded soils enhanced nitrogen fixation. Under submerged conditions, addition of sucrose, glucose and malate in that order stimulated nitrogen fixation in alluvial soil, while only sucrose enhanced nitrogen fixation in laterite soil. Nitrogen fixation in flooded alluvial and laterite soils decreased with increasing concentration of combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation was appreciable in acid sulphate and saline soils under both flooded and non-flooded conditions, despite high salinity and acidity. Application of certain pesticides at rates equivalent to recommended field level greatly influenced nitrogen fixation in flooded rice soils. Additions of benomyl (carbamate fungicide) and carbofuran (methyl carbamate insecticide) to alluvial and laterite soils resulted in significant stimulation of nitrogen fixation. Gamma-BHC stimulated nitrogen fixation only in alluvial soil, with considerable inhibition in a laterite soil. Nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum lipoferum was investigated by 15 N 2 . Large variations in 15 N 2 incorporation by A. lipoferum isolated from the roots of several rice cultivars was observed. Specific lines of rice harbouring A. lipoferum with high nitrogenase activity might be selected. Nitrogen fixed by heterotrophic organisms in a complex system such as soil could not be evaluated precisely. Indigenous nitrogen fixation in a flooded soil would be in the range of 5-10 kg N/ha, increasable 3 to 4-fold by appropriate fertilizers and cultural practices

  13. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  14. Making sense of soil ecotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Linder, Greg L.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides and environmental contaminants to soil organisms has been measured in studies on earthworms,1 soil arthropods,3-6 soil microorganisms,7 and other soil organisms.8 Toxicity data on earthworms produced in the pesticide registration procedure required by the OECD (Organization for economic cooperation and Development) will provide data on many additional chemicals.9 Deciding how to use the data generated is troublesome. In 1965, Edwards10 suggested that the effects of soil insecticides on soils may remain long after the pesticides have disappeared, and that it was clear that pesticides could drastically change the populations of soil organisms; Edwards noted, however, that the effects did not seem to be serious when compared with the benefits to crop production of using pesticides. Since 1965, many studies have been conducted on changes in soil ecosystems caused by environmental contaminants, but we still know little about what the toxicity to particular groups of soil organisms means to the functioning of the soil ecosystem. the problem was illustrated in discussions at the International Conference on Earthworm Ecotoxicology in Sheffield, England, in 1991. there was general agreement that earthworms ahould be taken into account when evaluating pesticides. However, it was unclear what level of reduction in earthworm populations would reduce soil quality or crop yeild. Because populations of earthworms naturally fluctuate greatly even in the absence of pesticides, and because some soils are fertile without any earthworms, it is difficult to equate their population decreases with damage to the soil ecosystem. Broadbent and Tomlin found that the insecticide carbofuran caused fluctuations in the populations of some microarthropods in a cornfield but, in comparing the effects to those of cultivation or adding compost, they concluded that it was unlikely that litter decomposition was significantly affected.3

  15. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log K ow ) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log K ow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EFECTO INSECTICIDA DEL EXTRACTO DE Bocconia frutescens L. SOBRE LARVAS DE CHISAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSUELO MONTES R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó en el municipio de Puracé Cauca, para evaluar el efecto insecticida del extracto de Bocconia frutescens sobre larvas de chisa Ancognatha vulgaris. Se empleo un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones. Los tratamiento T1, T2 y T3 corresponden a concentraciones de 14%, 17% y 20 % del extracto de zarcillejo, T4 tratamiento químico (Carbofuran y T5 Testigo. Las variables evaluadas fueron: presencia de larvas de chisas sanas y larvas afectadas, daño en plantas, evaluado como intensidad y porcentaje de infestación. Se presentaron diferencias significativas para las variables: intensidad e infestación, larvas de chisas sanas y afectadas-muertas, en diferentes días de evaluación. El mejor tratamiento fue el T2, seguido por T3 y T1. Para el porcentaje de daño causado a la planta los mejores tratamientos fueron T2 y T5 con 57% para intensidad y para infestación 55% y 45% en T2 y T3. El análisis fitoquímico mostró la presencia de alcaloides, terpenos, antronas y cumarinas en el extracto. El efecto causado por el extracto sobre las larvas fue deshidratación y flacidez hasta provocar la muerte, lo cual se atribuyea la acción de alguno de sus metabòlitos o la combinación de varios.

