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Sample records for carbofuran

  1. Phytoremediation of carbofuran residues in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullika Teerakun

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ability of plants to clean up carbofuran residues in rice field soil was examined. Plants were grown in 8 inches diameter plastic pots filled with soils containing 5 mg/kg carbofuran. Phytoremediated samples were analyzed for carbofuran concentration. The results showed that carbofuran was rapidly degraded under planted soil and non-planted soil with half-lives ranging from 2-7 days. These facts suggest that phytoremediation could accelerate the degradation of carbofuran residues in soil and carbofuran was not persistent in the soil environment.

  2. Degradation of carbofuran by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2009-04-01

    Degradation of commercial grade carbofuran (2, 3 dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7 benzo furanyl-N-methyl carbamate) in aqueous solution by ozone oxidation was investigated using bench scale experiments. The degradation rate was strongly influenced by the ozone dosage, pH, initial concentration of carbofuran and contact time of ozonation. Carbofuran solution of 200ppm concentration was degraded by 79% within 10 minutes consuming 87 mg of ozone at pH 4. The associated TOC reduction was observed to be 53%. Ammonium (20 mg/L) and nitrate (30 mg/L) ions were detected in the effluent as degradation products of ozonation. The results support the effectiveness of ozonation for degradation of organic pesticides such as carbofuran.

  3. Degradation of carbofuran and carbofuran-derivatives in presence of humic substances under basic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jorge; Manso, José A; Cid, Antonio; Mejuto, Juan C

    2012-11-01

    The influence of humic aggregates in water solution upon the chemical stability of carbofuran (CF) and the carbofuran-derivatives, 3-hydroxy-carbofuran (HCF) and 3-keto-carbofuran (KCF), has been investigated in basic media. An inhibition upon the basic hydrolysis of 3-hydroxy-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran (≈ 1.7 and ≈ 1.5-fold, respectively) was observed and it was rationalized in terms of the micellar pseudophase model. Nevertheless, non-significant effect upon the carbofuran stability was found in the presence of humic substances. These behaviors have been compared with the corresponding ones in other synthetic colloidal aggregates.

  4. Carbofuran-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizos E

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Carbamate insecticides are widely used in commercial agriculture and home gardening. A serious side effect of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital with cholinergic crisis and pancreatitis soon after the ingestion of a carbamate insecticide (carbofuran. An abdominal CT scan disclosed pancreatic necrosis with intrapancreatic fluid collection, consistent with the development of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a subsequent CT scan. No predisposing factor for pancreatitis was evident. Pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal 7 days later and the patient was discharged in good physical condition one month after admission. DISCUSSION: Although acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after organophosphate intoxication, it is quite rare after carbamate ingestion and has not been previously reported after carbofuran intoxication.

  5. Biodegradation of insecticide carbofuran by Paracoccus sp. YM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Jing S; Li, Ying Y; Li, Wen; Xu, Gang M; Yan, Yan C

    2008-09-01

    A bacterium (Paracoccus sp. YM3) capable of degrading carbofuran was isolated from carbofuran-contaminated sludge. The strain was shown to metabolize carbofuran (50 mg L(-1)) to carbofuran-7-phenol in minimal salt medium within 6 days in which the pesticide was the only source of carbon. Carbofuran and its main metabolite were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The addition of an other carbon source led to accelerated biodegradation. The relevant degrading-enzyme was intracellular and inducible. A tobacco hypersensitivity experiment showed that YM3 could eliminate carbofuran in soils effectively and safely. This is the first report of a Paracoccus sp. that could degrade carbofuran. The present study may provide a basis for biotreatment of wastewaters and bioremediation of carbofuran-contaminated soils.

  6. Online microchannel preconcentrator for carbofuran detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritham, Charinrat; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2013-01-01

    A simple and rapid online microchannel preconcentrator coupled with an amperometric detection for the analysis of carbofuran using polyethylene glycol coated onto magnetic particle (PEG-magnetic particles) sorbents was developed. This simple-to-prepare microchannel preconcentrator used an external magnet to retain the PEG-magnetic particle sorbents inside the microchannel. Under optimum conditions, the system provided two linear ranges, from 0.01 to 10.0 mg L(-1) and from 10.0 to 130.0 mg L(-1) with a limit of detection of 8.7 ± 0.1 μg L(-1). The microchannel preconcentrator provided very good stability; it can be used for up to 326 consecutive injections of 5.0 mg L(-1) carbofuran with a relative standard deviation of less than 3%. The developed system provided a good microchannel-to-microchannel and a good electrode-to-electrode reproducibility (n = 6, %RSD carbofuran, respectively. The developed system was successfully applied to detect carbofuran in surface water samples obtained near vegetable plantation areas. The concentrations of carbofuran in these samples were found to be in the range of non-detectable to 0.047 ± 0.001 mg L(-1). The developed system is easy to operate and easy to couple with other analytical instruments and it could be easily adapted for the analysis of other polar organic contaminants.

  7. Adsorption and desorption kinetics of carbofuran in acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Fernández-Calviño, David; Pateiro-Moure, Miriam; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Carbofuran adsorption and desorption were investigated in batch and stirred flow chamber (SFC) tests. The carbofuran adsorption capacity of the soils was found to be low and strongly dependent on their clay and organic carbon contents. Carbofuran sorption was due mainly (>80%) to fast adsorption processes governed by intraparticle diffusion. The adsorption kinetic constant for the pesticide ranged from 0.047 to 0.195 min(-1) and was highly correlated with constant n in the Freundlich equation (r=0.965, Pcarbofuran desorption to be highly variable and negatively correlated with eCEC and the clay content. The SFC tests showed that soil organic carbon (C) plays a key role in the irreversibility of carbofuran adsorption. Carbofuran desorption increased rapidly at C contents below 4%. The desorption kinetic constant for the compound (0.086-0.195 min(-1)) was generally higher than its adsorption kinetic constant; therefore, carbofuran is more rapidly desorbed than it is adsorbed in soil.

  8. Oxidation Degradation of Aqueous Carbofuran Induced by Low Temperature Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lumei; Gao, Jinzhang; Hu, Yusen; Liang, Huiguang; Xiao, Wen; Wang, Xingmin

    2008-06-01

    The oxidative degradation of aqueous carbofuran, a heavily used toxic carbamate insecticide by low temperature plasma, was investigated. The results show that the treatment efficiency increases with the increase in initial concentration. Raising the treatment temperature and changing the pH value can result in enhanced degradation of carbofuran in solution. The results also show that low temperature plasma treatment can effectively remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) of carbofuran in the solution.

  9. Oxidation Degradation of Aqueous Carbofuran Induced by Low Temperature Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Lumei; GAO Jinzhang; HU Yusen; LIANG Huiguang; XIAO Wen; WANG Xingmin

    2008-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of aqueous carbofuran, a heavily used toxic carbamate insecticide by low temperature plasma, was investigated. The results show that the treatment efficiency increases with the increase in initial concentration. Raising the treatment temperature and changing the pH value can result in enhanced degradation of carbofuran in solution. The results also show that low temperature plasma treatment can effectively remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) of carbofuran in the solution.

  10. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  11. Occupational exposure of grain farmers to carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M; Yoshida, K; Atiemo, M; Johnston, D

    1990-01-01

    Six prairie grain farmers were monitored for pesticide exposure and related adverse effects while they mixed and/or sprayed carbofuran (Furadan 480F) with ground rig application equipment to control grasshoppers in southern Alberta, Canada. Dermal exposure was estimated with Tegaderm patches placed at seventeen locations on the skin beneath the work clothes. Hand and wrist exposure was determined by the amount of chemical found in hand rinses and on wrist patches. Potential inhalation exposure was measured with an air sampler using polyurethane foam as the adsorbent. Urine samples were collected at 24-hr intervals after exposure and monitored for carbofuran. Blood samples were analyzed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), pseudocholinesterase (ChE) and several other blood parameters. The results indicated that during the mixing and/or spraying operation, a farmer could potentially be exposed to a total of 1,264 micrograms carbofuran per kg of active ingredient (a.i.) used. Of this amount, 1,262 micrograms/kg (or 99.8%) was dermal and 2 micrograms/kg (or 0.2%) could be through the inhalation route. Hand and wrist exposure was about 1,100 micrograms/kg a.i. (or 87% of total exposure). Excretion of the chemical in the urine amounted to 28 micrograms/kg a.i. No ChE inhibition was observed. Other blood measurements were within normal ranges. The farmers showed no acute adverse effects during exposure and for four days after exposure. These results are discussed in relation to the mammalian toxicity of carbofuran. PMID:2322020

  12. Biodegradation of carbofuran in soils within Nzoia River Basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onunga, Daniel O; Kowino, Isaac O; Ngigi, Anastasiah N; Osogo, Aggrey; Orata, Francis; Getenga, Zachary M; Were, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) has been used within the Nzoia River Basin (NRB), especially in Bunyala Rice Irrigation Schemes, in Kenya for the control of pests. In this study, the capacity of native bacteria to degrade carbofuran in soils from NRB was investigated. A gram positive, rod-shaped bacteria capable of degrading carbofuran was isolated through liquid cultures with carbofuran as the only carbon and nitrogen source. The isolate degraded 98% of 100-μg mL(-1) carbofuran within 10 days with the formation of carbofuran phenol as the only detectable metabolite. The degradation of carbofuran was followed by measuring its residues in liquid cultures using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical and morphological characteristics as well as molecular characterization confirmed the bacterial isolate to be a member of Bacillus species. The results indicate that this strain of Bacillus sp. could be considered as Bacillus cereus or Bacillus thuringiensis with a bootstrap value of 100% similar to the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The biodegradation capability of the native strains in this study indicates that they have great potential for application in bioremediation of carbofuran-contaminated soil sites.

  13. 40 CFR 180.254 - Carbofuran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inadvertent residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.254, see the List of CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbofuran; tolerances for residues... § 180.254 Carbofuran; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the...

  14. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  15. Degradation of carbofuran-contaminated water by the Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Shih; Kumar, Mathava; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2009-07-15

    In this study, the Fenton process was applied for the degradation of carbofuran from aqueous system. Batch experiments were conducted at two different carbofuran concentrations i.e., 10 and 50 mg/L, and at pH 3. Batch experiments at each carbofuran concentration were designed by central composite design (CCD) with two independent variables i.e. Fe2+ and H2O2. Experimental results indicate that more than 90% of carbofuran removal was observed within 5 mins of Fenton reaction at 5 mg/L of Fe2+ concentration and 100 mg/L of H202 concentration. Increases in Fe2+ and/or H2O2 concentrations beyond 5 and 100 mg/L, respectively produced 100% carbofuran removal. Based on the experimental observations, the optimal Fe2+ and H2O2 dosages required for 10 mg/L of aqueous carbofuran removal were estimated as 7.4 and 143 mg/L, respectively. During this study, three carbofuran intermediates such as 7-benzofuranol,2,3,-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl, 7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-benzofuran-3-one and 1,4-Benzene-di-carboxaldehyde were identified using GC/MS analyses.

  16. Carbofuran-induced oxidative stress in mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K; Sharma, Bechan

    2007-09-01

    Chronic exposure to carbofuran, a carbamate pesticide, via oral administration has been reported to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat brain. However, information regarding the effect of short-term intraperitoneal (i.p.) carbofuran intoxication on oxidative stress is lacking. In the present study, the effect of carbofuran on oxidative indices in brain of Wistar rats has been determined by exposing the animals to three subacute concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg body weight) equivalent to 10, 20, and 40%, respectively, of its LD50 (i.p.) for 24 h. Rat liver has been used as a positive control. The results demonstrated that carbofuran treatment at the 3 concentrations tested caused significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 12.50, 34.38, and 59.38%, respectively. The increased oxidative stress at same pesticide concentrations significantly induced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in rat brain; the impact on catalase being more marked only at high-pesticide doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg body weight). Carbofuran also caused reduction in protein content of rat tissues tested. Rat brain was more severely affected by carbofuran than liver. The results clearly demonstrated that i.p. administration of carbofuran accelerated oxidative stress in rat brain in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Fate of 14C-carbofuran in lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon labeled carbofuran was administered orally to lactating goats at 0.03 mg/kg (single dose), 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and at 5.0 ppm in the diet (2 kg feed intake/day basis) for 15 days. Radioactive residues were rapidly excreted in the urine after treatment. The major residue identified in urine of the treated goats was carbofuran phenol, a non-toxic metabolite. Only about 1% of the doses was eliminated in the feces of the treated goats. Residues of (14C)carbofuran were secreted into milk, but these residues were in all cases very low. Radioactive residue occurred in tissues at low levels, with patterns as follows: omental fat>liver>subcutaneous fat>kidney>brain>heart>biceps femoris>longissimus dorsi. The residue stored in fat was identified as carbofuran. The liver contained hydroxy carbofuran and one unidentified metabolite but no carbofuran. The other tissues contained only phenolic metabolites. These studies strongly indicate that proper carbofuran use in rice in the Philippines will present no risks to goats that consume treated crop residues, or to humans who consume meat or milk from exposed animals. (author)

  18. The toxicity of carbofuran to the freshwater rotifer, Philodina roseola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Raquel Aparecida; da Silva Mansano, Adrislaine; Rocha, Odete

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of exposing the rotifer Philodina roseola to the pesticide carbofuran were investigated. Its range of sensitivity to potassium dichromate, the acute toxicity of active ingredient carbofuran and of carbofuran dosed as its commercial form, Furadan(®) 350 SC were determined. Chronic toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC on P. roseola survival and fecundity were also studied. The sensitivity of P. roseola to K2Cr2O7 ranged from 29.52 to 64.67 mg L(-1), averaging 47.10 mg L(-1). The 48-h EC50 were 13.36 ± 2.63 mg L(-1) for carbofuran and 89.32 ± 6.52 mg L(-1) for commercial form. Chronic toxicity tests showed that the survival of this rotifer was not affected by the carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC at the concentrations tested and that at 1.56 and 3.12 mg L(-1) their fecundity was higher than in the absence of this commercial product, characterizing the hormesis phenomenon. The sensitivity profile of several species to carbofuran indicated that P. roseola is more susceptible to this pesticide than the fish Clarias batrachus, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, although the acute toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC to P. roseola is much lower than that of active ingredient carbofuran. The results also imply that the exacerbated use of pesticides and the constant, accelerated expansion of agricultural activity will make aquatic non-target species even more vulnerable. Furthermore, the relevant role of benthic organisms in aquatic environments justifies the inclusion of P. roseola and other benthic species in toxicity screening for risk assessment, regarding this environmental compartment.

  19. The toxicity of carbofuran to the freshwater rotifer, Philodina roseola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Raquel Aparecida; da Silva Mansano, Adrislaine; Rocha, Odete

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of exposing the rotifer Philodina roseola to the pesticide carbofuran were investigated. Its range of sensitivity to potassium dichromate, the acute toxicity of active ingredient carbofuran and of carbofuran dosed as its commercial form, Furadan(®) 350 SC were determined. Chronic toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC on P. roseola survival and fecundity were also studied. The sensitivity of P. roseola to K2Cr2O7 ranged from 29.52 to 64.67 mg L(-1), averaging 47.10 mg L(-1). The 48-h EC50 were 13.36 ± 2.63 mg L(-1) for carbofuran and 89.32 ± 6.52 mg L(-1) for commercial form. Chronic toxicity tests showed that the survival of this rotifer was not affected by the carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC at the concentrations tested and that at 1.56 and 3.12 mg L(-1) their fecundity was higher than in the absence of this commercial product, characterizing the hormesis phenomenon. The sensitivity profile of several species to carbofuran indicated that P. roseola is more susceptible to this pesticide than the fish Clarias batrachus, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, although the acute toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC to P. roseola is much lower than that of active ingredient carbofuran. The results also imply that the exacerbated use of pesticides and the constant, accelerated expansion of agricultural activity will make aquatic non-target species even more vulnerable. Furthermore, the relevant role of benthic organisms in aquatic environments justifies the inclusion of P. roseola and other benthic species in toxicity screening for risk assessment, regarding this environmental compartment. PMID:25588673

  20. Effects of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Linder, G.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    We compared population estimates, body mass, movement, and blood chemistry of small mammals between conventionally tilled and no-till cornfields in Maryland and Pennsylvania to evaluate the effects of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on small mammals.

  1. Distribution and metabolism of carbofuran in paddy rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate slow release formulations of carbofuran in aquatic systems. Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments in rice paddy were carried out to determine the behaviour and fate of the important systemic insecticide carbofuran after application of new formulations. The release rates into water and the residues in the plant and soil were determined. Metabolites were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Carbon-14 labelled carbofuran was used for the experiments. The results showed that the cellulose based (hydroxyethyl-cellulose) formulations released the active ingredient carbofuran at a significantly slow rate, compared to commercial formulations, but that the concentration of carbofuran in water and plants was high enough to protect the plants against insects. Recovery of the applied insecticide in the rice paddy was only about 30%. Most of it was lost by evaporation, which could be confirmed in laboratory and glass house experiments. The radioactivity found in grain and straw was 0.03% and 0.2%, respectively. The distribution of carbofuran in soil at different layers was: 0-5 cm: 17%, 5-15 cm: 7%, 15-25 cm: 4%, 25-40 cm: 2%. Less than 10% of the total radioactivity could be extracted from plants (Soxhlet extraction with acetonitrile and methanol); thus, most of the carbofuran was metabolized and bound to the plant/grain constituents. It was concluded that by using different natural polymers, and some combinations of them for formulations, release rates of carbofuran in aquatic systems could be slowed down. Simple formulation procedures and low prices would also permit application of formulations in less developed countries. 5 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Improvement in carbofuran degradation by different Fenton's reagent dosing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Shih

    2011-11-01

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the efficiency of Fenton's reagent with different dosing processes and H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+) concentrations for the treatment of carbofuran wastewater. Carbofuran degradation, total organic carbon (TOC) removal and H(2)O(2) consumption were determined during the experiments. Increases in H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+) concentrations led to an increase in the degradation of carbofuran. Almost 100% of carbofuran could be degraded at pH 3, 120 mg L(-1) H(2)O(2), 24 mg L(-1) Fe(2+) and 30 minutes reaction time; removals of TOC were among 48.8%-53.3% under different dosing processes. A continuous dosing process was beneficial to improve the removal of TOC by Fenton's reagent. Rate constants of carbofuran degradation could be calculated by the first-order kinetics; increase in the Fenton's reagent generally increased the rate constants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis found five degradation products by hydroxyl radicals attack. Thus, this study might offer an effective dosing way for carbofuran wastewater treatment by Fenton's reagent.

  3. Bioremediation of carbofuran contaminated soil under saturated condition: soil column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangklang, Pensri; Reungsang, Alissara; Suphannafai, Wisarut

    2012-06-01

    Disturbed soil columns, 5.8 cm in diameter and 25 cm in length, were used as a basic model to simulate the movement of carbofuran in rice field soil under saturated conditions. Bioaugmentation using a specific carbofuran degrader, Burkholderia sp. PCL3, in free and immobilized cell forms and biostimulation using rice straw as organic amendment were applied with the aim of enhancing the degradation of carbofuran in soil and to prevent the movement of carbofuran along with the flow through. In the abiotic control and the treatment with only indigenous microorganisms, the mass recovery percentage of carbofuran in the effluent was 52.1 and 22.5%, respectively. The application of bioaugmentation or biostimulation significantly enhanced carbofuran degradation in soil and reduced the movement of carbofuran as indicated by a low mass recovery percentage of carbofuran in the effluent of 14.6-15.5%. A low efficiency of carbofuran removal was obtained from the soil column with bioaugmentation together with biostimulation treatments in which the mass recovery percentage of carbofuran in the effluent was in the range of 22.1-22.6%. Sorption of carbofuran to soil, rice straw and corncob, formation of carbofuran metabolite and colony forming unit (CFU) and pH variation with the time were also investigated during column operation.

  4. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of carbofuran in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Owumi, Solomon E; Akinseye, Victor; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2014-03-01

    Carbofuran based pesticides have gained wide usage in Nigeria recently. Consequently, animals and human populations are exposed to them in the environment. Information on in vivo toxicity of carbofuran in experimental models is scanty. The present study therefore examined the hepatotoxicity and clastogenic effects of carbofuran in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to carbofuran (p.o) at 0-5mg/kg bw for 5weeks. Carbofuran induced significant (prats. It therefore may constitute an environmental health risks in individuals so exposed.

  5. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  6. Carbofuran Modulating Functions of Acetylcholinesterase from Rat Brain In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran, a potential environmental xenobiotic, has the ability to cross blood brain barrier and to adversely influence brain functions. In the present study, the impact of carbofuran on the biophysical and biochemical properties of rat brain AChE has been evaluated in vitro. This enzyme was membrane-bound which could be solubilised using Triton-X100 (0.2%, v/v, a nonionic detergent, in the extraction buffer (50 mM phosphate, pH 7.4. The enzyme was highly stable up to one month when stored at -20°C and exhibited optimum activity at pH 7.4 and 37°C. AChE displayed a direct relationship between activity and varying substrate concentrations (acetylthiocholine iodide (ATI by following Michaelis-Menten curve. The Km and Vmax values as computed from the Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot of the data were found to be 0.07 mM and 0.066 µmole/mL/min, respectively. The enzyme exhibited IC50 value for carbofuran equal to 6.0 nM. The steady-state kinetic studies to determine mode of action of carbofuran on rat brain AChE displayed it to be noncompetitive in nature with Ki value equal to 5 nm. These experiments suggested that rat brain AChE was very sensitive to carbofuran and this enzyme might serve as a significant biomarker of carbofuran induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Investigation on possible ecotoxicological risk of carbofuran insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehel, J; Déri, J; Laczay, P; Darin, E G; Budai, P; Kormos, E

    2010-01-01

    Carbofuran-containing insecticides are widely used agents in plant protection. Their use may pose considerable environmental risk for both the protected and non-protected predator and plantivorous birds. For defence of wild birds a model experiment was carried out on broiler chickens. In the study, eight animals were treated orally by gastric tube with a carbofuran-containing insecticide at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg b.w. One animal served as untreated control specimen. Forage and drinking water were provided ad libitum. After the treatment, the possible clinical signs were observed carefully, blood samples were obtained from each bird and after exsanguinations liver, breast and leg muscle samples and stomach content were taken. The carbofuran concentration in blood, tissues and stomach content was determined by gas chromatographic method. Thirty minutes after poisoning, the average carbofuran concentration in breast muscle of chickens exceeded the maximum level of 0.1 mg/kg permitted in edible tissues, whereas ninety minutes after poisoning the concentration of one sample was still above the limit value. In the liver, leg-muscle and blood samples, the measured carbofuran concentration was lower than the permitted maximum value, except in the blood of two animals. The carbofuran concentration of the stomach content markedly exceeded the limit value. The sublethal concentration of the pesticides can reduce the capable of living of wild animals. Due to the sub toxic dose the poisoned birds can survive; however, the residue of insecticides can lead to secondary toxicosis of other animals.

  8. The dissipation of carbofuran in two soils with different pesticide application histories within Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemutai-Kimosop, Selly; Orata, Francis O; K'Owino, Isaac O; Getenga, Zachary M

    2014-05-01

    The dissipation of carbofuran from soils within the Nzoia River Drainage Basin in Kenya was studied under real field conditions for 112 days. Results showed significantly enhanced dissipation of carbofuran with half life (DT50) values of 8 days (p = 0.038) in soils with prior exposure to carbofuran compared to 19 days in soils with no application history. At the end of the experiment, residues of 2.57% and 9.36% of the initial carbofuran applied were recorded in the two types of soil, respectively. Carbofuran metabolites identified in the study were 3-keto carbofuran and carbofuran phenol with 5.84% and 15.0% remaining in soils with prior exposure, respectively. Soils with no application history recorded 16.05% and 12.82% of 3-keto carbofuran and carbofuran phenol metabolites, respectively.

  9. Optimization of photo-Fenton process parameters on carbofuran degradation using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li A; Ma, Ying S; Daverey, Achlesh; Lin, Jih G

    2012-01-01

    Carbofuran, one of the most toxic and biorefractory carbamate compounds, is widely used in insecticides in Taiwan (9-18% of total insecticides production per year). In the present study, a central composite design experiment was used to study the effect of photo-Fenton treatment on carbofuran solution and to optimize the process variables such as carbofuran concentration (1-100 mg L(-1)), H(2)O(2) dosage rate (0.25-6 mg L(-1) min(-1)) and Fe(3+) dosage (1-50 mg L(-1)), which influenced the efficiency of carbofuran degradation and mineralization. The results indicated that all the variables investigated in this study had significant roles in the degradation and mineralization of carbofuran in solution. The carbofuran degradation and mineralization efficiencies were increased with increase in H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage, and with decrease in carbofuran concentration. Furthermore, optimum values of both H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage were found to shift to higher values as carbofuran concentration increased. Based on the model obtained in this study, optimum H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage were found to be 4 mg L(-1) min(-1) and 20 mg L(-1), respectively, for 51 mg L(-1) of carbofuran concentration. Under these conditions, carbofuran was completely removed within 30 min and coupled with 78% mineralization at the end of experiment.

  10. Carbofuran concentrations in blood, bile and tissues in fatal cases of homicide and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunthala Tennakoon, D A S; Karunarathna, W D V; Udugampala, U S S

    2013-04-10

    Carbofuran is a broad spectrum carbamate insecticide which inhibits cholinesterase. In the recent past several carbofuran related homicide and suicide cases were reported in Sri Lanka. The concentration of carbofuran found in blood, bile and/or tissues in eight fatal cases were presented in this paper. Liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform was carried out with tissue and beverage samples while blood and bile samples were roller mixed with n-hexane and finally extracted into acetonitrile. Qualitative analysis of carbofuran in biological specimens was carried out using TLC and GC-MS. Presence of carbofuran and its metabolite carbofuran phenol were confirmed by GC-MS. The quantitative analysis was carried out using a validated method where Zorbax Eclips XDB C18 column was used in HPLC with photo diode array detector and GC-MS. In blood, bile, liver and stomach contents/stomach and contents both carbofuran and carbofuran phenol were identified, while in certain cases only the metabolite, carbofuran phenol was identified in blood. The carbofuran levels ranged from 0.4 to 18 μg/ml in blood, 0.4 to 60 μg/ml in bile, 2.2 μg/g in liver and 0.3 to 300 μg/g in stomach contents/stomach and contents.

  11. Residuen van carbofuran, bendiocarb en thiofanox in kroot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve; P.A.; Goewie; C.E.; Hogendoorn; E.A.

    1987-01-01

    In de onderzochte monsters werden lage residuen gevonden aan carbofuran (max. 0,002 mg/kg) en 3-hydroxycarbofuran (max. 0,011 mg/kg). Deze gehalten liggen alle onder de in de Residubeschikking vermelde bepalingsgrens, zodat zij in de zin van deze beschikking verwaarloosbaar zijn. Bendiocarb en

  12. Attenuation of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in kidney of rats intoxicated with carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupindervir; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat

    2012-10-01

    Carbofuran, an anticholinestrase carbamate, is commonly used as an insecticide. Its toxic effect on kidney is less established. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbofuran on kidneys and to understand the mechanism involved in its nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups of eight animals each; control animals received sunflower oil (vehicle) and carbofuran exposed animals were treated with carbofuran (1 mg/kg body weight) orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, significant increase was observed in urea and creatinine levels in serum along with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant defense system of animals treated with carbofuran was altered in terms of increased lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and total thiols and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results indicate that carbofuran is nephrotoxic and increased oxidative stress appears to be involved in its nephrotoxic effects.

  13. Solar Radiation Alters Toxicity of Carbofuran: Evidence from Empirical Trials with Duttaphyrnus melanostictus

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Wijesinghe; B.A.D.M.C. Jayatillake; W. D. Ratnassoriya

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential of natural solar radiation to alter the toxicity of a commonly used carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on tadpoles of the Common Asian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. A single exposure trial was conducted over 96 hrs with three concentrations (150, 250 and 500 µgl-1) of photo-irradiated and non-irradiated carbofuran. Results show that photo-irradiation markedly reduced the toxicity of carbofuran as evident by its effects on three end points, i...

  14. Nanocolloidal gold-based immunoassay for the detection of the N-methylcarbamate pesticide carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Lu, Yitong; Zhu, Jiang; Hong, Jingbo; Li, Bin; Zhou, Jun; Gong, Dan; Montoya, Angel

    2004-07-14

    Nanocolloidal gold particles were prepared and labeled to an anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody (Mab). This conjugate was dispensed on the conjugated pad of a porous glass fiber. Ovalbumin (OVA)-carbofuran and goat anti-mouse IgG were dispensed on the nitrocellulose (NC) membrane and served as the test line and control line, respectively. The carbofuran-containing sample migrated to the NC membrane and reacted with the anti-carbofuran Mab labeled with the colloidal gold. The mixture diffused along the membrane and passed through the OVA-carbofuran in the test line via capillary action. The more analyte present in the sample, the more effectively it will compete with the carbofuran immobilized on the test line for binding to the limited amount of antibody labeled with colloidal gold. An adequate amount of carbofuran could prevent attachment of the colored conjugate to the test line. The presence or absence of a colored band on the test line could indicate a negative or positive result, respectively. When measured to the water sample spiked with carbofuran, this was obtained at or above 0.25 mg/L of carbofuran. The major advantages of the one-step strip test are that the detection time needed was <10 min and all of the reagents are included in the test device. PMID:15237936

  15. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE with chitosan (CS by layer-by-layer (LBL technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from  g/L to  g/L with a detection limit of  g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis.

  16. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of carbofuran-degrading bacteria isolated from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Uk; Seong, Chi-Nam; Song, Hong-Gyu; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-seven carbofuran-degrading bacteria were isolated from agricultural soils, and their genetic and phenotypic characteristics were investigated. The isolates were able to utilize carbofuran as a sole source of carbon and energy. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolates were related to members of the genera Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas, and Sphingobium, including new types of carbofuran-degrading bacteria, Bosea and Microbacterium. Among the 37 isolates, 15 different chromosomal DNA patterns were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) sequences. Five of the 15 representative isolates were able to degrade carbofuran phenol, fenoxycarb, and carbaryl, in addition to carbofuran. Ten of the 15 representative isolates had 1 to 8 plasmids. Among the 10 plasmid-containing isolates, plasmid-cured strains were obtained from 5 strains. The cured strains could not degrade carbofuran and other pesticides anymore, suggesting that the carbofuran degradative genes were on the plasmid DNAs in these strains. When analyzed with PCR amplification and dot-blot hybridization using the primers targeting for the previously reported carbofuran hydrolase gene (mcd), all of the isolates did not show any positive signals, suggesting that their carbofuran hydrolase genes had no significant sequence homology with the mcd gene.

  17. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in rat brain induced by carbofuran exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Kumar, Vikas; Kamboj, Amit; Sandhir, Rajat

    2008-11-01

    Repeated low-dose exposure to carbofuran exerts its neurotoxic effects by non-cholinergic mechanisms. Emerging evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays an important role in carbofuran neurotoxicity after sub-chronic exposure. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction as a primary event responsible for neurotoxic effects observed after sub-chronic carbofuran exposure. Carbofuran was administered to rats at a dose of 1 mg/kg orally for a period of 28 days. There was a significant inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (66.6%) in brain samples after 28 days of carbofuran exposure. Mitochondrial respiratory chain functions were assessed in terms of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction and activity of succinate dehydrogenase in isolated mitochondria. It was observed that carbofuran exposure significantly inhibited MTT reduction (31%) and succinate dehydrogenase activity (57%). This was accompanied by decrease in low-molecular weight thiols (66.6%) and total thiols (37.4%) and an increase in lipid peroxidation (43.7%) in the mitochondria isolated from carbofuran-exposed rat brain. The changes in mitochondrial oxidative stress and functions were associated with impaired cognitive and motor functions in the animals exposed to carbofuran as compared to the control animals. Based on these results, it is clear that carbofuran exerts its neurotoxicity by impairing mitochondrial functions leading to oxidative stress and neurobehavioral deficits.

  18. Carbofuran poisoning detected by mass spectrometry of butyrylcholinesterase adduct in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Ricordel, Ivan; Tong, Larry; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Baud, Frédéric; Mégarbane, Bruno; Maury, Eric; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-03-01

    Carbofuran is a pesticide whose acute toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma is inhibited by carbofuran and serves as a biomarker of poisoning by carbofuran. The goal was to develop a method to positively identify poisoning by carbofuran. Sera from an attempted murder and an attempted suicide were analyzed for the presence of carbofuran adducts on BChE. The BChE from 1 ml of serum was rapidly purified on a 0.2 ml procainamide-Sepharose column. Speed was essential because the carbofuran-BChE adduct decarbamylates with a half-life of about 2 h. The partially purified BChE was boiled to denature the protein, thus stopping decarbamylation and making the protein vulnerable to digestion with trypsin. The labeled peptide was partially purified by HPLC before analysis by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode on the QTRAP 2000 mass spectrometer. Carbofuran was found to be covalently bound to Ser 198 of human BChE in serum samples from two poisoning cases. Multiple reaction monitoring triggered MS/MS spectra positively identified the carbofuran-BChE adduct. In conclusion a mass spectrometry method to identify carbofuran poisoning in humans has been developed. The method uses 1 ml of serum and detects low-level exposure associated with as little as 20% inhibition of plasma butyrylcholinesterase.

  19. Genetic and metabolic analysis of the carbofuran catabolic pathway in Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Phi Oanh; Helbling, Damian E; Bers, Karolien; Fida, Tekle Tafese; Wattiez, Ruddy; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Springael, Dirk; De Mot, René

    2014-10-01

    The widespread agricultural application of carbofuran and concomitant contamination of surface and ground waters has raised health concerns due to the reported toxic effects of this insecticide and its degradation products. Most bacteria that degrade carbofuran only perform partial degradation involving carbamate hydrolysis without breakdown of the resulting phenolic metabolite. The capacity to mineralize carbofuran beyond the benzofuran ring has been reported for some bacterial strains, especially sphingomonads, and some common metabolites, including carbofuran phenol, were identified. In the current study, the catabolism of carbofuran by Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2 (LMG 28221), a strain isolated from a carbofuran-exposed Vietnamese soil and utilizing the compound as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, was studied. Several KN65.2 plasposon mutants with diminished or abolished capacity to degrade and mineralize carbofuran were generated and characterized. Metabolic profiling of representative mutants revealed new metabolic intermediates, in addition to the initial hydrolysis product carbofuran phenol. The promiscuous carbofuran-hydrolyzing enzyme Mcd, which is present in several bacteria lacking carbofuran ring mineralization capacity, is not encoded by the Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2 genome. An alternative hydrolase gene required for this step was not identified, but the constitutively expressed genes of the unique cfd operon, including the oxygenase genes cfdC and cfdE, could be linked to further degradation of the phenolic metabolite. A third involved oxygenase gene, cfdI, and the transporter gene cftA, encoding a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor with potential regulatory function, are located outside the cfd cluster. This study has revealed the first dedicated carbofuran catabolic genes and provides insight in the early steps of benzofuran ring degradation.

  20. The extremely high stability of carbofuran pesticide in acidic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Anđelka V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly iron catalysts were applied in the decomposition reactions of some toxic compounds like phenol, methomyl and corbofuran pesticide. The applied catalytic processes belong to photo-Fenton reactions. Heterogeneous iron catalysts showed significant activity in phenol and methomyl conversion, however, these catalysts were completely inactive in destruction of carbofuran molecule, even in the catalytic reaction promoted with UV light at high temperature.

  1. In vitro dermal penetration study of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kwang-Hyeon [Department of Pharmacology, Inje University, College of Medicine, 614-735, Busan (Korea); Kim, Jeong-Han [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, 441-744, Suwon (Korea)

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the dermal penetration rate of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb has been measured with rat abdominal skin using the static diffusion cell. The technical grades of three compounds were applied at different doses on skin surface mounted in static diffusion cell and incubated at 32 C for 48 h with shaking. The same procedures were carried out with furathiocarb EC (emulsifiable concentrate) and WP (wettable powder). At regular intervals, the receptor fluid in cell was sampled and analyzed by HPLC. Only carbofuran was found in carbosulfan- or furathiocarb-treated samples, suggesting they converted into carbofuran while passing through the skin layer. The quantity of insecticide penetrating skin increased with time and applied dose. The skin penetration rate increased with the water solubility of insecticides. The dermal penetration rates of carbofuran, furathiocarb, and carbosulfan were determined as 1.05 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.991), 0.46 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.984) and 0.14 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.967), respectively. There was no significant difference in rate of skin penetration between furathiocarb EC (1.42 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.988) and WP (1.35 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.982), while furathiocarb technical grade showed a lower skin penetration rate. In vitro models may be used to predict percutaneous absorption and are useful in selecting safer formulations for field application of pesticide. (orig.)

  2. Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Ashish; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Bechan

    2016-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight). The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin. PMID:27213055

  3. Carbofuran degradation by the application of MW-assisted H₂O₂ process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, Neelancherry; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2011-01-01

    Carbofuran removal performance of a microwave (MW)-assisted H₂O₂ system under different MW-power levels (300-900 W) was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted at 100 mg/L carbofuran concentration using a modified-MW reactor with 2450 MHz of fixed frequency. As a precursor, control experiments were carried out with H₂O₂ alone, MW alone and conventional heating (CH). A maximum carbofuran removal of 14 % was observed in both H₂O₂ alone and CH systems. On the other hand, only 2 % removal was observed in the MW alone system irrespective of the operation-mode, i.e. continuous or pulsed. The combination of MW and H₂O₂ produced 100 % carbofuran removal in all the MW-assisted experiments. The MW-assisted system operated under continuous-mode and at 750 W has showed rapid carbofuran degradation, i.e. 30 sec, with the highest first-order removal rate constant of 25.82/min. However, 97 % carbon oxygen demand (COD) removal was observed in the same system only after 30 min. On the other hand, 100 % carbofuran removal and 49 % COD removal were observed in the pulsed-mode MW-assisted H₂O₂ system after 10 and 30 min, respectively. Carbofuran mineralization in the system was evidenced by the formation of ammonium and nitrate, and carbofuran intermediates.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Carbofuran-Mineralizing Novosphingobium sp. Strain KN65.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Phi Oanh; De Mot, René

    2015-01-01

    Complete mineralization of the N-methylcarbamate insecticide carbofuran, including mineralization of the aromatic moiety, appears to be confined to sphingomonad isolates. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of such a sphingomonad strain, i.e., Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2, isolated from carbofuran-exposed agricultural soil in Vietnam. PMID:26159535

  5. Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight. The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin.

  6. Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Ashish; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Bechan

    2016-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight). The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin. PMID:27213055

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Carbofuran-Mineralizing Novosphingobium sp. Strain KN65.2

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phi Oanh; De Mot, René; Springael, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Complete mineralization of the N-methylcarbamate insecticide carbofuran, including mineralization of the aromatic moiety, appears to be confined to sphingomonad isolates. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of such a sphingomonad strain, i.e., Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2, isolated from carbofuran-exposed agricultural soil in Vietnam.

  8. Model study on the clinical signs and residue concentrations of sublethal carbofuran poisoning in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehel, J; Laczay, P; Déri, J; Darin, E G; Budai, P

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of fatal poisoning of birds of prey caused by carbofuran has increased markedly in Hungary since 2007. An experimental model with broiler chickens was used to study clinical signs of sublethal carbofuran poisoning in birds and to measure the residue concentrations of carbamate in tissues after exposure. Eight chickens were treated with a carbofuran-containing insecticide orally by gastric tube at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight, and clinical signs of poisoning were observed. Gas chromatography was used to determine carbofuran concentrations in the blood, muscle, and liver samples, and in stomach contents. Poisoning was characterized by typical muscarinic and nicotinic clinical signs without mortality. Carbofuran in the stomach and edible tissues of acutely poisoned birds may lead to secondary poisoning of predators and may also present risks to human health.

  9. EFFECTS OF CARBOFURAN ON THE REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF A FRESHWATER SNAIL, RADIX QUADRASI, UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA S. CARING

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 4 sublethal concentrations of carbofuran (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm on the reproductive capacity of R. quadrasi was determined. Results showed that incubation period is delayed and inhibited by 1000 and 2000 ppm carbofuran but not by lower concentrations. The hatching period is longer in treated snails and not all eggs hatch in the 1000 and 2000 ppm treatment. The percentage of hatching is inversely proportional to the carbofuran concentration. Oviposition was delayed in all the treated stages and at all dosages. The higher the carbofuran concentration, the later the onset of oviposition. The reproductive period is shortened. Fecundity was decreased in snails treated at EMB and SM. However, only the 2000 ppm carbofuran concentration showed an adverse effect on the snails exposure at PSM.

  10. Effect of commercial processing procedures on carbofuran residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of soybean obtained from 14C-carbofuran-treated plants contained about 1% of the originally applied radioactivity. Extraction of the seed with hexane and methanol left 50% of the 14C in the cake. Analysis of residues showed the presence of free products in the oil and conjugated metabolites in the methanol extract. The free substances were identified as carbofuran and its phenol. The percentage of the latter increased during the successive refining processes. The refined oil had only 16% of the radioactivity originally present. The methanol extract contained 4 glucosides, mostly that of 3-hydroxy carbofuran. Refining soybean oil fortified with 14C-carbofuran reduced the residue in the oil by 78%. Most of the residue remaining was carbofuran. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs, 1 scheme

  11. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 μg/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 μg/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 μg/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 μg/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (pcarbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 μg/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers.