  18. Optimization and validation of a methodology for the qualitative determination of polar pesticides in a carbonated soft drink and some cookies for EFS-CG/DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartin Elizondo, Jorge Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Chemical analysis of polar pesticides has been qualitatively interest in forensic scientific research by toxicological qualities to the attainment of crimes against human life, pets and plants; associating people and objects in the scene and the possible ways in which the events occurred. The Unidad de Toxicos y Varios of the Seccion de Quimica Analitica of the Departamento de Ciencias Forenses has analyzed polar pesticides and other families to concentration levels, is compared to the environmental analysis and quality control of food. The compounds are used in Costa Rica in recent years as acute chemical weapon to commit crimes against human and animal life. The toxic and lethal amounts of polar pesticides in mammals orally have been milligram level. The Seccion de Quimica Analitica has developed a qualitative methodology to analyze polar pesticides as minor components. The need for reliable analytical quality results has made it necessary to approach a review of the methodology of routine. The review has been solved by selecting two matrices characteristics in such cases: a solid food commercially known as maria biscuits and a carbonated cola. Analytes have been selected based on: greater toxicity, broad spectrum of analytes polarity, the octanol-water partition constant, the water solubility among others. The extraction of analytes in matrices has been selected by solid-phase extraction. The instrumental technique used is gas chromatography with mass selective detector. A method of acquisition optimized in its injection is used. The analysis of instrumental signals were obtained in scanning mode all ions formed, known as Scan and by monitoring mode of ions selected ions (MIS), analysis of the data is acquired in Scan mode because concentration levels of work. The methodology for the qualitative determination of pesticide meets the criteria established for the chemical identification of analytes carbofuran, phorate, terbufos, methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos and

  19. Chromogenic platform based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase for visible unidirectional assay of organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zheng; Chi Chensen; Bai Bing; Liu Gang; Rao Qinxiong; Peng Shaojie; Liu Hong; Zhao Zhihui; Zhang Dabing; Wu Aibo

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► A visible chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of OP and CM insecticide residues was developed. ► The assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement and quantitative analysis. ► The sensitivity, capabilities of resisting interferences and storage stability were desirable. ► Matrix effects were acceptable and detection performance was satisfactory in real application. - Abstract: In this study we propose a chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) insecticide residues, based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase (R-DmAChE) as enzyme and indoxyl acetate as substrate. The visible chromogenic strip had the advantages identical to those of commonly used lateral flow assays (LFAs) with utmost simplicity in sample loading and result observation. After optimization, depending on the color intensity (CI) values, the well-established assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement via naked eyes and quantitative analysis by colorimetric reader with the desirable IC 50 values against the tested six insecticides (0.06 μg mL −1 of carbofuran, 0.28 μg mL −1 of methomyl, 0.03 μg mL −1 of dichlorvos, 31.6 μg mL −1 of methamidophos, 2.0 μg mL −1 of monocrotophos, 6.3 μg mL −1 of omethoate). Acceptable matrix effects and satisfactory detection performance were confirmed by in-parallel LC–MS/MS analysis in different vegetable varieties at various spiked levels of 10 −3 to 10 1 μg g −1 . Overall, the testified suitability and applicability of this novel platform meet the requirements for practical use in food safety management and environmental monitoring, especially in the developing world.

  20. A review on environmental monitoring of water organic pollutants identified by EU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, João C G; Ribeiro, Ana R; Barbosa, Marta O; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2018-02-15

    The contamination of fresh water is a global concern. The huge impact of natural and anthropogenic organic substances that are constantly released into the environment, demands a better knowledge of the chemical status of Earth's surface water. Water quality monitoring studies have been performed targeting different substances and/or classes of substances, in different regions of the world, using different types of sampling strategies and campaigns. This review article aims to gather the available dispersed information regarding the occurrence of priority substances (PSs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that must be monitored in Europe in surface water, according to the European Union Directive 2013/39/EU and the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, respectively. Other specific organic pollutants not considered in these EU documents as substances of high concern, but with reported elevated frequency of detection at high concentrations, are also discussed. The search comprised worldwide publications from 2012, considering at least one of the following criteria: 4 sampling campaigns per year, wet and dry seasons, temporal and/or spatial monitoring of surface (river, estuarine, lake and/or coastal waters) and ground waters. The highest concentrations were found for: (i) the PSs atrazine, alachlor, trifluralin, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; (ii) the CECs azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol, imidacloprid and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate; and (iii) other unregulated organic compounds (caffeine, naproxen, metolachlor, estriol, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ketoprofen, atenolol, Bisphenol A, metoprolol, carbofuran, malathion, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and ofloxacin). Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with

  1. Performance of the fixed-bed of granular activated carbon for the removal of pesticides from water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alcione Aparecida de Almeida; Ruiz, Giselle Louise de Oliveira; Nonato, Thyara Campos Martins; Müller, Laura Cecilia; Sens, Maurício Luiz

    2018-02-26

    The application of a fixed bed adsorption column of granular activated carbon (FBAC-GAC), in the removal of carbaryl, methomyl and carbofuran at a concentration of 25 μg L -1 for each carbamate, from the public water supply was investigated. For the determination of the presence of pesticides in the water supply, the analytical technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization was used. Under conditions of constant diffusivity, the FBAC-GAC was saturated after 196 h of operation on a pilot scale. The exhaust rate of the granular activated carbon (GAC) in the FBAC-GAC until the point of saturation was 0.02 kg GAC m -3 of treated water. By comparing a rapid small-scale column test and FBAC-GAC, it was confirmed that the predominant intraparticle diffusivity in the adsorption column was constant diffusivity. Based on the results obtained on a pilot scale, it was possible to estimate the values to be applied in the FBAC-GAC (full scale) to remove the pesticides, which are particle size with an average diameter of 1.5 mm GAC; relationship between the internal diameter of the column and the average diameter of GAC ≥50 in order to avoid preferential flow near the adsorption column wall; surface application rate 240 m 3  m -2  d -1 and an empty bed contact time of 3 min. BV: bed volume; CD: constant diffusivity; EBCT: empty bed contact time; FBAC-GAC: fixed bed adsorption column of granular activated carbon; GAC: granular activated carbon; MPV: maximum permitted values; NOM: natural organic matter; PD: proportional diffusivity; pH PCZ : pH of the zero charge point; SAR: surface application rate; RSSCT: rapid small-scale column test; WTCS: water treated conventional system.

  2. Environmental hazard of pesticides applied in the border region between Platinum and Amazon Basins at the turn to century XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Rieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the environmental risk of pesticide prescribed in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, at the turn of the 21st century. Methods: The study used data of agronomic prescriptions for pesticides issued in the biennium of 1999-2000 in 24 cities located in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results: The most widely used pesticides in the study region are class II (very dangerous and III (dangerous in number of prescriptions (N = 2,828, 86.8% andquantity prescribed (N = 344,765, 90.4%. Among class III pesticides, a strong inversion was observed in the number of prescriptions (N = 1,274; 39.1% and quantity prescribed (N = 237,319; 62.2%, indicating a lower number of prescriptions, but with higher amountprescribed. The proportion of prescriptions for products amid the various classes of Potential of Environmental Dangers (PPA ranking model, apllied in Brazil changed over the two years (c2=20,814; DF=3; p < 0,01. The 10 most prescribed products (11 activecompounds were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, sulfluramid, chlorimuron ethyl, fipronil, diuron, paraquat, methamidophos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, and seven of them were ranked as PPA class I or II. Conclusions: The ratio between the number of pesticide prescriptions and the quantities prescribed among the various classes of PPA showed alteration over crop years. The most reported products in this border region were classified as the most dangerous ones, with diverse mechanisms of action and potential risksto living organisms. This suggests the need to define specific policies and carefully designed strategies to prevent environmental disaster in this region.