  12. Prenatal carbofuran exposure inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis and causes learning and memory deficits in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Agarwal, Swati; Sharma, Vinod Praveen; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Neurogenesis is a process of generation of new neurons in the hippocampus and associated with learning and memory. Carbofuran, a carbamate pesticide, elicits several neurochemical, neurophysiological, and neurobehavioral deficits. We evaluated whether chronic prenatal oral exposure of carbofuran during gestational days 7-21 alters postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis at postnatal day 21. We found carbofuran treatment significantly decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cell proliferation and long-term survival in the hippocampus only but not in the cerebellum. We observed a reduced number of transcription factor SOX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) colabeled cells, decreased nestin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, and decreased histone-H3 phosphorylation following carbofuran treatment, suggesting a decreased pool of neural progenitor cells (NPC). Colocalization of BrdU with doublecortin (DCX), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), and GFAP suggested decreased neuronal differentiation and increased glial differentiation by carbofuran. The number of DCX(+) and NeuN(+) neurons, NeuN protein levels, and fibers length of DCX(+) neurons were decreased by carbofuran. Carbofuran caused a significant downregulation of mRNA expression of the neurogenic genes/transcription factors such as neuregulin, neurogenin, and neuroD1 and upregulation of the gliogenic gene Stat3. Carbofuran exposure led to increased BrdU/caspase 3 colabeled cells, an increased number of degenerative neurons and profound deficits in learning and memory processes. The number and size of primary neurospheres derived from the hippocampus of carbofuran-treated rats were decreased. These results suggest that early gestational carbofuran exposure diminishes neurogenesis, reduces the NPC pool, produces neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, and causes cognitive impairments in rat offspring.

  13. Subacute effects of carbofuran on enzyme functions in rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Nidhi; Kiran, Ravi; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2009-02-01

    The effect of carbofuran administration to rats has been studied on enzymes functions in rat intestine. Carbofuran was administrated 4.0 mg/kg body weight for 7 days or 2.8 mg/kg body weight for 30 days daily by Ryle's tube. Animals given carbofuran for 30 days exhibited retarded growth compared to control group. The activities of sucrase (56%), alkaline phosphatase (62%), leucine aminopeptidase (56%), and gamma-glutamyl trans peptidase (84%) were enhanced in animals given carbofuran for 7 days. Enhancement in the activities of alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino peptidase (92-96%) was also observed in animals exposed to carbofuran for 30 days, but the activities of sucrase (28%) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (49%) were reduced under these conditions. There was no change in activities of maltase, lactase, and trehalase in pesticide-treated animals for 7 or 30 days. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase was enhanced (p carbofuran toxicity. The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were also enhanced (p carbofuran exposure. The activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was unaltered in carbofuran toxicity. Kinetic analysis of brush border enzymes revealed a change in V(max) with no change in apparent Km. Western blot analysis of brush border sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, and leucine aminopeptidase corroborated the enzyme activity data. Intestinal histological revealed distruption of the villi, and comet assay showed disintegration of DNA in enterocytes of animals exposed to carbofuran for 30 days. These findings suggest that carbofuran toxicity may modulate digestive functions in rat intestine.

  14. Biosensor based on Butyrylcholinesterase for Detection of Carbofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mousumi; Bhuvanagayathri, R.; Daniel, David K.

    2015-04-01

    Esterase enzymes play an important role in biology because they are responsible for the hydrolysis of choline esters. In their absence, the original state of the post synaptic membranes cannot be reestablished. Therefore, the aim of the work is to study the inhibiting action exerted by the group of compounds on these enzymes. Among these class of inhibiting compounds, pesticides are important because of the potential danger as a result of their large scale use in agriculture. Pesticides are generally determined using liquid or gas chromatography methods with various detection techniques. These methods are very sensitive and discriminating, however they require sample pretreatment such as extraction, preconcentration and clean up, which are skilled techniques and high cost treatment and also time consuming. In this study, acetyl cholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase based biosensors have emerged as a promising tool for the detection and characterization of pesticides which are inhibitors of these enzymes. Although the physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase in comparison with acetyl cholinesterase is ambiguous, it has larger substrate specificity towards choline esters. Therefore, the development of a more selective electrode against choline, can lead to more sensitive determination of the inhibitor being investigated. Hence in the present work, a method based on inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was attempted for quantification of carbofuran on the basis of cholinesterase inhibition. Butyrylcholinesterase with an activity of 10.2 units/mg was immobilized on a solid surface by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The immobilized system was calibrated by correlating the inhibition of the butyrylcholinesterase activity with varying concentrations of the butyryl choline chloride and carbofuran. The sensing mechanism was investigated for its response to carbofuran concentrations ranging from 125 to 1,000 ppm. The effects of butyryl choline chloride

  15. Distribution and metabolism of carbofuran in paddy rice from controlled release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate slow release formulations of carbofuran in aquatic systems. Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments in a rice paddy were carried out to determine the behaviour and fate of the important systemic insecticide carbofuran after application of new formulations. The release rates into water and the residues in the plant and soil were determined. Metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Carbon-14 labelled carbofuran was used for the experiments. The results showed that the cellulose based (hydroxyethyl-cellulose) formulations released the active ingredient carbofuran at a significantly slower rate than commercial formulations, but that the concentration of carbofuran in water and plants was high enough to protect the plants against insects. Recovery of the insecticide in the rice paddy was only about 30%. Most was lost by changing the water in the paddy field, according to the usual cultivation practice, and by possible evaporation. The radioactivity found in grain and straw was 0.03% and 0.2%, respectively. The distribution of carbofuran in soil at different layers was: 0-5 cm: 17%; 5-15 cm: 7%; 15-25 cm: 4%; 25-40 cm: 2%. Less than 10% of the total radioactivity could be extracted from plants (Soxhlet extraction); thus, most of the carbofuran was metabolized and bound to the plant-grain constituents. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  17. Histopathological alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia exposed to carbofuran and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Garcia, Janaína; Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Rezende, Karina Fernandes Oliveira; da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Barbieri, Edison

    2016-11-01

    Carbofuran is a nematicide insecticide with a broad spectrum of action. Carbofuran has noxious effects in several species and has been banned in the USA and Europe; however, it is still used in Brazil. Aquatic organisms are not only exposed to pesticides but also to manufactured nanoparticles, and the potential interaction of these compounds therefore requires investigation. The aim of this study was to examine the histopathological alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of exposure to carbofuran, nitric acid-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO3-MWCNTs) and the combination of carbofuran with nanotubes. Juvenile fish were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0mg/L), different concentrations of HNO3-MWCNTs (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L) or different concentrations of carbofuran (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0mg/L) with 1.0mg/L of HNO3-MWCNTs. After 24h of exposure, the animals were removed from the aquarium, the spinal cord was transversely sectioned, and the second gill arch was removed for histological evaluation. Common histological changes included dislocation of the epithelial cells, hyperplasia of the epithelial cells along the secondary lamellae, aneurism, and dilation and disarrangement of the capillaries. All the groups exposed to carbofuran demonstrated a dose-dependent correlation in the Histological Alteration Index; the values found for carbofuran and carbon nanotubes were up to 25% greater than for carbofuran alone. This result indicates an interaction between these toxicants, with enhanced ecotoxic effects. This work contributes to the understanding of the environmental impacts of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms, which is necessary for the sustainable development of nanotechnologies. PMID:27543744

  18. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  19. Degradation of carbofuran in aqueous solution by ultrasound and Fenton processes: Effect of system parameters and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Shih; Sung, Chi-Fanga; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2010-06-15

    To establish an efficient oxidation process for carbofuran degradation, the effects of some operating parameters such as dosages of H(2)O(2), Fe(2+) and initial carbofuran concentrations were observed during carbofuran degradation by the ultrasound process, Fenton process and a combined ultrasound/Fenton process. The degradation kinetics of carbofuran was also examined based on the experimental data. The results show that more than 99% of the carbofuran was degraded by the ultrasound/Fenton process within short reaction time periods. Increased dosages of H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+) enhanced the degradation of carbofuran in the ultrasound and Fenton oxidation processes, but initial carbofuran concentrations decreased carbofuran degradation in both the Fenton and ultrasound/Fenton processes. The degradation kinetics of carbofuran by the three oxidation processes was found to be in accordance with first-order reaction kinetics. The results provide fundamental information about the treatment of carbofuran wastewater and/or other pesticides by the ultrasound/Fenton oxidation process.

  20. Influence of different abiotic and biotic factors on the metalaxyl and carbofuran dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2013-03-01

    Metalaxyl and carbofuran dissipation was studied in response to different factors (soil bacterial communities, light irradiation, presence of an inorganic culture medium and presence of soil) and combinations of these factors in short-term experiments (48 h). The soil microbial communities have no effect on metalaxyl or carbofuran dissipation in the time scale employed. Light irradiation and soil promote metalaxyl and carbofuran dissipation by photodegradation and adsorption, respectively. However, photodegradation has a stronger effect on metalaxyl and carbofuran dissipation than the adsorption of the pesticides in the soil. The addition of the culture medium have no direct effect on pesticide dissipation, degradation by microbial communities or adsorption but its presence greatly increased photodegradation.

  1. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nano tubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with chitosan (CS) by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from 10-10  g/L to 10-3 g/L with a detection limit of 10-12 g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis

  2. [Determination of carbofuran in the biological material for the purpose of forensic medical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, V K; Kovalenko, E A; Duritsyn, E P; Maslov, S V; Galushkin, S G; Pronichenko, E I

    2013-01-01

    It is proposed to use the mixture of acetone and ethylacetate (1:1) as an universal solvent for the extraction of carbofuran from cadaveric tissues and fluids. Extracted carbufuran can be purified from endogenous admixtures on KSS No 3 Silica Gel columns (80/120 mcm) and identified using TLC, electron spectrophotometrty, HPLC, and GC-MS. The proposed method of forensic chemical analysis of carbofuran was applied for the purpose of forensic medical expertise.

  3. Effect of carbofuran on some biochemical indices of human erythrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Jaiswal, S K; Siddiqi, N J; Sharma, B

    2012-12-22

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops. Its widespread use in agriculture represents a threat not only to the environment but also to human populations exposed to them. Erythrocytes serve as an excellent model system to study the interaction of pro-oxidants. Organocarbamates are known to produce free radical species and to induce toxicity to different body systems resulting into hematological and biochemical perturbations. The information available relating to the effect of organocarbamates on the biochemical indices of human erythrocytes is scanty. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of carbofuran, a carbamate pesticide, on some key biochemical indices of human erythrocytes' membrane. The oxidative potential of the pesticide was assessed in vitro by monitoring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in human erythrocytes exposed to different sub-acute concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 and 50μM) of carbofuran for different time intervals; maximally up to 120 min. It was observed that the level of MDA was elevated and that of GSH was significantly decreased after treatment of erythrocytes with carbofuran. The results indicated the negative impact of carbofuran in concentration and time dependent manner. Carbofuran was also found to sharply inhibit the activity of membrane bound Na(+)K(+)-ATPase at higher carbofuran concentrations (10, 25 and 50μM). Further, carbofuran at aforesaid concentrations was also found to cause significant rise in the osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes indicating adverse effect on membrane fluidity. The results of present study suggested that carbofuran was able to alter the oxidative balance and the stability of human erythrocytes membrane.

  4. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the impacts of carbofuran on endocrinology of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, for the first time and evaluated cortisol (CRT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (TST) and the oxidative stress markers including SOD, CAT, GSTs, GSH. The toxic effects on the metabolic enzymes, G6PDH and LDH, in addition to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage as biomarkers in Nile catfish, to sublethal exposures of carbofuran (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) were studied. Statistically significant differences between selected parameters between control and carbofuran-treated fish were recorded. Carbofuran caused a significant (pcarbofuran-treated fish. Toxicity of carbofuran on liver, kidney, gills, gonads and muscles after 35 days of exposure was found. Glycogen levels showed a highly significant decrease in liver and gills (p0.05) in gonads of treated fish. The two metabolic enzymes G6PDH and LDH in all tissues exhibited significant decreases (pcarbofuran. LPO levels increased significantly (pcarbofuran. There was a significant (pcarbofuran and allow us to consider catfish as a good bioindicator to reflect the endocrine disrupting impacts of carbofuran, and reflect the potential of this pesticide to cause disturbance in antioxidant defense system as well as metabolism and induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage in contaminated ecosystems.

  5. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citrus limon Fruit Extract against Carbofuran Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol methylcarbamate, is known to induce oxidative stress and to cause inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The present work was envisaged to evaluate the effect of carbofuran on redox indices and its interactions with hepatic markers in rat. The ameliorating effect of Citrus limon fruit extract on carbofuran induced toxicity was also monitored. The results indicated that carbofuran treatment caused significant alterations in the levels of activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver tissues and serum. The levels of enzymatic oxidative stress markers such as SOD and catalase and nonenzymatic redox molecules such as total thiol, GSH, and protein thiol also showed significant perturbations in rat liver due to carbofuran treatment. The administration of Citrus limon fruit extract, however, was able to markedly ameliorate the toxicity of carbofuran by protecting the levels of aforesaid biomarkers to near normal levels. The ameliorative effect of Citrus limon fruit extract may be due to the presence of different antioxidants in it which may neutralize the ROS and RNS generated in the body tissue due to pesticide stress. These results suggested that Citrus limon fruit extract may be utilized as a potential supplement in proper management of pesticide intoxication in association with relevant therapeutics.

  6. CONSTRUCTION OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC/PHARMACODYNAMIC (PBPK/PD) MODEL FOR CARBOFURAN USING THE EXPOSURE RELATED DOSE ESTIMATING MODEL (ERDEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbofuran, known as 2, 3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate, is a broad spectrum N-methyl carbamate pesticide. Carbofuran and its metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, exert their toxicity by reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Carbofuran is widel...

  7. Bioluminescence enhancement through an added washing protocol enabling a greater sensitivity to carbofuran toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Eltzov, Evgeni; Marks, Robert S; Ionescu, Rodica E

    2013-10-01

    The effects of carbofuran toxicity on a genetically modified bacterial strain E. coli DPD2794 were enhanced using a new bioluminescent protocol which consisted of three consecutive steps: incubation, washing and luminescence reading. Specifically, in the first step, several concentrations of carbofuran aqueous solutions were incubated with different bacterial suspensions at recorded optical densities for different lengths of time. Thereafter, the resulting bacterial/toxicant mixtures were centrifuged and the aged cellular supernatant replaced with fresh medium. In the final step, the carbofuran- induced bioluminescence to the exposed E. coli DPD2794 bacteria was shown to provide a faster and higher intensity when recorded at a higher temperature at30°C which is not usually used in the literature. It was found that the incubation time and the replacement of aged cellular medium were essential factors to distinguish different concentrations of carbofuran in the bioluminescent assays. From our results, the optimum incubation time for a "light ON" bioluminescence detection of the effect of carbofuran was 6h. Thanks to the replacement of the aged cellular medium, a group of additional peaks starting around 30min were observed and we used the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC) at different contents of carbofuran to produce the calibration curve. Based on the new protocol, a carbofuran concentration of 0.5pg/mL can be easily determined in a microtiter plate bioluminescent assay, while a non-wash protocol provides an unexplainable order of curve evolutionswhich does not allow the user to determine the concentration. PMID:23867093

  8. Bioluminescence enhancement through an added washing protocol enabling a greater sensitivity to carbofuran toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Eltzov, Evgeni; Marks, Robert S; Ionescu, Rodica E

    2013-10-01

    The effects of carbofuran toxicity on a genetically modified bacterial strain E. coli DPD2794 were enhanced using a new bioluminescent protocol which consisted of three consecutive steps: incubation, washing and luminescence reading. Specifically, in the first step, several concentrations of carbofuran aqueous solutions were incubated with different bacterial suspensions at recorded optical densities for different lengths of time. Thereafter, the resulting bacterial/toxicant mixtures were centrifuged and the aged cellular supernatant replaced with fresh medium. In the final step, the carbofuran- induced bioluminescence to the exposed E. coli DPD2794 bacteria was shown to provide a faster and higher intensity when recorded at a higher temperature at30°C which is not usually used in the literature. It was found that the incubation time and the replacement of aged cellular medium were essential factors to distinguish different concentrations of carbofuran in the bioluminescent assays. From our results, the optimum incubation time for a "light ON" bioluminescence detection of the effect of carbofuran was 6h. Thanks to the replacement of the aged cellular medium, a group of additional peaks starting around 30min were observed and we used the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC) at different contents of carbofuran to produce the calibration curve. Based on the new protocol, a carbofuran concentration of 0.5pg/mL can be easily determined in a microtiter plate bioluminescent assay, while a non-wash protocol provides an unexplainable order of curve evolutionswhich does not allow the user to determine the concentration.

  9. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing MRLs for carbofuran, carbosulfan, benfuracarb and furathiocarb and the setting of an import tolerance for carbofuran in cultivated mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the information provided by the European Spice Association (ESA with a view to setting an import tolerance on cultivated mushrooms and considering in parallel, a review of all existing EU MRLs for the N-methyl-carbamate insecticides; carbofuran, carbosulfan, benfuracarb and furathiocarb, including the CXLs that were taken over in the EU legislation. EFSA recommends the withdrawal of the carbofuran and/or carbosulfan CXLs transposed in the EU legislation for mandarin, orange, sunflower, rape seed and spices. EFSA recommends, to maintain the MRL for carbofuran in fresh cultivated mushrooms at the current LOQ of 0.01* mg/kg, since higher values will result in an acute consumer intake concern. No changes are proposed to the benfuracarb and furathiocarb MRLs (LOQs listed in Annex V of Regulation (EC No 396/2005. In contrast, for carbofuran and having regard to the low toxicological reference values proposed for this active substance, the setting of MRLs below the default LOQ value of 0.01*mg/kg would be requested, especially for the food commodities that contribute significantly to consumer diets.

  10. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  11. Intentional poisoning cases of animals with anticholinesterase pesticide-carbofuran in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Sakunthala; Perera, Bandumala; Haturusinghe, Lathika

    2009-04-01

    Carbofuran is a broad spectrum insecticide and nematicide which inhibits acetyl cholinesterase. Several intentional poisoning cases of animals and birds including crows, dogs, cow, and elephant, using carbofuran were reported in Sri Lanka. Qualitative analysis of carbofuran in biological specimens was carried out using T.L.C and GC-MS. The quantitative analysis was carried out by HPLC using Zorbax Eclips XDB-C18 (150 x 4.6 mm I.D x 5 microm particle size) column with acetonitrile: water 25:75 v/v mobile phase and UV detection at 210 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform was reproducible and sensitive. The procedure was validated in terms of linearity (0.996carbofuran poisoning. The fatal carbofuran levels detected were in the range of 42-910 microg/g in crow's gizzard and contents, 50-800 microg/g in dog's stomach contents, 13-20 microg/g in dog's liver, 0.9 microg/g in cow's stomach and contents, 35 microg/g in elephant's stomach and contents.

  12. In-vitro carbofuran induced micronucleus formation in human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Rai, D K; Sharma, B

    2012-12-22

    The farmers in general get exposed to different chemicals including pesticides. Many of these compounds are capable of inducing mutations in DNA and lead to several diseases including cancer. Carbofuran is a broad spectrum pesticide and frequently used in agricultural practices in India. In this study we intended to evaluate DNA damage inflicted by pesticide exposure in human blood lymphocytes under in vitro condition. The lymphocytes were exposed to varying concentrations of carbofuran (0—50μM) and analyzed by means of the micronucleus (MN) test. The results obtained showed significant increase in MN frequency after exposure to 5, 10, 25 and 50μM of carbofuran as compared to the control group. The frequencies of MN were observed to be in concentration dependent manner. As we further increase the concentration of carbofuran, we observed significant decrease in the mean percentage of binucleated cells (70—49%) and increase in the number of micronuclei formed per 1000 binucleated cells. Simultaneously, we also observed reduction in Cytokinesis—Block Proliferation index (CBPI) with increase in the carbofuran concentrations. The results indicate that this pesticide may exhibit genotoxic effect at higher concentrations. This study emphasizes the need to reinforce the good practices campaigns in order to enlighten those who work with pesticides and also to make them aware about the importance of using protective measures.

  13. Amperometric immunosensor based on a protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals modified electrode for carbofuran detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xiangyou

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu) was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA) and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA's oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  14. Study on the downward movement of carbofuran in two Malaysian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, G H N; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Zakaria, Zuriati; Kuntom, Aini; Omar, Dzolkifli

    2008-09-01

    The downward movement of carbofuran in two Malaysian soil types was studied using soil columns. The columns were filled with disturbed and undisturbed soils of either the Bagan Datoh soil (clay) or the Labu soil (sandy clay). The average total percentage of carbofuran in the leachate of the undisturbed Labu soil after 14 days of watering (80.8%) was approximately similar to that of the total amount from the disturbed soil (81.4%). However, carbofuran leaching was observed in the disturbed soil after the fourth day of watering whereas for the undisturbed soil, leaching occurred after the first watering. A similar trend was observed in the Bagan Datoh soil where the residue of carbofuran was detected after the first day of watering in the undisturbed soil column but only at the eighth day of watering in the disturbed soil column. The total percentage carbofuran in the leachate of disturbed and undisturbed soil columns from Bagan Datoh after 14 days of watering was 3.6% and 41.7%, respectively. The study showed that less leaching occurred in soil columns with high organic content such as the Bagan Datoh soil and especially so in disturbed soils where the organic matter was homogeneously mixed in all layers.

  15. Development of an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method for carbofuran residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyi; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Yueming; Sun, Yuanming; Pan, Ke; Lei, Hongtao; Wu, Qing; Shen, Yudong; Xiao, Zhili; Xu, Zhenlin

    2008-04-17

    The haptens 4-[[(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy)carbonyl]-amino]butanoic acid (BFNB) and 6-[((2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy)-carbonylamino]hexanoic acid (BFNH) were synthesized and then used to develop a rapid,specific and sensitive ELISA method to determine residues of the pesticide carbofuran in a variety of matrices. A hybridoma cell line (5D3) producing anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was also established. Based on the MAbs in combination with the heterologous hapten BFNH coupled to either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or ovalbumin(OVA), four ELISAs (formats I-IV) for the quantification of carbofuran were developed and compared. Among them, the optimized format II (the conjugate-coated direct competitive ELISA) showed the best characteristics, with an IC50 value of 18.49 ng/mL, a limit of detection of 0.11 ng/mL and the shortest assay time (1 h). This ELISA method was then applied to the determinations of carbofuran in environmental water, soil and food samples. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) ranged from 1.8% to 21.3% and the mean recoveries were 104.6%, 108.3%, 106.3% and 100.1% for water, soil, lettuce and cabbage, respectively. Thus, the ELISA method of format II exhibited the potential to develop commercial ELISA kits for a rapid detection of carbofuran for human health and environmental safety.

  16. Development of an Enzyme-linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA Method for Carbofuran Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Xu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The haptens 4-[[(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxycarbonyl]-amino]butanoic acid (BFNB and 6-[((2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy-carbonylamino]hexanoic acid (BFNH were synthesized and then used to develop a rapid,specific and sensitive ELISA method to determine residues of the pesticide carbofuran in avariety of matrices. A hybridoma cell line (5D3 producing anti-carbofuran monoclonalantibodies (MAbs was also established. Based on the MAbs in combination with theheterologous hapten BFNH coupled to either horseradish peroxidase (HRP or ovalbumin(OVA, four ELISAs (formats I-IV for the quantification of carbofuran were developedand compared. Among them, the optimized format II (the conjugate-coated directcompetitive ELISA showed the best characteristics, with an IC50 value of 18.49 ng/mL, alimit of detection of 0.11 ng/mL and the shortest assay time (1 h. This ELISA method wasthen applied to the determinations of carbofuran in environmental water, soil and foodsamples. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s ranged from 1.8% to 21.3% and themean recoveries were 104.6%, 108.3%, 106.3% and 100.1% for water, soil, lettuce andcabbage, respectively. Thus, the ELISA method of format II exhibited the potential todevelop commercial ELISA kits for a rapid detection of carbofuran for human health andenvironmental safety.

  17. Solar Radiation Alters Toxicity of Carbofuran: Evidence from Empirical Trials with Duttaphyrnus melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Wijesinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the potential of natural solar radiation to alter the toxicity of a commonly used carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on tadpoles of the Common Asian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. A single exposure trial was conducted over 96 hrs with three concentrations (150, 250 and 500 µgl-1 of photo-irradiated and non-irradiated carbofuran. Results show that photo-irradiation markedly reduced the toxicity of carbofuran as evident by its effects on three end points, i.e. mortality, growth and swimming activity. The mortality of tadpoles exposed to irradiated carbofuran was significantly lower than those exposed to the non-irradiated pesticide. Both treatment and control tadpoles showed a hormetic response for mortality. Tadpoles in irradiated tanks were also larger and more active than those in the control tanks. Photo-altered toxicity was evident at all three tested concentrations. The results of this study therefore signals caution when directly linking  results of empirical trials to field scenarios and highlight the necessity to evaluate toxic effects of compounds under variable environmental conditions.Keywords: Carbofuran, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, photo-degradation, tadpoles, toxicity

  18. Experimental monitoring and numerical study of pesticide (carbofuran) transfer in an agricultural soil at a field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmimou, Abderrahim; Maslouhi, Abdellatif; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila

    2014-09-01

    We studied the transport of a pesticide at field scale, namely carbofuran molecule, which is known for its high mobility, especially in sandy soils with high hydraulic conductivity and low organic matter. To add to our knowledge of the future of this high-mobility molecule in this type of soils, we developed a mechanistic numerical model allowing the simulation of hydric and solute transfers (bromide and carbofuran) in the soil. We carried out this study in an agricultural plot in the region of Mnasra in Morocco. Confrontation of the measured and simulated values allowed the calibration of the parameters of hydric transfer and carbofuran. The developed model accurately reproduces the measured values. Despite a weak irrigation and precipitation regime, carbofuran was practically leached beyond the root zone. Prospective simulations show that under a more important irrigation regime, carbofuran reaches a 100-cm depth, whereas it does not exceed 60 cm under a deficit regime.

  19. Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, J.M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from banana stalks (BSAC) waste to remove the insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial carbofuran concentration, solution pH and temperature (30, 40 and 50 deg. C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of carbofuran on BSAC were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) and standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were evaluated. Regeneration efficiency of spent BSAC was studied using ethanol as a solvent. The efficiency was found to be in the range of 96.97-97.35%. The results indicated that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability characteristics and can be used as alternative to present commercial activated carbon.

  20. Batch Study for Insecticide Carbofuran Adsorption onto Palm-Oil-Fronds-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassem M. Salman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of insecticide, carbofuran from aqueous solution onto activated carbon derived from palm oil fronds (PFAC was investigated through batch study. The effects of both initial concentration and pH of the carbofuran over the range of 25 to 250 mg/L and 2 to 12, respectively, on the adsorption of the prepared PFAC were studied in batch experiments. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the Temkin isotherm models. The results obtained from application of these models show that the best fits were achieved with the Langmuir model, and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 164 mg/g was obtained at 30°C. The regeneration efficiency of spent activated carbon was studied and it was found to be 90.0–96.4%. The results indicated that PFAC has good capability as adsorbent for the removal of carbofuran from aqueous solutions.

  1. Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, J M; Hameed, B H

    2010-04-15

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from banana stalks (BSAC) waste to remove the insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial carbofuran concentration, solution pH and temperature (30, 40 and 50 degrees C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of carbofuran on BSAC were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (DeltaH(o)), standard entropy (DeltaS(o)) and standard free energy (DeltaG(o)) were evaluated. Regeneration efficiency of spent BSAC was studied using ethanol as a solvent. The efficiency was found to be in the range of 96.97-97.35%. The results indicated that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability characteristics and can be used as alternative to present commercial activated carbon.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran in TiO2 aqueous solution: kinetics using design of experiments and mechanism by HPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai; Zhou, Shuolin; Liu, Huajie; Yan, Weiwei; Yang, Liping; Yij, Bing

    2013-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of carbofuran was optimized by central composite design based on response surface methodology for the first time. Three variables, TiO2 concentration, initial pH value and the concentration of carbofuran, were selected to determine the dependence of degradation efficiencies on independent variables. Response surface methodology modeling results indicated that the degradation efficiency of carbofuran was highly affected by the initial pH value and the concentration of carbofuran. Then nine degradation intermediates were detected by HPLC/MS/MS. The Frontier Electron Densities of carbofuran were calculated to predict the active sites on carbofuran attacked by hydroxyl radicals and photoholes. Point charges were used to elucidate the chemisorption pattern on TiO2 catalysts during the photocatalytic process. By combining the experimental results and calculation data, the photocatalytic degradation pathways of carbofuran were proposed, including the addition of hydroxyl radicals and the cleavage of the carbamate side chain.

  3. A Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on a Sol-Gel Entrapped Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody (Ab was immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE using silica sol-gel (SiSG technology. Thus, a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the direct determination of carbofuran was developed. The electrochemical performance of immunoreaction of antigen with the anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, in which phosphate buffer solution containing [Fe(CN6]3−/4− was used as the base solution for test. Because the complex formed by the immunoreaction hindered the diffusion of [Fe(CN6]3−/4− on the electrode surface, the redox peak current of the immunosensor in the CV obviously decreased with the increase of the carbofuran concentration. The pH of working solution, the concentration of Ab and the incubation time of carbofuran were studied to ensure the sensitivity and conductivity of the immunosensor. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range of the proposed immunosensor for the determination of carbofuran was from 1 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL and from 50 μg/mL to 200 μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The proposed immunosensor exhibited good high sensitivity and stability, and it was thus suitable for trace detection of carbofuran pesticide residues.

  4. A label-free electrochemical immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on a sol-gel entrapped antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Du, Shuyuan; Wang, Xiangyou; Zhao, Wenping; Li, Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody (Ab) was immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using silica sol-gel (SiSG) technology. Thus, a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the direct determination of carbofuran was developed. The electrochemical performance of immunoreaction of antigen with the anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in which phosphate buffer solution containing [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) was used as the base solution for test. Because the complex formed by the immunoreaction hindered the diffusion of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) on the electrode surface, the redox peak current of the immunosensor in the CV obviously decreased with the increase of the carbofuran concentration. The pH of working solution, the concentration of Ab and the incubation time of carbofuran were studied to ensure the sensitivity and conductivity of the immunosensor. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range of the proposed immunosensor for the determination of carbofuran was from 1 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL and from 50 μg/mL to 200 μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The proposed immunosensor exhibited good high sensitivity and stability, and it was thus suitable for trace detection of carbofuran pesticide residues.

  5. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14C-carbofuran or 14C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  6. Comparison of batch, stirred flow chamber, and column experiments to study adsorption, desorption and transport of carbofuran within two acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Different methods (batch, column and stirred flow chamber experiments) used for adsorption and desorption of carbofuran studies were compared. All tested methods showed that the carbofuran adsorption was higher in the soil with the higher organic matter content, whereas the opposite behaviour was observed for the percentage of carbofuran desorbed. However, different methods have revealed some discrepancies in carbofuran adsorption/desorption kinetics. Although batch method showed interesting data on equilibrium experiments, such as a low heterogeneity for the carbofuran adsorption sites independent of soil organic matter content, it had some disadvantages for carbofuran adsorption/desorption kinetic studies. The disadvantages were related with the excessive limitations of this method on kinetics, i.e., no difference could be detected between different soils. However, with column and stirred flow chamber methods the carbofuran adsorption/desorption kinetics of different soils could be compared. Moreover, the absolute values of carbofuran adsorption/desorption and its rate were higher in the stirred flow chamber than in the batch and column experiments. Using stirred flow chamber experiments the carbofuran desorption was significantly faster than its adsorption, whereas carbofuran using column experiments they were similar. These discrepancies should be considered when the results obtained only with one method is discussed.

  7. Electrochemical biosensor for carbofuran pesticide based on esterases from Eupenicillium shearii FREI-39 endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Gregory Ferreira; de Oliveira, Tássia Regina; de Andrade Narciso, Esther; Moccelini, Sally Katiuce; Terezo, Ailton José; Soares, Marcos Antonio; Castilho, Marilza

    2015-01-15

    In this work, a biosensor was constructed by physical adsorption of the isolated endophytic fungus Eupenicillium shearii FREI-39 esterase on halloysite, using graphite powder, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and mineral oil for the determination of carbofuran pesticide by inhibition of the esterase using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). Specific esterase activities were determined each 2 days over a period of 15 days of growth in four different inoculation media. The highest specific activity was found on 6th day, with 33.08 U on PDA broth. The best performance of the proposed biosensor was obtained using 0.5 U esterase activity. The carbofuran concentration response was linear in the range from 5.0 to 100.0 µg L(-1) (r=0.9986) with detection and quantification limits of 1.69 µg L(-1) and 5.13 µg L(-1), respectively. A recovery study of carbofuran in spiked water samples showed values ranging from 103.8±6.7% to 106.7±9.7%. The biosensor showed good repeatability and reproducibility and remained stable for a period of 20 weeks. The determination of carbofuran in spiked water samples using the proposed biosensor was satisfactory when compared to the chromatographic reference method. The results showed no significant difference at the 95% confidence level with t-test statistics. The application of enzymes from endophytic fungi in constructing biosensors broadens the biotechnological importance of these microorganisms.

  8. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R

  9. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure.

  10. Bestrijdingsmiddelen in duplicaat 24-uursvoedingen (deelrapport 2: carbaryl, carbofuran en propoxur)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goewie CE; Hogendoorn EA

    1987-01-01

    Twee series duplicaat 24-uursvoedingen, verzameld in respectievelijk oktober 1984 (52 monsters) en maart 1985 (53 monsters), werden onderzocht op de N-methylcarbamaten carbaryl, carbofuran en propoxur. Ten behoeve van dit onderzoek werd een nieuwe analysemethode ontwikkeld, gebaseerd op een aut

  11. Solar photo-Fenton optimisation in treating carbofuran-contaminated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Hernández-Shek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Box-Benkhen design response-surface methodology was developed to optimise photo-Fenton degradation of carbofuran (C12H15NO3 by using a compound parabolic collector pilot plant. The four variables considered in Box-Benkhen design model included carbofuran degradation percentage, initial carbofuran concentration, hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] concentration and iron [Fe2+] concentration. Degradation was monitored by using total organic carbon concentration and high-performance liquid chromatography. A 93.2 mg l-1 carbofuran concentration was completely degraded in t30W = 15 min with 17.1 mg l-1 Fe2+ and 121.6 mg l-1 H2O2. Photo-Fenton degradation led to 76.7% mineralisation. Biodegradability during optimisation was evaluated by using the BOD5/COD ratio; this value increased from 0.04 at the beginning of the process to 0.52 in t30W = 20 min, thereby showing the effectiveness of using biological treatments.

  12. Gold immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of carbofuran and triazophos in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Rong; Liu, Shao-Ying; Gui, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Guo-Nian

    2009-06-01

    Using a simple test for rapid identification and quantification of pesticide multiresidues in food and environmental samples is a long-cherished approach for practical monitoring purposes. Here two gold-based lateral-flow strips (strip A and strip B) were investigated for simultaneous detection of carbofuran and triazophos. For the strip A format, a bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMcAb) against both carbofuran and triazophos was employed to prepare the immunogold probe. For the strip B format, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody (McAb) and anti-triazophos McAb separately labeled with colloidal gold were combined as detector reagents. By comparison of visual results from pesticide standard tests between the two formats, the strip B assay manifested higher sensitivities for both pesticides. Analysis of spiked water samples by the preferable strip indicated that the detection limits for carbofuran and triazophos were 32 and 4 microg/L, respectively. The strength of the portable one-step strip assay was in the simultaneous screening for two pesticides within a short time (8-10 min) without any equipment.

  13. Solar Radiation Alters Toxicity of Carbofuran: Evidence from Empirical Trials with Duttaphyrnus melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.Wijesinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the potential of natural solar radiation to alter the toxicity of a commonly used carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on tadpoles of the Common Asian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. A single exposure trial was conducted over 96 hrs with three concentrations (150, 250 and 500 µgl-1 of photo-irradiated and non-irradiated carbofuran. Results show that photo-irradiation markedly reduced the toxicity of carbofuran as evident by its effects on three end points, i.e. mortality, growth and swimming activity. The mortality of tadpoles exposed to irradiated carbofuran was significantly lower than those exposed to the non-irradiated pesticide. Both treatment and control tadpoles showed a hormetic response for mortality. Tadpoles in irradiated tanks were also larger and more active than those in the control tanks. Photo-altered toxicity was evident at all three tested concentrations. The results of this study therefore signals caution when directly linking results of empirical trials to field scenarios and highlight the necessity to evaluate toxic effects of compounds under variable environmental conditions.

  14. Analysis of carbofuran, carbosulfan, isoprocarb, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, and 3-ketocarbofuran by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Hua; Hu, Cho-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2012-06-01

    We developed an analytical method for the detection and quantitation of five pesticides and some of their metabolites - 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran, carbofuran, carbosulfan, and isoprocarb - using micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled with a UV-Vis detector. The optimum separation conditions were 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) containing 15 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The detection wavelength was set at 200 nm and the applied voltage was 12.5 kV. Under these conditions, baseline separation of five pesticides was achieved in 15 min, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) of 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran, carbofuran, carbosulfan, and isoprocarb were 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 4.0, and 0.3 μM, respectively. The linear ranges for 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran, carbofuran, and isoprocarb were between 1.0 and 50.0 μM and that for carbosulfan was between 10.0 and 100.0 μM, with R(2) larger than 0.995. When applied to the analysis of a carbofuran-spiked rice sample, this approach yielded results with excellent repeatability (3.3%, n = 5), reproducibility (4.5%, n = 5), separation efficiency (>2.1 × 10(4) theoretical plates), and recovery (95.5 ± 1.4%, n = 5).

  15. Development of a bispecific monoclonal antibody to pesticide carbofuran and triazophos using hybrid hybridomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, R Y; Guo, Y R; Wang, C M; Wu, J X; Zhu, G N

    2009-01-01

    A mouse hybrid hybridoma (tetradoma) was derived from fusing hybridomas producing monoclonal antibody to N-methylcarbamate pesticide carbofuran with hybridomas producing monoclonal antibody to organophosphorus pesticide Triazophos. The prepared tetradoma line (12C1 to 2H12) secreted hybrid immunoglobulin exhibiting parental and bispecific binding characteristics. The effect of relevant physicochemical factors on the immunoassay based on the 12C1 to 2H12 bispecific monoclonal antibody had been studied to optimize the ELISA performance. The developed immunoassay showed that the detection limit (I(20)) were 0.36 and 1.89 ng/mL for triazophos and carbofuran, respectively, without obvious cross-reactivity to other related compounds. Water samples spiked with triazophos at 0.5, 1, and 5 ng/mL or carbofuran at 5, 10, and 20 ng/mL were directly analyzed by the developed ELISA format. The mean recovery of triazophos and carbofuran were 108.1% and 107.5%, with variation coefficient of 15.9% and 17.7%, respectively.

  16. lux-Marking and application of carbofuran degrader Burkholderia cepacia PCL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangklang, Pensri; Reungsang, Alissara

    2011-10-01

    A luxAB-mutant of the carbofuran degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 was successfully constructed with the capability to emit a luminescence signal of 1.6×10(-3)RLUcfu(-1). The mutant has a growth pattern and carbofuran degradation ability similar to PCL3 wild-type. The luminescent emission by PCL3:luxAB1 directly correlated with the metabolic activity of the cells. The optimal pH, temperature and n-decanal concentration for luminescence emission are 7.0, 35°C and 0.01%, respectively. PCL3:luxAB1 was used to assess the toxicity of carbofuran and carbofuran phenol in basal salt medium (BSM) in which the different sensitivity of the cells is dependent on the biomass concentration. With the luciferase system, the degradative fraction of the augmented PCL3:luxAB1 and the difference between the active augmented PCL3:luxAB1 and indigenous microorganisms at the contaminated site could be indicated.

  17. Effect of Ionic Liquid on Detection of Carbofuran by Plant-lipases Inactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan WU; Li Jun HE; Wen Jie ZHAO; Kui LU

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) as additive in phosphate buffer for detection of carbofuran by plant-lipases inhibition method is described. The higher inhibition efficiency and the shorter analysis time can be obtained by using N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid-phosphate buffer mixtures instead of pure phosphate buffer.

  18. Cholinesterase-inhibiting and genotoxic effects of acute carbofuran intoxication in man: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljezic, Davor; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucic; Kopjar, Nevenka; Radic, Bozica; Milkovic Kraus, Sanja

    2008-10-01

    Carbofuran belongs to the group of N-methylcarbamate insecticides used for the control of soil-dwelling and foliar-feeding insects in various crops; its consumption totals approximately 20,000 tonnes per year. Although the neurological effects on human beings have been well documented, little is known on its impact on the genome. A 38-year-old, healthy male worker employed in a carbofuran production facility accidentally inhaled the dust of the active ingredient carbofuran. Thirty minutes later, he experienced weakness, fatigue, perspiration, breathing difficulties, cephalalgia, disorientation, abdominal pain and vomiting. Blood samples were taken to measure cholinesterase activity, and to perform the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus assay combined with pancentromeric probes. Analyses were repeated 72 hr after intoxication and compared with the results obtained from regular monitoring conducted 10 days prior to the accident. Cholinesterase activity showed the highest correlation with the number of apoptotic cells, comet assay tail length, and number of long-tailed nuclei, suggesting that these are the genomic end-points primarily affected by carbofuran intake. Only a weak correlation was detected for the total number of micronuclei, centromere-containing micronuclei and nuclear buds. Since those end-points increased significantly 72 hr after the accident, they could be considered as late biomarkers of the effects of carbofuran intoxication. The results of this report suggest that, in the interests of higher standards in risk assessment and health hazard protection, periodical medical examination of carbamate-exposed populations should include genotoxicity testing in addition to the assessment of cholinesterase activity.