  3. Impacts of climate-induced changes on the distribution of pesticides residues in water and sediment of Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Peter O; Owuor, P Okinda; Lalah, Joseph O; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-03-01

    This study reports evidence of increased chlorpyrifos contamination in sediment and water in Lake Naivasha following its intensive application in the horticultural farms in the catchment area. Analytical results show that levels of chlorpyrifos residues were influenced by climate-induced rainfall pattern with higher levels reported during period of heavy precipitation with significant decrease during low rainfall. On average, the levels ranged between 14.8 and 32.8 ng g(-1) in sediment during rainy season compared to a range of 8.5-16.6 ng g(-1) in the dry season. Additionally, the mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in water ranged between 8.61 and 22.4 μg L(-1) during rainy season and below detection limit (bdl) -13.6 μg L(-1) in dry season as quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Meanwhile, independent t test analysis indicated that there was significant difference in concentration at p ≤ 0.05 between the seasons with respect to sediment and water samples. This demonstrated that climate-induced variations had considerable influence on contamination. While diazinon and carbofuran were equally applied intensively, their levels were below the detection limit in the all the samples analyzed. ELISA results were validated by the capillary-HPLC photodiode-array detector instrument analysis, and statistical comparison showed no significant difference between them. It was evident that chlorpyrifos residues determination in water and sediment by ELISA can be a useful strategy in environmental management and monitoring program, and a complimentary analytical tool to high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of chlorpyrifos detected in sediment and water were found to exceed recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life and preservation of water quality and may be hazardous if not regularly monitored.

  4. Little field evidence of direct acute and short-term effects of current pesticides on the grey partridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Florian; Berny, Philippe; Decors, Anouk; Bro, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Direct lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on farmland birds' populations are recurring questions and largely debated. In this context, we conducted an innovative study combining radiotelemetry, farmer surveys, residue analyses on carcasses and modelling to assess the unintentional effects of pesticides on terrestrial birds. We chose the grey partridge Perdix perdix as a case study because this typical bird of European cereal ecosystems is highly exposed to pesticides. In this paper we focused on acute and short-term impacts of pesticides on adult mortality during spring and summer in a one-substance approach (multiple exposure were not studied here) but for a large variety of active substances (a.s.) actually used in cultivated farmland of Northern France. The fate and the location of 529 partridges were monitored twice a day from early March to late August 2010 and 2011 on 12 sites (14,500 ha). Their daily potential exposure to 183 a.s. was determined by overlapping birds' habitat use and daily pesticide application data. Based on this procedure, we calculated mortality rates within 10 days following a potential exposure for 157 different a.s.. 5 a.s. were associated with a "10-day mortality rate" higher than 10% but a single one (thiacloprid) is reported to be highly toxic to birds. We recorded 261 mortalities among which 94 carcasses were in suitable condition for residue analyses. We detected at least one a.s in 39.4% of carcasses. However, only 2 mortality cases were attributed to poisoning (carbofuran). Furthermore, modelling results showed that these lethal pesticide-related poisonings decreased the population growth rate by less than 1%. In conclusion, we did not point out important direct acute and short-term effects of pesticides currently used by farmers during the breeding season on the grey partridge. This is discussed with regards to the complexity of potential effects in operational conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Analysis of airborne pesticides from different chemical classes adsorbed on Radiello® Tenax® passive tubes by thermal-desorption-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Fabritius, Marie; Nief, Marie; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Briand, Olivier; Tuduri, Ludovic; Millet, Maurice

    2015-02-01

    An analytical methodology using automatic thermal desorption (ATD) and GC/MS was developed for the determination of 28 pesticides of different chemical classes (dichlobenil, carbofuran, trifluralin, clopyralid, carbaryl, flazasulfuron, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, cyprodinil, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, oxadiazon, myclobutanil, buprofezin, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl, ioxynil, diflufenican, tebuconazole, bifenthrin, isoxaben, alphacypermethrin, fenoxaprop and tau-fluvalinate) commonly used in nonagricultural areas in atmospheric samples. This methodology was developed to evaluate the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by nonagricultural pesticides. Pesticides were sampled passive sampling tubes containing Tenax® adsorbent. Since most of these pesticides are polar (clopyralid, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl and ioxynil), a derivatisation step is required. For this purpose, a silylation step using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MtBSTFA) was added before thermal desorption. This agent was chosen since it delivers very specific ions on electronic impact (m/z = M-57). This method was established with special consideration for optimal thermal desorption conditions (desorption temperature, desorb flow and duration; trap heating duration and flow; outlet split), linear ranges, limits of quantification and detection which varied from 0.005 to 10 ng and from 0.001 to 2.5 ng, respectively, for an uncertainty varied from 8 to 30 %. The method was applied in situ to the analysis of passive tubes exposed during herbicide application to an industrial site in east of France.