  19. Effects of carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): study of biomarkers and behaviour alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the pesticide carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using parameters at different levels of biological organisation (swimming behaviour and several biomarkers) and possible relationships between alterations found in different effect criteria. In a bioassay, sea bass juveniles were individually exposed to different doses of carbofuran (31, 63, 125 and 250 μg/L) for 96 h. At the end of the bioassay, the swimming performance and 11 biomarkers were determined. Biomarkers were: hepatosomatic index (HSI), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione and the activities of the enzymes ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferases, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and muscle cholinesterases (ChE). After 96 h of exposure, carbofuran induced a decrease of the swimming velocity and inhibition of EROD activity at all concentrations tested, and inhibition of muscle ChE and brain AChE activities at 250 μg/L. No relevant alterations in any of the other tested parameters were found. These results show that carbofuran induced adverse effects on fish by interfering with neurofunction, capability of detoxication and swimming velocity. In addition, positive and significant correlations between the swimming velocity and (i) brain AChE activity, (ii) muscle ChE activity and (iii) EROD activity suggest that the inhibition of these enzymes may somehow be related to the behavioural changes observed. Since these functions are determinant for the survival and performance of the fish in the wild, the findings of the present study suggest that adverse effects may occur in populations exposed to carbofuran if a sufficient number of animals is affected.

  20. Sub-acute Toxicity of Carbofuran on Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Freshwater Catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity has been widely used as a biomarker in an animal exposed to the pesticides. However, the interaction of extensively used organocarbamate insecticide, carbofuran, with the nervous system of the aquatic organisms is not properly studied. AChE is a key enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junctions, and thus regulates the neurotransmission system. In the present study, we have evaluated the impact of sub-acute concentrations (0.01 and 0.02 mg/L i.e. 1/20th and 1/10th of LC50) of carbofuran on the activity of acetylcholinesterase,from different tissues of Clarias batrachus, a fresh water teleost, after 96 hr and 15 days exposure periods in vivo. The carbofuran significantly reduced the activity of AChE in different tissues of C. batrachus at both concentrations and periods of exposure. The greater inhibition of AChE activities were recorded in fish tissues at higher carbofuran concentration (0.02 mg/L) after longer (15days) treatment period. The inhibition of AChE activity in all fish tissues tested was dependent on pesticide concentration and the duration of treatment. AChE from the tissues of C. batrachus was found to be a true cholinesterase as it was completely inhibited by the small concentration (nM) of eserine as tested in vitro. It was found that carbofuran at very low concentration exerted significant inhibitory effect on AChE activity in fish tissues.

  1. Validation of a monoclonal enzyme immunoassay for the determination of carbofuran in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M J; Abad, A; Pelegrí, R; Marínez, M J; Sáez, A; Gamón, M; Montoya, A

    2001-04-01

    The N-methylcarbamate pesticide carbofuran is a very important insecticide used worldwide. In the present work, the validation of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) to determine this compound in fruits and vegetables is described. The immunoassay is a competitive heterologous ELISA in the antibody-coated format, with an I(50) value for standards in buffer of 740 ng/L and with a dynamic range between 200 and 3100 ng/L. For recovery studies, peppers, cucumbers, strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes, oranges, and apples were spiked with carbofuran at 10, 50, and 200 ppb. After liquid extraction, analyses were performed by ELISA on extracts purified on solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and crude, nonpurified extracts. Depending on the crop, mean recoveries in the 43.9--90.7% range were obtained for purified samples and in the 90.1--121.6% range for crude extracts. The carbofuran immunoassay performance was further validated with respect to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection (EPA Method 531.1). Samples were spiked with carbofuran at several concentrations and analyzed as blind samples by ELISA and HPLC after SPE cleanup. The correlation between methods was very good (y = 0.90x + 2.66, r(2)() = 0.958, n = 25), with HPLC being more precise than ELISA (mean coefficients of variation of 4.1 and 11.5%, respectively). The immunoassay was then applied to the analysis of nonpurified extracts of the same samples. Results also compared very well with those obtained by HPLC on purified samples (y = 1.02x + 10.44, r(2)() = 0.933, n = 29). Therefore, the developed immunoassay is a suitable method for the quantitative and reliable determination of carbofuran in fruits and vegetables even without sample cleanup, which saves time and money and considerably increases the sample throughput. PMID:11308315

  2. Production and Identification of High Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Against Pesticide Carbofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To produce high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against pesticide carbofuran, and the develop immunochemical assays for people's health and environmental protection, the hapten 4-[[(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy) carbonyl]-amino]-butanoic acid (BFNB) of carbofuran was synthesized and Balb/c mice were immunized by the hapten-carrier (BFNB-bovine serum albumin, BFNB-BSA) conjugates. The splenocytes of immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 cells and the cultural supernatants of hybridoma cells were screened by the indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), based on BFNB-ovoalbumin conjugates (BFNB-OVA). Purified monoclonal antibody (McAb) was obtained from fluids of ascites, deposited by octanoic acid and ammonium sulfate. The affinity and the specificity of McAb were characterized by ELISA or indirect competitive ELISA. A hybridoma cell line (5D3) secreting anti-carbofuran McAb had been established. The titer of culture medium and ascites was up to 1:2.048 × 103 and 1:1.024 × 106, respectively, and the subtype of the McAb was IgG1. The affinity constant of the McAb was about 2.54 × 109 L mol-1, with an IC50 value of 1.18 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL-1. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the McAb was quiet specific for carbofuran, as among the four analogous compounds, they were all hardly recognized (4.59 × 10-4% for 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol and less than 3.0 × 10-4% for others). The prepared McAb had a very high affinity and specificity,and it could be used to develop ELISA for rapid determination of carbofuran.

  3. Carbofuran induced oxidative stress mediated alterations in Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity in rat brain: amelioration by vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Siddiqi, Nikhat Jamal; Sharma, Bechan

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides cause oxidative stress and adversely influence Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in animals. Since impact of carbofuran has not been properly studied in the mammalian brain, the ability of carbofuran to induce oxidative stress and modulation in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and its amelioration by vitamin E was performed. The rats divided into six groups received two different doses of carbofuran (15% and 30% LD50) for 15 days. The results suggested that the carbofuran treatment caused a significant elevation in levels of malonaldehyde and reduced glutathione and sharp inhibition in the activities of super oxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase; the effect being dose dependent. Carbofuran at different doses also caused sharp reduction in the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The pretreatment of vitamin E, however, showed a significant recovery in these indices. The pretreatment of rats with vitamin E offered protection from carbofuran-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomic Approach for Optimization and Toxicity Evaluation of Earthworm Sub-Lethal Responses to Carbofuran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam; Ratnasekhar Ch; Prem Narain Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals) for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to asse...

  5. [The investigation into specific features of the distribution of carbofuran in the body of the warm-blooded animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, V K; Galushkin, S G; Kovalenko, E A; Terskikh, A P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution of the carbamate pesticide carfbofuran in the organism of the warm-blooded animals (rats) after its intragastric administration. It was shown that large amounts of unmetabolized carbofuran were present in the internal organs and biological fluids. The highest content of carbofuran was recorded in the stomach, large and small intestines, testicles, urinary bladder, ureters, and heart.

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of carbofuran and oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the freshwater fish Nile tilapia: nanotubes enhance pesticide ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Garcia, Janaína; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T; Alves, Oswaldo L; Leonardo, Antônio Fernando Gervásio; Barbieri, Edison

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of carbon nanotubes with pesticides, such as carbofuran, classical contaminants (e.g., pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and dyes) and emerging contaminants, including endocrine disruptors, are critical components of the environmental risks of this important class of carbon-based nanomaterials. In this work, we studied the modulation of acute carbofuran toxicity to the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes, termed HNO3-MWCNT. Nitric acid oxidation is a common chemical method employed for the purification, functionalisation and aqueous dispersion of carbon nanotubes. HNO3-MWCNT were not toxic to Nile tilapia at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L for exposure times of up to 96 h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the LC50 values of carbofuran were 4.0, 3.2, 3.0 and 2.4 mg/mL, respectively. To evaluate the influence of carbofuran-nanotube interactions on ecotoxicity, we exposed the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of carbofuran mixed together with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, the LC50 values of carbofuran plus nanotubes were 3.7, 1.6, 0.7 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. These results demonstrate that HNO3-MWCNT potentiate the acute toxicity of carbofuran, leading to a more than five-fold increase in the LC50 values. Furthermore, the exposure of Nile tilapia to carbofuran plus nanotubes led to decreases in both oxygen consumption and swimming capacity compared to the control. These findings indicate that carbon nanotubes could act as pesticide carriers affecting fish survival, metabolism and behaviour.

  7. Selection of support materials for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in treatment of carbofuran-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laocharoen, S; Plangklang, P; Reungsang, A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utilization of agricultural matrices as the support materials for cell immobilization to improve the technique of bioremediation. Coir, bulrush, banana stem and water hyacinth stem in both delignified and undelignified forms were used to immobilize Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in bioremediation of carbofuran at 5 mg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater. Undelignified coir was found to be the most suitable support material for cell immobilization, giving the short half-life of carbofuran of 3.40 d (2.8 times shorter than the treatments with free cells). In addition, it could be reused three times without a loss in ability to degrade carbofuran. The growth and degradation ability of free cells were completely inhibited at the initial carbofuran concentrations of 250 mg l(-1), while there was no inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the immobilized cells. The results indicated a great potential for using the agricultural matrices as support material for cell immobilization to improve the overall efficiency of carbofuran bioremediation in contaminated water by B. cepacia PCL3.

  8. Selection of support materials for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in treatment of carbofuran-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laocharoen, S; Plangklang, P; Reungsang, A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utilization of agricultural matrices as the support materials for cell immobilization to improve the technique of bioremediation. Coir, bulrush, banana stem and water hyacinth stem in both delignified and undelignified forms were used to immobilize Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in bioremediation of carbofuran at 5 mg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater. Undelignified coir was found to be the most suitable support material for cell immobilization, giving the short half-life of carbofuran of 3.40 d (2.8 times shorter than the treatments with free cells). In addition, it could be reused three times without a loss in ability to degrade carbofuran. The growth and degradation ability of free cells were completely inhibited at the initial carbofuran concentrations of 250 mg l(-1), while there was no inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the immobilized cells. The results indicated a great potential for using the agricultural matrices as support material for cell immobilization to improve the overall efficiency of carbofuran bioremediation in contaminated water by B. cepacia PCL3. PMID:24527620

  9. Effect of refining processes on magnitude and nature of malathion and carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14C-carbofuran or 14C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol, solubles and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticide. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and α(O,O-dimethyl-phosphorodithio) propionic acid. The concentration of 14C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-ketocarbofuran. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Poisoning of cats and dogs by the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; Yoshida, Alberto Soiti; Gonçalves-Junior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2015-10-01

    The intentional and accidental poisoning of animals and people is a threat to public health and safety worldwide. Necropsies and histopathological examinations of 26 cats and 10 dogs poisoned by the carbamates aldicarb and carbofuran, confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) were analysed, with variable post mortem interval and conservation of the carcass. Biological matrices were collected for toxicological and histopathological analyses. High performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) was utilized to detect aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulphoxide and aldicarb sulphone, and carbofuran. The variable post mortem interval and the method of conservation of the carcass may be harmful to toxicological, necroscopic and histopathological analyses, that should be performed in order to provide reliable evidences to investigate possible poisoning of animals, which is cruel crime, and are usually linked to domestic or social conflict.

  11. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  12. Protective effect of secondary plant metabolites from Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. against carbofuran induced damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sanjukta; Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh; Ghosh, Santinath; Dhar, Pubali

    2013-12-01

    Plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural constituents in vivo and protective effect of polyphenols present in I. aquatica against carbofuran toxicity in Charles Foster rats were evaluated. Determinations based on antioxidant enzyme activities showed significant alterations in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in tissues (liver and brain) and plasma of pesticide treated group while polyphenolic extracts from I. aquatica (IAE) attenuated their activities when given alongwith carbofuran. IAE decreased enhanced lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocyte membrane and cholesterol levels in brain and plasma. IAE also minimized histopathological degenerative changes produced by carbofuran. While single cell gel electrophoresis showed that secondary metabolites in leafy vegetables produced a combinatorial effect with pesticide at cellular level, DNA fragmentation level in bone marrow cells showed a decline in the IAE treated rats. Food safety adversely affected by various chemical contaminants can be retained by plant polyphenols and secondary plant constituents that can be found together in bolus. Therefore, the present study gives an insight into the protective role of naturally found polyphenols against pesticide toxicity.

  13. EFFECT OF CARBOFURAN ON THE FORMATION OF SOME BIOMOLECULES IN BRINJAL (SOLANUM MELONGENA L. LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANZOOR A, ASHRAFI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out with the objective to study the effect of carbofuran on the quantitative formation of carbohydrate, total free amino acids, protein, total phenol and total chlorophyll contents in brinjal leaf as recorded on 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application (DAA. The carbohydrate content decreased to the extent of 3.36, 4.53 and 4.60% respectively against control (T1 : 0, recommended (T2 : 33.0 kg ha–1 and double of recommended (T3 : 66.0 kg ha–1 doses of carbofuran formulation on the 35th DAA in comparison with 1st DAA. The total free amino acid content decreased to 42.82, 45.84 and 49.89% respectively against the above doses. In case of protein content also an overall decrease of 45.28, 43.10 and 45.61% with regards to 1st DAA was observed. The total phenol content, on the contrary, recorded an increase of 18.85, 21.77 and 5.35% respectively in case of above three doses. The total chlorophyll content again exhibited a decrease of 20.99, 22.73 and 36.05% respectively. So the formation of all the biomolecules under study except phenol in brinjal leaf was found to decrease with passage of time as an effect of application of carbofuran.

  14. Protection against carbofuran-induced toxicity in rat tissues and plasma by Ipomoea aquatica Forsk crude extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjukta Datta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate, a commonly used carbamate, induces oxidative stress through free radical generation. Role of green leafy vegetables against such toxic compounds have been well established. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the deleterious effects of carbofuran on brain and plasma in albino male rats of Charles Foster strain and whether Ipomoea aquatica crude extract (IAE can protect body cells and tissues against oxidative insult. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups: one was treated with an oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg b.wt of carbofuran alone; 20 mg of polyphenolic compound expressed as gallic acid equivalents per kg b.wt was fed to another group; a third group was gavaged both the doses; the final group served as control and provided normal diet. Results: Evaluations based on altered activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic glutathione in carbofuran treated rats showed the protective side of IAE. Also, increase in the total cholesterol levels in brain and plasma and DNA fragmentation in bone marrow cells were attenuated positively in the presence of IAE. Conclusion: The present study gives an insight into the protective role of plant polyphenols in minimizing the ill-effects of carbofuran. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(4.000: 323-329

  15. Carbofuran and its toxic metabolites provide forensic evidence for furadan exposure in vultures (Gyps africanus) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Peter O; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Jondiko, Isaac O; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2010-05-01

    Forensic analysis of carbofuran residues in weathered tissue samples for evidence of Furadan exposure in vultures (Gps africanus) by HPLC gave concentration (mg/Kg dry tissue weight) ranges of bdl - 0.07 (carbofuran), bdl - 0.499 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.013-0.147 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in beaks, bdl-0.65 (carbofuran), 0.024-0.190 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.017-0.098 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in feet, 0.179-0.219 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.081-0.093 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in crop content, 0.078-0.082 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.091-0.101 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in muscle of a laced carcass and 0.006-0.014 (carbofuran), 0.590-1.010 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.095-0.135 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in soil sampled from a poisoning site. These compounds were confirmed by GC-MS. The results showed that HPLC combined with GC-MS is suitable for forensic analysis of carbofuran residues in bird tissue samples and that forensic investigation should include its two toxic metabolites, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran.

  16. Design of an optimized biomixture for the degradation of carbofuran based on pesticide removal and toxicity reduction of the matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide biopurification systems contain a biologically active matrix (biomixture) responsible for the accelerated elimination of pesticides in wastewaters derived from pest control in crop fields. Biomixtures have been typically prepared using the volumetric composition 50:25:25 (lignocellulosic substrate/humic component/soil); nonetheless, formal composition optimization has not been performed so far. Carbofuran is an insecticide/nematicide of high toxicity widely employed in developing countries. Therefore, the composition of a highly efficient biomixture (composed of coconut fiber, compost, and soil, FCS) for the removal of carbofuran was optimized by means of a central composite design and response surface methodology. The volumetric content of soil and the ratio coconut fiber/compost were used as the design variables. The performance of the biomixture was assayed by considering the elimination of carbofuran, the mineralization of (14)C-carbofuran, and the residual toxicity of the matrix, as response variables. Based on the models, the optimal volumetric composition of the FCS biomixture consists of 45:13:42 (coconut fiber/compost/soil), which resulted in minimal residual toxicity and ∼99% carbofuran elimination after 3 days. This optimized biomixture considerably differs from the standard 50:25:25 composition, which remarks the importance of assessing the performance of newly developed biomixtures during the design of biopurification systems.

  17. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran pesticide on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): hematological, biochemical and cytogenetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2014-05-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of two sublethal concentrations of carbofuran pesticide (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) on hematological and blood biochemical parameters of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and to evaluate the genotoxic potential of carbofuran on the erythrocytes of C. gariepinus for the first time by micronucleus and erythrocyte alteration assays. The results revealed a significant (pcarbofuran exposure caused a significant (pCarbofuran caused many genotoxic and morphological alterations in erythrocytes such as formation of micronuclei (MN), echinocytes, acanthocytes, tear like drop cells, microcytes and erythrocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm and pale nucleus. The exposed groups have shown significant variations in frequencies of MN and altered erythrocytes in comparison to control group, and these frequencies increased significantly (pcarbofuran concentration. Therefore, current results present a clear evidence of the response of C. gariepinus to carbofuran and allow us to consider that C. gariepinus as a good bioindicator to reflect the toxicity and the genotoxic potential of carbofuran that might be released into the aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Investigation of the interaction of carbofuran and DNA by voltammetry and fluorescence with the aid of chemometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia Wang; Yong Nian Ni; Serge Kokot

    2010-01-01

    The interactions of carbofuran and DNA were studied using voltammetry and fluorescence spectroscopy.The formation of carbofuran-DNA makes the current peak of DNA decreased by voltammetry method.The binding number(n)and constant(Ka)for complex carbofuran-DNA were calculated to be 1.06 ±0.04 and 0.11 ±0.03 mol-1 L,respectively by fluorescence measurement.Chemometrics approach,such as singular value decomposition(SVD)was used to evaluate the number of spectral species in the drug-DNA binding process.And the pure spectra and concentration profiles in the kinetic system were clearly deduced by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares(MCR-ALS)with the initial estimates by evolving factor analysis(EFA).

  19. Comparative toxicity of carbaryl, carbofuran, cypermethrin and fenvalerate in Metaphire posthuma and Eisenia fetida -a possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P N; Gupta, S K; Murthy, R C

    2014-02-01

    To establish the use of Metaphire posthuma as a sensitive test model for ecotoxicological studies, acute toxicity testing of carbaryl, carbofuran, cypermethrin and fenvalerate on Eisenia fetida and Metaphire posthuma were carried out. Two different types of bioassays, contact filter paper toxicity and soil toxicity bioassays were used to determine LC50 values for these insecticides. Among the tested chemicals, carbofuran was the most toxic to both the earthworm species. In paper contact method, 72 h-LC50 values of carbofuran in M. posthuma and E. fetida were found to be 0.08 μg/cm(2) and 1.55 μg/cm(2) respectively while in soil test, 14-d LC50 values were 0.49 mg/kg and 21.15 mg/kg respectively. On comparing the toxicity data of these chemicals for both the earthworm species, M. posthuma was found to be more sensitive than E. fetida. Based on the acute toxicity data, the order of toxicity of insecticides in both the test procedures was carbofuran>cypermethrin>carbaryl>fenvalerate for M. posthuma whereas for E. fetida it was carbofuran>carbaryl>fenvalerate>cypermethrin. Morphological changes also appeared in the organisms exposed to these chemicals which were more pronounced in M. posthuma at lower concentrations than E. fetida in both the test procedures. The results of the present study advocates the use of M. posthuma for ecotoxicity studies, being a more sensitive and reliable model than E. fetida. Based on the data on partial atomic charges, structural features and spectroscopic studies on carbaryl and carbofuran, a possible mechanism of toxicity of carbamate insecticides in earthworm was proposed.

  20. Role of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon in prevention of carbofuran- induced oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D K; Sharma, R K; Rai, P K; Watal, G; Sharma, B

    2011-02-12

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of aqueous extract of C. dactylon on carbofuran induced oxidative stress (OS) and alterations in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of rats. Vitamin C was used as a positive control. Wistar rats were administered with single sub-acute oral dose (1.6 mgkg-1 b.wt.) of carbofuran for 24 h. The OS parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and that of AChE were studied in brain. Carbofuran treatment significantly increased the activities of SOD and CAT by 75 and 60%, respectively. It also induced the level of LPO by 113%. In contrast, the activities of GST and AChE were recorded to be diminished by 25 and 33%, respectively. Pretreatment of the rats with aqueous extract of C. dactylon (oral; 500mgkg-1) restored SOD activity completely but CAT activity only partially (7%). Carbofuran induced LPO was moderated by 95% in the brain of C. dactylon treated rats. The observed changes in OS parameters in C. dactylon treated group were comparable to that observed in vitamin C (200 mg-kg-1 b. wt.) treated group. Surprisingly, C. dactylon treatment significantly recovered the activity of AChE to a similar level as observed in the brain of control group. In contrast vitamin C treatment did not cause significant change in the activity of AChE in carbofuran treated group. There were no noticeable changes in the aforementioned study parameters in the brain of rats receiving C. dactylon and vitamin C, only. The results suggest that the study is extremely important in the context of development of new anticholinestesterase and antioxidant antidotes against carbofuran from C. dactylon.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran in TiO2 aqueous solution: Kinetics using design of experiments and mechanism by HPLC/MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Yang; Shuolin Zhou; Huajie Liu; Weiwei Yan; Liping Yang; Bing Yi

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of carbofuran was optimized by central composite design based on response surface methodology for the first time.Three variables,TiO2 concentration,initial pH value and the concentration of carbofuran,were selected to determine the dependence of degradation efficiencies on independent variables.Response surface methodology modeling results indicated that the degradation efficiency of carbofuran was highly affected by the initial pH value and the concentration of carbofuran.Then nine degradation intermediates were detected by HPLC/MS/MS.The Frontier Electron Densities of carbofuran were calculated to predict the active sites on carbofuran attacked by hydroxyl radicals and photoholes.Point charges were used to elucidate the chemisorption pattern on TiO2 catalysts during the photocatalytic process.By combining the experimental results and calculation data,the photocatalytic degradation pathways of carbofuran were proposed,including the addition of hydroxyl radicals and the cleavage of the carbamate side chain.

  2. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  3. Improved WO3 photocatalytic efficiency using ZrO2 and Ru for the degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar Alalm, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sato, Akira; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-25

    The photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran (pesticide) and ampicillin (pharmaceutical) using synthesized WO3/ZrO2 nanoparticles under simulated solar light was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra analyses were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The optimum ratio of WO3 to ZrO2 was determined to be 1:1 for the degradation of both contaminants. The degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin by WO3/ZrO2 after 240 min of irradiation was 100% and 96%, respectively. Ruthenium (Ru) was employed as an additive to WO3/ZrO2 to enhance the photocatalytic degradation rate. Ru/WO3/ZrO2 exhibited faster degradation rates than WO3/ZrO2. Furthermore, 100% and 97% degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin, respectively, was achieved using Ru/WO3/ZrO2 after 180 min of irradiation. The durability of the catalyst was investigated by reusing the same suspended catalyst, which achieved 92% of its initial efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin and carbofuran followed pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  4. In-Vitro Carbofuran Induced Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes and Its Mitigation by Vitamins C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnesh Kumar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various efforts have been made in past in order to predict the underlying mechanism of pesticide-induced toxicity using in vitro and animal models, however, these predictions may or may not be directly correlated with humans. The present study was designed to investigate the carbofuran induced genotoxicity and its amelioration by vitamins C and E by treating human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs with different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 μM of this compound. The treatment of PBLs with carbofuran displayed significant DNA damage in concentration dependent manner. The carbofuran induced genotoxicity could be ameliorated to considerable extent by pretreatment of PBLs with equimolar (10 μM concentration of each of the vitamins C and E; the magnitude of protection by vitamin E being higher than by vitamin C. Also, it was found that the level of protection by these vitamins was higher when PBLs were treated with lower concentrations of pesticide. The significant DNA damage as observed by H2O2, a positive control in the present study, and its amelioration by natural antioxidants (vitamins C and E lend an evidence to suggest that carbofuran would have caused genotoxicity via pesticide induced oxidative stress.

  5. In-vitro carbofuran induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes and its mitigation by vitamins C and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratnesh Kumar; Sharma, Bechan

    2012-01-01

    Various efforts have been made in past in order to predict the underlying mechanism of pesticide-induced toxicity using in vitro and animal models, however, these predictions may or may not be directly correlated with humans. The present study was designed to investigate the carbofuran induced genotoxicity and its amelioration by vitamins C and E by treating human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) with different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 μM) of this compound. The treatment of PBLs with carbofuran displayed significant DNA damage in concentration dependent manner. The carbofuran induced genotoxicity could be ameliorated to considerable extent by pretreatment of PBLs with equimolar (10 μM) concentration of each of the vitamins C and E; the magnitude of protection by vitamin E being higher than by vitamin C. Also, it was found that the level of protection by these vitamins was higher when PBLs were treated with lower concentrations of pesticide. The significant DNA damage as observed by H_{2}O_{2}, a positive control in the present study, and its amelioration by natural antioxidants (vitamins C and E) lend an evidence to suggest that carbofuran would have caused genotoxicity via pesticide induced oxidative stress.

  6. Influence of the insecticides acetamiprid and carbofuran on arylamidase and myrosinase activities in the tropical black and red clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiddin, G Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M; Maddela, N R; Manjunatha, B; Rangaswamy, V; Koch Kaiser, Alma Rosel; Maisincho Asqui, Jessica Cristina; Darwin Rueda, O

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two insecticides, namely, acetamiprid and carbofuran on the enzymatic activities of arylamidase (as glucose formed from sinigrin) and myrosinase (as β-naphthylamine formed from L-leucine β-naphthylamide) in the black and red clay soils collected from a fallow groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields in the Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was realized within the framework of the laboratory experiments in which the acetamiprid and carbofuran were applied to the soils at different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha(-1)). Initially, the physicochechemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. After 10 days of pesticide application, the soil samples were analyzed for the enzyme activities. Acetamiprid and carbofuran stimulated the arylamidase and myrosinase activities at lower concentrations after 10 days incubation. Striking stimulation in soil enzyme activities was noticed at 2.5 kg ha(-1), persists for 20 days in both the soils. Overall, higher concentrations (5.0-10.0 kg ha(-1)) of acetamiprid and carbofuran were toxic or innocuous to the arylamidase and myrosinase activities. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the present study clearly indicate that the use of these insecticides (at field application rates) in the groundnut fields (black and red clay soils) stimulated the enzyme (arylamidase and myrosinase) activities.

  7. Comparative toxicity of the pesticides carbofuran and malathion to the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-08-01

    Pesticides are toxic chemicals used for agricultural as well as non-agricultural purposes. The toxicity of pesticides does not remain limited to the site of application but they also cause toxicity to non-target organisms in terrestrial as well as in aquatic environments. This study discusses the comparative toxicity of a carbamate (carbofuran) and an organophosphorus (malathion) pesticide to the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis during short- and long-term exposures. To evaluate the toxicity of the pesticides, different parameters of the flagellate, like cell density, motility, swimming velocity, cell shape, gravitactic orientation, photosynthetic efficiency, and concentration of light harvesting pigments, were used as end points. Carbofuran was found to be more toxic to E. gracilis than malathion and adversely affected almost all the tested parameters in short- and long-term experiments. The only significant adverse effect by malathion could be demonstrated on the swimming velocity of cells in short-term experiments. The adverse effects of the pesticides were more pronounced during short-term than during long-term exposure.

  8. Degradation of the pesticide carbofuran on clay and soil surfaces upon sunlight exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountacer, H; Atifi, A; Wong-Wah-Chung, P; Sarakha, M

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the photolysis of carbofuran has been undertaken under sunlight conditions and at the surface of model supports such as clay films and different soils collected from two different sites in Morocco (Tirs and Dahs). In all conditions, an efficient degradation occurred owing to direct light absorption and also to photoinduced processes involving either clays or natural organic matter moities. On kaolin films, the photodegradation kinetics appears to follow a first-order process that clearly depends on the film thickness. The diffusion of carbofuran from the lower part to the illuminated surface was found to be negligible when compared to the photolysis process within the range of 20-70 μm. Thus, the photolysis rate constant at the surface of the solid support, k (0), was evaluated to be 7.0 × 10(-3) min(-1). Under these experimental conditions, the quantum yield was found equal to 2.1 × 10(-4). On soil surfaces, the disappearance rate constant was mainly attributed to photoinduced processes arising from natural organic matter. From the analytical point of view, the products were formed through (1) hydroxylation on the aromatic ring, (2) homolytic scission of the carbamate C-O bond leading to radical species formation, and (3) photohydrolysis of the carbamate C-O bond.

  9. USE OF EXPOSURE RELATED DOSE ESTIMATING MODEL ( ERDEM ) TO CONSTRUCT A PBPK /MODEL FOR CARBOFURAN WITH THE REPORTED EXPERIMENTAL DATA IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the relationships among carbofuran exposure, dose, and effects, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed for the rat using the Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) framework.

  10. Efficacy of the controlled release of 14C-carbofuran formulation for pest control in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols for the treatment of cotton plants with a ring labelled 14C-carbofuran formulation made up of EVA (polyethylene-polyvinyl acetate co-polymer), with a specific activity of 0.0169 mCi/g were modified in these studies as the dose per pot was reduced by half. Twenty-five plastic pots with a 30 cm diameter and lined with polyethylene film were filled with 22 kg of good homogenized soil. To 12 of these prepared pots, 0.5 g of formulation flakes (1.5 to 2 cm) containing 9.6 mg of carbofuran and with 8.45 μCi radioactivity were applied in a circle with a 5 cm diameter and at a depth of 5 cm. Four cotton seeds of the variety NIAB-78 were planted in the centre of each pot. Cotton seeds were planted in the remaining pots to produce the control plants. It has been observed that even the low amount of carbofuran formulation applied to the cotton crop (0.5 g/pot) offered some plant protection, but was not as effective as the higher dose (1 g/pot) applied in previous studies. Initially, the cotton plants looked healthier (up to 3 months) but then their resistance decreased in comparison to that of the control plants. It is suggested that the half dose applied in these studies is lower than desirable and that probably two-thirds of the dose could better serve the purpose. The radioactivity in the formulation flakes fell to almost one-half when the plants were 1 month old and then decreased gradually with the increase in time. In contrast, the radioactivity in the soil increased gradually with the increase in time. The highest radioactivity in the soil was observed from the 10 cm diameter samples at a depth of up to 13 cm. More radioactivity was recovered from the leaves than the roots and stem, which is in accordance with our previous findings. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Soil plant transfer coefficient of 14C-carbofuran in brassica sp. vegetable agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil plant transfer coefficient or f factor of 14C-carbofuran pesticide was studied in outdoor lysimeter experiment consisting of Brassica sp. vegetable crop, riverine alluvial clayey soil and Bungor series sandy loam soil. Soil transfer coefficients at 0-10 cm soil depth were 4.38 ± 0.30, 5.76 ± 1.04, 0.99 ± 0.25 and 2.66 ± 0.71; from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 0-25 cm soil depth, soil plant transfer coefficients were 8.96 ± 0.91, 10.40 ± 2.63, 2.34 ± 0.68 and 619 ±1.40, from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 77 days after treatment (DAT), the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in riverine alluvial soil than Bungor soil whereas shoot and root growth was significantly higher in Bungor soil than in riverine alluvial soil. At both 0-10 cm Brassica sp. rooting depth and 0-25 cm soil depth, the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in 2X recommended application rate of 14C-carbofuran as compared to IX recommended application rate, in both Bungor and riverine alluvial soils. (Author)

  12. Carbofuran effects in soil nematode communities: using trait and taxonomic based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, Sónia; Dieter Sautter, Klaus; Cachada, Anabela; Abrantes, Isabel; Brown, George; Costa Duarte, Armando; Sousa, José Paulo

    2011-10-01

    This work intends to implement the use of native soil nematode communities in ecotoxicological tests using a model pesticide and two geographically nematode communities (Mediterranean and sub-tropical) in order to obtain new perspectives on the evaluation of the toxic potential of chemical substances. The environmental condition of the nematode communities was described using a trait-based approach (grouping the organisms according to their feeding traits) and a traditional taxonomic method (identification to family level). Effects on total nematode abundance, number of families and abundance of nematode feeding groups as well as potential shifts in both trophic and family structure were assessed. Agricultural soils from Curitiba (Brazil) and Coimbra (Portugal) were sampled and the corresponding nematode communities were extracted. Part of the collected soil was defaunated and spiked with four doses of a carbofuran commercial formulation. Afterwards each of the replicates was inoculated with a nematode suspension containing ≈200 or 300 nematodes. After 14 and 28 d of exposure the nematodes were extracted, counted and identified at family level and separately classified according to their feeding traits. The patterns of nematode responses revealed a decrease in the total abundance and a reduction in the number of families. Despite the similar effects observed for both communities, statistically significant toxic effects were only found within the Portuguese community. The total nematode abundance was significantly reduced at the highest carbofuran concentrations and significant shifts in the family structure were detected. However, the trophic structure, i.e., the contribution of each feeding group for the overall community structure, did not significantly change along the contamination gradient. Results showed that using such a trait-based approach may increase the ecological relevance of toxicity data, by establishing communalities in the response to a chemical

  13. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2010-07-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.

  14. Avoidance behaviour of Eisenia fetida to carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and metamidophos in natural soils from the highlands of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, Glenda; Keller-Forrer, Karin

    2011-07-01

    Earthworm avoidance behaviour test is an important screening tool in soil eco-toxicology. This test has been developed and validated under North American and European conditions. However, little research has been performed on the avoidance test in the tropics. This work demonstrates the potential suitability of the avoidance behaviour test as screening method in the highlands of Colombia using Eisenia fetida as the bio-indicator species on contaminated soils with carbofuran and chlorpyrifos. Though for the two active ingredients 100% avoidance was not reached, a curve with six meaningful concentrations is provided. No significant avoidance behaviour trend was found for mancozeb and methamidophos. Tests were conducted in the field yielded similar results to the tests carried out in the laboratory for chlorpyrifos and mancozeb. However, for the case of carbofuran and methamidophos, differences of more than double in avoidance were obtained. Divergence might be explained by soil and temperature conditions.

  15. DNA damaging effects of carbofuran and its main metabolites on mice by micronucleus test and single cell gel electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Pei; LIU; Baofeng; LU; Yitong

    2005-01-01

    The DNA damaging effects of the carbamate pesticide carbofuran and its four metabolites (carbofuranphenol, 3-ketocarbofuran, 3-hydrocarbofuran and nitrosocarbofuran) on mice were evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay and micronucleus test. KM mice were exposed to test compounds with different doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/kg through intraperitoneal injection two times with an internal of 24 h, and then killed by cervical dislocation 6 h after the second injection. In SCGE assay, isolated mice peripheral blood lymphocytes were employed to determine DNA damaging degree after a 1 h treatment by test compounds and a following electrophoresis. Carbofuran and carbofuranphenol showed negative results in both test and had no obvious toxicity. 3-hydrocarbofuran and nitrosocarbofuran were positive.3-ketocarbofuran could not induce micronucleus formation but caused significant DNA migration in SCGE test. These tests revealed that 3-ketocarbofuran, 3-hydrocarbofuran and nitrosocarbofuran are potential mutagesis and further research is needed.

  16. Brain acetylcholinesterase, malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione as biomarkers of continuous exposure of tench, Tinca tinca, to carbofuran or deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, D; Soler, F; Míguez, M P; Pérez-López, M

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the chronic effect of the insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were examined in the brain of tench. Both pesticides were evaluated in two separate experiments, and animals were exposed in a continuous flow-system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (0, 10 and 100 microg/L) and deltamethrin (0, 0.0039 and 0.039 microg/L) for 60 days. After that period, animals were kept into pesticide-free water for other 30 days. In all cases, animals were sampled every 10 days all along the experience. AChE activity was significantly inhibited in fish exposed to 100 microg/L of carbofuran, during the first 30 days of exposition, returning to basal levels after this initial period. With respect to deltamethrin exposure, AChE activity was not significantly affected. When considering MDA levels, significant changes could only be detected during the recovery period for both pesticides, with a maximum of induction at 70 and 80 days, respectively associated to the highest dose of carbofuran and deltamethrin. Similarly, GSH levels varied all along the experience, with a maximum of significant increase at day 80 of exposition to the highest dose of both pesticides. This study shows that changes in AChE brain activity in tench can be used as a biomarker of early pesticide exposition in environmental monitoring programs, whereas MDA and GSH levels could be more associated to long-term expositions. The above results confirm and broaden former observations, suggesting that more investigations are needed before these biochemical parameters can be used as biomarkers.

  17. [Determination of trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water by online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enzhi; Yang, Xinlei; Ye, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Cai, Xiaojun

    2011-11-01

    An online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water. The sample was injected into a UHPLC system directly after filtration with 0.22 microm membrane, and then enriched by online solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The analyte was back-flushed into the analytical column Acclaim RSLC C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.2 microm) by valve switching method. The mobile phases were 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.0, adjusted by acetic acid) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and detected by a diode array detector with the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The good linear ranges of carbaryl and carbofuran were 1.0 - 100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) larger than 0.9999, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.5 microg/L and 0.25 microg/L, respectively. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 76.0% - 120.0%. The method has been applied to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Influence of pore water velocity on the release of carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial granulates embedded in a porous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Marcos; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, J. Eugenio

    2012-11-01

    Pore water flow velocity can influence the processes involved in the contaminant transport between relative stagnant zones of porous media and their adjacent mobile zones. A particular case of special interest is the occurrence of high flow rates around the controlled release granules containing pesticides buried in soil. The release of the pesticides carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial controlled release formulations (CRFs) was studied, comparing release tests in a finite volume of water with water flow release tests in saturated packed sand at different seepage velocities. For water release kinetics, the time taken for 50% of the pesticide to be released (T50) was 0.64 hours for carbofuran and 1.97 hours for fenamiphos. In general, the release rate was lower in the porous matrix than in the free water tests. The faster release rate for carbofuran was attributed to its higher water diffusivity. The seepage velocity has a strong influence on the pesticide release rate. The dominant release mechanism varies with the progress of release. The evolution of the mechanism is discussed on the basis of the successive steps that involve the moving boundary of the dissolution front of the pesticide inside the granule, the concentration gradient inside the granule and the flow boundary layer resistance to solute diffusion around the granule. The pore water velocity influences the overall release dynamics. Therefore, seepage velocity should be considered in pesticide release to evaluate the risk of pesticide leaching, especially in scenarios with fast infiltration.

  19. Soil and water contamination with carbofuran residues in agricultural farmlands in Kenya following the application of the technical formulation Furadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Peter O; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Jondiko, Isaac O; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2010-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of carbofuran residues in water, soil and plant samples from selected sites in the farmlands in Kenya and to demonstrate the impact of Furadan use on the local environment. Soil, water and plant samples obtained from agricultural farmlands where the technical formulation Furadan has been used extensively showed high environmental contamination with concentrations of carbofuran and its two toxic metabolites 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, separately, ranging from 0.010-1.009 mg/kg of dry surface soil, 0.005-0.495 mg/L in water samples from two rivers flowing through the farms and bdl-2.301 mg/L in water samples from ponds and dams located close to the farms. Maize plant samples contained these residues in concentrations ranging from 0.04-1.328 mg/kg of dry plant tissue. The significantly high concentration levels of carbofuran and its metabolites, 3-ketocarbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran, found in various matrices demonstrate that Furadan was used extensively in the two areas and that there was environmental distribution and exposure of residues in water which posed risks when used for domestic purposes or as drinking water for animals in two wildlife conservancies where the dams and ponds are located. Surface soil contamination was also high and posed risks through run-off into the dams and rivers as well as through secondary exposure to small birds and mammals.