  6. Evaluation of buffer zone effectiveness in mitigating the risks associated with agricultural runoff in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A M; Julien, G; Ernst, W R; Cook, A; Doe, K G; Jackman, P M

    2011-02-01

    To minimize the risk posed by runoff from row crops, Prince Edward Island introduced buffer legislation in 2000. The legislation mandates 10-m and 20-m buffers, respectively, for moderate sloped (i.e. 5%) agricultural fields that border streams. Since 2001, Environment Canada has been evaluating the effectiveness of various buffer widths on operational farms in reducing toxicity and contaminant concentrations in runoff. Sample collectors, placed in 44 fields at the field edge (0m), 10m and at distances out to 30m, collected overland flow following rainfall-induced runoff events. Samples were collected within 24 hours of an event and analysed for seven pesticides (endosulfan, chlorothalonil, carbofuran, linuron, metribuzin, metalaxyl, mancozeb), water quality parameters and Daphnia magna toxicity. The 10-m buffer required for moderate sloped fields was effective at reducing contaminant concentrations but not always to less than lethal concentrations to Daphnia magna. Limited data beyond 10m for fields of both slope types precluded making recommendations on a suitable buffer width for shallow sloped fields and evaluating the effectiveness of 20-m buffers for steep sloped fields. When paired data were combined and statistically tested for all fields, the studied pesticides underwent a 52-98% and 68-100% reduction in aqueous and particulate concentrations within 10m and 30m, respectively. In addition, by 10m, soluble phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and total suspended solids were reduced by 34%, 38% and 64%, respectively. Results suggest buffer zones on operational farms are capable of achieving contaminant reductions comparable to those reported for controlled experiments. Inconsistent siting of sample collectors beyond 10m limited the evaluation of the effects of field slope and buffer width on buffer effectiveness on working farms. Future studies on buffer efficiency on operational farms should focus on building the data set beyond 10m and evaluating load reductions

  7. Degradation of pesticides with RSDL® (reactive skin decontamination lotion kit) lotion: LC-MS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentabil, Messele; Gebremedhin, Mulu; Purdon, J Garfield; Cochrane, Laura; Goldman, Virginia Streusand

    2018-09-01

    This study examined the degradation of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides using RSDL ® (Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit) lotion. Degradation occurs from a nucleophilic substitution (SN) reaction between an ingredient in the RSDL lotion, potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate (KBDO), with susceptible sites in the pesticides. Evaluation at several molar ratios of KBDO:test articles using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques was performed. The OP test articles, parathion, paraoxon, parathion-methyl, paraoxon-methyl and chlorpyrifos were effectively degraded at molar ratios of four and above in less than 6min contact time. Malathion and malaoxon were similarly converted to inactive by-products at molar ratios as low as two in less than 4min. A minimum molar ratio of nine was found to be effective against the carbamate pesticide carbofuran. In the case of aldicarb, complete destruction was achieved at a molar ratio of fifteen and a reaction time of one hour. It is important to note that these studies are based on a direct liquid phase RSDL lotion reaction with the toxic chemicals without the added physical removal decontamination efficacy component provided by the sponge component of the RSDL kit. The RSDL kit is intended to be used to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents (CWA) and T-2 toxin from the skin. In actual use, the majority of the CWA decontamination occurs through the combined action of the sponge in both removing the chemical from the skin, and in rapidly mixing the chemicals at a high molar ratio of KBDO:CWA within the pores of the sponge to enhance rapid neutralization of the chemical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential expression of glutathione s-transferase enzyme in different life stages of various insecticide-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi: a malaria vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanil, D; Shetty, V; Shetty, N J