  20. Bioefficacy evaluation of controlled release formulations based on amphiphilic nano-polymer of carbofuran against Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, M K; Singh, Khajan

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, the bioefficacy of developed carbofuran formulations, with PEG-600 (7a, CP1) & PEG-900 (7b, CP2) @ 5, 10 and 20 ppm, along with commercial formulation of carbofuran 3G (CP0) were evaluated against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato (cv. Pusa Ruby) in pot and field conditions. The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG - 900 (7b) as hydrophilic segment were effective even at 14 days post inoculation (dpi) as evident from shoot and root length. Also, the reduction in penetration was found to be maximum with CP2 (3.6 - 4.6 J2s) at all concentrations compared to CP1 (6.6-16.4 J2s) and CP0 (29.3-32.6 J2s). Overall, CP2 was more effective in reducing the number of nematodes up to 14 days, compared to CP1 and CP0. Both the CR formulations (CP1 and CP2) in general significantly reduced the number of galls, when compared to CP0. However, under field conditions, lower concentrations (5, and 10 ppm) of CP2, were less effective in controlling the gall formation whereas, CP2 at 20 ppm, was most effective than other treatments. The study revealed that the developed CR formulations of carbofuran have the potential for effective management of M. incognita in tomato under field conditions.

  1. Carbofuran - A New and Effective Method of Illegal Killing of Otters (Lutra lutra in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Hlaváč

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran - a poison recently used to illegally kill otters - is described from the Czech Republic. Six different cases of illegal poisoning of otters have been discovered since 2006 with a total number of 14 killed individuals. Apart from otters, many other animals - namely raptors and other carnivores - have been poisoned by carbofuran in the Czech Republic as well. The poisoning substance is now banned in the EU, however, it has been widely used in agriculture as insecticide and large supplies are generally available. This fact together with relative ease of using it can pose a threat to otter population, especially in areas with raising conflict between otter protection and fish farming. Therefore, it is important to report any suspicious cases of dead wildlife, to immediately carry out laboratory testing in such cases, and to inform relevant officials including the police. It will help monitor the problem and raise local awareness, and could possibly help to catch some persecutors. Taking these actions should be the first step in trying to stop poisoning wildlife by carbofuran.

  2. Formation of Bound Residues of 14C-Carbofuran in Carrot Roots and Their Bioavailability to Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot roots were allowed to absorb radiolabelled carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-[ring-3-14C]2,2-dimethyl benzofuran-7-gamma l methyl carbamate) for 7 days. After Soxhlet extraction with methanol, the amounts of residues bound to plant tissues were determined. The data indicate the rate of binding increased with time reaching 7% of the applied dose (about 25% of the total amount taken up in one week. When rats were fed the extracted tissues, the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. From the 14C-activity in the feed, 10.7% 14C-carbon dioxide and 29.03% urinary 14C-metabolites could be recovered. In feces, 30.16% of the given dose was methanol-extractable while 18.43% was determined as non-extractable. Various tissues including fat, liver, kidney, muscle, blood, heart, spleen and lungs contained 2.08%. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of rat urine indicated the presence of two main metabolites identified as carbofuran phenol and 3-hydroxy carbofuran

  3. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records / Caracterización de Bacterias Degradadoras de Carbofuran Obtenidas de Suelos Bajo Cultivo de Papa y con Diferente Histor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos Rozo José

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofurandegradation activity (Furadan®3SC were obtained from soilscultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosumin Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia, with different recordsof pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for theirability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mgL-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtained, grew in the culture media. Eight of theses isolates were obtained from soils with a high pesticide exposure (eight years of application, and identified, by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characteristics, as Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The other two were obtained from soils with three years and one year of application and were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, respectively. Subsequently, these bacteria were tested for their ability of hydrolytic degradation of Carbofuran; the results show that the pesticide was degraded only by the isolates of Sphingomonas paucimobilis for 72 h. The results obtained in the in vitro tests show the bacterial metabolic capacity for the biodegradation of Carbofuran, highlighting the potential use of the bacteria for future field evaluation tests in places where residues of the pesticide may exist, as an alternative to control the impact that N-methyl carbamate pesticides have on the environment and human health. / Resumen. Ochenta y dos aislamientos bacterianos con actividad potencial de degradación de Carbofuran (Furadan®3SC, fueron obtenidos de suelos, cultivados con papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Única, del municipio de Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia con diferente historia de aplicación del plaguicida. Las bacterias fueron seleccionadas por su capacidad para crecer a 25 °C durante 72 h, en medios de cultivo conteniendo 200 mg L-1 de Carbofuran analítico como

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomic approach for optimization and toxicity evaluation of earthworm sub-lethal responses to carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Saxena, Prem Narain

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals) for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to assess the soil ecotoxicity. Initially, we have optimized the extraction conditions which are suitable for high-throughput gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics for the tissue of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Upon evaluation of five different extraction solvent systems, 80% methanol was found to have good extraction efficiency based on the yields of metabolites, multivariate analysis, total number of peaks and reproducibility of metabolites. Later the toxicity evaluation was performed to characterize the tissue specific metabolomic perturbation of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma after exposure to carbofuran at three different concentration levels (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of soil). Seventeen metabolites, contributing to the best classification performance of highest dose dependent carbofuran exposed earthworms from healthy controls were identified. This study suggests that GC-MS based metabolomic approach was precise and sensitive to measure the earthworm responses to carbofuran exposure in soil, and can be used as a promising tool for environmental eco-toxicological studies.

  5. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomic approach for optimization and toxicity evaluation of earthworm sub-lethal responses to carbofuran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to assess the soil ecotoxicity. Initially, we have optimized the extraction conditions which are suitable for high-throughput gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomics for the tissue of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Upon evaluation of five different extraction solvent systems, 80% methanol was found to have good extraction efficiency based on the yields of metabolites, multivariate analysis, total number of peaks and reproducibility of metabolites. Later the toxicity evaluation was performed to characterize the tissue specific metabolomic perturbation of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma after exposure to carbofuran at three different concentration levels (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of soil. Seventeen metabolites, contributing to the best classification performance of highest dose dependent carbofuran exposed earthworms from healthy controls were identified. This study suggests that GC-MS based metabolomic approach was precise and sensitive to measure the earthworm responses to carbofuran exposure in soil, and can be used as a promising tool for environmental eco-toxicological studies.

  6. The use of FISH-comet to detect c-Myc and TP 53 damage in extended-term lymphocyte cultures treated with terbuthylazine and carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinic, Marin; Zeljezic, Davor; Shaposhnikov, Sergey A; Collins, Andrew R

    2012-05-20

    Terbuthylazine and carbofuran are suspected to cause non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung cancer. We evaluated the effects of prolonged exposure to low concentrations on primary DNA damage by comet assay, and on the structural integrity of c-Myc and TP 53 genes by FISH-comet. Another novelty in studying these pesticides' genotoxicity is the use of 14-day extended-term human lymphocyte cultures. Concentrations corresponded to values of ADI and OEL: for terbuthylazine 0.58 ng/ml and 8 ng/ml; for carbofuran 8 ng/ml and 21.6 ng/ml, respectively. A possible effect of metabolic activation (S9) was also considered. Carbofuran treatment induced a significant migration of DNA into the tail in a concentration-dependent manner, while for terbuthylazine the effect was significant only at the higher concentration. Terbuthylazine caused migration of both c-Myc signals into the comet tail. A significant occurrence of TP 53 signals in the tail was observed at 8 ng/ml. Prolonged carbofuran treatment significantly elevated the migration of a single c-Myc signal into the tail in a concentration-dependent manner. With S9, distribution of signals shifted toward increased presence of both signals in tail. Our results showed impaired structural integrity of c-Myc and TP 53 due to prolonged exposure to terbuthylazine and carbofuran.

  7. Development of controlled release formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid and their bioefficacy evaluation against aphid, Aphis gossypii and leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on potato crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, N A; Khan, M A; Malik, Kamlesh; Walia, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid were prepared employing polyvinyl chloride and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and their bioefficacy was evaluated against the aphid, Aphis gossypii and leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on potato crop. The CR formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid provided better or equal control of the pests than commercial formulations. CMC-based formulation provided a superior control of both the pests. The Imida-CMC, which showed the lowest population of leaf hopper (10.50 leafhopper/100 cl), provided significantly superior control among all treatments after 35 days after germination (DAG). The residue of carbofuran and imidacloprid in potato tuber and soils were not detectable at the time of harvesting in any one of the formulations.

  8. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of lindane, carbofuran and methyl parathion on various Indian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama Krishna, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ramakrishnaiitm@gmail.com; Philip, Ligy [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ligy@iitm.ac.in

    2008-12-30

    Adsorption and desorption characteristics of three insecticides on four Indian soils were studied. Insecticides used were representative of organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbomate groups. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: lindane > methyl parathion > carbofuran. Compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. The order of adsorption capacity of various soils were: compost soil > clayey soil > red soil > sandy soil. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted to Freundlich model and K{sub f} values increased with increase in organic matter content of the soils. Thermodynamic parameters indicated favorable adsorption of all the three pesticides in four different soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Distilled water desorbed 30-60% of adsorbed pesticides whereas; organic solvents were able to affect 50-80% of sorbed pesticides. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. Hysteresis effect was observed in red, clayey and compost soils. Hysteresis effect increased with increase in organic matter and clay content of the soils.

  9. Bioavailability and influence of ¹⁴C-carbofuran on Eisenia andrei avoidance, growth and reproduction in treated natural tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regina C B; Papini, Solange; de Andréa, Mara M

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of carbofuran to the compost worms Eisenia andrei and the influence of its residual amounts on the avoidance, reproduction and growth of this species were studied in two natural tropical soils: a Typic Humaquept (GM) and a Typic Hapludox (LVD), as indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. The worms avoided the soil LVD treated with different doses of carbofuran. The pesticide also affected the production of juvenile specimens in both soils, but cocoon production was reduced only in the GM soil. The earthworms' growth and weight loss were affected by carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. CAS number 1563-66-2) only in the LVD and the mortality detected at 56 days of contact with the treated soils was not statistically significant in both of them. Fourteen days after the soil treatment with(14) c-carbofuran, most residues detected in the soils were bound residues (approximately 36% and 30% in the GM and LVD, respectively) and neither mortality nor bioaccumulation was detected in the earthworms, even with absorptions of 13% and 43%, respectively. The LVD soil has lower organic matter content, and the effects of carbofuran on different aspects of the earthworms' life were more pronounced in this soil, most likely due to the higher bioavailability of the pesticide in the soil solution. The results for carbofuran clearly demonstrate that even small quantities of residues do not assure lack of toxicity. They also make evident the necessity of studying the effects of pesticides in natural agricultural soils. Furthermore, as the bound residues and the earthworm contamination are not detected by conventional techniques, they are not taken into account and may be underestimated on environmental risk assessments. PMID:25714458

  10. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for carbofuran in Sprague-Dawley rats using the exposure-related dose estimating model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Tsang, Andy M; Okino, Miles S; Power, Frederick W; Knaak, James B; Harrison, Lynda S; Dary, Curtis C

    2007-12-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate), a broad spectrum N-methyl carbamate insecticide, and its metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, exert their toxicity by reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To characterize AChE inhibition from carbofuran exposure, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed in the Exposure-Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) platform for the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Experimental estimates of physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical model parameters were obtained or based on data from the open literature. The PBPK/PD model structure included carbofuran metabolism in the liver to 16 known metabolites, enterohepatic circulation of glucuronic acid conjugates, and excretion in urine and feces. Bolus doses by ingestion of 50 microg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg carbofuran were simulated for the blood and brain AChE activity. The carbofuran ERDEM simulated a half-life of 5.2 h for urinary clearance, and the experimental AChE activity data were reproduced for the blood and brain. Thirty model parameters were found influential to the model outputs and were chosen for perturbation in Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the impact of their variability on the model predictions. Results of the simulation runs indicated that the minimum AChE activity in the blood ranged from 29.3 to 79.0% (as 5th and 95th percentiles) of the control level with a mean of 55.9% (standard deviation = 15.1%) compared to an experimental value of 63%. The constructed PBPK/PD model for carbofuran in the SD rat provides a foundation for extrapolating to a human model that can be used for future risk assessment.

  11. Bioavailability and influence of ¹⁴C-carbofuran on Eisenia andrei avoidance, growth and reproduction in treated natural tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regina C B; Papini, Solange; de Andréa, Mara M

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of carbofuran to the compost worms Eisenia andrei and the influence of its residual amounts on the avoidance, reproduction and growth of this species were studied in two natural tropical soils: a Typic Humaquept (GM) and a Typic Hapludox (LVD), as indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. The worms avoided the soil LVD treated with different doses of carbofuran. The pesticide also affected the production of juvenile specimens in both soils, but cocoon production was reduced only in the GM soil. The earthworms' growth and weight loss were affected by carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. CAS number 1563-66-2) only in the LVD and the mortality detected at 56 days of contact with the treated soils was not statistically significant in both of them. Fourteen days after the soil treatment with(14) c-carbofuran, most residues detected in the soils were bound residues (approximately 36% and 30% in the GM and LVD, respectively) and neither mortality nor bioaccumulation was detected in the earthworms, even with absorptions of 13% and 43%, respectively. The LVD soil has lower organic matter content, and the effects of carbofuran on different aspects of the earthworms' life were more pronounced in this soil, most likely due to the higher bioavailability of the pesticide in the soil solution. The results for carbofuran clearly demonstrate that even small quantities of residues do not assure lack of toxicity. They also make evident the necessity of studying the effects of pesticides in natural agricultural soils. Furthermore, as the bound residues and the earthworm contamination are not detected by conventional techniques, they are not taken into account and may be underestimated on environmental risk assessments.

  12. Avaliação da contaminação do carbofuran nos solos do Distrito de Irrigação do Gorutuba Assessment of carbofuran contamination in soil of the Irrigation District of Gorutuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de O. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência da associação da presença do carbofuran no perfil do solo com a forma e o tempo de aplicação do pesticida e, ainda, parâmetros de eficiência dos diversos sistemas de irrigação utilizados no Distrito de Irrigação do Gorutuba (DIG em Janaúba, MG. Selecionaram-se 14 propriedades, que apresentaram grande variabilidade nos parâmetros de desempenho da irrigação e na distribuição do carbofuran no perfil do solo. Dos parâmetros analisados, o TAP (tempo de aplicação do produto, a QIAAP (quantidade do ingrediente ativo aplicado e o Perc (Lâmina de irrigação percolada, apresentaram nítida associação com a distribuição do pesticida no perfil do solo. Esses parâmetros mostraram que produtores rurais dentro do DIG, os quais aplicam água em excesso via irrigação mal manejada e utilizam pesticidas de forma indiscriminada, não respeitando as recomendações técnicas nem o período de carência entre as aplicações, podem estar poluindo seriamente o solo e, em conseqüecia a água, comprometendo, a médio prazo, a sustentabilidade de suas atividades.The work was carried out with the objective of verifying the association of carbofuran presence in the soil profile analyzing both form and time of application with efficiency parameters of irrigation systems used in the District of Irrigation of Gorutuba (DIG in Janaúba, MG. Fourteen rural properties were selected that presented a great variability in the performance of irrigation parameters and in the distribution of the carbofuran in the soil profile. The parameters TAP (Time of application of the product, QIAAP (amount of the applied active ingredient and Perc (Depth of percolated water, presented a clear association with the distribution of the pesticide in the soil profile. These parameters showed that farmers of the DIG, who apply excess water through irrigation and have bad management and also use

  13. Electrochemiluminescence Behavior of Ru(bpy)3^2+/ Carbofuran System on an Electrically Heated Microelectrode Chip%Electrochemiluminescence Behavior of Ru(bpy)3^2+/ Carbofuran System on an Electrically Heated Microelectrode Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞洪; 陈晓萍; 邱彬; 林振宇

    2011-01-01

    An electrically heated microelectrode chip (HMEC) was designed and the Ru(bpy)3^2+/carbofuran electro- chemiluminescence (ECL) systems were applied to characterize the performance of the HMEC. The ECL intensities increase at elevated electrode temperature, and the detection limit at 60℃ (electrode surface temperature) was about 10 times lower than that at 30℃. The results indicate that new heated electrode can be handled easily and can be mass produced, the difference between the electrodes was little. The stability of the HMEC was good since the electrode surface can hardly be destroyed during detection and storage.

  14. Role of B-esterases in assessing toxicity of organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion) and carbamate (carbofuran) pesticides to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Carlos; Solayan, Arun; Porte, Cinta

    2004-02-10

    In this study, the cladoceran Daphnia magna was exposed to two model organophosphorous and one carbamate pesticides including malathion, chlorpyrifos and carbofuran to assess acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) inhibition and recovery patterns and relate those responses with individual level effects. Our results revealed differences in enzyme inhibition and recovery patterns among the studied esterase enzymes and pesticides. CbE was more sensitive to organophosphorous than AChE, whereas both CbE and AChE showed equivalent sensitivities to the carbamate carbofuran. Recovery patterns of AChE and CbE activities following exposure to the studied pesticides were similar with 80-100% recoveries taking place 12 and 96 h after exposure to organophosphorous and carbamates pesticides, respectively. The physiological role of AChE and CbE inhibition patterns in Daphnia was examined by using organophosphorous and carbamate compounds alone and with specific inhibitors of CbE. Under exposure to organophosphorous pesticides, survival of Daphnia juveniles was impaired at AChE inhibition levels higher than 50% whereas under exposure to the carbamate carbofuran low levels of AChE inhibition affected mortality. Inhibition of CbE by 80-90% increased toxicity to organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides by up to two- and four-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that both AChE and CbE enzymes are involved in determining toxicity of Daphnia to the studied chemicals and that AChE inhibition levels higher than 50% can be considered of environmental concern to Daphnia species. PMID:15036868

  15. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (Pcarbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (Pcarbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots, respectively. When the initial irrigation was delayed for 24h, irrespective of antecedent moisture conditions, a 30% reduction in aldicarb degradation occurred. This study illustrates the deeper transport of pesticides and their increased persistence when

  16. Adaptation of biomixtures for carbofuran degradation in on-farm biopurification systems in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    A biomixture constitutes the active core of the on-farm biopurification systems, employed for the detoxification of pesticide-containing wastewaters. As biomixtures should be prepared considering the available local materials, the present work aimed to evaluate the performance of ten different biomixtures elaborated with by-products from local farming, in the degradation of the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CFN), in order to identify suitable autochthonous biomixtures to be used in the tropics. Five different lignocellulosic materials mixed with either compost or peat and soil were employed in the preparation of the biomixtures. The comprehensive evaluation of the biomixtures included removal of the parent compound, formation of transformation products, mineralization of radiolabeled CFN, and determination of the residual toxicity of the process. Detoxification capacity of the matrices was high, and compost-based biomixtures showed better performance than peat-based biomixtures. CFN removal over 98.5% was achieved within 16 days (eight out of ten biomixtures), with half-lives below 5 days in most of the cases. 3-Hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran were found as transformation products at very low concentrations suggesting their further degradation. Mineralization of CFN was also achieved after 64 days (2.9 to 15.1%); several biomixtures presented higher mineralization than the soil itself. Acute toxicity determinations with Daphnia magna revealed a marked detoxification in the matrices at the end of the process; low residual toxicity was observed only in two of the peat-based biomixtures. Overall best efficiency was achieved with the biomixture composed of coconut fiber-compost-soil; however, results suggest that in the case of unavailability of coconut fiber, other biomixtures may be employed with similar performance.

  17. Ecotoxicological analysis during the removal of carbofuran in fungal bioaugmented matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Barbieri, Edison; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Biomixtures are used for the removal of pesticides from agricultural wastewater. As biomixtures employ high content of lignocellulosic substrates, their bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a novel approach for their enhancement. Nonetheless, the decrease in the concentration of the pesticide may result in sublethal concentrations that still affect ecosystems. Two matrices, a microcosm of rice husk (lignocellulosic substrate) bioaugmented with the fungus Trametes versicolor and a biomixture that contained fungally colonized rice husk were used in the degradation of the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CFN). Elutriates simulating lixiviates from these matrices were used to assay the ecotoxicological effects at sublethal level over Daphnia magna (Straus) and the fish Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Elutriates obtained after 30 d of treatment in the rice husk microcosms at dilutions over 2.5% increased the offspring of D. magna as a trade-off stress response, and produced mortality of neonates at dilutions over 5%. Elutriates (dilution 1:200) obtained during a 30 d period did not produce alterations on the oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of O. mykiss, however these physiological parameters were affected in O. aureus at every time point of treatment, irrespective of the decrease in CFN concentration. When the fungally colonized rice husk was used to prepare a biomixture, where more accelerated degradation is expected, similar alterations on the responses by O. aureus were achieved. Results suggest that despite the good removal of the pesticide, it is necessary to optimize biomixtures to minimize their residual toxicity and potential chronic effects on aquatic life.

  18. Carbofuran biodegradation in brackish groundwater and its effect on the hydraulic properties of the porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiaz, Yanai; Ronen, Zeev; Adar, Eilon; Weisbrod, Noam

    2015-04-01

    A chalk fractured aquitard beneath an industrial site is subjected to intense contamination due to percolation of contaminants from the different facilities operating at the site. In order to reduce further contamination, draining trenches were excavated and filled with coarse gravel (3-4 cm in diameter) forming a porous medium, to which the contaminated groundwater discharges from the fractures surrounding the trenches. This research is aimed at establishing a biodegrading process of high efficiency and performance within the draining trenches. The research includes both field and laboratory experiments. An experimental setup of five columns (50 cm length and 4.5 cm in diameter) was constructed under highly controlled conditions. Over the course of the experiments, the columns were filled with different particle sizes and placed in a temperature controlled chamber. Filtered groundwater (0.2 µm) from the site groundwater, enriched by a model contaminant carbofuran (CRF), was injected to the columns; as two of the columns were inoculated by CRF degrading microorganisms native in the site's groundwater, two columns were inoculated by CRF degrading bacteria from the external environment, and one column was used as a control. During the experiment, measurements were taken from different locations along each column. These include: (a) CRF concentration and (b) hydraulic pressure and solution viscosity (in order to obtain the changes in permeability). A tracer test using uranine was carried out in parallel, in order to obtain the changes in hydraulic parameters. Correlating CRF concentration variations to changes of hydraulic parameters enable the deduction due to the effect that biological activity (under different temperature regimes) has on the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and its effect on the process of contaminant groundwater bodies' remediation. Preliminary results suggest that although biodegradation occurs, microbial activity has minor effect on

  19. Carbofuran alters centrosome and spindle organization, and delays cell division in oocytes and mitotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Ozgur; Semiz, Olcay; Can, Alp

    2015-04-01

    Although many countries banned of its usage, carbofuran (CF) is still one of the most commonly used carbamate derivative insecticides against insects and nematodes in agriculture and household, threatening the human and animal health by contaminating air, water, and food. Our goal was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of CF on mammalian oocytes besides mitotic cells. Caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway was assessed by immunofluorescence and western blot techniques. Alterations in the meiotic spindle formation after CF exposure throughout the in vitro maturation of mice oocyte-cumulus complexes (COCs) were analyzed by using a 3D confocal laser microscope. Maturation efficiency and kinetics were assessed by direct observation of the COCs. Results indicated that the number of TUNEL-positive cells increased in CF-exposed groups, particularly higher doses (>250 µM) in a dose-dependent fashion. The ratio of anticleaved caspase-3 labeled cells in those groups positively correlated with TUNEL-positivity. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase in active caspase-3 activity. CF caused a dose-dependent accumulation of oocytes at prometaphase-I (PM-I) of meiosis. Partial loss of spindle microtubules (MTs) was noted, which consequently gave rise to a diamond shape spindle. Aberrant pericentrin foci were noted particularly in PM-I and metaphase-I (M-I) stages. Conclusively, CF (1) induces programmed cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and (2) alters spindle morphology most likely through a mechanism that interacts with MT assembly and/or disorientation of pericentriolar proteins. Overall, data suggest that CF could give rise to aneuploidy or cell death in higher doses, therefore reduce fertilization and implantation rates.

  20. Degradation of carbofuran derivatives in restricted water environments: basic hydrolysis in AOT-based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jorge; Manso, José A; Cid, Antonio; Lodeiro, Carlos; Mejuto, Juan Carlos

    2012-04-15

    The effect of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/isooctane/water microemulsions on the stability of 2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate (carbofuran, CF), 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate (3-hydroxycarbofuran, HCF) and 3-keto-2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate (3-ketocarbofuran, KCF) in basic media has been studied. The presence of these microheterogeneous media implies a large basic hydrolysis of CF and HCF on increasing surfactant concentration and, also, on increasing water content in the microemulsion. The hydrolysis rate constants are approximately 2- and 10-fold higher than those in pure water for HCF and CF, respectively. In contrast, a steep descent in the rate of decomposition for KCF was observed. These behaviours can be ascribed to the presence of CF derivatives both in the hydrophilic phase and in the lipophilic phase, while the hydroxyl ions are only restricted to the water pool of the microemulsion (hydrophilic phase). The kinetic rate constants for the basic hydrolysis in AOT-based microemulsions have been obtained on the basis of a pseudophase model. Taking into account that an important part of soils are colloids, the possibility of the presence of restricted water environments implies that soil composition and its structure will play an important role in the stability of these carbamates. In fact, we observed that the presence of these restricted aqueous media in the environment, in particular in watersheds and in wastewaters, could reduce significantly the half-life of these pesticides (33% and 91% for HCF and CF, respectively).

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of the interactions of carbofuran and amitrol herbicides with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunç, Sibel, E-mail: stunc@akdeniz.edu.tr; Duman, Osman, E-mail: osmanduman@akdeniz.edu.tr; Soylu, İnanç; Kancı Bozoğlan, Bahar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, various spectroscopic techniques including UV absorption, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy were used to examine the interactions of carbofuran (CF) and amitrol (AMT) herbicides with human serum albumin (HSA). The results of spectroscopic experiments illustrated that CF was bound by HSA, on the other hand there was no interaction between HSA and AMT molecules. In HSA–CF system, static quenching mechanism was responsible for the fluorescence quenching of HSA. The Stern–Volmer constant and binding constant decreased with increasing temperature. This means that an increase in temperature reduces the stability of HSA–CF complex. In HSA–CF system, the number of binding site on protein was found to be one. From the thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated as −22.30 kJ mol{sup −1} and −10.70 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively, which indicated that the interaction forces between HSA and CF molecules were mainly hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. The conformational change in the protein structure was investigated by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. According to the results of synchronous fluorescence analysis, there was a change in the protein structure owing to the interaction of CF with HSA. - Highlights: • UV absorption, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence measurements confirm the formation of HSA–CF complex. • The formation of HSA–CF complex involves both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. • There is no interaction between HSA and AMT molecules. • Binding constants, numbers of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. • The binding of CF to HSA changes the conformational structure of protein.

  2. Determination of carbofuran in surface water and biological tissue by sol-gel immunoaffinity extraction and on-line preconcentration/HPLC/UV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Avila, Luz E; Márquez-Lira, Bani P; Villanueva, Marcos; Covarrubias, Rosario; Zelada, Gustavo; Thibert, Valérie

    2012-01-15

    A selective and simple analytical method for the trace level determination of carbofuran in complex environmental and biological samples was developed based on immunoaffinity extraction (IAE) followed by on-line preconcentration and HPLC/UV analysis of the purified extract. The immunosorbent for IAE was prepared by sol-gel encapsulation of monoclonal anti-carbofuran antibodies, and was fully characterized for capacity, repeatability, binding strength, binding kinetics and cross-reactivity. Method performance was evaluated with two different types of difficult samples: dam water and methanolic extracts of epithelial cervical-uterine tissue. Linear behavior and quantitative recoveries were obtained from the analysis of samples spiked with carbofuran at 0.2-4 ng/mL (dam water, 50 mL samples) and 10-40 ng/mL (biological tissue extract, 2 mL samples). RSD (n=7) and detection limits were, respectively, 10.1% (spike 0.40 ng/mL) and 0.13 ng/mL for dam water; 8.5% (spike 20 ng/mL) and 5 ng/mL for the biological tissue extract. The excellent sample purification achieved with the IAE column allows precise and accurate determination of carbofuran in complex matrices, even when using non-selective UV detection in the chromatographic analysis.

  3. Amperometric Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-Antibody Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyou Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  4. Amperometric immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-antibody conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Wang, Xiangyou

    2013-04-19

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au) nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE) via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab) and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  5. 呋喃丹和氯氰菊酯的类雌激素活性研究%Exploring the Estrogenicity of Carbofuran and Cypermethrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳; 杨雪; 张灿; 何桢; 钟秋; 熊丽; 刘德立

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探究呋喃丹和氯氰菊酯的类雌激素活性.[方法]采用重组人雌激素受体α基因的双杂交酵母测定了17β-雌二醇和2种农药诱导产生β-半乳糖苷酶活性的EC50值.[结果]17β-雌二醇、呋喃丹、氯氰菊酯对应的EC50值分别为4.04×10-10、2.34×10-7、1.04×10-6mol/L,诱导的最大酶活分别为4.97、1.82、1.59 U.[结论]2种农药均具有不同程度的类雌激素活性,且呋喃丹的类雌激素活性高于氯氰菊酯.%[Aims] The aim is to explore the estrogenicity of carbofuran and cypermethrin. [Methods] The EC50 values of the activity of β-galactosidase induced by 17β-estradiol, carbofuran and cypermethrin by recombining human estrogen receptor α gene yeast was determined. [Results] The EC50 values of 17β-estradiol, carbofuran and cypermethrin are 4.04×10-10, 2.34×l0-7, 1.04×10-6mol/L respectively and the maximum enzyme activities are 4.97, 1.82 and 1.59 U respectively. [Conclusions] Carbofuran and cypermethrin have different levels of estrogenicity while carbofuran is shown to have higher estrogenicity.

  6. Cladocers, Copepods and Rotifers in rice-fish culture handled with metsulfuron-methyl and azimsulfuron herbicides and carbofuran insecticide Cladocera, Copepoda e Rotifera em rizipiscicultura tratada com os herbicidas metsulfuron-metílico e azimsulfuron e o inseticida carbofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of metsulfuron-methyl, azimsulfuron and carbofuran in communities: Cladocers, Copepods and Rotifers that are present in irrigated rice farming with the rice-fish system. The field experiment was conducted in the 2004/05 growing season with eight treatments. The fish species were: Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis, introduced seven days after treatments were applied. Water samples were collected 17 days before and 1st, 3rd, 10th, 18th, 31th, 51th, and 75th days after the agrochemicals were applied for identification and evaluation of the zooplankton. The results indicated that the herbicides did not affect the zooplankton community studied and carbofuran insecticide application provoked negative effects in Cladocers. Copepods and Rotifers were slightly affected by carbofuran.O presente estudo determinou o efeito de metsulfuron-metílico, azimsulfuron e carbofuran nas comunidades: Cladocera, Copepoda e Rotifera presentes em lavouras de arroz irrigado com o sistema de rizipiscicultura. O experimento foi conduzido durante a safra agrícola 2004/05 com oito tratamentos. As espécies de peixes utilizadas foram: Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella e Aristichthys nobilis, introduzidas sete dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Amostras de água foram coletadas 17 dias antes e no(s 1°, 3°, 10°, 18°, 31°, 51° e 75° dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos para a identificação e a avaliação de zooplâncton. Os resultados indicam que os herbicidas estudados não afetaram a comunidade zooplanctônica e a aplicação do inseticida carbofuran provocou efeitos negativos em Cladocera. Copepoda e Rotifera foram pouco afetados pelo carbofuran.

  7. FI-Inhibitory Chemiluminescence Determination of Carbofuran%流动注射-抑制化学发光法测定克百威

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾风燕; 刘振波; 王荣; 刘永明

    2011-01-01

    Based on the inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the CL-reaction system of luminol-H2O2-sodium copper chlorophyll in an alkaline medium, a method for the determination of carbofuran by FI-inhibitory chemiluminescence (CL) was proposed. It was found that a stable complex was formed by the reaction of sodium copper chlorophyll with carbofuran in the mole ratio of 1 to 1, the process of quenching of fluorescence of carbofuran was proved to be a process of static quenching. Equilibrium constant (K0) and combination distance (r) the complex were determined and values obtained were 3. 41 × 105L · mol-1 and 0. 39 nm respectively. Linear relationship was found between values of CL intensity and mass concentration of carbofuran in the range of 0. 08 to 2. 0 mg · L-1,and detection limit (30/k) of the method found was 0. 03 mg · L-1 The proposed method was used in analysis of carbofuran in secticide samples, giving values of average recovery of 101.5%.%基于在碱性介质中,克百威抑制鲁米诺-过氧化氢-叶绿素铜钠体系的化学发光,提出了流动注射-抑制化学发光法测定克百威含量的方法.试验结果表明:叶绿素铜钠对克百威荧光猝灭过程是静态猝灭过程,叶绿素铜钠与克百威结合形成物质的量比为1比1的稳定配合物,平衡常数(K0)为3.41×105L·mol-1(25℃),结合距离(r)为0.39nm.克百威质量浓度在0.08~2.00 mg·L-1范围内与其发光强度呈线性关系,方法检出限(3σ/k)为0.03 mg·L-1.此法用于克百威杀虫剂样品的分析,测得方法的平均加标回收率为101.5%.

  8. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates or carbamates and morsodren in birds. II. Plasma and cholinesterase in quail fed morsodren and orally dosed with parathion or carbofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The degree of interaction between mercury and cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides was determined by comparing enzyme responses to sublethal dosages of parathion or carbofuran in quail fed 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm morsodren for 18 weeks. A statistically significant interaction was defined as greater brain cholinesterase inhibition in morsodren-fed than in clean-fed birds following pesticide dosage. The tissue residues of mercury that accumulated before significant mercury-parathion interactions occurred were higher than levels that might be expected in natural populations, but significant mercury-carbofuran interactions occurred in birds that had only accumulated 1.0 ppm liver mercury. The results indicate that indiscriminate usage of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are dangerous, since natural populations of fish-eating birds oftentimes contain this magnitude of mercury.

  9. Efficacy of Carbofuran in Controlling Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica Whitehead, 1949 on Cultivars of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. in Yola, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Jada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc. is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.. Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo were evaluated using three application timings (at planting, 3 and 6 weeks after planting, and none. Results indicated that applying carbofuran at planting provided the greatest reduction in M. javanica population levels, which lead to increased yields in bambara groundnuts compared to the other two application timings. Furthermore, both Kwachanjiwa and Kwatolotolo provided similar high yields compared to Kwaheuma, which was most likely related to the M. javanica tolerance in these cultivars.

  10. Novel pipette-tip graphene/poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel composite extractor for the analysis of carbofuran and carbaryl in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenpornpukdee, Kanokrat; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    A novel pipette-tip extractor of a graphene/poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel (graphene/PVA) composite sorbent was prepared to preconcentrate carbamate pesticides in environmental water samples before analysis with a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This novel pipette-tip extractor with the graphene/PVA sorbent exhibited a high porosity when observed through a scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Under optimal conditions, using only 1.0 mL of sample and 0.75 mL of eluting solvent, the developed method provided a wide linear range of 10-700 ng mL(-1) and 10-500 ng mL(-1) with limit of detection (LOD) of 6.40 ± 0.18 and 9.17 ± 0.34 ng mL(-1) for carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) and carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate), respectively. The pipette-tip extractor provided high extraction efficiency with high accuracy indicated, by good recoveries in the range of 74.5 ± 4.8% to 119.7 ± 1.6% and 76 ± 15% to 114 ± 19% for carbofuran and carbaryl, respectively. In addition, the fabrication procedure showed a good pipette-tip extractor-to-pipette-tip extractor reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 1.3-9.8% (n = 5). When the developed pipette-tip extractor was applied for the extraction of carbofuran and carbaryl in surface water samples near vegetable plantation areas, 25.9 ± 8.2 ng mL(-1) of carbofuran was found, and carbaryl was also detected in concentrations that ranged from 45.0 ± 4.0 to 191 ± 13 ng mL(-1).

  11. Effects of exposure to oxamyl, carbofuran, dichlorvos, and lindane on acetylcholinesterase activity in the gills of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano, Gerardo A; Amador, Alejandro; Moreno-Legorreta, Manuel; Arcos-Ortega, Fabiola; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia

    2010-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has been used to test the exposure of mollusk bivalves to pesticides and other pollutants. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is a species with a worldwide distribution, and it has a high commercial value. The use of this species as a bioindicator in the marine environment, and the use of measurements of AChE activity in tissues of C. gigas require prior evaluation of organisms exposed to several toxic compounds in the laboratory. In our study, the effects of pesticides on AChE activity in the gills and mantle tissues of C. gigas were analyzed by exposing animals to organophosphate (dichlorvos), carbamate (carbofuran and oxamyl), and organochlorine (lindane) pesticides. Adult Pacific oysters were exposed to several concentrations (0.1-200 microM) of dichlorvos, carbofuran, and oxamyl for 96 h, and lindane (1.0 and 2.5 microM) was applied for 12 days. In gill tissues, all pesticides analyzed caused a decrease in AChE activity when compared to the control unexposed group. The mean inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values were determined for dichlorvos, carbofuran, and oxamyl pesticides. Dichlorvos had the highest toxic effect, with an IC(50) of 1.08 microM; lesser effects were caused by oxamyl and carbofuran, with IC(50)s of 1.67 and 3.03 microM, respectively. This study reports the effects of pesticides with several chemical structures and validates measurement of AChE activity in the gill tissues of C. gigas for use in environmental evaluations or food quality tests.

  12. In situ study of the photodegradation of carbofuran deposited on TiO2 film under UV light, using ATR-FTIR coupled to HS-MCR-ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atifi, Abderrahman; Czarnecki, Kazimierz; Mountacer, Hafida; Ryan, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    The in situ study of the photodegradation of carbofuran deposited on a TiO2 catalyst film under UV light was carried out using the ATR-FTIR technique. The data were analyzed using a Hard-Soft Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (HS-MCR-ALS) methodology. Using S-MCR-ALS, four factors were deduced from the evolving factor analysis of the data, and their concentrations and spectra were determined. These results were used to draw qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major products of carbofuran photodegradation. The results of this analysis were in good agreement with GC-MS results and with reported mechanisms. Hard-MCR-ALS was then used to refine the spectra and concentrations, using a multistep kinetic model. The rate constant for the first step in the photodegradation of carbofuran was found to be 2.9 × 10(-3) min(-1). The higher magnitude of the correlation (96.87%), the explained variance (99.87%) and LOF (3.01), are good indicators of the reliability of the outcome of this approach. This method has been shown to be an efficient approach to study in situ photodegradation of pesticides on a solid surface.

  13. 粉末状和颗粒状有机膨润土对克百威的吸附%Adsorption of carbofuran on powdery and granular organobentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春姬; 肖波; 任娟; 杨平; 王金俊

    2011-01-01

    用十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTMAB)和十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)制得粉末状CTMAB阳离子有机膨润土(简称CTMAB-膨润土)和CTMAB-SDBS阴阳离子有机膨润土(简称CTMAB-SDBS-膨润土),并利用聚乙烯醇(PVA)包埋固定化技术将2种粉末状有机膨润土制成颗粒状有机膨润土,研究了粉末状与颗粒状有机膨润土对水中克百威的吸附性能.结果表明:粉末状CTMAB-膨润土和CTMAB-SDBS-膨润土对克百威的吸附效果较好,最终去除率分别为90.9%和92.5%,颗粒状CTMAB-膨润土和CTMAB-SDBS-膨润土对克百威的最终去除率分别为55.5%和60.3%;有机膨润土对克百威的吸附等温线符合Freundlich方程;颗粒状有机膨润土吸附克百威最多可重复利用6次.%Two kinds of powdery organobentonite (CTMAB-bentonite and CTMAB-SDBS-bentonite) were synthesized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as raw material respectively. These powder-organobentonites were embed-immobilization treated by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for preparation of granular organobentonite. The batch removal of carbofuran from aqueous solutions by adsorption on these organobentonite was investigated to compare the adsorptive capacity of powdery and granular organobentonites. The results showed that the powder-organobentonite presented better performance for carbofuran adsorption,with the carbofuran removal rate of powdery CTMAB-bentonite and CTMAB-SDBS-bentonite were 90. 9% and 92. 5% ,and the correlated carbofuran removal rate for granule-organobentonite were 55. 5% and 60. 3% ,respectively. While for gran-ule-organobentonite,the solid-liquid separation was easy to implement after adsorption and it could be reused for several times. The adsorption of carbofuran on powder-organobentonites and granule-organobentonites could be described by Freundich isotherms absorption model.

  14. Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, S; Marshall, R S; Hunter, D L; Lowit, A

    2007-03-01

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r(2)=0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r(2)=0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ADSORCIÓN-DESORCIÓN DE 14C-CARBOFURAN Y FURADAN 3SC® EN TRES SUELOS DE CUNDINAMARCA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Valencia Chavarro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El plaguicida carbofuran es uno de los N-metilcarbamatos más efectivos y de mayor uso en los cultivos de fresa, en Colombia y debido a su toxicidad es importante evaluar su movilidad en los sistemas específicos de producción agrícola. En este  estudio se realizaron ensayos de adsorción y desorción de carbofuran analítico y carbofuran formulado (FURADAN mediante isotermas ajustadas al modelo de Freundlich, sobre el horizonte superficial de tres suelos productores localizados en el departamento de Cundinamarca, área de mayor producción de fresa en Colombia. Se utilizaron  concentraciones del plaguicida dentro del intervalo de aplicación comercial al cultivo (comprendidas entre 0,12 y 2,57 µg/mL En todos los casos se presentó buen ajuste al modelo. La adsorción del plaguicida en los tres suelos fue baja con valores de coeficientes de adsorción (log Kd entre 0,04 a 0,40. Los coeficientes de adsorción normalizados con el contenido de carbono orgánico del suelo (log Koc se encontraron en un rango desde  1,73 hasta 2,05. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas en la adsorción del plaguicida formulado (FURADAN  y analítico, encontrándose tendencias opuestas dependiendo del lugar de ensayo; Estas diferencias se  asociaron con el distinto grado de humificación de la materia orgánica de los suelos y la presencia de adyuvantes en el producto formulado. En ninguno de los suelos estudiados se presentó el fenómeno de histéresis.