    2014-06-01

    Interest in insect glutathione s-transferases (GSTs) has primarily focused on their role in insecticide resistance. These play an important role in biotransformation and detoxification of many different xenobiotic and endogenous substances including insecticides. The GST activity among 10 laboratory selected insecticide resistant and susceptible/control strains of Anopheles stephensi was compared using the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The difference in the GST activities of different life stages of diverse insecticide resistant strains was compared and presented. About 100 larvae, pupae, adult males, adult females and eggs (100 μg in total weight) were collected and used for the experiment. The extracts were prepared from each of the insecticide-resistant strains and control. Protein contents of the enzyme homogenate and GST activities were determined. Deltamethrin and cyfluthrin-resistant strains of An. stephensi showed significantly higher GST activity. Larvae and pupae of DDT-resistant strain showed peak GST activity followed by the propoxur-resistant strain. On contrary, the GST activity was found in reduced quantity in alphamethrin, bifenthrin, carbofuran and chloropyrifos resistant strains. Adults of either sexes showed higher GST activity in mosquito strain resistant to organophosphate group of insecticides namely, temephos and chloropyrifos. The GST activity was closely associated with almost all of the insecticides used in the study, strengthening the fact that one of the mechanisms associated with resistance includes an increase of GST activity. This comparative data on GST activity in An. stephensi can be useful database to identify possible underlying mechanisms governing insecticide-resistance by GSTs.

  9. Tingkat Keamanan Konsumsi Residu Karbamat dalam Buah dan Sayur Menurut Analisis Pascakolom Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wispriyono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Karbamat merupakan salah satu jenis pestisida yang banyak digunakan untuk membasmi hama buah dan sayur. Untuk menentukan bahwa residu karbamat dalam sayuran masih aman dikonsumsi manusia, telah dilakukan analisis beberapa residu karbamat seperti metomil, karbaril, karbofuran, dan propoksur. Sampel-sampel tomat, apel, selada air, kubis, dan sawi hijau dikumpulkan dari tiga supermarket dan satu pasar tradisional di Depok, Jawa Barat. Analisis dilakukan serempak untuk ke empat residu karbamat menggunakan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi denganpereaksi o-ftalaldehida dan 2-merkaptoetanol dalam reaktor pascakolom dengan detektor fluoresensi. Dari sampel-sampel buah dan sayur yang dianalisis, hanya sawi hijau asal pasar tradisional yang positif mengandung propoksur dengan kadar 1,2 mg/25 gram berat basah (0,048 mg/g berat basah. Dengan Acceptable Daily Intake(ADI propoksur 0,005 mg/kg berat badan/hari, konsumsi sawi hijau harian seberat 20 g/hari masih cukup aman dari gangguan kesehatan akibat pajanan kronik propoksur dengan margin of safety 298,7 (> 100 sebagai batas aman. Carbamat is a group of pesticides which is commonly used to control fruits and vegetables pests. To determine that carbamat residues in fruits and vegetables are safe for human consumption, carbamate residues such as methomyl, carbaryl, carbofuran, and propoxur in vegetables and fruits have been analyzed. Samples of tomato, apple, water lettuces, cabbage, and mustard greens were collected from three supermarkets and one traditional market in Depok, West Java. The analysis was carried out simultaneously for all four carbamate residues by high performance liquid chromatography using o-phtaladehyde and 2 mercaptoethanol reagents in post-column reactor with a fluorescence detector. Of fruits and vegetable samples analyzed, only mustard greens from traditional market positively containe propoxur at 1.2 mg/ 25 gram wet weight (0,048 mg/gram wet weight. With Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI

  10. Intoxicação em cães e gatos: diagnóstico toxicológico empregando cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia líquida de alta pressão com detecção ultravioleta em amostras estomacais Intoxication in dogs and cats: toxicological diagnosis using thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in stomach samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Picada Bulcão

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotóxicos e raticidas são responsáveis por inúmeras intoxicações humanas e animais. Dados preliminares sugerem que o uso ilegal desses compostos com a finalidade de intoxicação fatal em pequenos animais é uma prática comum na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O Laboratório de Toxicologia (LATOX recebe amostras de casos em que a principal suspeita é a intoxicação por agrotóxicos ou raticidas (lícitos e ilícitos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um levantamento das intoxicações de pequenos animais, analisadas pelo LATOX no período de 2004 a 2008, sendo identificados os xenobióticos por meio de métodos analíticos otimizados pelo laboratório, incluindo screening por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e possível confirmação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV. No período, foram analisadas 68 amostras oriundas de intoxicações em cães e gatos. As amostras biológicas analisadas foram o estômago e o conteúdo estomacal, das quais a CCD permitiu a identificação de carbamatos, warfarina e estricnina. Esta mostrou ser uma técnica qualitativa eficiente e adequada para esse propósito, além de ser relativamente rápida, de baixo custo e de sofrer pouca interferência de componentes da matriz. Também foi realizado um screening toxicológico por CLAE-UV para os carbamatos n-metilados: aldicarb, carbaril, carbofuran e propoxur. O resultado das análises indicou que o principal agente tóxico encontrado foi o aldicarb (chumbinho, responsável por 39,7% das intoxicações (27 casos, seguido por estricnina (seis casos, warfarina (três casos e monofluoracetato de sódio (um caso. Sendo assim, o "chumbinho" foi o principal agente envolvido em intoxicações de cães e gatos na região central do Estado no período avaliado, e os métodos analíticos CCD e CLAE-UV podem ser utilizados de forma eficiente na rotina laboratorial para identificação e confirmação dos xenobi

  11. EFFICIENCY OF INSECTICIDES IN LARVAE AND ADULTS CONTROL OF CITRUS ROOT WEEVILS EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE LARVAS E ADULTOS DE CURCULIONÍDEOS-DAS-RAÍZES EM CITROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Sulzbach

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The control of larvae and adults of citrus root weevils (Naupactus spp. was evaluated in four experiments, in field and laboratory conditions, at Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil. For larvae control of Naupactus spp. the insecticides tested were: aldicarb, bifenthrin, carbofuran, carbosulfan, chlorpyrifos (GR, chlorpyrifos (EW, fipronil, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam (GR. For adults control of Naupactus cervinus and N. versatilis the following products were tested: abamectin, carbosulfan. lufenuron, lufenuron + abamectin, and thiamethoxam (WG. The efficiency control of Naupactus spp. larvae was below 80%, for all treatments tested (insecticides, dosages, and application methods. On larvae, the best results were obtained with thiamethoxam (GR 2.40 g, fipronil 0.19 g, and thiamethoxam (WG 1.00 g of a.i.plant-1, with 71.43%, 74.12% and 77.87% larvae population reduction, respectively. For N. cervinus and N. versatilis adults control, thiamethoxam (WG with 0.75 g and 1.00 g, and carbosulfan with 0.64 g of a.i. planta-1 showed efficiency above 80% in the field tests. While in the laboratory test, besides these treatments, also tiamethoxam (WG with 0.5 g of a.i. plant-1 presented such efficiency. The adult mortality was similar between the studied species. Thiamethoxam (WG and carbosulfan may be reccommended for adults of this insect.

    KEY-WORDS: Insect pest; Naupactini; chemical control.

    O controle de larvas e adultos de curculionídeos-das-raízes foi avaliado em quatro experimentos, em condições de  laboratório e de campo, no município de Itapetininga, SP. Para o controle de larvas de Naupactus spp. foram testados os inseticidas: aldicarbe, bifentrina, carbofurano, carbosulfano, clorpirifós (GR, clorpirifós (EW, fipronil, imidacloprido e tiametoxam (GR. Para o

  12. Changes in Rice Pesticide Use and Surface Water Concentrations in the Sacramento River Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides applied to rice fields in California are transported into the Sacramento River watershed by the release of rice field water. Despite monitoring and mitigation programs, concentrations of two rice pesticides, molinate and thiobencarb, continue to exceed the surface-water concentration performance goals established by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board. There have been major changes in pesticide use over the past decade, and the total amount of pesticides applied remains high. Molinate use has declined by nearly half, while thiobencarb use has more than doubled; carbofuran has been eliminated and partially replaced by the pyrethroid pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin. A study was conducted in 2002 and 2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine if the changes in pesticide use on rice resulted in corresponding changes in pesticide concentrations in surface waters. During the rice growing season (May-July), water samples, collected weekly at three sites in 2002 and two sites in 2003, were analyzed for pesticides using both solid-phase and liquid-liquid extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analytes included lambda-cyhalothrin, molinate, thiobencarb, and two degradation products of molinate: 2-keto-molinate and 4-keto-molinate. Molinate, thiobencarb, and 4-keto-molinate were detected in all samples, 2-keto-molinate was detected in less than half of the samples, and lambda-cyhalothrin was not detected in any samples. At two of the sites sampled in 2002 (Colusa Basin Drain 1 and Sacramento Slough), concentrations of molinate were similar, but thiobencarb concentrations differed by a factor of five. Although concentrations cannot be estimated directly from application amounts in different watersheds, the ratio of molinate to thiobencarb concentrations can be compared with the ratio of molinate to thiobencarb use in the basins. The higher concentration ratio in the Sacramento Slough Basin, compared with the ratio