  16. Characterization of carbofuran bound residues and the effect of ageing on their distribution and bioavailability in the soil of a sugar beet field in north-western Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benicha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate distribution, fractionation, bioavailability and remobilization characteristics of bound soil-aged carbofuran and the effect of ageing in clay soil in a typical field of sugar beet at Loukkos in northwest Morocco. Results indicate that initially there were high levels of bound residues (BR in the humin fraction, which decreased with incubation time and ageing of the BR. While in the fulvic and humic acid fractions, the amount of BR increased with the ageing of the BR and occurred predominantly (60% in the fulvic acid fraction. The possibility of the mineralization and release of BR with ageing was studied using fresh soil and an incubation period of 90 days. The results indicate that the ageing of the residues have a great influence on the remobilization and mineralization rates of carbofuran BR; 9.45 to 14.90% of the total BR was released as extractable residues, and 1.95 to 4.15% was mineralized depending on the age of the residues in soil and the soil-aged carbofuran BR. The incorporation of the residues in the humin fraction is considered to be a threat to the environment. On the other hand, the clear prevalence of residues in the fulvic and humic acid fractions, may have an important effect on their bioavailability and movement in soil. Moreover, the re-extractability of BR could pose a potential environmental risk. Consequently, the BR remobilized must be taken into account when assessing for registration processes the environmental risk of pesticides persisting in soils.

  17. Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin With Carbofuran%β-环糊精与克百威包合作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 崔巍; 程庆红; 周晓婷

    2011-01-01

    采用固相共研磨法和饱和水溶液法合成β-环糊精和克百威的包合物,通过红外、紫外和荧光光谱对其结构和性质进行了表征;利用紫外光谱研究了不同浓度下β-环糊精溶液对克百威溶解度的影响,绘制出相溶解曲线图以确定β-环糊精和克百威之间形成物质的量比为1:1的包合物.利用克百威的内源荧光特性,根据包合前后以及在不同温度下荧光强度变化,结合Stem-Volmer方程,获取不同温度下β-环糊精和克百威之间的结合常数K.;热动力学方法研究温度对包合反应的影响,根据热力学参数得出包合反应是自发熵和焓共同驱动过程.%The inclusion compounds of carbofuran with β - cyclodextrin (β - CD) were prepared by kneading method and aqueous -solution method. The properties of the compound were investigated by FT -IR spectra, UV -vis spectra and Fluorescence spectra. The solubility of carbofuran in aqueous solution increased in the presence of β- cyclodextrin due to complex using UV-spectrophotometric measurements. The results show that 1∶1 inclusion complexes are formed between β-CD and carbofuran. The intrinsic fluorescence of carbofuran can be enhanced by β -CD. The binding constants are obtained according to the Stern- Volmer equation. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS are calculated. Their values suggested that enthalpy and entropy are the main driving force for the inclusion reaction.

  18. Movement of bromide-ion and carbofuran in the humic sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows : measurements in the field and computations with the PEARL model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2008-01-01

    In fields with ridges and furrows (like in potato growing), water flow and pesticide transport in soil may be more complicated than in level fields. In a field experiment, movement of bromide-ion (as a tracer) and of the insecticide carbofuran through a sandy soil with humic top layer to the groundw

  19. Preparation of mesoporous activated carbon from palm-date pits: optimization study on removal of bentazon, carbofuran, and 2,4-D using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, J M; Abid, F M

    2013-01-01

    Palm-date pits were used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation method, which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gasification. The effects of variable parameters, activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratios (KOH: char by weight) on the preparation of activated carbon and for removal of pesticides: bentazon, carbofuran and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two factor interaction (2FI) and quadratic models were respectively employed to correlate the effect of variable parameters on the preparation of activated carbon used for removal of pesticides with carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from palm-date pits were found to be: activation temperature of 850 °C, activation time of 3 h and chemical impregnation ratio of 3.75, which resulted in an activated carbon yield of 19.5% and bentazon, carbofuran, and 2,4-D removal of 84, 83, and 93%, respectively.

  20. The Dynamic Changes and Toxicity to Earthworms of Carbofuran in Soil%土壤中克百威的动态变化及其对蚯蚓的毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘波; 方佳; 林勇; 楚小强; 姜蕾

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] Research was conducted to understand the dynamic changes of different concentrations of carbofuran in the soil and its impact on non-target organisms. [Methods] The acute toxicity of carbofuran to earthworms was studied using natural soil. Carbofuran residues in the soil were determined by HPLC with post-column derivatization system and fluorescence detector. [Results] The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned-up by amido solid-phase extraction column with methanol-dichloromethane (1:99, by vol) as the eluent. The results showed that the minimum detection limit of carbofuran was 0.01 mg/kg. The average recoveries of carbofuran from the soil ranged from 89.1 to 106.4%, with RSD of 1.5-4.3%, and the method met with the requirements for pesticide residue analysis. [Conclusions] The half-life of carbofuran in soil was 13.72 to 28.29 days. The median lethal concentration of carbofuran on the 7th and 14th day was 9.856 and 8.778 mg/kg respectively by natural soil test.%[目的]探究不同质量分数克百威在土壤中的动态变化及其对非靶标生物的影响.[方法]采用自然土壤法研究了克百威对蚯蚓的急性毒性,固相萃取高效液相色谱柱后衍生法检测克百威在土壤中的残留量.[结果]采用乙腈提取土壤中的克百威,氨基固相萃取小柱净化,高效液相色谱柱后衍生荧光检测器检测,方法回收率为89.1%~106.4%,相对标准偏差为1.5%~4.3%,最低检出限为0.01 mg/kg,符合农药残留分析要求.[结论]克百威在土壤中的半衰期为13.72~28.29 d,自然土壤法测得克百威对蚯蚓第7、14天的LC50值分别为9.856、8.778 mg/kg.

  1. Determination of carbofuran and its metabolites in aquatic products by UPLC-MS-MS%UPLC-MS-MS法测定水产品中克百威及其代谢物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚斌

    2012-01-01

    采用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱技术建立同时测定水产品中克百威及其代谢物(3羟基克百威、3酮基克百威和呋喃酚)含量的方法.样品经乙腈提取,正己烷脱脂,HLB固相萃取柱净化,色谱柱分离,电喷雾串联四极杆质谱进行检测,采用多反应监测分析,并对液质分离条件及参数和样品前处理条件进行优化.结果显示,克百威及其代谢物在0.08~100 ng/mL范围内线性良好(0.998 3~0.999 7).在0.25~2.5 μg/kg时,平均加标回收率在87.9%~96.1%,RSD值在1.4%~9.5%.该方法测定克百威、3-羟基克百威、3-酮基克百威和呋喃酚的检出限均为0.25 μg/kg.该方法快速、准确、灵敏,可用于水产品中克百威及其代谢物残留量的测定.%An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC- MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of carbofuran and its main metabolites (3-hydroxycarbofuran , 3-ketocarbofuran and carbofuran phenol) in aquatic products. The carbofuran and its main metabolites were extracted with acetonitrile , cleaned up with HLB solid phase extraction cartridge (SPE) . The UPLC analyses were performed on an ACQUITY HSS T3 column with gradient evaluation, combined with electrospray ionization in positive mode (ESI+)and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM)mode. The linear range was 0. 08-100 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficients were 0. 998 3~0. 999 7. The average recoveries of carbofuran and its main metabolites in fish and shrimp (0. 25 to 2. 5 μg/kg) ranged from 87. 9% to 96. 1 % and the relative standard deviations were between 1.4% and 9. 5 %. The detection limit of carbofuran, 3-hydroxy carbofuran, 3-keto carbofuran and carbofuran phenol was 0. 25 μg/kg . The method is easy, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the determination of carbofuran and its main metabolites in aquatic products.

  2. Study on the Interaction between Carbofuran and Bovine Serum Albumin by Spectrometry%克百威与牛血清白蛋白相互作用的光谱学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐光富; 谭亚亚; 李博

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to discuss the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and carbofuran. [ Method ] Using synchronous fluorescence spectrometry,the interaction between carbofuran and BSA in Tris - HC1 buffer system (pH 7.40)was investigated. The binding constants at different temperatures were calculated and the interaction types between carbofuran and BSA were discussed. [ Result ] Under simulative physiological conditions, stronger quenching effect of carbofuran on BSA was electrostatic interaction. According to the changes of different drug concentrations and temperature,it was concluded the quenching way was static quenching. The binding constants (Ksv) at 25,37 and 50 ℃ were 1.17 × 104 、1.07 × 10 and 0.99 × 104 L/mol respectively. Carbofuran was bound with BSA by the ratio of 1: 1. [Conclusion] The research had certain guiding significance for understanding the transport and metabolism of carbofuran in vivo at the molecular level.%[目的]探讨克百威与牛血清白蛋白的相互作用.[方法]采用同步荧光光谱法,研究在pH 7.40 Tris - HC1缓冲体系下克百威与牛血清白蛋白的相互作用,计算不同温度下的结合常数,并探讨了克百威与BSA之间的作用力类型.[结果]在正常生理条件下克百威对牛血清白蛋白的较强的猝灭作用为静电作用.根据不同的药物浓度及温度的变化,判断其猝灭方式可能为静态猝灭.在25、37、50℃温度下反应的结合常数KSV分别为1.17 × 104、1.07×104和0.99×104 L/mol,克百威与BSA按1:1的比例结合.[结论]该研究对从分子水平上了解克百威的体内转运与代谢具有一定的指导意义.

  3. 克百威光催化降解动力学的研究%Parameters effect on photocatalytic degradation kinetics of carbofuran in TiO2 aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳海; 周硕林; 尹明亮; 皮露露; 曾健; 易兵

    2013-01-01

    采用TiO2光催化技术对克百威的降解进行了研究,并系统地考察了催化剂用量,溶液初始pH值,底物浓度,活性氧物种和各种阴阳离子对其降解动力学的影响.用Langmuir-Hinshelwood动力学模型对克百威的光催化降解进行了研究,结果表明,克百威在弱碱性条件下降解速率最快,OH对克百威降解贡献比约为93.4%,h+和其他ROSs的贡献则相对较小.而水溶液中的阴离子BrO3-和S2O82对克百威的光催化降解有促进作用,I则有明显的抑制作用,并且水溶液中的K+,Ca2+,Na+,Mg2+和Cu2+等金属阳离子对克百威的降解也均体现了一定程度的抑制作用.%Photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran has been investigated in TiO2 aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as catalyst amount, pH value, concentration of carbofuran, reactive oxidative species (ROSs), different anions and metal cations on photocatalytic degradation kinetics were studied. The degradation of carbofuran follows pseudo first-order kinetics by using Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The results indicated that the weak alkaline solution was favor for the degradation of carbofuran. The ·OH radical is responsible for the major degradation of carbofuran, and its contribution is about 93.4%, while the other ROSs play a minor contribution to the degradation. Additionally, the anions of BrO3- and S2O82- accelerate the degradation rate of carbofuran, while I- anion inhibits degradation reaction obviously. The photocatalytic degradation reactions were also inhibited to some extent when K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cu2+ cations were added to aqueous solution.

  4. Electrochemical nonenzymatic sensor based on CoO decorated reduced graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of carbofuran and carbaryl in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, MingYan; Huang, JunRao; Wang, Meng; Zhang, DongEn; Chen, Jun

    2014-05-15

    A novel nonenzymatic sensor based on cobalt (II) oxide (CoO)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was developed for the detection of carbofuran (CBF) and carbaryl (CBR). Two well-defined and separate differential pulse voltammetric peaks for CBF and CBR were obtained with the CoO/rGO sensor in a mixed solution, making the simultaneous detection of both carbamate pesticides possible. The nonenzymatic sensor demonstrated a linear relationship over a wide concentration range of 0.2-70 μM (R=0.9996) for CBF and 0.5-200 μM (R=0.9995) for CBR. The lower detection limit of the sensor was 4.2 μg/L for CBF and 7.5 μg/L for CBR (S/N=3). The developed sensor was used to detect CBF and CBR in fruit and vegetable samples and yielded satisfactory results.

  5. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals.

  6. Synthesis of Carbofuran Phenol by Aluminium Isopropoxide Carboxylate%异丙醇羧酸铝催化合成呋喃酚反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 罗先福; 胡艾希; 张建宇; 杨林涛

    2011-01-01

    选择了异丙醇羧酸铝催化2-(2-甲基烯丙氧基)苯酚合成呋喃酚;探讨异丙醇羧酸铝用量对合成呋喃酚反应的影响.实验结果表明,异丙醇羧酸铝可高效催化2-(2-甲基烯丙氧基)苯酚合成呋喃酚.当催化剂为异丙醇二乙酸铝,用量为2-(2-甲基烯丙氧基)苯酚的2.50%(物质的量比),呋喃酚的收率达到80.8%,高于目前工业上以异丙醇铝为催化剂的78.3%,具有应用价值.%Efficient synthesis of carbofuran phenol from 2-(2-methylallyloxy)phenol was achieved by using(RCO2)nAl(Opr-/)3-n as the catalysts. The effect of molar ratio of catalyst (RCO2)nAl(Opr-/)3-B/2-(2-methyl-lallyloxy)phenol on the yield was investigated. By employing (CHjCC^AlOPr-/ as the complex catalyst,the yield of carbofuran phenol was improved to 80.8%, which was higher than that of 78.3% in commercialinstallation.

  7. Isolation, Identification and Degradation of Carbofuran-degrading Strain CFDS-1%呋喃丹降解菌CFDS-1的筛选鉴定及降解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑宏; 洪青; 洪源范; 李顺鹏

    2011-01-01

    为有效治理呋喃丹的污染,从受呋喃丹长期污染的土壤中分离筛选到一株高效降解呋喃丹的菌株CFDS-1,经形态、生理生化、16S rDNA(GenBank accession No.AY702969)同源性及系统发育地位等分析,将其初步鉴定为Sphingomonas sp.当接种量为5%时,CFDS-l能在48 h内降解100 mg L-1的呋喃丹,对于高达300 mg L-1的呋喃丹依然有降解效果;CFDS-1对呋喃丹的降解率与起始接种量呈正相关;降解呋喃丹的最适pH是8.0~9.0;在20~42℃范围内,温度对CFDS-1降解呋喃丹没有显著影响;该菌在250 mL三角瓶中装液量为100 mL时,对呋喃丹的降解效果最好.土壤实验表明,该菌株同样能有效地降解土壤中的呋喃丹残留.%Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranoyl N-methylcarbamate) was first introduced into China in 1979 as a pesticide and is extensively used as a soil-incorporated N-methylcarbamate insecticide to control a variety of insect pests that infest many kinds of crops, such as corn and potato.Carbofuran is of a concern due to its relatively high mammalian toxicity and relatively high mobility in soil.Some N-methylcarbamate compounds and their metabolites can be sufficiently mobile in certain soil, thus considered as potential pollutants of ground and surface waters.One carbofuran-degrading strain named CFDS-1 was isolated from soil polluted by carbofuran for a long time.According to its physiological & biochemical characters, and the homology analysis of its 16S rDNA sequence (GenBank accession No.AY702969), CFDS-1 was primarily identified as Sphingomonas sp.CFDS-1 was able to completely degrade carbofuran in medium within 48 hours at the initial concentration of 100 mg L-1.CFDS-1 could well degrade carbofuran at concentrations from 20 mg L-1 to 300 mg L-1.The degradation speed was related positively to initial inoculation amount.The optimal pH and aeration for the degradation were 8.0~9.0 and 100 ~250 mL, respectively.The temperature

  8. VALIDACIÓN DE UNA METODOLOGÍA PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE CARBOFURAN EN SUELOS MEDIANTE CROMATOGRAFÍA LÍQUIDA DE ALTA EFICIENCIA CON DETECCIÓN ULTRAVIOLETA (CLAR-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Valencia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se validó una metodología analítica que permite cuantificar residuos de carbofuran en muestras de suelo. La extracción del plaguicida desde la matriz se realizó mediante agitación mecánica empleando acetato de etilo como solvente, los extractos obtenidos se sometieron a extracción en fase sólida (EFS utilizando cartuchos C18, finalmente, la determinación y cuantificación del carbofuran se llevó a cabo mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia con detección ultravioleta (CLAR-UV a una longitud de onda de 205 nm. La metodología validada es específica y selectiva para el carbofuran, lineal en el rango desde 0,47 hasta 2,36 mgKg-1, precisa con un coeficiente de variación típico (CVtip de 10,78%; exacta brindando un porcentaje de recuperación para la metodología global (porcentaje de R equivalente a 98,25±3,97% y sensible con límites de detección y cuantificación de 0,045 y 0,149 mgKg-1, respectivamente. También se verificó la robustez del método. Se analizaron dos muestras de suelo dedicados al cultivo de café, y se encontraron residuos de carbofuran durante los primeros 30 días después de su aplicación.

  9. Effets de l'exposition à un insecticide carbamate, le carbofuran, sur les performances de jeunes stades de brochet (Esox lucius L., 1758 : résultats préliminaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMBLARD G.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Des lots de jeunes brochets au stade embryon libre, stabulés dans des béchers en verre, ont été exposés en conditions statiques à des solutions (0-250 µg.L-1 de carbofuran, un insecticide carbamate inhibiteur de l'activité de l'acétylcholinestérase (AchE. A partir de 10 µg.L-1, une inhibition significative de l'activité globale de l'AchE des embryons libres a été constatée. A partir de 50 µg.L-1, une diminution significative de la hauteur moyenne de fixation des embryons libres sur les parois des béchers a été observée. L'exposition au carbofuran n'a pas eu d'effet significatif sur le nombre de proies zooplanctoniques ingérées par les jeunes brochets parvenus au début de la phase larvaire ; une diminution de ce paramètre en fonction de concentrations croissantes de carbofuran a cependant été enregistrée. A 250 µg.L-1 , la résorption de la vésicule vitelline ne s'effectuant plus que très partiellement, les embryons libres exposés ne se sont pas transformés en larves. Cette étude montre que l'exposition à des concentrations sublétales de carbofuran est susceptible d'affecter le développement ontogénétique et les performances de jeunes stades de brochet. Un approfondissement de ces travaux est envisagé dans différentes directions.

  10. Fluorometric determination of carbofuran residues in fruits and vegetables with β-CD sensitizer%β-环糊精增敏荧光法测定果蔬中呋喃丹的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满秀; 姚旭梅; 冯娜; 许妍

    2013-01-01

    利用荧光光谱法探讨了β-环糊精与呋喃丹间的超分子相互作用,证明β-环糊精与呋喃丹可形成1∶1的超分子包合物,在λex/λem=272/323 nm处发射强荧光,包合常数为108.2 L·mol-1.据此建立了测定水溶液中呋喃丹的荧光分析新方法.在0.0025 ~ 0.03 μg/mL范围内,呋喃丹的荧光强度与浓度呈良好的线性关系,相关系数R =0.9990,方法的检出限为0.0013 μg/mL,相对标准偏差为1.2%.该体系的抗干扰能力及稳定性好,实际样品分析回收率为98%~102%.%The supramolecular interaction between carbofuran and β-cyclodextrin was studied by spectrofluorimetry. The results show that p-cyclodextrin reacts with carbofuran to form an inclusion complex with an association constant of 108. 2L/mol. The composition of the complex is 1: 1 (β-CD : carbofuran). Based on the significant enhancement of fluorescence intensity of carbofuran in the inclusion complex, a spectrofluorimetric method with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed for the determination of carbofuran in aqueous solutions. Under the optimum conditions, the complex had maximum excitation and emission wavelengths at 272 nm and 323 nm,respectively. The linear range of the method was 0. 0025 ~0. 030 μg/mL with a detection limit of 0. 0013 μg/mL,and the relative standard deviation was 1.2%. The recoveries of the determination were 98% ~102%.

  11. Efeitos de tratamentos diferenciados no plantio de banana var. Prata-Anã através da quantificação de resíduos de carbofuran Different treatments of carbofuran in the field of banana var. Prata-Anã on pesticides residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miranda de Castro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os níveis de resíduos de carbofuran utilizando métodos específicos de análise em amostras de bananas Musa spp submetidas a nove tratamentos distintos de controle químico. As aplicações do produto na plantação foram realizadas durante o cultivo segundo as Boas Práticas Agrícolas (BPA, evidenciando-se os seus efeitos nas concentrações de resíduos. Em seis destes tratamentos, efetuou-se a aplicação de 80g/planta do produto comercial diretamente no solo, de acordo com a recomendação do fabricante, e nos outros três tratamentos restantes, foram feitas aplicações com uma quantidade aproximadamente seis vezes menor (12g/planta na muda desbastada. Após a colheita, os frutos foram analisados casca e polpa separadamente por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução, com detetor de nitrogênio-fósforo (CGAR-DNP. Ficou demonstrado que a aplicação de subdoses com redução de 85% do total recomendado, quando aplicadas na muda desbastada, é equivalente aos tratamentos onde se usa quantidade mais elevada deste produto aplicado no solo. A variação do modo de aplicação e aplicações de agrotóxico em menor quantidade deixaram resíduos de carbofuran nos frutos em concentrações aproximadamente similares às aplicações onde se usou a quantidade recomendada pelo fabricante. Assim, no que concerne aos níveis residuais de agrotóxicos, aplicando-se subdoses na muda desbastada, pode-se ter o mesmo resultado, obtendo-se adicionalmente maior proteção contra a poluição do meio ambiente, além de maior economia.The aim of this study was to determinate the carbofuran pesticide residues, using specific analysis methods in bananas, which were submitted to nine different treatments of this insecticide. Carbofuran applications on the banana field were done during the cultivation according to Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, to associate its effects at the residues concentrations. In six of those

  12. Removal of carbofuran is not affected by co-application of chlorpyrifos in a coconut fiber/compost based biomixture after aging or pre-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Masís-Mora, Mario; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2016-08-01

    Biomixtures constitute the biologically active part of biopurification systems (BPS), which are used to treat pesticide-containing wastewater. The aim of this work was to determine whether co-application of chlorpyrifos (CLP) affects the removal of carbofuran (CFN) (both insecticide/nematicides) in a coconut fiber-compost-soil biomixture (FCS biomixture), after aging or previous exposure to CFN. Removal of CFN and two of its transformation products (3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran) was enhanced in pre-exposed biomixtures in comparison to aged biomixtures. The co-application of CLP did not affect CFN removal, which suggests that CLP does not inhibit microbial populations in charge of CFN transformation. Contrary to the removal behavior, mineralization of radiolabeled (14)C-pesticides showed higher mineralization rates of CFN in aged biomixtures (with respect to freshly prepared or pre-exposed biomixtures). In the case of CLP, mineralization was favored in freshly prepared biomixtures, which could be ascribed to high sorption during aging and microbial inhibition by CFN in pre-exposure. Regardless of removal and mineralization results, toxicological assays revealed a steep decrease in the acute toxicity of the matrix on the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (over 97%) after 8days of treatment of individual pesticides or the mixture CFN/CLP. Results suggest that FCS biomixtures are suitable to be used in BPS for the treatment of wastewater in fields where both pesticides are employed. PMID:27521950

  13. Solar photocatalitycal treatment of carbofuran at lab and pilot scale: effect of classical parameters, evaluation of the toxicity and analysis of organic by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alvarez, Blady; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2011-07-15

    In this work the TiO(2) solar-photocatalytical degradation of the pesticide carbofuran (CBF) in water, at lab and pilot scale, was studied. At lab scale the evaluation of CBF concentration (14-282 μmol L(-1)) showed that the system followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics type. TiO(2) concentration (0.05-2 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-9) were also evaluated and optimized using the surface response methodology and the Pareto diagram. In the range of variables studied, initial pH 7.60 and 1.43 g L(-1) of TiO(2) favoured the efficiency of the process. Under optimal conditions the evolution of substrate, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, toxicity and organics by-products were evaluated. In the pilot scale tests, using direct sunlight, 55 mg L(-1) of CBF in a commercial formulation was eliminated after 420 min; while after 900 min of treatment 80% of toxicity (1/E(50) on Vibrium Fischeri), 80% of chemical oxygen demand and 60% of dissolved organic carbon were removed. The analysis and evolution of five CBF by-products, as well the evaluation of the treatment in the presence of isopropanol or using acetonitrile as a solvent suggest that the degradation is mainly carried out by OH radical attack. Finally, a schema depicting the main degradation pathway is proposed.

  14. The Separation of Catechol from Carbofuran Phenol by Extractive Distillation%萃取精馏分离呋喃酚中邻苯二酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建宇; 胡艾希; 王宇; 肖旭辉; 郭家斌; 罗先福

    2009-01-01

    In this study, extractive distillation has been applied to separate catechol (CAT) from carbofuran phenol (CFP) with high purity and yield. The relative volatility of CFP to CAT was measured, and the choice of separating agents was investigated. The experimental results indicated that CFP/CAT is an azeotropic system with an azeotropic point at 93.40℃/0.400 kPa and an azeotropic mixture containing 49.96% of CFP and 50.04% of CAT. Data from the determination of the relative volatility have shown that separating agents such as diglycol and 4-butylcatechol (4-TBC) are able to increase the relative volatility up to 1.90. In one shot process batch extractive distillation of CFP mixture with 3% (by mass) diglycol as separating agent, the purity and yield of the obtained CFP was 99.0% and 95.0%, respectively, while the distillation without separating agent provided a purity and yield of only 98.0% and 90.0%, respectively. There was no residual separating agent found in the product.

  15. 饮用水中甲萘威、呋喃丹残留量的高效液相色谱法测定%Determination of carbaryl and carbofuran in dringking water by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑶

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法同时测定饮用水中甲萘威和呋喃丹农药残留的方法.方法:样品用二氯甲烷提取,氮吹近干,甲醇+水(60+40)为流动相,柱温35℃,流速1.0 ml/min,紫外检测器进行检测,波长280 nm.结果:本法回收率为87.6%~%.2%; RSD为2.0%~4.6%;检测限:甲萘威为0.010 μg/ml,呋喃丹为0.037μg/ml.结论:所建立的方法,操作简单,稳定性好,结果准确、可靠,可用于饮用水中甲萘威、呋喃丹的同时测定.%Objective;To develop a method to detect carbaryl and carbofuran in drinking water by HPLC at the same time. Methods; The sample was extracted by dichloromethane, concentrated by N2 gas and separated with C18 column by UV at 280 ran,using methanol -water (60-40)as mobile phase, temperature of 35℃ and a flowrate of 1.0 ml/min. ReasultS; The recoveries were 87.6% -96.2% corresponding RSD were 2.0% -4.6% and the detection limit of Carbaryl was 0.010 μg/ml, the detection limit of carbofuran was 0.037 μg/ml. Conclusion; The method is simple with good stability, whose result is precise and believable, so it is suitable for detecting carbaryl and carbofuran in drinking water at the same time.

  16. Determination of Tebuconazole+Carbofuran 15%FSC by HPLC%15%戊唑·克百威悬浮种衣剂的高效液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平

    2014-01-01

    建立一种同时分析克百威和戊唑醇的反相高效液相色谱法。以甲醇+水为流动相,使用C18色谱柱和紫外检测器,在220 nm波长下对试样中克百威和戊唑醇进行分离和定量分析。结果表明:克百威和戊唑醇的线性相关系数分别为0.9996和0.9991,标准偏差分别为0.058和0.044,变异系数分别为0.42%和4.15%,平均回收率分别为99.94%和99.82%。方法操作简单、快速、准确,适用于15%戊唑·克百威悬浮种衣剂的定性和定量分析。%A reverse phase HPLC method was developed for quantitative determination of tebuconazole+carbofuran 15%FSC on C18 column with UV detector at 220 nm, using methanol and water as mobile phase. The results showed that the linear correlation coefficients of carbofuran and tebuconazole were 0.999 6 and 0.999 1, the standard deviations were 0.058 and 0.044, the variation coefficients were 0.42% and 4.15%, the average recoveries were 99.94%and 99.82%, respectively. The method was simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for qualitativ and quantitative analysis of tebuconazole+carbofuran 15%FSC.

  17. Adsorption-desorption Characteristics of Carbofuran in Typical Soils of Hainan%克百威在海南典型土壤中的吸附-脱附特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宪文; 阎龙强; 李勤奋; 邓晓

    2015-01-01

    Combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE)-high performance liquid chromatography using a batch equilibrium method for the determination of different soil carbofuran adsorption-desorption amount fitting Freundich, Langmuir and DMM model equations, analysis of the adsorption-desorption amount soil physical and chemical properties. Experiments show that soil at high concentrations of carbofuran adsorption -desorption and adsorption equilibrium solution concentration of carbofuran was linear, low concentrations of carbofuran adsorption-desorption amount fluctuates significantly. Experimental results fitting Freundich equation effect best test parameters Kf and n values the test soil physical and chemical properties of correlation between the soil clay, organic matter content and CEC on the adsorption amount off attached behavior, CEC, sand, silt, exchangeable calcium content had significant effects.%结合固相萃取(SPE)-高效液相色谱技术,运用批量平衡法测定不同土壤对克百威的吸附-脱附量,拟合Freundich﹑ Langmuir和DMM双模型方程,分析吸附-脱附量与土壤理化性质相关关系。实验表明,在高浓度时,土壤对克百威的吸附/脱附量与吸附平衡溶液中克百威的浓度呈良好线性关系,而低浓度时,克百威吸附-脱附量波动明显。实验结果拟合Freundich方程效果最佳,检验参数Kf和n值与受试土壤理化性质间呈相关关系。土壤中粘粒﹑有机质含量和阳离子交换量(CEC)对吸附量影响大,而在脱附行为中, CEC﹑砂粒﹑粉粒﹑交换性钙含量均有显著影响。

  18. 在线富集高效液相色谱法检测水样中的克百威残留%Determination of carbofuran in water using the on-line preconcent ration high-performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇瑛; 卢彦; 余利军; 余朝琦

    2005-01-01

    采用在线预柱富集-高效液相色谱法(HPLC)检测水样中的克百威(carbofuran)残留.对在线富集参数(渗漏体积、预富集流速、实验重现性)及方法可行性进行了研究.用紫外可见检测器(UV/Vis)检测时,检测限可达0.05μg/L,相关系数为0.9985.

  19. 绿磺隆克百威三唑磷多抗体免疫亲和色谱技术研究%Studies on Multi-class Immunoaffinity Chromatography(MIAC)for Chlorsulfuron, Carbofuran and Triaophos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦林洪; 刘曙照; 邵秀金; 张军

    2009-01-01

    采用碳酰二咪唑(CDI)将Sepharose CL-4B活化并分别与纯化的抗绿磺隆、抗克百威、抗三唑磷的多克隆抗体共价偶联,合成相应的免疫亲和吸附剂,并制备了对绿磺隆、克百威和三唑磷具有特异性亲和力的多抗体免疫亲和色谱(MIAC)柱.对MIAC的条件进行优化,选择0.02 mol·L~(-1) pH7.2磷酸盐缓冲液作吸附与平衡介质,80%(体积分数)甲醇水溶液作洗脱剂.结果表明,在上述试验条件下,MIAC柱对绿磺隆、克百威和I唑磷的动态柱容量分别达1.81、2.29和1.89μg·mL~(-1)床体积.用MIAC柱对添加有绿磺隆、克百威、三唑磷的河水与土壤提取液进行分离富集,洗脱液分别采用包被抗体直接竞争酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法和高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定,重复5次,平均回收率是89.98%~106.2%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.21%~14.81%,ELISA法和HPLC法的测定结果基本一致.成功建立了绿磺隆、克百威和三唑磷的多抗体免疫亲和色谱分析技术并用于河水和土壤中绿磺隆、克百威、三唑磷残留的测定.%The purified anti-chlorsulfuron antibody, anti- carbofuran antibody and anti-triazophos antibody were conjugated to the CDI-acti-vated sepharose CL-4B respectively to synthesize the immunosorbent. The mixed immunosorbent of chlorsulfuron, carbofuran and triaophos were used to prepare multi-class immunoaffinity chromatography( MIAC) column which are specific to chlorsulfuron, carbofuran and triaophos. The conditions of MIAC were optimized, 0.02 mol·L~(-1) pH 7.2 phosphate buffer was used as equilibrium and absorbent medium, and 80% methanol-water( V/V ) as eluent. Under the experimental conditions, the dynamic column capacity of chlorsulfuron, carbofuran and triaophos were up to 1.81, 2.29 and 1.89 μg·mL~(-1) bed volume respectively. The spiked river water and the extracts of spiked soil were clean up and en-riched by MIAC,the target compounds in eluates were determined by enzyme linked

  20. Determination of Carbofuran, Carbaryl and Atrazine in Water by SPE-HPLC%固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定水中呋喃丹、甲萘威和阿特拉津

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小敏; 葛洪波; 李爱民; 马先锋; 宋国强

    2011-01-01

    采用固相萃取-高效液相色谱(SPE - HPLC)二极管阵列检测器同时测定水中呋喃丹、甲萘威和阿特拉津,以甲醇-水为流动相,采用梯度洗脱方式,选择220 nm为检测波长,二氯甲烷为洗脱剂.呋喃丹在0.200 mg/L ~5.00 mg/L、甲萘威和阿特拉津在0.020 mg/L~5.00 mg/L范围内线性良好,检出限分别为0.24 μg/L、0.019 μg/L和0.035 μg/L,两个质量水平水样加标平均回收率为84.0%~103%,RSD为1.6% ~8.5%.%A method was established for determination of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine in water samples by solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatograph ( HPLC ) using methanol-water as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The detection was made on a diode array detector at 220 nm. Dichlo-romethane was selected as eluting solvent. The results indicated that the good linear ranges were 0. 200 mg/L ~ 5. 00 mg/L for carbofuran, and 0.020 mg/L ~5.00 mg/L for carbaryl and atrazine. The detection limits of the method were 0. 24 μg/L, 0.019 μg/L and 0.035 μg/L for carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine, respectively. The average recoveries of spiked standard materials at two quantity levels were from 84.0 % to 103% , and RSD was from 1.6% to 8. 5%.

  1. Study on the determination of carbofuran residues in vegetable by GC/MS%GC/MS法测定蔬菜中克百威残留量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符展明; 金米聪; 金永高; 杨勇; 符超; 焦效兰

    2005-01-01

    目的:本文研究建立应用GC/MS法测定蔬菜中克百威(Carbofuran)的检测方法.方法:样品以丙酮+石油醚=1:4 溶液超声提取,弱阳离子交换柱净化, GS/MS测定.结果:变异系数为 2.87%~4.06%,回收率为 84.0%~87.2%,最底检出限为 0.01 μg/kg.结论:本方法具有灵敏度高,结果准确可靠等优点.

  2. Rice straw-derived activated carbons for the removal of carbofuran from an aqueous solution%利用稻杆衍生吸附剂去除液相中呋喃丹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耿崚; 陈志成; 林俊宏; 谢荣峯; 汪印; 赵峰; 施怡瑄; 邢贞娇; 陈水田

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from rice straw by carbonization and KOH activation, and was used as an adsorbent for the removal of a kind of pesticide, carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) from aqueous solution. The effects of the initial carbofuran concentration, contact time, temperature and pH, on its adsorption capacity and kinetics were studied using a batch method. The surface area and average pore diameter of the activated carbon were 1304. 8 m2/g and 2. 39 nm, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of the activated carbon (296. 52 mg/g) for carbofuran was found to occur at 90 min, 30℃ and 200 mg/L initial carbofuran concentration with an adsorbent loading of 100 mg/L. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were fitted better by the Langmuir model than the Freundlich and Temkin models. The adsorption follows a pseudo-second-order kinetics model.%以KOH为活化剂进行两段式活化程序,将废弃生物质材料转化为活性炭,并评估此活性炭吸对液相中农药(呋喃丹)的去除能力。结果表明,此活性炭具有大比表面积与高吸附能力可快速有效地去除液相中的呋喃丹。吸附前后的活性炭用扫描电子显微镜、元素分析仪与傅里叶变换红外光谱仪进行特征分析。活性炭的比表面积与平均孔径分别为1304.8 m2/g与2.39 nm。同时对不同的吸附参数进行批次分析,包括呋喃丹初始浓度,吸附时间、温度与酸碱度。最大吸附量(296.52mg/g)的吸附参数为90min、30益、吸附剂剂量100mg/L、180r/min、呋喃丹初始浓度200mg/L。根据三种平衡吸附等温线( Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin)与动力学分析,Langmuir模式最符合此活性炭的吸附结果,伪二级动力学方程可预测此活性炭的吸附动力学。

  3. Determination of Carbofuran and Pirimicarb from Panax notoginseng (Burk.)F.H.Chen and Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf%中药三七、茯苓中克百威和抗蚜威的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张举成; 刘卫; 陈瑞; 杨金; 姚立华; 胡蓉绘

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] It was to develop the detection method of carbofuran and pirimicarb from Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen and Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. [Methods] The HPLC was employed to determine the carbofuran and pirimicarb from P. Notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen and P. Cocos (Schw.) Wolf. [Results] The chromgraphy conditions was confirmed that the temperature was 30 °C, the velocity was 1 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 210 nm, and the mobile phase was water-acetonitrile (61.5 :38.5, by vol). The linear content of pirimicarb and carbofuran ranged from 1.99×10-4 to 9.95×l0-4μg (r=0.9987) and 1.97×10-4 to 9.85×10-4 μg (r=0.9947) respectively. The RSD of pirimicarb and carbofuran were 13.2 and 7.1% respectively. [Conclusions] The detection method was established and the two pesticides were undetected in the two Chinese herbs. The method had short retention time and the peak didn't overlap with the base material.%[目的]获得中药三七、茯苓中克百威和抗蚜威的检测方法.[方法]通过液相色谱法对中药三七和茯苓中的克百威和抗蚜威的检测方法进行研究.[结果]确定了较优液相色谱检测条件为柱温30℃,流速1 mL/min,检测波长210nm,流动相水-乙腈(体积比61.5:38.5).获得抗蚜威和克百威分别在1.99×10-4~9.95×10-4 μg(r=0.9987)和1.97×10-4~9.85×10-4μg(r=0.9947)范围内线性良好.克百威和抗蚜威的RSD值分别为13.2%和7.1%.[结论]获得了克百威和抗蚜威的检测方法,并且2种中药样品中不含有克百威和抗蚜威.该方法出峰快,能避开受试中药中基质的干扰.

  4. 降解菌HQ-C-01对克百威污染土壤的生物修复%Bioremediation of Carbofuran-contaminated Soil by Degrading Fungi Stain HQ-C-01

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 陈少华; 胡美英; 郝卫宁

    2011-01-01

    Under the lab simulated conditions, the bioremediation of Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 on carbofiiran-contaminated soil and the factors affecting the degradation capacity were studied, meanwhile the influences of carbofuran and Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 on soil microflora were also investigated. The results showed that there was positive correlation between the degradation rate and the inoculation quantity. The degradation rate for SO mg/kg carbofuran after 10 days was 82.89% with 2.09× 108 CFU/g inoculation quantity. The degradation rate was low if the inoculation quantity was less than 106 CFU/g. The effect of soil moisture on the degradation rate was obvious, the degradation rate was best (85.32%) when soil moisture was 600 g/kg, but was lower when soil moisture lower than 200 g/kg. Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 had higher degradation rate when the temperature ranged from 25°C to 3S°C. Soil Ph value influenced the degradation rate significantly, the degradation rate for SO mg/kg carbofuran after 10 days reached highest (85.629%) when soil Ph value was about 7. Carbofuran has certain influence on soil microflora by intensively stimulating soil fungi, but the application of Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 can remit the influence and thus can remediate the contaminated soil.%在室内模拟条件下,研究了降解菌HQ-C-01(Pichia anomala)对克百威污染土壤的修复作用及其影响因素,同时研究了克百威及该菌株对土壤微生物的影响.结果表明,克百威降解率与降解菌HQ-C-01接种量呈正相关,降解菌接种量为2.09× 108 CFU/g干土时,对土壤中50 mg/kg克百威10天降解率达82.89%;当降解菌接种量低于106 CFU/g干土时,降解菌对克百威的降解效果较弱.土壤含水量显著影响降解菌对克百威的降解率,含水量为600 g/kg时降解效果最好,降解率达85.32%,而当含水量低于200 g/kg时降解效果较差.在温度范围25℃~35℃降解菌对克百威都具有较好的降解效果.不同土壤pH值对降解菌

  5. 一起可疑食物中毒样品中克百威的检测分析%Analysis on suspected food poison case caused by carbofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学琴; 高贵桃; 胡建英; 赵玉婷; 陈涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 快速、准确地检测出引起化学性食物中毒的有毒物质及其含量,为化学食物中毒应急处置提供科学依据.方法 根据食物中毒调查及处理原则,采用NY/T 761-2008的方法中气相色谱(GC/FPD)和高效液相色谱柱后衍生法、荧光光度法,对基层疾控中心送检的2份可疑食物进行农药残留量测定.结果 分别在浸泡的粉条和鸡蛋炒粉条中检测出高浓度的克百威27.0和5.4 g/kg.结论 本次化学性食物中毒由克百威引起.%Objective To determine chemical toxins in food poisoning and its contents fast and accurately,and provide a scientific basis for emergency response.Methods According to the investigation and processing principles for food poisoning,HPLC with column derivatization reaction and fluorescence detection were used for 2 suspected food poisoning samples sent by local CDC following NY/T 761-2008.Results High concentrations of carbofuran (27.0 and 5.4 g/kg) were detected in white noodles and fried egg noodles vermicelli.Conclusion This chemical poisoning case was caused by carbofuran.

  6. Multivariate curve resolution modeling of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data in a comparative study of the different endogenous metabolites behavior in two tomato cultivars treated with carbofuran pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Gabriel G; Pérez, Isidro Sánchez; García, María D Gil; Galera, María Martínez; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    A metabonomic study based on the application of multivariate curve resolution and alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to three-way data sets obtained by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS) was carried out for Rambo and Raf tomato cultivars treated with carbofuran pesticide. Samples were picked up during a 21 days period after treatment and analyzed by LC-MS in scan mode, along with the corresponding blank samples. Then, MCR-ALS was applied to the three-way data sets using column wise augmented matrices, and the evolutionary profiles as a function of the time after treatment were estimated for the metabolites present in both cultivars, as well as their corresponding pure spectra estimations. A comparative study using those estimations showed that some of these metabolites followed different behavior for the different cultivars after treatment. Since all treated and untreated Rambo and Raf samples were picked up according to the same sampling protocol and in a similar state of maturation, any difference in the behavior between profiles can be interpreted as an effect due to the presence of pesticide and to the kind of cultivar. Based on this hypothesis, several PLS-DA approaches were tested to check if it would be possible to classify samples by using the metabolites MCR estimations. Results showed that PLS-DA models for classification of treated or non-treated (blank) samples were the best ones obtained (98.44% of correct classifications for the validation set), which supports the stress effects related to carbofuran treatment. In addition, excellent discrimination among the four groups could be attained (89.06% of correct classifications for the validation set).

  7. 克百威和灭多威的高效液相色谱法分离测定%Separation and Determination of Carbofuran and Methomyl by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲

    2011-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱—紫外检测法,对克百威和灭多威2种N-甲基氨基甲酸酯类农药进行分离检测。在最佳色谱分离条件下(以甲醇∶水=60∶40作为流动相,紫外检测波长为220 nm;流速为1.1 mL/min),克百威和灭多威在4 min内达到基线分离。方法的线性范围良好,克百威和灭多威的相关系数分别为0.998 8和0.999 8,最小检测浓度分别为0.010 mg/mL和0.005 mg/mL。%The paper used high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)with UV-Vis detection to separate and determinate of two N-methylcarbamate pesticides containing methomyl and carbofuran.The results showed that two analytes were separated baseline within 4 minutes.Under optimized conditions(a mobile phase of methanol-water was 60∶40,the UV detection wavelength was set 220 nm,flow rate was 1.1 mL/min).A good liner ranges were obtained.The correlation coefficient of carbofuran and methomyl were 0.998 8 and 0.999 8,and the detection limits were 0.010 mg/mL and 0.005 mg/mL,respectively.

  8. Avaliação do Risco de Contaminação de Águas Subterrâneas na Região Oeste da Bahia pelo Inseticida Carbofuran, Empregando os Modelos Attenuation Factor (AF e Retardation Factor (RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Oliveira Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study ground water contamination potential by the insecticide carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-methylcarbamate, the estimated profile leaching of 0 -10 cm and 10-20 cm the oxisol a soy acreage, corn, and cotton in Barreiras, Western Bahia region. The leaching parameters were assessed employing Attenuation Factor (AF and Retardation Factor (RF models, two indices used as groundwater contamination potential indicators. Based on the values for the models, it was found that the total contribution of pesticide reaching the ground, concentrated to 35% at 10 cm depth. Among these, 26% leached to a depth of 20 cm of the soil profile. The results for the models demonstrated the likelihood of contamination of groundwater by leaching of carbofuran. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v1i1.715

  9. EVALUATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT OF CARBOFURAN IN WATER BY SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND HPLC%固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定水中呋喃丹含量的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓楠; 潘献辉; 郝军; 刘昱

    2011-01-01

    采用固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定水中呋喃丹浓度,对测量结果的不确定度进行了评定.根据《测量不确定度评定与表示》(JJF 1059 - 1999)中有关规定,建立呋喃丹不确定度分析数学模型.结果表明,该方法测量结果不确定度的主要来源为标准溶液的配制、定容和重复性测试,当水样中呋喃丹的浓度为0.03 mg/L时,扩展不确定度为0.0044 mg/L(k =2).%A method was developed for determining carbofuran in water by HPLC combining with solid - phase extraction and the measurement uncertainty was evaluated. A mathematical model for carbofuran uncertainty assessment was established according to Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (JJF 1059 - 1999). The uncertainty of this method was mainly caused by preparation of working standards, dilution of standard solution and replicate injections. The expanded uncertainty was 0.0044 mg/L as content of carbofuran in water was 0.03 mg/L( k = 2).

  10. UPLC -MS/MS 法同时测定水中甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津%Simultaneous Determination of Carbaryl,Carbofuran and Atrazine in Water by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏勇; 王海燕; 陈美芳

    2015-01-01

    Carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine in water were detected simultaneously by UPLC-MS /MS after filtered thought 0.22 μm filter.The effect of instrument conditions and filter materials on the determination of carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine were investigated.Under the optimized conditions,the linear range was 0.01 μg /L ~1 0.0 μg /L.The detection limits for carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine was 6.1 ng /L,2.8 ng /L and 3.1 ng /L,respectively.Average recoveries at three spiking levels were in the range of 96.4% ~1 1 0%. The established method was applied to detect carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine in source water and drinking wa-ter.All of the target compounds were not detected.The average recoveries of actual sample spiked with carbaryl, carbofuran and atrazine were between 81 .4% and 97.2%.%水样经聚四氟乙烯滤头过滤,直接用超高效液相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱(UPLC -MS /MS)同时测定甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津。通过试验考察不同材质滤头和各仪器条件对测定的影响,并确定最佳分析条件,使该方法在0.01μg /L ~10.0μg /L 范围内线性良好。甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津的方法检出限分别为6.1 ng /L、2.8 ng /L、3.1 ng /L,空白水样的3个质量浓度加标回收率在96.4%~110%之间。该方法用于测定实际水源水及饮用水中的甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津,结果均未检出,实际水样平均加标回收率为81.4%~97.2%。

  11. HPLC Determination of Carbofuran in Water with Pre-enrichment by SPE%固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定水中呋喃丹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓楠; 烟卫; 刘昱

    2011-01-01

    取200mL水样,流经C18固相萃取(SPE)小柱富集呋喃丹.用5.0 mL四氢呋喃从SPE柱上洗脱呋喃丹,收集洗脱液,在35℃吹氩蒸干.用1.0 mL甲醇溶解残渣,所得溶液供高效液相色谱分析.用Eclipse XDB C18色谱柱及由甲醇-水(1+1)混合溶液作流动相进行分离,并以285 nm作激发波长,320 nm作发射波长对呋喃丹作荧光检测.测得呋喃丹的质量浓度在5.0×10-4~5.0 mg·L-1范围内与相应的峰面积值呈线性关系,检出限(3S/N)为0.02 μtg·L-1.以水样为基体加入3个浓度水平(1.0,50.0,200.0μg·L-1)标准溶液对方法作回收及精密度试验,测得回收率在94.0%~99.6%之间,相对标准偏差(n=7)在1.2%~4.2%之间.%Two hundred mL of water sample were taken and passed through C18 SPE column to enrich trace amount of carbofuran on the column.Five mL of tetrahydrofuran were used to elute carbofuran from the column,and the eluate was evaporated to dryness by Ar-blowing at 35 ℃.The residue was taken up with 1.0 mL of methanol which was used for HPLC analysis.The Eclipse XDB C18 chromatographic column and the mobile phase of raixture of methanol and water (1+1) were used for separation.Fluorescence detection at λex of 285 nm and λem of 320 nm was adopted in the determination.Linear relationship between values of peak area and mass concentration of carbofuran was obtained in the range of 5× 10-4 -5.0 mg·L-1 , with detection limit (3S/N) of 0.02 μg·L-1.Recovery and precision were tested on water samples by standard addition method at 3 concentration levels of 1.0,50.0, 200.0 μg · L-1 , giving results of recovery in the range of 94.0%-99.6% and RSD's (n=7) in the range of 1.2%-4.2%.

  12. Degradation and Leaching of Carbofuran and Dimethoate in Terrestrial Soil-Core Microcosm%克百威、乐果在陆生微宇宙土芯中的降解和淋溶研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程燕; 周军英; 续卫利; 叶凤娇; 单正军

    2012-01-01

    Degradation and Leaching of Carbofuran and Dimethoate in Terrestrial Soil-Core Microcosm were studied. And results showed that: During the experiment, the contents of the two pesticides in different layers of Haian high sandy soil and Changzhou paddy soil were always following this: 0 ~10 〉10 ~30 〉30-60cm; When simulating precipitation two hours after application, the concentrations of the two pesticides in leaching water samples were high; Dimethoate concentrations in leaching water samples reduced more rapidly and could not be detected in 14d leaching water samples, while Carbofuran could still be seized in 14d leaching water samples; The test results could be perfectly interpreted by the physic-chemical properties, the degradation characteristics of the test pesticides and the physic-chemical properties of the test soil. The study could not only provide reference for the scientific use of these two pesticides, but also provide reference for the developing and applying of the terrestrial Soil-Core Microcosm.%通过陆生微宇宙土芯淋溶试验研究克百威、乐果在常州水稻土和海安高砂土2种土壤中的降解和淋溶特性。结果表明:在整个实验周期,克百威、乐果在高砂土、水稻土不同土层中的含量依次为0~10〉10-30〉30~60cm;施药后2h淋溶,2种农药在水样中的检出浓度均较高:就2种农药对比而言,乐果在淋溶水样中浓度降低较为迅速,14d时淋溶水样中就未检出。而克百威在14d时仍有检出。受试农药的理化性质、降解特性及受试土壤的理化性等因素能很好地诠释试验结果。研究一方面可为这2种农药的科学使用提供参考,另一方面.为陆生微宇宙系统的开发、应用提供借鉴。

  13. Effects of carbofuran and metsulfuron-methyl on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in flooded ricefields Efeito do carbofurano e metsulfuron-methyl sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de lavoura de arroz irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joele Baumart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the effect of the insecticide carbofuran and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a paddy ricefield. METHODS: To achieve this goal, two pesticide treatments [the insecticide carbofuran (IC and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (HM] and a control (Co treatment with no added pesticide were established in an experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. Soil samples were collected in triplicate from each treatment 30 days before and 1, 10, and 51 days after the pesticide application, for macrofauna identification. RESULTS: Among the 21 taxa identified, Trichoceridae was present only in Co, Hydroptilidae was recorded only in IC, and Corixidae in HM. In Co, the most abundant group was Annelida, while in IC and HM Diptera (Chironomidae was dominant. Significant differences were observed between Co and IC, in the density of Odontoceridae (Control>IC and Hydrophilidae (ControlHM and Hirudinea (ControlOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do inseticida carbofurano e do herbicida metsulfuron-methyl na abundância e diversidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em campo de arroz irrigado. MÉTODOS: Para isto, dois tratamentos com agrotóxicos [o inseticida carbofurano (IC e o herbicida metsulfuron-methyl (HM] e um controle (Co, tratamento sem pesticida, foram aplicados em uma área experimental no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em triplicatas em cada tratamento 30 dias antes (DBA e 1, 10 e 51 dias após a aplicação dos pesticidas, posteriormente a macrofauna foi identificada. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (21 taxa foram identificados, entre esses Trichoceridae esteve presente apenas em Co, enquanto que Hydroptilidae foi coletado apenas em IC, e Corixidae em HM. Em Co e IC, o grupo mais abundante foi Annelida, e em HM foi Diptera (Chironomidae que

  14. Study on the Formulation Preparation of 20 % Carbofuran · Tebuconazole FS%20%丁硫克百威·戊唑醇悬浮种衣剂配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭江涛

    2011-01-01

    采用湿式超微粉碎法对20%丁硫克百威·戊唑醇悬浮种衣剂进行了研究,对润湿分散剂、成膜剂、增稠剂、防冻剂进行了筛选,确定了优惠配方:丁硫克百威19.0%,戊唑醇1.0%,壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚3.0%,苯乙烯苯酚甲醛树脂聚氧乙烯醚磷酸酯盐1.5%,黄原胶O.1%,成膜剂2.0%,尿素3.0%,玫瑰精0.5%,正辛醇0.5%,水补足。结果表明:该产品悬浮率90%以上,热贮[(54±2)℃,14d]分解率小于5%,种子包衣质量比为1:150,包衣均匀等特点,产品各项指标符合悬浮剂种衣剂的要求。%The fomulation of 20% carbofuran · tebuconazole FS was developed with the method of wet milling. Main adjuvants such as wetting - dispersing agent, membrane - forming agent, thickening agent as well as ant- freezing agent were optimized. The composition consists of carbofuran 19. 0%, tebuconazole 1. 0%, soprophor HY - 2 1. 5% , emulsifier NP - 10 3. 0%, xanthan gum 0. 1% , carboxymethylcellulose sodium 2.0%, urea 3.0%, rhodamine 0.5%, octanol O. 5% and water were determined. The test results indicated: This product suspension rate was over 90%, the decomposition rate of the active ingredient was less than 5% at (54 ±2)℃ with 14 days, seed coating mass ratio was 1 : 150, the coating even and so on. The characteristics conformed to the requirements for the product.

  15. Application of an optimized dispersive nanomaterial ultrasound-assisted microextraction method for preconcentration of carbofuran and propoxur and their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif; Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2014-11-01

    An extraction method based on dispersive nanomaterial ultrasound-assisted microextraction was used for the preconcentration of carbofuran and propoxur insecticides in water samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. ZnS:Ni nanoparticles were synthesized based on the reaction of the mixture of zinc acetate and nickel acetate with thioacetamide in aqueous media and then loaded on activated carbon (ZnS:Ni-AC). Different methods were used for recognizing the properties of ZnS:Ni-AC and then this nanomaterial was used for extraction of carbamate insecticide as new adsorbent. The influence of variables on the extraction method (such as amount of adsorbent (mg: NiZnS-AC), pH and ionic strength of sample solution, vortex and ultrasonic time (min), ultrasound temperature and desorption volume (mL) was investigated by a screening 2(7-4) Plackett-Burman design. Then the significant variables were optimized by using a central composite design combined with a desirability function. At optimum conditions, this method had linear response >0.0060-10 μg/mL with detection limit 0.0015 μg/mL and relative standard deviations <5.0% (n = 3).

  16. 基质固相分散-高效液相色谱法测定水稻中的痕量克百威%Determination of Trace Carbofuran in Rice with Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion-High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨容

    2003-01-01

    @@ 克百威(carbofuran)为高效内吸广谱杀虫剂.克百威的广泛使用使许多食物、作物及动物饲料中有可能含有痕量的克百威.近十几年来,各国分析工作者应用高效液相色谱(HPLC)对食物及生物样品中克百威残留的研究较多,分析的对象较广泛,但样品前处理均过于复杂[1,2].

  17. 光合细菌改善Cd、Pb及呋喃丹污染土壤的微生物群落DNA序列多样性的研究%Study on DNA sequence diversity of soil microbial community contaminated by cadmium, lead and carbofuran using photosynthetic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白红娟; 肖根林; 仪治本; 杨斌盛

    2011-01-01

    应用DNA随机扩增多态性(RAPD)分子标记技术研究了光合细菌(PSB)对Cd、Pb及呋喃丹污染土壤的微生物群落DNA序列多样性的影响.结果表明,Cd、Pb及呋喃丹单一污染或3者复合污染土壤的微生物群落DNA序列的丰富度相对对照土样(S0)都有不同程度的增加,受Cd、Pb或呋哺丹污染,可能会引起土壤微生物群落DNA序列本身发生变化;S0与加入PSB的土样(Cd、Pb及呋喃丹单一污染土样或3者复合污染土样)微生物群落间的DNA序列的相似系数要高于S0与不加PSB的土样(Cd、Pb及呋喃丹单一污染土样或3者复合污染土样)微生物群落间的DNA序列,PSB对改善土壤微生物群落DNA序列的组成有积极的影响.%The effect of photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) on DNA sequence diversity of soil microbial communities contaminated by cadmium, lead and carbofuran was evaluated by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints. The results showed that DNA sequence richness of single cadmium, lead, carbofuran contaminated soil and compound polluted soil was higher than that of control soil sample (So). Cadmium, lead and carbofuran contamination could vary the DNA sequence of microbial communities in soil. The similarity coefficients of microbial community DNA sequences between So and contaminated soil (cadmium, lead, carbofuran and compound polluted soil) containing PSB was higher than that between So and contaminated soil without PSB. PSB had positive impact on improving soil microbial communities DNA sequence.

  18. 柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法测定水中呋喃丹和甲萘威%HPLC Determination of Carbofuran and Carbaryl in Water with Post-Colunm Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健明; 莫婉湫; 陈明

    2011-01-01

    提出了测定水中呋喃丹和甲萘威的柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法。水样经盐酸酸化至pH 3后,用0.45μm水性滤膜过滤,取200μL水样直接进样,用Waters Carbamate Analysis分析柱(3.9 mm×150 mm,5μm)和以甲醇-乙腈-水(1+1+3)混合液作为流动相进行分离。分离后用2 g·L-1氢氧化钠溶液进行水解,用每升中含邻苯二甲醛0.1 g、十水硼酸钠19.1 g及2-巯基乙醇0.5 mL的溶液进行衍生化,用荧光检测器在激发波长(λex)为339 nm,发射波长(λem)为445 nm处检测。方法检出限(3S/N)均为4×10-4mg·L-1。应用此方法测定了水厂出厂水和河水中呋喃丹和甲萘威,并用标准加入法做回收试验,测得其平均回收率依次为93.0%~98.0%之间和93.0%~99.4%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)小于0.50%。%HPLC was applied to the determination of the insecticides carbofuran and carbaryl in water with post-derivatization. The water sample was adjusted to pH 3 with HC1 and filtered with hydrophilic filtering membrane of 0. 45 μm. 200 μL of the filtrate was taken for HPLC analysis. Waters Carbamate Analysis column (3. 9 mm× 150 mm, 5 μm) and mobile phase of a mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-H2O (1 + 1+3) were used in the separation. The eluate was hydrolyzed with 2 g ? L-1 NaOH solution and derivatized with a solution containing 0. 1 g phthaldehyde. 19. 1 g of sodium borate (10 hydrate) and 0. 5 mL of 2 mercaptoethanol per liter of the solution. Fluorescence detection was made at λex 339 nm and λem 445 nm. Detection limits (3S/N) found were same as 4× 10-4mg ? L-1 for both the insecticides. Samples of tap water and river water were analyzed by the proposed method and recovery was tested by addition of standards, values of recovery found were in the ranges of 93. 0% - 98. 0% (for carbofuran) and 93. 0%-99. 4% (for carbaryl) with values of RSD's (n=6) less than 0. 50%.

  19. Soluble expression and charaterization of anti-carbofuran single chain Fv%抗克百威单链抗体的可溶性表达载体的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓龙; 王弘; 周思; 冼燕萍; 郭新东

    2015-01-01

    为构建克百威(carbofuran,CBF)单链抗体(scFv)可溶性表达载体,实现其在大肠杆菌中的表达.以pCANTAB5E-scFv质粒为模板扩增CBF的重链(VH)及轻链(VL)片段,通过引物设计引入由15个氨基酸组成的连接肽(Gly4Ser)3,经重叠延伸拼接重链及轻链片段,并通过PCR扩增得到scFv基因,再与载体pLIP6/GN连接,转化大肠杆菌BI21,阳性克隆质粒经PCR鉴定并测序.重组菌经0.6 μmol/L异丙基硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)及低温诱导表达重组单链抗体,并通过SDS-PAGE和Western blotting对其鉴定.采用ELISA法检测重组单链抗体的抗原结合活性.结果表明重组质粒pLIP6/GN-scFv含有插入片段,scFv与碱性磷酸酶(AP)相连得到重组蛋白的分子量接近78 ku,可被游离的CBF竞争性抑制,IC50值为26.80 ng/mL.这说明成功构建了重组质粒pLIP6/GN-scFv并实现了其在大肠杆菌中的可溶性表达,为研究其在免疫分析方法中的应用奠定了基础.

  20. Avaliação do risco de contaminação da água subterrâneas na região oeste da Bahia pelo inseticida carbofuran empregando os modelos Attenuation Factor (AF e Retardation Factor (RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. O. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se estudos do potencial de contaminação de água subterrânea pelo  inseticida carbofuran (2,3-dihidro-2,2-dimetilbenzenofuran-7-metilcarbamato, pela estimativa da lixiviação no perfil de 0 -10 cm e 10-20 cm do latossolo de uma área de plantio de soja, milho e algodão no município de Barreiras, região Oeste da Bahia. Os parâmetros de lixiviação foram avaliados empregando os modelos Attenuation Factor (AF e Retardation Factor (RF, dois índices usados como indicadores do potencial de contaminação de água subterrânea. Com base nos valores estimados pelos modelos, verificou-se que do total do aporte de pesticidas que atinge o solo, 35% se concentrou a 10 cm de profundidade. Deste, 26% consegue se difundir até a profundidade de 20 cm do perfil do solo. Os resultados estimados pelos modelos demonstraram a probabilidade de contaminação das águas subterrâneas pela lixiviação do carbofuran.

  1. Determination of carbofuran residue in strawberry by GC/MS coupled with gel permeation chromatographic purification%凝胶渗透色谱净化气相色谱质谱联用法测定草莓中残留的克百威

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天; 杨鸿波; 聂积; 王艳娇; 谭红; 何锦林

    2011-01-01

    A method to determination of carbofuran residue in strawberry, samples were cleaned up by auto gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS) for quantitative and qualitative analysis.The standard cure was linear in the investigated range of 0.01~5.0mg/L with correlation coefficient is 0.9997; the recoveries were 87.6%~92.4% with the relative standard deviations(RSD)of 3.4%~5.1%; the detection limit of carbofuran was 0.01mg/kg.%建立草莓中残留的克百威的分析方法,样品采用凝胶色谱(GPC)净化技术,气相色谱-质谱联用(GC/MS)法定性和定量.线性范围为0.01~5.0mg/L,相关系数为0.9997;加标回收率为87.6%~92.4%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.4%~5.1%;方法的检出限为0.01mg/kg.

  2. 免疫亲和色谱-高效液相色谱法测定河水和土壤中克百威、三唑磷和绿磺隆残留量%IAC-HPLC Determination of Residual Amounts of Carbofuran, Triaophos and Chlorsulfuran in River Water and Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦林洪; 刘曙照; 邵秀金

    2012-01-01

    将河水或土壤样品的丙酮提取液通过串联的分别装有克百威、三唑磷和绿磺隆免疫亲和吸着剂的3支免疫亲和色谱柱(IAC)或同时装有上述3种吸着剂的多抗体IAC,对样品中克百威、三唑磷及绿磺隆3种农药进行分离。采用串联IAC分离时,在样品溶液过柱后,将串联的IAC柱分开,并用不同配比的甲醇一水溶液分别从3支IAC柱上洗脱农药,用ELISA和HPLC分别测得农药的含量。采用多抗体IAC分离时,用甲醇一水溶液洗脱后,用上述两种方法测得洗脱液中3种农药的含量。对2种分离方法作回收和精密度试验,两方法的回收率和重复性基本一致。%Sample solution of river water or acetone extract of soil sample was passed through either a set of 3 immunoaffinity chromatographic columns (IAC) connected in series in which immunoaffinity sorbents of carbofuran, triaophos and ehlorsulfuran were filled separately, or through a multi-antibody IAC in which the 3 immunoaffinity sorbents were filled together, to separate the 3 pesticides, carbofuran, triaophos and chlorsulfuran, from the sample solution. When the IAC in series was used in separation, the 3 columns were disconnected after passing-through of the sample solution, and each of the columns was eluted with mixtures of CHaOH and H20 (mixed in different ratios). Amounts of carbofuran, triaophos and chlorsulfuran were determined by ELISA and HPLC separately in the respective eluates from the columns. When the multi-antibody IAC was used in separation, the 3 pesticides in the eluate were determined simultaneously by ELISA and HPLC separately. Tests for recovery and precision for the 2 methods of separation were made, giving consistent results of recovery and repeatability between the 2 methods.

  3. 转座子挽救法克隆鞘氨醇单胞菌CDS-1中呋喃丹水解酶相关基因%Cloning of a Gene Related to Carbofuran Hydrolyzing from Sphingomonas agrestis CDS-1 by Transposon Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑宏; 洪青; 武俊; 严秋香; 李顺鹏

    2009-01-01

    用含Tn5转座子的自杀性质粒pSC123诱变呋喃丹降解菌Sphingomonas agrestis CDS-1,获得失去呋喃丹降解功能的突变株CDS-M1.以pMD18-T为载体在E.coli DH5α中构建了CDS-M1的基因组文库,采用转座子挽救法对Tn5插入位点两侧翼的序列进行克隆与测序,根据测序结果(共4 551个碱基)设计引物,从CDS-1的基因组中扩增到同样大小的片段,把该片断克隆到广宿主载体pPZP201上,得到重组质粒pCDZ1,通过三亲接合的方法把pCDZ1导入CDS-M1中进行功能互补实验,结果显示CDS-M1的呋喃丹水解功能得到了恢复,表明该片断中包含呋喃丹水解酶相关基因.图7表1参14%Carbofuran degrading mutant CDS-M1 was obtained by mutating Sphingomonas agrestis CDS-1 with transposon Tn5 carried on the suicide plasmid pSC123. Genomic DNA library was constructed in E. coli DH5α using pMD18-T as vector. By using transposon rescue, a 4 551 bp DNA sequence of S. agrestis CDS-1 flanking the Tn5 insertion site was obtained. A pair of PCR primers were synthesized according to the sequence adjacent to transposon. With these primers, a same size PCR product was amplified from the genomic DNA of CDS-1. The PCR product was ligated into broad host vector pPZP201 to construct recombined plasmid CDZ1. CDZ1 was then transferred into mutant CDS-M1 by triparental mating. The result showed that the transformant with CDZ1 had regained carbofuran degrading ability. The study indicated that the 4 551 bp DNA sequence was a gene fragment relative to carbofuran hydrolyzing. Fig 7, Tab 1, Ref 14

  4. 支持向量回归-同步荧光光谱法预测鸭肉中克百威残留%Prediction of Carbofuran Residue in Duck Meat by Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy Based on Support Vector Regression(SVR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖海斌; 赵进辉; 袁海超; 徐将; 李倩; 刘木华

    2013-01-01

    为了满足鸭肉中克百威残留分析及快速检测的要求,基于克百威水解物在巯基乙醇存在的条件下能与邻苯二甲醛反应产生具有强荧光性衍生物的方法,建立了应用同步荧光光谱法测定鸭肉中克百威残留量的预测模型.对含有克百威鸭肉样品的三维同步荧光光谱进行分析,确定其最佳波长差△λ为120 nm;利用遗传算法(GA)结合交互验证均方根误差(RMSECV)从240~450 nm光谱中筛选出19个波长作为定量分析模型的输入特征变量;对SVR、PCR、PLS3种回归模型的性能进行比较,实验发现SVR模型的预测结果最好,其预测集的决定系数(r2)和预测均方根误差(RMSEP)分别为0.9994和0.878 7.研究结果表明,采用同步荧光光谱法结合支持向量回归算法测定鸭肉中克百威的残留量,具有快速、预测精度高等特点,可为检测鸭肉中的克百威残留量提供一种可行的方法.%A prediction model was established for the rapid analysis of carbofuran residue in duck meat by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy method, based on the condition that the strong fluorescent derivatives can be generated in the reaction between carbofuran hydrolyzate and phthaldialde-hyde(OPA) in the presence of mercaptoethanol. The 3D synchronous fluorescence spectra of the duck meat containing carbofuran were analyzed, and 120 nm was selected as the optimum wavelength difference. 19 wavelengths between 240 nm and 450 nm were selected as the input features for quantitative analysis models using genetic algorithm combined with the root mean square error of cross-validation. The performances of three regression models, SVR, PCR and PLS were compared, and the results showed that the prediction of SVR regression model was the best, the determination coefficient ( r2) and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) for the prediction samples were 0. 999 4 and 0. 878 7, respectively. The results approved that the method of

  5. Determination of trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water by online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography%在线柱浓缩-超高效液相色谱法测定水体中的痕量甲萘威和呋喃丹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩智; 杨新磊; 叶明立; 汪琼; 蔡小军

    2011-01-01

    An online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography ( UH-PLC ) method was developed to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water. The sample was injected into a UHPLC system directly after filtration with 0.22 μm membrane, and then enriched by online solid phase extraction ( SPE ) column. The analyte was back-flushed into the analytical column Acclaim RSLC C18 ( 100 mm ×2. 1 mm, 2. 2 μm ) by valve switching method. The mobile phases were 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer ( pH 5.0, adjusted by acetic acid ) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode with a flow rate of 0. 8 mL/min, and detected by a diode array detector with the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The good linear ranges of carbaryl and carbofuran were 1.0- 100 μg/L with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 9, and the limits of detection ( S/N = 3 ) were 0. 5 μg/L and 0. 25 μg/L, respectively. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 76. 0% - 120. 0%. The method has been applied to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water samples with satisfactory results.%采用在线柱浓缩-超高效液相色谱联用技术测定水体中痕量甲萘威和呋喃丹.水样过滤后直接进样,采用固相萃取小柱富集待测物,梯度洗脱后,利用阀切换技术将待测物反冲至分析柱Acclaim RSLC C18(100 mm×2.1 mm,2.2 μm)上进行色谱分离,以10 mmol/L 醋酸铵缓冲溶液(pH 5.0,用醋酸调节)和乙腈分别为流动相A和B,梯度洗脱,泵流速为0.8 mL/min,检测波长为280 nm,二极管阵列检测器检测.甲萘威和呋喃丹在1.0~100 μg/L 范围内线性良好(相关系数r2 > 0.9999),检出限(S/N=3)分别为0.5和0.25 μg/L,加标回收率为76.0% ~120.0%.用所建立的方法测定了水中痕量的甲萘威与呋喃丹的含量,结果令人满意.

  6. 液相色谱串联质谱法直接进样测定生活饮用水中呋喃丹、莠去津、灭草松和2,4-滴%Determination of carbofuran, atrazine, bentazone and 2, 4-D in drinking water with direct injection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭忠; 段江平; 王妍妍; 孙仕萍; 蒋守芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立直接进样测定生活饮用水中呋喃丹、莠去津、灭草松和2,4-滴的液相色谱串联质谱的分析方法.方法:水样经0.22 μm的滤膜过滤,直接用液质联用仪分析检测,色谱柱选用atlantics T3,进行两个添加水平的测定,每个水平重复6次.结果:在2μg/L和10μg/L两个添加水平下,方法的回收率为97%~108%,精密度RSD为2.9%~4.2%.以10倍信噪比(S/N)计算,方法的最低检测质量浓度分别是:呋喃丹0.06μg/L,莠去津0.20μg/L,灭草松0.02μg/L,2,4-滴0.04 μg/L.结论:该方法样品不需前处理,操作简便、快速,准确度和灵敏度高,定量下限远低于国家饮用水限量标准.适用于饮用水中呋喃丹、莠去津、灭草松和2,4-滴的检测.%Objective:To establish a method for determination of carbofuran,atrazine,bentazone and 2,4-D in drinking water with direct injection using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).Methods:Water sample was filtered by 0.22 m filter membrane and determined by LC-MS/MS with atlantics T3 column at two concentrations of standard mixture with each for six times.Results:The recovery rates ranged from 97% to 108% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.9% to 4.2% when spiked levels were at 2 g/L and 10 g/L (n=6).With 10 times signal to noise ratio,the detection limits of carbofuran,atrazine,bentazone and 2,4-D were 0.06 g/L,0.20 g/L,0.02 g/L and 0.04 g/L,respectively.Conclusion:The method is simple and rapid with lower detection limits.It is applicable to determinate carbofuran,atrazine,bentazone and 2,4-D in drinking water simultaneously with high accuracy and sensitivity.

  7. 气相色谱串联质谱法测定蔬菜中甲拌磷和克百威及其代谢物的残留量%Determination of Phorate, Carbofuran and Their Metabolites Residues in Vegetables by Gas Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧丽; 王建华; 李馨; 辛学谦; 林洪

    2016-01-01

    建立气相色谱-三重四级杆串联质谱法(GC-MS/MS)测定蔬菜中甲拌磷及其代谢产物甲拌磷砜、甲拌磷亚砜,克百威及其代谢产物3-羟基克百威.蔬菜样品经乙腈提取、QuEChERS法净化,GC-MS/MS采用选择反应监测模式(SRM)采集数据后进行分析.5种化合物的含量在检测范围内与色谱峰面积均呈良好的线性,相关系数r2为0.998 0~0.999 6.在0.02,0.05 mg/kg的添加水平下,平均回收率在73.6%~118.2%范围内,测定结果的相对标准偏差小于8.5%(n=6),方法定量限为5~10μg/kg.该方法可用于蔬菜中甲拌磷和克百威及其代谢物的常规检测.%A method for determination of phorate,carbofuran and their metabolites residues in vegetables by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The sample were extracted by acetonitrile,and cleaned up by the QuEChERS method,and the pesticide residues were analyzed by using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of five compounds was linear with peak area in the detection range, the linear correlation coefficientr2was 0.998 0-0.999 6. In 0.02, 0.05 mg/kg addition level,the recoveries of five pesticides were in the range of 73.6%-118.2%,with relative standard deviation values less than 8.5%(n=6). The quantitation limit was 5-10μg/kg. The proposed method can be used for the residue determination of phorate,carbofuran and their metabolitesin vegetables.

  8. 凝胶渗透色谱-气相色谱-质谱联用快速测定大豆中克百威、乙草胺、甲草胺、异丙甲草胺、氟乐灵的残留量%Determination of Residues of Carbofuran, Acetochlor, Alachlor,Metolachlor and Trifluralin in Soybean by GC/MS-GPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明明; 张旭东; 那晗; 王琦; 宋大贺; 张宁

    2012-01-01

    Carbofuran, acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralin in soybean were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS) with electron impact (El) ionization. The soybean samples were extracted with acetonitrile. The pigment and lipin were cleaned up with GPC.Carbofuran, acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralinwere analyzed by GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring(SIM). The results showed that GPC purification could avoid the influence of lipid collected time between 5 and 15 min. The recoveries of those pesticides are ranged from 66. 2% to 104. 9%, and standard deviations are from 2. 2% to 12. 3%. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves of 5 pesticides are linear in the range of 0. 01-0. 1 mg/L with correlation coefficients more than 0. 996. The limits of quantitation of carbofuran, acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralin are 0. 01 mg/kg.%建立了气相色谱-质谱(GC/MS)法,电子轰击离子化(EI)法同时测定及确证大豆中克百威、乙草胺、甲草胺、异丙甲草胺、氟乐灵的残留量.试样经乙腈提取,共提物中的色素和油脂用凝胶色谱(GPC)净化去除.采用GC/MS-SIM法对克百威、乙草胺、甲草胺、异丙甲草胺、氟乐灵进行定性和定量分析.结果表明,采用GPC净化,并设定收集时间在5~15 min内,能够有效避免大豆中油脂峰干扰,缩短分析时间.5种农药的加标回收率为66.6%~104.9%,测定的相对标准偏差为2.2%~12.3%.5种农药在0.01~0.1 mg/L范围内具有较好的线性,相关系数达0.996以上,方法中克百威、乙草胺、甲草胺、异丙甲草胺、氟乐灵的定量限均为0.01 mg/kg.

  9. 固相萃取/超高压液相色谱测定水中痕量呋喃丹、甲萘威及阿特拉津%Determination of Trace Carbofuran, Carbaryl and Atrazine in Environmental Water by Ultrahigh-pressure Liquid Chromatography with Solid Phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 高海鹏; 李婷; 吕怡兵; 滕恩江

    2012-01-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine in environmental water by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography ( UPLC) combined with solid phase extraction(SPE). Through the investigation of the effects of mobile phase, UV detection condition, SPE cartridges, SPE load flow rate and fdter materials, the optimum conditions were obtained. Water sample was loaded on the Bond Elute Plexa SPE cartridges with a flow rate of 5 - 10 mL/min. The analytes were eluted with methylene chloride in SPE cartridges. The eluted solvent was concentrated and redissolved in methanol/water (1 : 1). The analysis conditions were as the follows; UV wavelength of detection; 222 nm, chromatographic column; ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18(2. 1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) , mobile phase; methanol -water (55 : 45) , flow rate; 0.4 mL/min. Under the optimal conditions, three analytes were separated by baseline within 1. 5 min. The correlation coefficients of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine standard curves were more than 0. 999 in the range of 0. 1 - 2. 0 mg/L. The relative standard deviations of nine parallel injections of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine were 1. 7% , 0. 2% and 0. 7% , respectively, and their method detection limits(S/N -3) were 0. 04, 0. 003 , 0. 004 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries of three compounds at high and low spiked levels were in the range of 74% - 94% . This method has the advantages of saving time, simple operation and sensitivity, and could be applied in the detection of trace carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine in environmental water.%建立了固相萃取/超高压液相色谱测定水中痕量呋喃丹、甲萘威和阿特拉津的分析方法.通过对色谱流动相和紫外检测条件、固萃小柱和上样速度、滤器材质等进行优化,确定了最佳实验方案.水样以5~10 mL/min的速度上样,采用Bond Elute Plexa固相萃取小柱富集,二氯甲烷洗脱.洗脱液经浓缩和重溶后,过尼龙滤膜,采用超

  10. 超高效液相色谱-串联质谱测定多种食品中抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的残留量%Simultaneous determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in several food samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉健; 黄惠玲; 禤开智; 蔡伟凯; 汪春光

    2011-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was established for the simultaneous determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in several matrixes, such as balsam pear, pawpaw, pineapple, tea-drink. The effect of extraction condition, mobile phase,and tandem mass spectrometric parameters were investigated. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% glacial acetic acid. And PSA was used for cleaning-up. Then the analysis was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by employing the external standard method. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0 ~ 18 ng/mL. The limits of detection (LOD) for the five pesticides were 0. 005 mg/kg. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of the five pesticides could meet the demand for the detection of residues when the spiked levels were 0. 005 mg/kg, 0. 010 mg/kg and 0. 020 mg/kg. The method was fast, convenient and accurate. And it could be used as a reliable means for simultaneous quantitative determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in food-matrixes.%建立了超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定苦瓜、木瓜、菠萝、绿茶饮料等4种食品基体中抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的方法,对提取条件、净化条件、流动相、质谱条件进行了研究.待测样品直接用含1%冰乙酸的乙腈提取,乙二胺-N-丙基硅烷(PSA)吸附剂除杂,采用电喷雾离子源(ESI)、多反应监测正离子模式扫描,外标法定量.抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵在1~18ng/mL范围内浓度与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,方法的检出限为0.005mg/kg.添加水平为0.005、0.010、0.020mg/kg时抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的平均回收率和相对标准偏差范围符合农药残留检测要求.本方法可用于多种食品基体中抑

  11. 基于石墨烯-纳米金-丝素水凝胶的高灵敏有机相酶电极检测呋喃丹%Determination of carbofuran using a highly sensitive enzyme inhibition tyrosinase OPEE based on graphene-gold nanoparticles-silk fibroin hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许绍鹏; 董静; 艾仕云

    2013-01-01

    采用改进的Hummers法制备了氧化石墨烯(GO),用微波辅助丝素还原法制备了丝素还原石墨烯(SF-GR),并用红外(FT-IR)、紫外(UV-vis)和透射电镜(TEM)对SF-GR进行了表征。然后以丝素同时原位还原的石墨烯-纳米金复合水凝胶包埋酪氨酸酶(Tyr)制备了新型的有机相酶电极(SF-GR-NanoAu-Tyr/GCE),在纯氯仿中对呋喃丹进行了检测。结果表明,在有机相中,丝素水凝胶能较好的保持酪氨酸酶的生物活性,GR和NanoAu促进了电子在电极界面上以及水凝胶内部的电子传递,提高了酶电极的灵敏性。在没有另外添加水或者缓冲液的情况下,酪氨酸酶的抑制率与浓度范围为1.0×10-8~1.0×10-12 mol/L的呋喃丹呈线性关系,检测限为8.0×10-13 mol/L。该有机相酶电极制备简单,检测快速,灵敏度高,适合于有机溶剂中微量农药的定量检测。%Graphene oxide was prepared by the method of modified Hummers. Silk-reduced-graphene (SF-GR) was prepared using microwave-assisted silk fibroin reduction synthesis method. TEM, FT-IR and UV-vis were uti-lized to characterize SF-GR. Then, a novel highly sensitive enzymatic inhibition organic phase enzyme electrode (OPEE) was fabricated by enwrapping tyrosinase in graphene-gold nanoparticles-silk fibroin hydrogel. The SF hy-drogel provided a necessary amount of water and a biocompatible microenvironment around the enzyme molecule to stabilize its biological activity and effectively prevented its inactivation by inhibitors such as pesticides. Under op-timized conditions, the inhibition percentage of carbofuran was proportional to its concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-12 mol/L with a detection limit of 8.0 × 10-13 mol/L. Thus, the highly sensitive OPEE is a promis-ing new tool for pesticide analysis in organic solvents.

  12. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  13. Research Progress on Biodegradation of Carbofuran%克百威的微生物降解研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王际方

    2010-01-01

    阐述了克百威的使用和污染情况,指出微生物降解农药残留是1个比较快速有效的方法.综述了降解克百威的微生物种类、克百威的降解途径和克百威降解的分子生物学研究,提出了克百威微生物降解的发展方向.