  13. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides and nutrients at selected surface-water sites in the Mesilla Valley, 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    -irrigation run. Nine pesticides were detected during both phases of the study. The most commonly detected pesticides in the water-column samples were DCPA, which was detected in 29 samples, and metolachlor, which was detected in 17 of the samples. DCPA was detected throughout the Mesilla Valley, whereas metolachlor was detected mainly in the northern and central parts of the valley. The maximum pesticide concentration found during the study was 0.75 microgram per liter of carbofuran, which was detected at the East Side Drain site during the irrigation run. No water-column pesticide concentration exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards or any applicable Federal or State criteria or guidelines. A total of 21 occurrences of six pesticides and metabolites were found in the bed-material samples. Chlordane, diazinon, and methyl parathion were detected once each, whereas DDD, DDE, and DDT were detected at all six bed-material sites. Water-column samples for the analysis of nutrient concentrations were collected at all sampling sites during both phases of the study. The concentrations of each nutrient ranged from at or below the individual minimum reporting level to as much as two or three orders of magnitude larger than the minimum reporting level. The concentration of each nutrient was left skewed with most of the values toward the lower end of the range. The larger concentrations of each nutrient, except dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, were associated with wastewater-treatment- plant sites 4 and 16. The larger concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate were generally associated with the non- irrigation run; however, the largest concentration was at site 4 during the irrigation run. During this study, the Mesilla Valley as a unit was a source of nutrients to the Rio Grande. Wi

  14. Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Water and suspended-sediment samples were collected at eight sites on the Alamo and New Rivers in the Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin of California and analyzed for both current-use and organochlorine pesticides by the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were collected in the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, corresponding to the seasons of greatest pesticide use in the basin. Large-volume water samples (up to 650 liters) were collected at each site and processed using a flow-through centrifuge to isolate suspended sediments. One-liter water samples were collected from the effluent of the centrifuge for the analysis of dissolved pesticides. Additional samples were collected for analysis of dissolved organic carbon and for suspended-sediment concentrations. Water samples were analyzed for a suite of 61 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 25 pesticides were detected in the water samples, with seven pesticides detected in more than half of the samples. Dissolved concentrations of pesticides observed in this study ranged from below their respective method detection limits to 8,940 nanograms per liter (EPTC). The most frequently detected compounds in the water samples were chlorpyrifos, DCPA, EPTC, and trifluralin, which were observed in more than 75 percent of the samples. The maximum concentrations of most pesticides were detected in samples from the Alamo River. Maximum dissolved concentrations of carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion exceeded aquatic life benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for these pesticides. Suspended sediments were analyzed for 87 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using microwave-assisted extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and either carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges or deactivated Florisil for removal of matrix interferences. Twenty current-use pesticides were detected in the suspended

  15. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    current MCL of 50 ?g/L. Neither pesticides nor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were prevalent in the study area, and the concentrations of the compounds that were detected did not exceed any USEPA MCLs. Pesticides were detected in only two of the 30 wells sampled, but four pesticides -- atrazine, carbofuran, DCPA, and deethylatrazine -- were detected in one well; molinate was detected in the other well. All of the pesticides detected were at estimated concentrations of only 0.002 ?g/L. Of the VOCs detected, trihalomethane compounds (THMs), which can result from chlorination of a well, were the most common. THMs were detected in 13 of the 30 wells sampled. Gasoline by-products, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX compounds) were detected in 10 of the 30 wells sampled. The maximum concentration of any of the VOCs detected in this study, however, was only 1.040 ?g/L, for the THM dichlorofluoromethane. Water samples from 25 of the wells were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to estimate the apparent age of ground water. The analyses indicated that age of water ranged from 10 to greater than 57 years, and that the age of ground water could be correlated with the topographic setting of the wells sampled. Thus the apparent age of water in wells on hilltops was youngest (median of 13 years) and that of water in wells in valleys was oldest (median of 42 years). Water from wells on hillsides was intermediate in age (median of 29 years). These data can be used to define contributing areas to wells, corroborate or revise conceptual ground-water flow models, estimate contaminant travel times from spills to other sources such as nearby domestic or public supply wells, and to manage point and nonpoint source activities that may affect critical aquifers.