  14. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  15. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC/PHARMACODYNAMIC (PBPK/PD) MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF CUMULATIVE RISK FROM EXPOSURE TO THREE N-METHYL CARBAMATES: CARBARYL, ALDICARB, AND CARBOFURAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for a mixture of N-methyl carbamate pesticides was developed based on single chemical models. The model was used to compare urinary metabolite concentrations to levels from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHA...

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Carbofuran Molecularly Imprinted Polymer%克百威分子印迹聚合物的合成及其性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉; 陈恒军; 钱国良; 胡白石; 刘凤权

    2010-01-01

    以克百威为模板分子,甲基丙烯酸(MAA)为功能单体,二甲基丙烯酸乙二醇酯(EGDMA)为交联剂,采用沉淀聚合的方法制备了克百威分子印迹聚合物.通过红外光谱分析得到模板和功能单体的最佳配比为n(carbofuran):n(MAA)=1:6.印迹聚合物的红外光谱测定结果表明,聚合物中存在与模板分子相互作用的特征基团;从印迹聚合物的扫描电镜图观察到分子印迹聚合物(MIP)与空白聚合物(NIP)的表面形态不同,可推论MIP存在与模板分子相互识别的结合位点.通过静态平衡结合法研究了模板分子聚合物的吸附能力、结合动力学和选择特性.结果表明,与非印迹聚合物相比,印迹聚合物对克百威具有较强的吸附特性和很好的专一选择性,3h后基本达到最大吸附量.采用固相萃取柱预处理样品,用高效液相色谱法测定自来水中10、50、100 mg/L克百威的加标回收率为94%~117%,相对标准偏差(n=3)为2.5% ~4.7%.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Carbofuran by TLC%呋喃丹的薄层扫描定量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉; 张世琏

    2006-01-01

    采用双波长反射吸收薄层扫描法对呋喃丹进行了定量分析方法的研究.方法的线性范围为2~200μg,线性相关系数为0.997;呋喃丹的检出限为0.3 μg,回收率为96.94%~100.38%,相对标准偏差为1.73%.本方法快速、简单、易行.

  18. 克.福.唑种衣剂的气相色谱分析%Determination of Carbofuran Thiram and Triadimefon in Seed Dressing by Reversed Phase by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义生; 郑建波; 才秀华

    2001-01-01

    采用气相色谱法,选用SE-30石英毛细管柱,以邻苯二甲酸二丁酯为内标物,测量种衣剂中克百威、三唑酮的含量.方法的标准偏差为克百威0.43,三唑酮0.51,变异系数克百威为0.829%,三唑酮为0.623%,克百成的回收率为99.02%~100.32%,三唑酮的回收率为99.30%~100.24%.该方法具有快速、准确的特点.可以作为克@福@唑种衣剂生产控制分析方法.

  19. GC/MS法分析生物检材中呋喃丹%Analysis of carbofuran by GC/MS in biological samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银华; 喻晓; 孙凤梅

    2003-01-01

    目的建立生物检材中呋喃丹的检验方法.方法利用溶剂苯将生物检材进行振荡提取、离心,再用色谱-质谱联用技术对上层苯溶液进行分析.结果用该方法在4个实际案例中检出了呋喃丹和其代谢产物呋喃酚.结论该方法适合于案件检验.

  20. 光合细菌对土壤中呋喃丹的生物降解%Characterization of Biodegradation for Carbofuran Pesticides in Soils by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白红娟; 肖根林; 贾万利

    2013-01-01

    以一株降解呋喃丹的光合细菌球形红细菌(Rhodobacter sphaeroides)H菌株为材料,考察了其在实验室模拟条件下降解土壤中呋喃丹的影响因素及其动力学过程.结果表明,该菌降解呋喃丹的最适条件为:温度30℃,pH=7.0,接种量107个/g.在最适条件下,H菌株对初始质量浓度为5.0~25 mg/kg呋喃丹的降解反应均符合一级动力学特征.可以将其应用于呋喃丹污染土壤的生物修复.

  1. Improvement of Standard Detection Methods for Carbofuran and Carbaryl in Water Samples%对呋喃丹和甲萘威标准检测方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽萍; 张文海

    2008-01-01

    对水样中呋喃丹和甲萘威的高效液相色谱标准检测方法进行了改进,以二氯甲烷提取水样中的呋喃丹和甲萘威,采用氮吹法浓缩提取液,HPLC测定中采取等梯度淋洗.改进方法对呋喃丹和甲萘威的加标回收率分别为86.5%~93.6%、88.2%~102.2%,最低检出浓度分别为0.025、0.010μ/L,可用于水中痕量氨基甲酸酯农残的高灵敏分析.

  2. The Suspensibility of 20% Thiram Carbofuran Seed Clothing Agent with Emulsifier OP Additive%乳化剂OP对20%福·克种衣剂悬浮性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红璐; 王家骅

    2004-01-01

    乳化剂OP存在下测试了20%福·克种衣剂配方的悬乳性,并与原配方作了对比.结果表明,在实验条件下,乳化剂OP与该配方中的表面活性剂具有较好复配性,悬浮性进一步提高.

  3. 高效液相色谱法测定玉米中西维因、呋喃丹含量的研究%Simultaneous determination of carbaryl and carbofuran in corn with HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅华; 杨笑

    2013-01-01

    介绍了西维因、呋喃丹的性质和最大残留量要求,研究并建立了高效液相色谱带紫外检测器分离测定呋喃丹、西维因的分析方法.经过多次试验测定,该方法具有前处理过程简单、分析速度快、结果准确、对仪器要求低等优点,较适合基层实验室使用.

  4. Ditermination of 17 % carbendazim· carbofuran· triadimefon seed dressing%17%多·呋·酮三元复配种衣剂的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晖

    2003-01-01

    本文采用高效液相色谱法,以甲醇+水=65+35为流动相,采用ODS-C18色谱柱在同一色谱条件下,各元素的标准偏差小于0.3%,标准加入回收率在98.6%~99.3%之间,实现各有效成分的理想分离和定量测定.

  5. 克·杀单颗粒剂的反向离子对色谱分析%Analysis of mixture of carbofuran and monosultap by pair-ion reverse Phase HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富生; 陈振华; 方东白

    2002-01-01

    本文采用反相离子对色谱及双通道检测分析克·杀单颗粒剂。以Lichrospher Rp-8不锈钢柱为色谱柱,0.01mol/L四丁基溴化铵(pH=3.2)+乙腈=70+30为流动相,双通道检测:杀虫单检测波长为245nm,克百威检测波长为280nm。该方法的标准偏差分别为杀虫单0.015、克百威0.0066;变异系数分别为0.79%、1.21%;线性相关系数分别为0.9999、0.9999,平均回收率分别为99.04%、98.83%。

  6. 中毒检样中氧乐果和克百威的气质联用分析%Determination of Omethoate and Carbofuran in Poisoning Case by GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春水; 郑珲; 何毅; 常靖; 王炯

    2003-01-01

    本文采用液-液萃取方法及GC/MS检测技术,对药剂及其中毒后的组织样品进行了检测,从中均检出氧乐果和克百威的农药成分,建立了该类农药组分的生物组织提取净化方法,并优化了其质谱的分析参数条件.

  7. The Residues Analysis of Carbofuran and Methamidophos Emulsifiable Concentrate in Populus and its Conducting Tendency%呋甲乳油在树体内的残留测定及其输导动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建庄; 李本昌; 梁渡湘

    2000-01-01

    注射呋甲乳油(用水1∶1稀释)至杨树体内,药剂可向上、向下传导,残留期超过一个月.选用带NPD的气相色谱仪和3.5%OV-101+3.25%OV-210柱,对呋甲乳油在树木内的残留量每隔5d测定1次,实验发现注药后5~17d残留量较高,毒性较大.

  8. Differential sensitivity of plasma carboxylesterase-null mice to parathion, chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon, but not to diazinon, dichlorvos, diisopropylfluorophosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, cyclosarin thiocholine, tabun thiocholine, and carbofuran

    OpenAIRE

    Duysen, Ellen G.; Cashman, John R.; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Mouse blood contains four esterases that detoxify organophosphorus compounds: carboxylesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, and paraoxonase-1. In contrast human blood contains the latter three enzymes but not carboxylesterase. Organophosphorus compound toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Symptoms of intoxication appear after approximately 50% of the acetylcholinesterase is inhibited. However, complete inhibition of carboxylesterase and butyrylcholinesterase...

  9. Analysis of 25% Thiram+Carbofuran+Carboxin SC for Seed Coating by HPLC%25%福美双·克百威·萎锈灵悬浮种衣剂液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 朱国维

    2002-01-01

    本文采用高效液相色谱法,以C(18)为固定相,甲醇+水为流动相,用紫外检测器定量测定混剂中福美双、克百威和萎锈灵的含量。本方法的变异系数分别为0.11%、0.01%、0.03%;标准偏差分别为0.013、0.007、0.021;平均回收率分别为99.35%、99.17%、99.60%;线性相关系数分别为0.9996、0.9989、0.9994。

  10. Exposing of Trichoderma spp. to gamma radiation for stimulating its pesticide biodegradation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been conducted to study the possibility of making use of fungi for degrading insecticide-carbofuran. Trichoderma spp. were showed highly potentiality to metabolize carbofuran (200 mg/ kg) to 3-ketocarbofuran in soil as a sole carbon and energy source within 14 days. Carbofuran and its main metabolite were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Studies on biodegradation in the soil showed that 81.5 % and 86 % of carbofuran degraded within 14 days of incubation by T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. The lowest dose of gamma irradiation 0.25 KGy enhanced the mycelial dry weight by 22.8 % and 16.2 % for T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. This indicated that the isolates of Trichoderma spp. were potentially useful for carbofuran bioremediation.

  11. REMOVAL OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: RASCO, INC. ADVANCED SIMULTANEOUS OXIDATION PROCESS (ASOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RASco, Inc. ASOP Drinking Water Treatment Module was tested at NSF’s Laboratory for the reduction of the following chemicals of concern: aldicarb, benzene, carbofuran, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, methomyl, mevinphos, nicotine, oxamyl, paraquat, phorate, sodium fluor...

  12. Pesticide contamination has little effect on the genetic diversity of potato species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous study examining the effects of agrichemicals on the reproductive capacity of potato species revealed that the pesticide carbofuran negatively influenced flowering duration and pollen viability. These changes could limit reproductive ability non-randomly, modify allelic frequencies, and ...

  13. Adsorption Kinetics of Carbamate Pesticide in Rice Field Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soontree Khuntong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic extraction (75.55% with petroleum ether:acetone (1:1, v/v was employed for extraction of carbofuran in rice field soil. The amounts of carbofuran were determined by reverse phase HPLC. The analytical method provided high precision and accuracy with the relative error of 0.47%. The percentage of recoveries varied from 84% to 77% in the con¬centration ranges of 10–40 mg/L of spiked soil samples. The carbofuran residues in the rice field soil significantly decreased year by year because of pesticide properties, soil properties and degradation conditions. A high amount of residues was found in the plots that contained high organic contents. The adsorption of carbofuran in soil reached equilibrium within 23 h. The percentage of adsorption varied from almost 30% to 80% depending on concentrations of carbofuran. The adsorption of carbofuran agreed with Freundlich isotherms; q = 7.07 x 10-5Cf2.5092; with the correlation coefficient of 0.9281. Organic carbon coefficient, Koc, was 1.91 x 10-3 mg/L calculated from Kd, and half-life (8.9 d of adsorbed carbofuran. The GUS index (6.37 calculated from Koc presented a high lixiviation potential. The positive ΔG indicated the non-spontaneous reaction. Carbofuran rapidly desorbed from soil at the desorption rate of 0.0228 mg/kg soil d. Kinetic studies provided the first order reaction with the reaction rate of 0.0779 mg/d and half-life of 8.9 days.

  14. Contact and oral toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera) of agents registered for use for sweet corn insect control in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Janisse; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia; Harris, Ron; Tolman, Jeff; Harris, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    International audience Assays were conducted to compare direct and residual contact and oral toxicities to honey bees of sweet corn insecticides and of Bt-sweet corn. Direct contact assays focusing on LC50 determined that technical grade clothianidin was most toxic, > carbofuran, > imidacloprid = spinosad, > lambda-cyhalothrin, > Bacillus thuringiensis. In residual contact assays, forager age bees were exposed to treated non-transgenic sweet corn tassels. Carbofuran treated tassels caused ...

  15. Camouflaging of seeds treated with pesticides mitigates the mortality of wild birds in wheat and rice crops Camuflagem de sementes tratadas com pesticidas mitiga a mortalidade de aves silvestres em plantações de trigo e arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds used to plant wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil are treated with the insecticide carbofuran associated with the dye rhodamine B, attracting granivorous birds and causing mortality during sowing. The objective of this study was to evaluate if using camouflaged seeds can minimize mortality caused by the ingestion of seeds with carbofuran. Alternatives for reducing mortality, such as using carbofuran without rhodamine B or replacing carbofuran by carbosulfan, were compared. Three experiments were carried out in regions of known bird mortality in the states of Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil, using conventional sowing over plowed soil in the traditional planting system, 15,896 kg of seeds in 111.46 ha. Bird carcasses were collected and dissected to unveil which poisoned seed treatments had caused birds' deaths. The mortality mounted to 296 birds of 11 species. Eared doves were the most numerous casualties (263. There was significant correlation between mortality and number of consumed seeds. The consumption of camouflaged seeds was lower than that of commercial seeds treated with rhodamine B. The mortality caused by seeds with both rhodamine B and carbofuran was higher than mortality caused by seeds camouflaged only with carbofuran. The replacement of carbofuran with carbosulfan also seemingly reduced mortality, but carbosulfan mortality might have been underestimated as a result of the apparent movement of affected birds after exposure. Seeds treated with carbofuran and rhodamine B and without any dye, were attractive. Because legal requirement for seeds treated with pesticides to be differentiated by dying, the substitution of rhodamine B by camouflaging must be encouraged.Plantações de trigo, milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida carbofuran, associado ao corante rodamina B, que é atrativo às aves granívoras, causando notável mortalidade durante o plantio. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se sementes

  16. Treatment of pesticide rinsate towards reuse by photosensitized Fenton-like process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W S; Ho, Y Y

    2010-01-01

    A Fenton-like process with combination of dye has been used to enhance the treatment of carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran -7-yl methylcarbamate) pesticide rinsate. Results showed that as compared to Fenton-like process, this photosensitization Fenton-like process improved the degradation efficiency of carbofuran rinsate significantly. Among the conditions studied, the optimum dosage for the complete destruction of carbofuran molecular structure was found under a [H2O2]0/[Fe3+]0 ratio of 30-35 and a [Dye]0/[Fe3+]0 ratio of 2%, respectively, after an irradiance of 500 W/m2 for 20 min. As a result, the COD degradation efficiency of rinsate could be promoted from 37.1 to 61.2% and 66.0% by an addition of methylene blue (MB) and alizarin red S (ARS), respectively. Nevertheless, ARS showed a much more effective acceleration effect on the mineralization and microtoxicity reduction of carbofuran than MB. A mineralization efficiency of 57.2% and a microtoxicity reduction of 90% could be achieved with the addition of ARS. Because of its quinone structure unit, the dye ARS could play a role like hydroquinone to recycle Fe2+ from Fe3+, resulting in one more catalytic effect on the reduction of Fe3+ and thus the mineralization and microtoxicity reduction of carbofuran was greatly promoted in the presence of ARS. In addition, it was found that carbofuran molecules could be decomposed quickly to lower-molecular-weight intermediates and even mineralized by attacking of hydroxyl radicals. Carbofuran was found to be decomposed to carbofuran phenol, 3-oxo carbofuran phenol, and 3-hydroxyl carbofuran phenol initially, and then further be degraded to smaller molecules, such as NO3-, CH3COOH, (COOH)2 and CO2. Accordingly, it was believed that the Fenton-like process along with the aid of a photosensitizer, such as ARS, under an appropriate ratio could be a feasible and potential technology for the treatment of pesticide rinsate.

  17. The study on popularization in field of 25% (carbofuran+thiram+carboxin) a new-style maize seed coating agent Composed of medicine and fertilizer%新型药肥复合型玉米种衣剂25%克福萎的田间推广应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史滟滪; 张志武

    2004-01-01

    研究表明,25%克福萎种衣剂包衣处理玉米种子,不仅起到保苗、壮苗和促进幼苗生长的作用,而且对玉米苗期地下害虫、玉米茎基腐病和玉米丝黑穗病均有较高的防治效果,还可增加玉米量.种衣剂1:40剂量处理,防治效果最好.防治地下害虫效果达73.4%,防治玉米茎基腐病效果达87.5%,防治玉米丝黑穗病效果达82.3%,可使玉米增产13.7%.

  18. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhy Rabindra N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp.

  19. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either = 80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate <= 10% of the meatball before exhibiting acute signs of toxicity. Fenthion-exposed owls and kestrels displayed a wide spectrum of meatball consumption (<10100%). Significant brain ChE inhibition was observed in dead and surviving kestrels exposed to fenthion and carbofuran and dead owls exposed to fenthion (P < 0.0001). Brain ChE activity of owls exposed to carbofuran that survived was not different from that of controls (P = 0.25). Data suggest: (1) slow feeding on a carbamate-contaminated item may provide limited protection from the toxicity of the chemical at certain rates of exposure; (2) the degree of ChE inhibition at neuromuscular junctions may be critical in determining the sensitivity of a species to a carbamate insecticide; (3) sensitivity may be a function of the ChE affinity for the carbamate inhibitor; and (4) the importance of neuromuscular junction ChE depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  20. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASEEB Akhtar; SHARMA Anita; SHUKLA Prabhat Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil,bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P.fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.

  1. Studies on the controlled-release pesticide formulations for pest control in cotton and maize using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on controlled release 14C- carbofuran formulations with EVA for pest control in cotton and maize to investigate the fate and degradation of the release carbofuran from the formulation. Cotton plants both in the field and pots were subjected to three different treatments at the time of sowing: application of 14C-carbofuran formulation with EVA; cold carbofuran formulation with EVA, and granular carbofuran pesticide. It has been found that insect attack was much more on control than on treated plants for three months after germination but after 4-5 months granules treated plants offered less resistance to insects as compared to formulation treated plant both hot and cold. The granules treated plants produced much more cotton lint in the first picking which reduced gradually and consequently hot and cold formulation treated plants produced maximum yield. Radiometric analysis indicated that recovered hot formulation pieces retained at least 24% radioactivity after six months. More activity was recovered in plant leaves as compared to roots and stem and similarly from soil samples, highest radioactivity was observed from 10 cm dia samples at a depth of up to 13 cm. The trend of results from pot and field experiments were almost similar. The used 14C-carbofuran formulation with EVA recovered from the field after cotton harvest was reused for maize crop at the time of sowing. Radiometric analysis revealed that the reused formulation pieces after three months still retained 56% radioactivity of the original dose applied. This confirms that the formulation was indeed slow release and even the lower amounts in the used formulation pieces were available to the next crop. The corn ear-worm attacked the crop at the time of maturity but this problem was minor with formulation treated plants resulting in better yield over control plants. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  2. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  3. Efficacy of several soil amendments for the control of Xiphinema index and Meloidogyne javanica on grapevine seedlings in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was done to investigate the effect of several organic amendments for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes. The effects of four soil amendments applied individually or in several combinations and a chemical nematicide (carbofuran) on plant-parasitic nematodes associated with the rhizos...

  4. A radiotracer study of groundwater pollution and bioremediation by a pesticide passing through different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer methodology has been used to study the fate of radiolabelled pesticides (e.g. methoprene, carbofuran or others) in soils. The persistence, movement and degradation of a radiolabelled inset growth regulator in deeper zones of two different soils was studied. 6 refs, 1 fig

  5. 农药克百威和丁硫克百威的质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于峰

    2000-01-01

    In this paper carbamate pesticide Carbofuran and Carbosulfan are analyzed by MS The showed signals of (M+1) is stronger with CI+ source than (M) with EI source. More MS information can be acquired by CI+ and EI interchange use The else carbamate pesticide such as isoprocarb and metolcarb can be analyzed with same method The results are good.

  6. Eficiência de inseticidas em tratamento de sementes de milho no controle da cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae em viveiro telado Insecticides efficiency in treatment of corn seeds to control leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Martins de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência de inseticidas no tratamento de sementes no controle da cigarrinha-do-milho em viveiro telado. Sementes de milho foram tratadas ou não com inseticidas (imidacloprid, thiamethoxan, thiodicarb + zn, thiodicarb, carbofuran, carbofuran + zn e carbosulfan e semeadas em vasos plásticos. Nas plantas, foram confinadas cigarrinhas sadias e avaliada a eficiência desses inseticidas no controle desse inseto, em diferentes intervalos de tempo e em períodos sucessivos. Os produtos imidacloprid e thiamethoxan foram os mais eficientes no controle da cigarrinha, proporcionando eficiência de controle de adultos de D. maidis igual ou superior a 70%, até o trigésimo dia de avaliação, após 4 a 24h de confinamento das cigarrinhas.This research was aimed at checking the efficiency of insecticide seed treatment on corn leafhopper control, at greenhouse. Maize seeds were treated with insecticides (imidacloprid, thiamethoxan, thiodicarb + zn, thiodicarb, carbofuran, carbofuran + zn and carbosulfan and sowed on plastic pots. On those plants healthy leafhoppers were confined, and the efficiency of those insecticides on its control was evaluated, at different intervals of time and in successive periods. The insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were the most efficient to control the corn leafhoppers, and provided control efficiency of D. maidis adults equal or upper 70% until the thirtieth day of evaluation, after 4 to 24h of leafhoppers confining.

  7. Fluorimetric Determination of Carbamate Pesticides in Host-Guest Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Viviana Veglia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available From the effect of β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the UVvisible and fluorescence spectra of carbaryl and carbofuran, the values of association constants were determined. The ratio of the fluorescence quantum yields for the bound and free substrates indicated an enhanced fluorimetric method of detection.

  8. Remoção de Carbofurano em Água Empregando Resíduos Agroindustriais como Adsorventes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago dos Santos Estrela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study aimed to evaluate the possibility of using industrial boiler ash and rice husk ash in removing the commercial pesticide (carbofuran in aqueous solution. These solids were collected in the Barreiras/BA, were heat treated and characterized by XRD and FT-IR. The adsorption experiments were performed in batch and the carbofuran removal was quantified using the spectrophotometry in the UV region. XRD data showed high silica content in boiler ash, which was reinforced by FT-IR analyses, showing the band FT-IR associated with presence of silica. In the FT-IR analysis of rice husk ash, this band relative to silica also were observed. The potential of adsorption of the ash industrial boiler and rice husk ash was verified obtaining significant results in the removal of carbofuran at low concentrations (2 mg/L, showing 100% of removal of pesticides from 720 min, used the ash industrial boiler, giving these materials a promising character as adsorbents. In the kinetic study of carbofuran adsorption, the mechanism of pseudo-second-order was better adjusted using the RHA as adsorbent, with a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.997. The adsorption equilibrium was adjusted better to model of adsorption isotherm of Freundlich with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v1i1.716

  9. Prediction of bacterial growth on xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Andreas Libonati; Kästner, Matthias; Trapp, Stefan

    method, we evaluated it with both simple substrates (e.g. acetate, methanol, and glyoxylate) and xenobiotics (e.g 2,4-D, linuron, carbofuran, carbon tetrachloride, and toluene). Experimental data for the simple substrates were taken from [4], for xenobiotics from [6] and own experimental data. For simple...

  10. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  11. Investigation of the Insecticide Seed Dressing on the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Igrc Barčić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of three year trials with various sugar beet seed treatments on the most important sugar beet pests, wireworms, flea beetles, sugar beet weevil and aphids are presented. The task of the investigation was to establish whether or not the sugar beet seed should be treated with insecticides and when granulars should be applied. In threeyear investigations 6 trials on different localities were carried out. Gaucho 70WS, Montur 190 FS, Geocid ST 35, Carbofuran 500 FS and a combination of Geocid ST 35 and Geocid G-5 were applied. The results showed that the imidacloprid seed treatment was satisfactory efficient on wireworms ensuring 20-42% more plants than on untreated plots. The efficacy of all treatments on the flea beetles was sufficient: Gaucho 70 WS 63-70%, the combined carbofuran treatment 65-67%, Geocid ST 35 54-55% and Montur 190 FS 52-55%. Therefore on imidacloprid and carbofuran treated crops the foliar treatment against flea beetles is mostly unnecassary. Insecticides based on imidacloprid showed a very good efficacy on aphids until 64 days after the sowing time with a somewhat longer residual action than the standard carbofuran treatments. All investigated insecticides were not satisfactorily efficient against sugar beet weevil. The seed dressing with a systemic insecticide is a justified measure. But, if the attack of wirevorms is strong or if a positive sugar beet weevil forecast is present, granulars shoud be applied additionaly.

  12. The Use and Effect of Carbamate Insecticide on Animal Health and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbamate in Indonesia is relatively new, in particular after prohibition on the use of most organochlorines (OC. Carbamates that commonly used for agricultural activities are carbofuran (Furadan, aldicarb (Temik and carbaryl (Sevin. When properly used, they will provide benefit, but misuse of insecticides would affect productivity, poisoning, public health problems, environmental contamination and residues in foods. A monitoring result of carbamate used in Java indicates that carbofurans were detected in soils (0,8 – 56,3 ppb; water (0,1 – 5,0 ppb; rice (nd – 5,0 ppb; soybeans (1,2 – 610 ppb; animal feed (12 – 102 ppb; beef (110 – 269 ppb; and sera of beef cattle (167 – 721 ppb. The residue level was above the maximum residue limits (MRL released by Indonesian Standardization Agency (Badan Standardisasi Nasional in some samples. The presence of carbofuran in foods should be taken into account since the carbofuran is regarded highly toxic for public and animal health. This paper describes the toxicity of carbamate, clinical signs of poisoning, residue in foods and environment, handling of poisoning and residue control.

  13. Photochemical decomposition of carbamate pesticides in natural waters of northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photochemical decomposition of the carbamate pesticides carbofuran, carbaryl and thiram was examined in natural waters of northern Greece under the influence of solar and UV (λ > 290 nm) radiation. Different major photoproducts were detected by GC/MS. The result of continuous irradiation was almost total degradation of the pesticides examined

  14. Leaching of seven pesticides currently used in cotton crop in Mato Grosso State-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eucarlos L; Weber, Oscarlina L S; Dores, Eliana F G C; Spadotto, Cláudio A

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leaching of pesticides and the applicability of the Attenuation Factor (AF) Model to predict their leaching. The leaching of carbofuran, carbendazim, diuron, metolachlor, alpha and beta endosulfan and chlorpyrifos was studied in an Oxisol using a field experiment lysimeter located in Dom Aquino-Mato Grosso. The samples of percolated water were collected by rain event and analyzed. Chemical and physical soil attributes were determined before pesticide application to the plots. The results showed that carbofuran was the pesticide that presented a higher leaching rate in the studied soil, so was the one representing the highest contamination potential. From the total carbofuran applied in the soil surface, around 6% leached below 50 cm. The other pesticides showed lower mobility in the studied soil. The calculated values to AF were 7.06E-12 (carbendazim), 5.08E-03 (carbofuran), 3.12E-17 (diuron), 6.66E-345 (alpha-endosulfan), 1.47E-162 (beta-endosulfan), 1.50E-06 (metolachlor), 3.51E-155 (chlorpyrifos). AF Model was useful to classify the pesticides' potential for contamination; however, that model underestimated pesticide leaching. PMID:17978955

  15. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, J.P.; A.K. Grant

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae), Hemiptera (Anthocoridae), Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae), and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae). These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet), carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl), pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin) and the oxadia...

  16. Fluorimetric Determination of Carbamate Pesticides in Host-Guest Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Viviana Veglia

    2000-01-01

    From the effect of β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the UVvisible and fluorescence spectra of carbaryl and carbofuran, the values of association constants were determined. The ratio of the fluorescence quantum yields for the bound and free substrates indicated an enhanced fluorimetric method of detection.

  17. 基于多孔硅反射镜的农药浓度测量实验研究%Experimental Study on Pesticide Concentration Measurement Based on Porous Silicon Bragg Reflectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠东; 李志全

    2011-01-01

    A new method of measuring liquid concentration of Carbofuran was introduced which taking porous silicon Bragg reflectors (PSBR) fabricated as the sensor with pulsed etching method, and the theory of measuring pesticide concentration by using PSBR was stated, and the measurement system was presented. The reflected spectra of PSBR and those of PSBR in the different Carbofuran solution were obtained by experiments,and the relationship between Carbofuran concentration and reflected peak of PSBR was researched. The results show that the reflected peak of PSBR can be led to a red shift when PSBR is dipped in different Carbofuran solution, and the red shift has a linear relationship with Carbofuran concentration in 0-0.1 mg/L range. It is leasible to carry out the quantitative analysis of the concerned pesticide by PS.%利用脉冲腐蚀法制备了多孔硅Bragg反射镜,分析了反射镜测量农药浓度的原理,搭建了多孔硅反射谱测量系统,实验研究了多孔硅反射镜的光谱图、在不同浓度克百威溶液条件下的多孔硅光谱图以及克百威浓度与多孔硅反射谱峰位变化的关系.结果表明,多孔硅反射镜在不同浓度的克百威溶液下,反射谱峰位将发生红移变化;当克百威浓度在0~0.1 mg/L时,峰位红移量与克百威浓度成线性关系.

  18. Responses of Hexaplex (Murex) trunculus to selected pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, M. [UMR 1112 INRA-UNSA R.O.S.E. Faculty of Sciences - BP 71, Parc Valrose, 06108 NICE Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: romeo@unice.fr; Gharbi-Bouraoui, S. [Laboratory of Biomonitoring of the Environment, Coastal Ecology Unit, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta, 7021, Zarzouna (Tunisia); Gnassia-Barelli, M. [UMR 1112 INRA-UNSA R.O.S.E. Faculty of Sciences - BP 71, Parc Valrose, 06108 NICE Cedex 2 (France); Dellali, M. [Laboratory of Biomonitoring of the Environment, Coastal Ecology Unit, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta, 7021, Zarzouna (Tunisia); Aissa, P. [Laboratory of Biomonitoring of the Environment, Coastal Ecology Unit, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta, 7021, Zarzouna (Tunisia)

    2006-04-15

    Cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations (in whole soft body and in tissues) were measured in Hexaplex trunculus collected from the Bizerta lagoon in Tunisia. An evaluation of the biological effects of the most toxic metals (cadmium and copper) and of two organics (carbofuran and lindane), present in the sediments of the Bizerta lagoon, was attempted by measuring biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase: AChE, catalase: CAT and glutathione S-transferase: GST activities) in animals experimentally exposed for 48 or 72 h. The concentration ranges as follows: Zn > Cu > Cd. Copper concentrations are highly variable (8.0 to 235 {mu}g g{sup -1} d.w.) whereas cadmium (range 1.35-4.86 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and zinc (range 360-1320 {mu}g g{sup -1}) concentrations are less variable. The digestive gland and the gill take up more metal than the muscle. AChE activity in H. trunculus is decreased by exposure to carbofuran or the mixture carbofuran and cadmium, in the digestive gland and muscle and by copper and by lindane in the digestive gland. AChE is generally inhibited by carbamates but some other compounds may also decrease this activity as observed in this paper. An increase in CAT activity associated with a decrease in GST activity is noted in the muscle of H. trunculus exposed to cadmium, to carbofuran and to the mixture of cadmium and carbofuran, and in the digestive gland of animals exposed to lindane. These pollutants may act upon glutathione and decrease the GST activity that cannot detoxify them and CAT activity has a protective effect. On the contrary, copper increases CAT and GST activities in the digestive gland of exposed gastropods; these enzymes seem to cooperate and play together their role of anti-oxidant enzymes. If H. trunculus is not a bioindicator species for metal concentrations, due to a high variability in metal concentrations, nevertheless the biochemical responses to pollutants (cadmium, copper, carbofuran and lindane) represented by AChE, CAT and GST activities

  19. Degradation of 14C ring labeled pesticides in selected soils of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation rates of 14C ring labeled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied using 0.1 μCi/10 g soil in Nuwara Eliya (red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (regosols) soils by incubating at 28 deg C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions and measuring the activity of liberated CO2 using liquid scintillation counter after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days. During the total period the carbofuran mineralization was about 23% in Kalpitiya soils and less than 20% in other three soils and diazinon mineralization was about 25% in Negombo soil and very low in other soils. (author)

  20. Optical Biosensor with Multienzyme System Immobilized onto Hybrid Membrane for Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of optical biosensor based on simultaneous immobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase enzymes for the detection of pesticides residues is described. Different kinds of novel SiO2 hybrid membranes were synthesized to be suitable for optical biosensors using sol-gel techniques. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of a multi-enzyme system including acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase covalently immobilized on new hybrid membranes. The sensor exhibited a linear response to acetylcholine in a concentration range of 2.5 - 30 mM. Inhibition plots obtained from testing carbamate (carbofuran pesticides exhibited concentration dependent behaviour and showed linear profiles in concentration ranges between 5x10-8 - 5x10-7 M for carbofuran. The factors affecting the constructed optical biosensors were investigated.

  1. Efeito de inseticidas na semeadura sobre pragas iniciais e produtividade de milho safrinha em plantio direto Effect of inseticides at sowing on seedling pests and yield off-season maize crop under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessi Ceccon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o aumento do complexo de pragas em lavouras de milho safrinha, foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos (A e B no município de Cândido Mota (SP. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de inseticidas sobre pragas de solo (percevejos-castanhos e corós, lagarta-do-cartucho na fase inicial da cultura e desenvolvimento das plantas. Os inseticidas utilizados na semeadura foram: thiamethoxam (Cruiser 700 WS, carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS + carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, fipronil (Regent 800 WG e thiodicarb (Semevin 350 RPA, nas doses recomendadas de cada produto, e a testemunha sem inseticida. As pragas de solo foram avaliadas aos 14 e 28 dias após a emergência das plantas (DAE, no experimento A, e aos 7 e 21 DAE, no experimento B. Os parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados aos 14 e 28 DAE, juntamente com o ataque por Spodoptera frugiperda, e também por ocasião da colheita dos grãos. Os inseticidas fipronil e carbofuran destacaram-se no controle do percevejo-castanho Scaptocoris castanea e o fipronil sobressaiu no controle dos corós (Phyllophaga spp. Os inseticidas carbofuran e thiodicarb reduziram o número de plantas danificadas pela lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda. O controle químico do complexo de pragas do solo e da lagarta-do-cartucho proporcionou aumentos significativos da produtividade de grãos de milho apenas na área A, onde o número de corós era maior.Due to an increasing pest diversity in maize crop during the off-season, two autumn-winter experiments were conducted in the Medium Paranapanema region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, designated as Fields A and B, both in Cândido Mota County. The aim of the experiments were to evaluate the effect of insecticides on the control of pests occurring in the initial plant development. Treatments were the recommended dosage of the insecticides thiamethoxam (Cruiser 700 WS, carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS

  2. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1-59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0-27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water.

  3. Rapport for Center for Vildtsundhed 1. halvår 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Enemark, Heidi L.; Therkildsen, Ole Roland;

    således med til at sikre et bredere udsnit af dyr fra hele landet til undersøgelse. I april 2012 blev der konstateret endnu et tilfælde af en carbofuran-forgiftet rovfugl. I dette tilfælde en kongeørn. Den webbaserede indsamling af data om rådyrs sundhed er steget med 19%. På baggrund af disse data er der...

  4. Interação entre nematicidas e herbicidas aplicados no plantio da cana-de-açúcar Interaction between nematicides and herbicides applied on sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Dinardo-Miranda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do sinergismo entre os nematicidas aldicarb, carbofuran e terbufós, aplicados no sulco de plantio, e os herbicidas clomazone, metribuzin e tebuthiuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, oito dias após o plantio da cana-de-açúcar foi avaliado em experimento conduzido em solo arenoso. Os sintomas mais acentuados de fitointoxicação foram observados nas parcelas que receberam metribuzin + terbufós ou tebuthiuron + terbufós. Metribuzin e tebuthiuron foram os herbicidas que provocaram sintomas mais acentuados de fitointoxicação, e o tebuthiuron prejudicou o desenvolvimento inicial da cultura, representado pelo número de perfilhos por metro. Apesar disso, não se observou redução significativa de produtividade em função da aplicação conjunta de nematicidas e herbicidas. Na média, aldicarb e carbofuran incrementaram a produtividade de colmos em 12 t ha-1. Parcelas tratadas com clomazone produziram, em média, significativamente mais que as tratadas com metribuzin.The interaction between the nematicides aldicarb, carbofuran and terbufos and the herbicides clomazone, metribuzin and tebuthiuron, applied on sugarcane plantations, was evaluated in an experiment conducted in sandy soil. Plots treated with metribuzin + terbufos or tebuthiuron + terbufos presented the most severe phytotoxicity symptoms. The herbicides metribuzin and tebuthiuron caused high phytotoxicity and tebuthiuron reduced the number of stalks in the plots, five months after planting. In spite of this, yield reduction due to nematicide and herbicide application was not observed. Aldicarb and carbofuran increased sugarcane yield at 12 ton ha-1. Plots treated with clomazone produced significantly more than plots treated with metribuzin.

  5. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  6. Comparative study of in vitro cell based assays versus in vivo toxicity tests to monitor environmental hazard of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Alañón Ribas, Maria del Pilar

    2006-01-01

    Carbofuran and chlorpyrifos are two well-known pesticides widely investigated, and its effects on different organisms have been previously reported in separate studies. For this reason were considered to be good model subtances, relevant from the environmental perspective. On the other hand, we selected this kind of compounds because they are used in many tones annually in agriculture and horticulture and they are significant especially in greenhouse-based production of vegetables and fruits ...

  7. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Caminal i Saperas, Glòria; Sarrà i Adroguer, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradat...

  8. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  9. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H2 O and MeOH: H2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  10. Membrane phospholipid augments cytochrome P4501a enzymatic activity by modulating structural conformation during detoxification of xenobiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik C Ghosh

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 is a superfamily of membrane-bound hemoprotein that gets involved with the degradation of xenobiotics and internal metabolites. Accumulated body of evidence indicates that phospholipids play a crucial role in determining the enzymatic activity of cytochrome P450 in the microenvironment by modulating its structure during detoxification; however, the structure-function relationship of cytochrome P4501A, a family of enzymes responsible for degrading lipophilic aromatic hydrocarbons, is still not well defined. Inducibility of cytochrome P4501A in cultured catfish hepatocytes in response to carbofuran, a widely used pesticide around the world, was studied earlier in our laboratory. In this present investigation, we observed that treating catfish with carbofuran augmented total phospholipid in the liver. We examined the role of phospholipid on the of cytochrome P4501A-marker enzyme which is known as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD in the context of structure and function. We purified the carbofuran-induced cytochrome P4501A protein from catfish liver. Subsequently, we examined the enzymatic activity of purified P4501A protein in the presence of phospholipid, and studied how the structure of purified protein was influenced in the phospholipid environment. Membrane phospholipid appeared to accelerate the enzymatic activity of EROD by changing its structural conformation and thus controlling the detoxification of xenobiotics. Our study revealed the missing link of how the cytochrome P450 restores its enzymatic activity by changing its structural conformation in the phospholipid microenvironment.

  11. Evaluation of Animal Dungs and Organomineral Fertilizer for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluremi Solomon Osunlola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an important animate pathogen causing major damage and severe reductions in the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. Nematicides are expensive and their application also causes environmental pollution. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry dung (10 or 20 t/ha, cow dung (10 or 20 t/ha, horse dung (10 or 20 t/ha, goat dung (10 or 20 t/ha, organomineral fertilizer (2 or 4 t/ha, and carbofuran (3 kg a.i/ha in the management of M. incognita on sweet potato using a randomized complete block design. The unamended plots served as control. Data were analysed using ANOVA (p≤0.05. All organic materials and carbofuran significantly (p≤0.05 reduced nematode reproduction and root damage compared with control. Poultry dung (10 and 20 t/ha and carbofuran were, however, more efficient in nematode control than other organic materials. Sweet potato plants that were grown on soil treated with organomineral fertilizer had the highest mean number of vines and fresh shoot weight, while poultry dung improved sweet potato quality and yield. It is therefore recommended that the use of poultry dung be employed in combination with other nematode control strategies to achieve sustainable, economic, and environment-friendly nematode management.

  12. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilms

  13. The pesticide concentration measurement based on reflected spectrum of the porous silicon%基于多孔硅反射谱的农药浓度测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠东; 常胜江; 王志彬

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristic of the effective index of the porous silicon (PS) will be changed and the reflected peaks of photoluminescence will be shifted when holes in PS are filled with liquid, a new method of measuring the liquid concentration of Carbofuran is introduced using the reflected spectrum of the porous silicon Bragg reflectors(PSBR). The theory of measuring the pesticide concentration using the reflected spectrum of PSBR is stated, and PSBR is fabricated by means of the pulsed etching method. The reflected spectra of PSBR itself and those of PSBR in the different Carbofuran solution are obtained by the experiments, and the relation curves of Carbofuran concentration and the reflected peaks of PSBR are made. The results show that the reflected peaks of PSBR will be led to red shft when PSBR is dipped in different Carbofuran solution, and the red shft has a linear relationship to Carbofuran concentration in the range of 0 ~ 0.1mg/L. As a result, it is feasible to carry out the quantitative analysis of the concerned pesticide by PS.%根据多孔硅内浸入液体后其有效折射率发生变化,使其光致发光反射谱峰位发生变化的特性,提出了一种利用多孔硅Bragg反射镜的反射谱来测量克百威溶液浓度的新方法.阐述了多孔硅Bragg反射镜测量农药浓度的原理,利用脉冲腐蚀法制备了多孔硅Bragg反射镜,对多孔硅反射镜和它在不同浓度的克百威溶液中进行了实验,获取了它们的反射光谱,制作了克百威浓度与反射谱峰位变化的关系曲线.实验表明:多孔硅反射镜在不同浓度的克百威溶液下,反射谱峰位将发生红移变化;当克百威浓度在0~0.1mg/L时,峰位红移量与克百威浓度成线性关系.也表明利用多孔硅反射谱对相关农药进行定量分析是可行的.

  14. Degradation of 14C ring labelled pesticides in selected soils of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water resources in Sri Lanka are largely derived from direct rainfall seepage and recharge from surface water bodies. Ground water contamination potential of pesticides is governed by many soil, pesticide and environmental factors. One of the critical factors that affects is the rate at which pesticides degrade in the soil. This is the process that eliminates the chemical from the environment. Therefore the knowledge of degradation rates of pesticides is essential for pollution control management. Degradation and dissipation rates of 14C ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied under laboratory conditions. 0.1 Ci/10 g soil of ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon-were added to Nuwara Eliya (Red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (Alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (Regosols) soils and incubated in 75% of maximum water holding capacity and 28 degree C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions. Liberated 14CO2 was collected after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days to an alkaline solution and analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Counter. Carbofuran has a mineralization rate of 12.5% in Kalpitiya regosols, 7.5% in Pugoda alluvials and lower rates in other two soils after 20 days. After 40 days it increases over 20% in Kalpitiya and in other three soils it was less than 15%. After-58 days the mineralization was over 60% in Kalpitiya soils but less than 500/o in other three soils. During the whole period the mineralization was less than 10% in Nuwara Eliya red yellow podzolic soils. Diazinon exhibited 25% mineralization in Nuwara Eliya and Kalpitiya soils after ten days but in Pugoda and Negombo soils it was less than 20%. After 40 days it was 80% in Kalpitiya soil and 60% in Nuwara Eliya. During the total period the mineralization is less than 25% in Negombo and Pugoda soils. Overall, the degradation rate of carbofuran is much lower than diazinon for all selected soils. Therefore the contamination risk by

  15. Physical and Chemical Properties and Safety Study of Six Corn Seed-coatings to Maize%6种玉米种衣剂的理化性质测定及其安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张婧赢; 王岩; 郑逢云; 刘三明

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the quality of corn seed-coatings, physical and chemical properties and safety of six corn seed-coatings were tested.Film-forming, Coating homogeneity and suspension rate of all coatings met the national standards.Viscosity values of 15.5% Thiram · Carbofuran and 8.1% Carbofuran ·Tebuconazole· Triadimenfon reached the national standards.pH ranges of all seed coatings occurred between 6.38 and 7.55, and 25% Carbofuran· Thiram· Carboxin, 15% Thiram· Carbofuran· Tebuconazole and 20% Thiram· Carbofuran · Triadimenal came up to the National Standards.Pull-out rate of seed coatings met the national standards excerpt 25% Carbofuran· Thiram· Carboxin.Germination potential, germination rate,germination index, date of seedling vigor index, seedling length and fresh weight of seeds treated with seed coating were lower than the control in Laboratory.Seedling emergency rates of all treatments in field trail were improved comparing with the control, but seedling quality had no significant increase.The results showed that 15.5% Thiram· Carbofuran is the best choice among the six corn seed-coatings.%为了解市场上玉米种衣剂的质量,对6种市售玉米种衣剂的理化性质和安全性进行了测定.理化性质表明:6种种衣剂的成膜时间、包衣均匀度和悬浮率都符合国家标准;不同种衣剂粘度值差异显著,只有福·克和克·戊·三唑酮符合国家标准;pH都在6.83~7.55之间,其中克·福·萎、福·克·唑醇和克·醇·福美双符合国家标准;包衣脱落率只有克·福·萎大于10%,其它药剂均达到国家标准.室内发芽实验表明:经玉米种衣剂处理后,玉米种子活力等各项指标均低于对照;而田间实验表明:种衣剂处理后,玉米出苗率、幼苗素质与对照相比都有所提高,其中福·克效果最为显著.从室内、田间的实验结果分析,福·克是6种玉米种衣剂中的最佳选择.

  16. Método para monitoramento de ninfas de cigarras e controle com inseticidas em reflorestamentos com paricá Method for monitoring nymphs of cicadas and control with insecticides in reforestations with paricá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um método para o monitoramento da população de cigarras (Quesada gigas e para a avaliação da eficácia de doses de thiamethoxam, carbofuran e imidaclopride no controle de ninfas, em reflorestamento com paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum. Foram utilizadas as seguintes dosagens de inseticidas: 2,0, 4,0 e 6,0 kg ha-1 do produto comercial Actara (250 WG, para o princípio ativo thiamethoxan; 7,15, 14,30, 21,45 L ha-1 de Furadan (350 FS, para o carbofuran; e 4,5, 9,0, 13,5 L ha-1 de Provado (200 SC, para o imidaclopride. As três dosagens de cada produto foram aplicadas em área total. Foram realizadas três avaliações quinzenais, posteriores à aplicação, em que foram contabilizados os números de buracos e de ninfas vivas, por meio da abertura, com implemento tratorizado, de trincheiras com 7 m de comprimento, 0,8 m de largura e 0,07 m de profundidade. Todos os princípios ativos testados foram eficientes na redução da população de ninfas de Q. gigas, mas não houve efeito significativo das doses avaliadas. Os princípios ativos carbofuran e thiamethoxan são os mais promissores, com controle de 75-80% da infestação de ninfas. A abertura de trincheiras com o implemento tratorizado é eficaz no monitoramento da população de ninfas de Q. gigas, em reflorestamentos com paricá.The objective of this work was to establish a method for cicad (Quesada gigas population monitoring and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of thiamethoxam, carbofuran and imidacloprid doses on the control of cicad nymphs, in reforestation with paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum. The following insecticide doses were used: 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg ha-1 of Actara (250 WG commercial product, for thiamethoxam active principle; 7.15, 14.30, and 21.45 L ha-1 of Furadan (350 FS, for carbofuran; 4.0, 9.0, and 13.5 L ha-1 of Provado (200 SC, for imidacloprid. The three doses of each product were applied in

  17. Application of 2% SP003 with Different Rate to Control Sugarcane Borer and Its Effect on Cane Yield and Sucrose Content%2% SP003杀虫剂防治甘蔗螟虫效果及其对产量和糖分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志武; 管楚雄; 刘福业; 许汉亮; 林明江; 郭庆泽

    2016-01-01

    通过对新烟碱类杀虫剂2% SP003不同施药剂量防治甘蔗螟虫试验结果分析表明:①2%SP003对甘蔗螟虫防治效果良好,杀虫活性高,持效期较长,其枯心率比3%呋喃丹低1.34%~2.66%、虫害节率比3%呋喃丹低1.56%~4.97%,差异均达极显著。其防治效果比呋喃丹提高11.80%~23.76%;②对甘蔗蓟马、蚜虫等有较好的兼防治效果;③促进甘蔗生长,有效茎较多、植株较高、茎径较粗、糖分高,达到增产、增收效果。其蔗茎产量比3%呋喃丹增产1275~7785 kg/hm2,甘蔗糖分比施3%呋喃丹处理提高0.15%~0.35%(绝对值),农业增加收益比3%呋喃丹多510~4434.0元/hm2;④综合分析,2% SP003施用量以75 kg/hm2防治螟虫效果较好,效益高。%The field effect test of 2% SP003 with different application rate to control sugarcane borer was carried out. The results were summarized in this paper.①2% SP003 was effective to control sugarcane borers. The rate of dead-heart of treatments with 2% SP003 was 1.34%~2.66% lower than that of the treatment with 3% carbofuran. The rate of infested-nodes of treatments with 2% SP003 was 1.56%~4.97% lower than that of treatment with 3% carbofuran. All the difference was very significant. The control effect of 2% SP003 was 11.80%~23.76% higher than that of 3% carbofuran.②Sugarcane thrips and aphids could be also controlled simultaneously by 2% SP003.③Sugarcane growth was improved, with more millable cane stalk, higher stalk length and diameter when treated with 2% SP003, resulting higher cane yield and economic effect. The cane yield of treatments with 2% SP003 was 1275~7785 kg/hm2 higher than that of treatment with 3% carbofuran, the sucrose of treatments with 2% SP003 was 0.15%~0.35% higher than that of treatment with 3% carbofuran, and the agricultural income of treatments with 2% SP003 was 510~4434.0 yuan/hm2 higher than that of treatment with 3% carbofuran.④The application rate of 2

  18. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  19. NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA BOONEI AND BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji, Gabriel Ademola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical environmental hazards warrant researches on green chemistry. Screen house and field studies were conducted to investigate the natural nematicidal potential of Alstonia boonei and Bridelia ferruginea leaves. The leaves were extracted successively using n- hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol; the crude extracts were tested on Meloidogyne incognita that infects Corchorus olitorius in a 9 x 4 x 3 factorial experiment. In the Screen house and field, Alstonia boonei ethanol extracts (ALSB/EtOH caused a significant (p<0.05 increase in plant height and number of leaves which compared significantly with that of reference standard carbofuran, whereas Alstonia boonei ethyl acetate extract (ALSB/EtOAc and Bridelia ferruginea ethyl acetate extract (BRDF/EtOAc influenced the production of higher number of branches which was similar to that of carbofuran. Nematodes were significantly (p<0.05 absent in the soil and root of plants that received the highest concentrations (75% and 50% of ALSB/EtOH, ALSB/EtOAc and Bridelia ferruginea ethanol extracts. Corchorus olitorius plants that received carbofuran and ALSB/EtOH flowered significantly earlier than plants treated with aqueous extracts of Alstonia boonei and Bridelia ferruginea, which also produced significantly (p<0.05 lower plant height, fewer leaves, fewer branches and had nematodes in their root and soil at harvest. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins and saponins. The extracts of the leaves of A. boonei and B. ferruginea were nematicidal and appear to hold promise as natural, biodegradable and environmentally friendly alternative crop protectants against Meloidogyne incognita.

  20. Brain acetylcholinesterase of jaguar cichlid (Parachromis managuensis): From physicochemical and kinetic properties to its potential as biomarker of pesticides and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marlyete Chagas de; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Silva, Luciano Clemente; Machado, Dijanah Cota; Silva, Kaline Catiely Campos; Lima, Ana Vitória Araújo; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson de Souza; Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo de

    2016-08-01

    This contribution aimed to characterize physicochemical and kinetic parameters of the brain cholinesterases (ChEs) from Parachromis managuensis and investigate the in vitro effects of pesticides and metal ions on its activity intending to propose as biomarker. This species is suitable for this investigation because (1) it was recently introduced in Brazil becoming invasive (no restrictions on capture) and (2) occupies the top of the food chain (being subject to bioaccumulation). The enzyme extract was exposed to 10 metal ions (Al(3+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Fe(2+) and Zn(2+)) and ChEs selective inhibitors (BW284c51, Iso-OMPA, neostigmine and serine). The extract was also incubated with organophosphate (dichlorvos) and carbamate pesticides (carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC20, IC50 and ki) were determined. Selective inhibitors and kinetic parameters confirmed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) -like as responsible for the ChE activities, most AChE. The IC50 values for pesticides were: 1.68μM (dichlorvos); 4.35μM (carbaryl) and 0.28μM (carbofuran). Most of the analyzed ions did not show significant effect at 1mM (p=0.05), whereas the following ions inhibited the enzyme activity in the order: Hg(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+)>Zn(2+). Mercury ion strongly inhibited the enzyme activity (IC20=0.7μM). The results about allow to conclude that P. managuensis brain AChE is a potential biomarker for heavy metals and pesticides under study, mainly for the carbamate carbofuran once it was capable to detect 6-fold lower levels than the limit concentration internationally recommended. PMID:27288599

  1. A novel miniaturized zinc oxide/hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a stir-brush microextractor device for carbamate pesticides analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkliang, Fonthip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Thammakhet, Chongdee

    2016-04-21

    A novel miniaturized "stir-brush microextractor" was prepared using a zinc oxide/hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ZnO/MWCNTs-OH) coated stainless steel brush connected to a small dc motor. The synthesized zinc oxide on each strand of stainless steel had a flower-like nanostructure when observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This structure produced a large surface area before it was coated with the hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent. Under optimal conditions, the developed device provided a good linearity for the extraction of carbofuran and carbaryl, in the range of 25-500 ng mL(-1) and 50-500 ng mL(-1), respectively, with low limits of detection of 17.5 ± 2.0 ng mL(-1) and 13.0 ± 1.8 ng mL(-1). It also provided a good stir-brush-to-stir-brush reproducibility (% relative standard deviation < 5.6%, n = 6). The device was applied for the extraction and preconcentration of carbamate pesticides in fruit and vegetable samples prior to analysis with a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Carbofuran was found at 9.24 ± 0.93 ng g(-1) and carbaryl was detected at 7.05 ± 0.61 ng g(-1) with good recoveries in the range of 73.7 ± 10.0% to 108.4 ± 2.6% for carbofuran and 75.7 ± 10.0% to 111.7 ± 5.7% for carbaryl. PMID:27026597

  2. Evaluation of insecticides in different dosages to control cicadas in parica plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odineila Martins Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the more efficient and economically viable dosage of chemical insecticide to control Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae nymphs in parica plantations. Three dosages of three products (carbofuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were tested based on the maximum recommended dosage for the control of cicadas in coffee plants and applied in total area. The dosage of one kilogram of a commercial product based in thiamethoxam per hectare was more efficient economically and environmentally to control nymphs of Q. gigas in parica plantations.

  3. Pesticide-induced physiological alterations in certain tissues of a fish, Mystus vittatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.R.; Rani, S.; Dalela, R.C.

    1981-12-01

    Effect of sublethal concentrations (1/5, 1/10 and 1/15 fractions of 96-h TL50) of thiotox, dichlorvos and carbofuran on acid, alkaline and glucose-6-phosphatase of liver, kidney and gills of Mystus vittatus have been studied. Maximum (62.79%) inhibition of alkaline phosphatase in gills after thiotox (0.00013 mg/l) treatment have been observed. At 0.000045mg/l concentrations of thiotox, a marginal (7.6%) and significant (P less than 0.01) stimulation was observed in hepatic alkaline phosphatase activity.

  4. Pesticide residues and microbial contamination of water resources in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the water resources of the Muda rice growing areas revealed evidence of pesticide residues in the agroecosystem. While the cyclodiene endosulfan was found as a ubiquitous contaminant, the occurrence of other organochlorine insecticides was sporadic. The presence of 2,4-D, paraquat and molinate residues was also evident but the occurrence of these herbicides was seasonal. Residue levels of molinate were generally higher than those from the other herbicides. The problem of thiobencarb and carbofuran residues was not encountered. Analyses for microbial contamination revealed that the water resources were unfit for drinking; coliform counts were higher during certain periods of the year than others. (Author)

  5. Evaluation of Animal Dungs and Organomineral Fertilizer for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Oluremi Solomon Osunlola; Bamidele Fawole

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an important animate pathogen causing major damage and severe reductions in the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. Nematicides are expensive and their application also causes environmental pollution. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry dung (10 or 20 t/ha), cow dung (10 or 20 t/ha), horse dung (10 or 20 t/ha), goat dung (10 or 20 t/ha), organomineral fertilizer (2 or 4 t/ha), and carbofuran ...

  6. Evaluación del riesgo ambiental de carbofurano en bioensayos con organismos no blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Iannacone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El carbofurano es uno de los plaguicidas más empleado en la agricultura peruana. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el riesgo ambiental del carbofurano en bioensayos de toxicidad, sobre once especies no destinatarias. La siguiente secuencia relativa de mayor a menor cocientes de riesgo (CR del carbofurano para los 19 puntos finales de efecto en once especies fue encontrada: Daphnia magna (mortalidad > Lemna minor (inhibición de formación de las hojas > Paracheirodon innesi (nado extraño = P. innesi (incremento del movimiento opercular > Chironomus calligraphus (mortalidad > L. minor (necrosis > P. innesi (mortalidad > L. minor (clorosis > Tetrapygus niger (inhibición de la fecundación > Coturnix japonica (mortalidad > Oncorhynchus mykiss (incremento de coloración > Ceraeochrysa cincta (no eclosión de huevos > O. mykiss (mortalidad con oxígeno > O. mykiss (mortalidad sin oxígeno > Trichogramma pretiosum (mortalidad > C. cincta (mortalidad > T. pretiosum (no emergencia de adultos > Trichogramma pintoi (mortalidad > Beauveria bassiana (inhibición del crecimiento. Los cocientes de riesgo (CR indicaron en todos los casos un alto riesgo del carbofurano principalmente en el ambiente acuático en comparación con el terrestre.Carbofuran is one of the most employed pesticides in Peruvian agriculture. This research aimed to evaluate the risk assessment in bioassays of carbofuran on eleven non-target species. The following relative sequence in decreasing ecotoxicity order in terms of RQ (Risk quotient to carbofuran to 19 end points on 11 species was found: Daphnia magna (mortality > Lemna minor (inhibition of new fronds > Paracheirodon innesi (strange swim = P. innesi (increase of opercula movement > Chironomus calligraphus (mortality > L. minor (necrosis > P. innesi (mortality > L. minor (chlorosis > Tetrapygus niger (inhibition of fertilization> Coturnix japonica (mortality > Oncorhynchus mykiss (increase of coloration > Ceraeochrysa

  7. 40 CFR 372.65 - Chemicals and chemical categories to which this part applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrochloride 134-29-2 1/1/87 Anthracene 120-12-7 1/1/87 Antimony 7440-36-0 1/1/87 Arsenic 7440-38-2 1/1/87... Bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301) 75-63-8 7/8/90 Bromoxynil (3,5-Dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) 1689-84-5 1/1/95... 63-25-2 1/1/87 Carbofuran 1563-66-2 1/1/95 Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 1/1/87 Carbon tetrachloride...

  8. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  9. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  10. On-farm Testing of Savanem 20 EC (Ethoprophos for Control of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Pepper (Capsicum annuum in Tillaberi (Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haougui Adamou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the effectiveness of Savanem 20 EC (Ethoprophos, 200g/l, a newly introduced nematicide on the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, the second most important vegetable crop after the onions in Niger. This product was compared with Furadan 5G (Carbofuran. The results show that Savanem 20 EC at the rate of 50 L/ha is more effective than Furadan at the rate of 40 kg/ha in suppressing population of Meloidogyne spp. and reducing the root gall index. Despite its higher effectiveness against root-knot nematodes, Savanem did not significantly out yield Furadan.

  11. Simultaneous determination of airborne carbamates in workplace by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ping; Li, Jen-Hou; Li, Gwo-Chen; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2004-06-17

    A high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence (HPLC-F) detector was examined to simultaneous determination of airborne carbamates in the workplace of manufactory. The OVS-2 air sampling tube filled with glass fiber filter or quartz fiber and combined filter/XAD-2 were evaluated to collect nine commonly used carbamates (Carbofuran, Isoprocarb, Methomyl, Metolcarb, Thiodicarb, Carbaryl, Oxamyl, Methiocarb, and Prpoxur) from the air of manufactory in high humidity country. After being extracted with acetonitrile from sampling tubes, the carbamates were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection posterior to on-line derivatization. The collection of carbamates and the recovery of extraction from glass wool fiber in several concentration levels, and from quartz filter were evaluated. The storage stability of carbamates was also tested. Results indicated that the HPLC-fluorescence method offers satisfactory resolution and sensitivity in carbamate analysis. With the glass fiber filter and combined filter/XAD-2, the Carbofuran, Isoprocarb, Methomyl, Metolcarb, and Thiodicarb were stable for a 28-day storage test, Carbaryl and Oxamyl for 14 days, and Methiocarb and Prpoxur for 7 days. All of these pesticides were with detection limit of 3mugm(-3). It is suited for environmental monitoring. The airborne carbamates in different areas of the manufactory were measured.

  12. Ecological risk analysis of pesticides used on irrigated rice crops in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Danielle Cristina; Noldin, José Alberto; Deschamps, Francisco C; Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-11-01

    Based on studies conducted in the past decade in the southern region of Brazil to determine residue levels of the pesticides normally used on irrigated rice crops, changes can be observed in relation to the presence of pesticides in the waters of the main river basins in Santa Catarina State. In previous harvests, the presence of residues of 7 pesticides was determined, with the herbicide bentazon and the insecticide carbofuran being the products showing highest frequency. Following toxicological tests conducted with 8 different test organisms, deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis was performed to assess the situation of the river basins in areas used for the production of irrigated rice. Of the species tested, the herbicide bentazon showed greatest toxicity toward plants, but did not present an ecological risk because in the worst-case scenario the highest concentration of this pesticide in the environment is 37 times lower than the lowest EC50/LC50 value obtained in the tests. The insecticide carbofuran, which had the highest toxicity toward the organisms used in the tests, presented an ecological risk in the deterministic analysis, but without any associated probability. The results highlight the need for increased efforts in training farmers in crop management practices and for the continual monitor of water bodies for the presence of pesticide residues. PMID:27479455

  13. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health.

  14. Fenugreek hydrogel–agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang, E-mail: bhchiang@ntu.edu.tw

    2015-07-30

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10–20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel–agarose–acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. - Highlights: • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dip-strip biosensor fabricated to detect carbamates. • AChE entrapped in fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). • High enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and shelf life (half-life, 55 days). • Detection limits of carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl: 2, 21 and 113 nM. • The biosensor had good testing capabilities to detect carbamates in food samples.

  15. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

  16. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, 14C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle

  17. Model ecosystems for predicting the behaviour of pesticides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of the behaviour of pesticides in the environment aids efficient management of agrochemicals, and use of radioisotopes offers a simple and highly reliable tool for such studies. Various experimental set-ups that simulate ecosystems have been used successfully under laboratory and outdoor conditions. Use of a soil biometer flask, a continuous flow-through system and a rice-fish ecosystem to follow the fate of 14C labelled HCD isomers carbaryl, nitrofen, carbofuran and glyphosate is discussed. By combining the agronomic practices of flooding and/or use of organic matter amendments such as green manure it was shown that the persistence of HCH isomers, carbaryl and carbofuran in soil could be considerably reduced. Use of labelled pesticides in conjunction with a continuous flow-through system enabled determination of the total 14C mass balance and budgeting of the pesticides in the environmental compartments of flood water, organic volatiles, CO2, extractable and unextractable (bound) residues. Faster degradation in flooded and/or organic matter amended soils was unequivocally shown by demonstrating mineralization to 14CO2 and low extractable 14C residues. Use of 14C labelled pesticides helps to determine the extent of formation of bound residues, and to follow their uptake in plants and their bioavailability through microbial release. 24 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  19. Kinetic and physicochemical properties of brain acetylcholinesterase from the peacock bass (Cichla ocellaris) and in vitro effect of pesticides and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kaline Catiely Campos; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2013-01-15

    Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) from peacock bass (Cichla ocellaris) was characterized and the effect of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides as well as ions and heavy metals was evaluated. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) were determined as 0.769 mM and 0.189 U/mg of protein respectively. Optimal pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 45°C. The enzyme retained approximately half of the activity after incubation at 50°C for 30 min. Total cholinesterase activity on brain of this species can be ascribed to AChE according to selective inhibitors analysis (neostigmine, eserine and BW284c5 reduced its activity whereas no effect was noticed for Iso-OMPA). Seven pesticides (five organophosphates: dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, temephos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate - TEPP and two carbamates: carbaryl and carbofuran) showed inhibitory effects on C. ocellaris AChE. However, the strongest effect was observed with carbofuran (IC(50)=0.21 μM and K(i)=2.57 × 10(-3) μM). The following ions (1 mM) showed to inhibit its activity (decrescent order): Hg(2+)>As(3+)>Cu(2+)>Zn(2+). EDTA(2-) did not affect enzyme activity. The present study provides assay conditions and data to suggest this enzyme as in vitro biomarker of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in routine environmental screening programs. PMID:23220411

  20. Optimization of preparation conditions for activated carbon from palm oil fronds using response surface methodology on removal of pesticides from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Salman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fronds were used to prepare activated carbon using the physiochemical activation method, which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH treatment and carbon dioxide (CO2 gasification. The effects of variable parameters activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratios (KOH: char by weight on the preparation of the activated carbon and for the removal of pesticides: bentazon, carbofuran and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD, two factor interaction (2FI and quadratic models were respectively employed to correlate the effect of variable parameters on the preparation of activated carbon used for the removal of pesticides with carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum conditions for preparing the activated carbon from oil palm fronds were found as follows: activation temperature of 750 °C, activation time of 2 h and chemical impregnation ratio of 2.38. The percentage error between predicted and experimental results for the removal of bentazon, carbofuran and 2,4-D were 8.2, 1.3 and 9.2%, respectively and for the yield of the palm oil frond activated carbon was 5.6.

  1. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena (n=16, purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50% of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.

  2. Optimization and validation of liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning for determination of carbamates in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Goulart, Simone; Domingos Alves, Renata; Neves, Antonio Augusto; Queiroz, Jose Humberto de; Conde de Assis, Tamires [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eliana L.R. de, E-mail: meliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2010-06-25

    Using a 2{sup 3} experimental design, liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for analysis of three carbamates (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) in water samples. In this method, 2.0 mL of sample is placed in contact with 4.0 mL of acetonitrile. After agitation, the sample is placed in a freezer for 3 h for phase separation. The organic extract is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). For validation of the technique, the following figures of merit were evaluated: accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity. Extraction recovery percentages of the carbamates aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl were 90%, 95% and 96%, respectively. Even though extremely low volumes of sample and solvent were used, the extraction method was selective and the detection and quantification limits were between 5.0 and 10.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and 17.0 and 33.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  3. Isolation of Oxamyl-degrading Bacteria and Identification of cehA as a Novel Oxamyl Hydrolase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousidou, Konstantina; Chanika, Eleni; Georgiadou, Dafne; Soueref, Eftychia; Katsarou, Demetra; Kolovos, Panagiotis; Ntougias, Spyridon; Tourna, Maria; Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A.; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial degradation is the main process controlling the environmental dissipation of the nematicide oxamyl. Despite that, little is known regarding the microorganisms involved in its biotransformation. We report the isolation of four oxamyl-degrading bacterial strains from an agricultural soil exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of oxamyl. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) assigned the isolated bacteria to different subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas. The isolated bacteria hydrolyzed oxamyl to oxamyl oxime, which was not further transformed, and utilized methylamine as a C and N source. This was further supported by the detection of methylamine dehydrogenase in three of the four isolates. All oxamyl-degrading strains carried a gene highly homologous to a carbamate-hydrolase gene cehA previously identified in carbaryl- and carbofuran-degrading strains. Transcription analysis verified its direct involvement in the hydrolysis of oxamyl. Selected isolates exhibited relaxed degrading specificity and transformed all carbamates tested including the oximino carbamates aldicarb and methomyl (structurally related to oxamyl) and the aryl-methyl carbamates carbofuran and carbaryl which share with oxamyl only the carbamate moiety. PMID:27199945

  4. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  5. Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. in plantain farms (cv. Terra of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416 were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  6. Optimization and validation of liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning for determination of carbamates in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a 23 experimental design, liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for analysis of three carbamates (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) in water samples. In this method, 2.0 mL of sample is placed in contact with 4.0 mL of acetonitrile. After agitation, the sample is placed in a freezer for 3 h for phase separation. The organic extract is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). For validation of the technique, the following figures of merit were evaluated: accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity. Extraction recovery percentages of the carbamates aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl were 90%, 95% and 96%, respectively. Even though extremely low volumes of sample and solvent were used, the extraction method was selective and the detection and quantification limits were between 5.0 and 10.0 μg L-1, and 17.0 and 33.0 μg L-1, respectively.

  7. ESSAY ON Elasmopalpus lignosellus (ZELLER, 1848 AND TO Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp., AND Cornitermes spp. CONTROL IN MAIZE BY SEED TREATMENT ENSAIO DE CONTROLE À LAGARTA DO COLO Elasmopaplus lignosellus (Zeller, 1984 E AOS CUPINS Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp. E Cornitermes spp., NA CULTURA DO MILHO, VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Corrêa de Oliveira Júnior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study presents the results of the field experiments carried out in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, in 1985/86, to estimate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling the Lesser Cornstalk (Elasmopaplus lignosellus and the termites Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp. and Cornitermes spp. which attack corn plants, by seed treatment. The results show that benfuracarbe, carbofuran and thiodicarbe, respectively, were highly efficient in controlling both pests, lesser cornstalk borer and termites up to 21 days after seed germination.

    Foi realizado um experimento com milho no município de Goiânia, Goiás, safra 1985/86, visando ao controle da lagarta do colo Elasmopaplus lignosellus e cupins  Syntermes sp., Procornitermes spp. e Cornitermes spp., via tratamento de sementes. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que Thiodicarbe na dose de 700 g. i.a. (gramas de ingrediente ativo; Carbofuran na dose de 700 g. i.a. e Benfuracarbe nas doses de 800 e 1000 g. i.a. / 100 kg de sementes deram 84,3 , 97,1 e 96,5% de controle a E. lignosellus, respectivamente, e controlaram 82,7 , 100,0 e 96,0% de cupins, na mesma ordem, até 21 dias após germinação das sementes.

  8. Fenugreek hydrogel–agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10–20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel–agarose–acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. - Highlights: • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dip-strip biosensor fabricated to detect carbamates. • AChE entrapped in fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). • High enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and shelf life (half-life, 55 days). • Detection limits of carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl: 2, 21 and 113 nM. • The biosensor had good testing capabilities to detect carbamates in food samples

  9. Determination of seventeen polar/thermolabile pesticides in apples and apricots by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrostlíková, Jitka; Hajslová, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomás; Stĕpán, Radim; Poustka, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) approach for the determination of widely used representatives of polar/thermolabile pesticides in fruits was developed and validated. The group of pesticides comprised benzimidazoles and azoles (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil, propiconazole, prochloraz, epoxiconazole, flusilazole, tebuconazole, bitertanol); N-methylcarbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, methiocarb); and phenylureas and benzoylphenylureas (linuron, diflubenzuron, triflumuron, teflubenzuron, flufenoxuron). Matrixes (apple, apricot) were extracted with acetonitrile and crude extracts were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using either mixed cation exchange or hydrophilic lipophilic balance cartridges. LC separation of pesticides was performed on a reversed-phase column, Discovery C18. Electrospray ionization and ion trap MS/MS detection were applied. For most pesticides, overall recoveries ranged from 75 to 122%, and repeatability (as relative standard deviation) from 5 repetitive determinations of recovery ranged from 3 to 21%. Carbofuran was the only compound for which recovery was not satisfactory due to its loss in the SPE cleanup step. Limits of detection were 0.1-3 microg/kg for benzimidazole and azole fungicides and carbamate insecticides. For urea insecticides, detection limits were slightly higher (3-10 microg/kg). PMID:12852583

  10. Isolation of oxamyl-degrading bacteria and identification of cehA as a novel oxamyl hydrolase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina eRousidou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation is the main process controlling the environmental dissipation of the nematicide oxamyl. Despite that, little is known regarding the microorganisms involved in its biotransformation. We report the isolation of four oxamyl-degrading bacterial strains from an agricultural soil exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of oxamyl. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA assigned the isolated bacteria to different subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas. The isolated bacteria hydrolyzed oxamyl to oxamyl oxime, which was not further transformed, and utilized methylamine as a C and N source. This was further supported by the detection of methylamine dehydrogenase in three of the four isolates. All oxamyl-degrading strains carried a gene highly homologous to a carbamate-hydrolase gene cehA previously identified in carbaryl- and carbofuran-degrading strains. Transcription analysis verified its direct involvement in the hydrolysis of oxamyl. Selected isolates exhibited relaxed degrading specificity and transformed all carbamates tested including the oximino carbamates aldicarb and methomyl (structurally related to oxamyl and the aryl-methyl carbamates carbofuran and carbaryl which share with oxamyl only the carbamate moiety

  11. Uso de plaguicidas en cultivos agrícolas como herramienta para el monitoreo de peligros en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virya Bravo Durán

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica ha incrementado el uso de plaguicidas de mayor toxicidad, debido entre otras cosas al desarrollo de plagas más resistentes y la necesidad que tienen algunos productos agrícolas de exportación de mantener su posición en el mercado internacional. El ser humano al entrar en contacto con los plaguicidas puede experimentar efectos adversos en su salud desde agudos hasta crónicos que se manifiestan en diferentes grados. Para generar indicadores de peligro en salud en algunos cultivos por el uso de estas sustancias, se utilizaron la cantidad de plaguicidas aplicada y su toxicidad. Los datos de uso se recopilan directamente de los productores, a través de un cuestionario, los ingredientes activos identificados se caracterizaron por su toxicidad y se clasificaron por la manifestación de los efectos. Se calculó como indicador la cantidad de plaguicidas aplicada (kg ia/ha/año por las clases de toxicidad consideradas más peligrosas: 1. Efectos de toxicidad aguda en grado de alto a extremo y 2. Tres o más efectos crónicos positivos. Se recomienda vigilar el uso de bromuro de metilo, metam sodio, terbufos, etoprofos, endosulfan, MCPA y carbofuran por toxicidad aguda de alta a extrema y mancozeb, paraquat, diazinon, 2,4-D y carbofuran por efectos crónicos.  

  12. High lethality and minimal variation after acute self-poisoning with carbamate insecticides in Sri Lanka – implications for global suicide prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Thomas; Selvarajah, Liza R.; Mohamed, Fahim; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gawarammana, Indika; Mostafa, Ahmed; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Eddleston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. Methods: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested. Findings: Patients had ingested 3% carbofuran powder (719), carbosulfan EC25 liquid (25% w/v, 389), or fenobucarb EC50 liquid (50% w/v, 127) formulations, carbamate insecticides of WHO Toxicity Classes Ib, II, and II, respectively. Intubation and ventilation was required for 183 (14.2%) patients while 71 (5.5%) died. Compared with carbofuran, poisoning with carbosulfan or fenobucarb was associated with significantly higher risk of death [carbofuran 2.2%; carbosulfan 11.1%, OR 5.5 (95% CI 3.0–9.8); fenobucarb 6.3%, OR 3.0 (1.2–7.1)] and intubation [carbofuran 6.1%; carbosulfan 27.0%, OR 5.7 (3.9–8.3); fenobucarb 18.9%, OR 3.6 (2.1–6.1)]. The clinical presentation and cause of death did not differ markedly between carbamates. Median time to death was similar: carbofuran 42.3 h (IQR 5.5–67.3), carbosulfan 21.3 h (11.5–71.3), and fenobucarb 25.3 h (17.3–72.1) (p = 0.99); no patients showed delayed onset of toxicity akin to the intermediate syndrome seen after OP insecticide poisoning. For survivors, median duration of intubation was 67.8 h (IQR 27.5–118.8) with no difference in duration between carbamates. Reduced GCS at presentation was associated with worse outcome although some patients with carbosulfan died after presentation with normal GCS. Conclusions: We did not find carbamate insecticide self-poisoning to vary markedly according to the carbamate

  13. 高效液相色谱法同时检测饮用水中的呋喃丹、莠去津

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓科; 周铮

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立用高效液相色谱同时检测饮用水及水源水中的农药残留呋喃丹和莠去津的方法。方法用二氯甲烷提取水样中的呋喃丹和莠去津,挥发除去大量二氯甲烷后,用甲醇溶解剩余物。溶液在35℃氮吹浓缩至1.0 mL。浓缩后的样品在Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB- C18(4.6×250 mm,5μm)柱上,用甲醇和水作流动相等度洗脱分离,检测波长分别为210、220nm。结果呋喃丹、莠去津最低检测质量浓度分别为0.001、0.0001 mg/L。回收率在80%~110%,相对标准偏差在2.5%以内。结论该方法操作简便快速,结果准确、可靠。%Objective: To establish a method for the simultaneous examination of carbofuran and atrazine in drinking water by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: The carbofuran and atrazine in the water were extracted with dichloromethane. After most of the dichloromethane was evaporated, the residue was dissolved in methanol. The solution was then condensed to the dosage of 1 mL by nitrogen at 35 oC. The samples were separated on Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB- C18 (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) column by the mobile phase of methanol/water in an isocratic elution, and detected at 210 nm and 220 nm. Results: The limit of the detection for carbofuran was 0.001 mg/L and 0.0001 mg/L for atrazine. This method had a satisfied recovery rate of 80% ~ 110% with a good analytic precision (RSD<2.5%). Conclusion: The established method is simple, fast, accurate and reproducible.

  14. Controle de Meloidogyne javanica em mudas de bananeira 'prata-anã' por compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Hanielle Carneiro dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de compostos orgânicos no controle de Meloidogyne javanica, e no desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeiras 'Prata-Anã. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, com dez repetições, e os tratamentos consistiram em quatro compostos constituídos de diferentes matérias-primas (restos da cultura da banana, cana-de-açúcar, esterco bovino, cascas de banana, plantas daninhas, capim andropogon, o esterco bovino, a torta de mamona e testemunhas (adubação mineral, carbofuran e testemunha absoluta (sem adição de composto orgânico. Em cada vaso, foram colocados 3 kg de solo autoclavado, incorporado com cada um dos tratamentos avaliados e inoculado com suspensão contendo 4.000 ovos de M. javanica. Após quatro dias, transplantou-se uma muda de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' micropropagada, e aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se: altura das plantas, diâmetro, número de folhas e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea, e número de galhas, massas de ovos, número de ovos e o número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2, por 100 cm³ de solo. Testou-se in vitro o efeito das frações húmicas dos quatro compostos (que não causaram fitotoxidez e esterco bovino sobre a mortalidade e motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. O ensaio foi montado em placas de ELISA em DIC, com cinco repetições. Os compostos orgânicos e o esterco bovino aumentaram o desenvolvimento das mudas. A torta de mamona provocou efeito fitotóxico às mudas. Menor número de variáveis nematológicas foi proporcionado pela torta de mamona e pelo carbofuran. O número de J2 também foi menor nas parcelas tratadas com carbofuran e também pelo Composto 3, constituído por plantas daninhas+restos de cana-de-açúcar+ esterco bovino e pelo adubo mineral. Para o teste in vitro, as substâncias húmicas conferiram efeito nematicida e nematostático. Dentre os compostos, o C3 mostrou-se promissor por reduzir o desenvolvimento do nematoides e não apresentar efeito fitotóxico.

  15. Study on the Interaction between Humic Substances in Soil and Carbamate Pesticides Using Fluorescence Quenching Titration Method%荧光猝灭滴定法研究土壤腐殖质与氨基甲酸酯类农药相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国兰; 郑博福; 白英臣; 吴丰昌; 吴代赦

    2012-01-01

    为研究氨基甲酸酯类农药在溶解有机质参与下的迁移转化过程,利用荧光猝灭滴定法研究了土壤HS(腐殖质)与氨基甲酸酯类农药的相互作用.结果表明,呋喃丹和西维因的荧光都能不同程度地被FA(富里酸)和HA(腐殖酸)猝灭,主要猝灭机理为静电结合猝灭.采用静态猝灭模型计算出氨基甲酸酯类农药与HS的K(结合常数),lg K由大到小为呋喃丹-HA(4.96)>西维因-HA(4.93)>呋喃丹-FA(4.72)>西维因-FA(4.68).HA与氨基甲酸酯类农药的lgK明显大于FA与氨基甲酸酯类农药,表明HS与氨基甲酸酯类农药间的作用力有疏水作用.进一步研究表明,氢键作用对HS与氨基甲酯类农药结合有一定的影响.%To reveal the mechanisms of transport and conversion of carbamate pesticides in the presence of dissolved organic matters, the fluorescence quenching titration method was applied to investigate the interactions between carbamate pesticides and humic substances in soil. The results showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of carbofuran and carbaryl was quenched by the fulvic and humic acids to varying degrees. Static quenching was the primary mechanism during this process. The binding constants (K) of carbamate pesticides and humic substances were estimated using the fluorescence static quenching model. The order of lg K were: those of carbofuran and humic acid (4. 96) > those of carbaryl and humic acid (4. 93) > those of carbofuran and fulvic acid (4. 72) > those of carbaryl and fulvic acid (4. 68). The values of lg K of carbamate pesticides and humic acids were clearly higher than those of carbamate pesticides and fulvic acids. This result indicated that the hydrophobic force is one of the main interactions between carbamate pesticides and humic substances, and further proved that hydrogen bonding could slightly affect the bonding of carbamate pesticides and humic substances.

  16. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do arroz irrigado ao fungo Metarhizium anisopliae, agente de controle microbiano de Tibraca limbativentris Selectivity of chemical pesticides used in rice irrigated crop at fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, microbial control agent of Tibraca limbativentris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Teresinha Rampelotti-Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Para subsidiar a utilização de táticas de manejo integrado para o inseto-praga Tibraca limbativentris, avaliou-se a compatibilidade in vitro entre o isolado CG 891 de Metarhizium anisopliae e os agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do arroz irrigado. Os parâmetros avaliados foram crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e germinação em pré e pós-contato do fungo, com duas doses de fipronil, tiametoxam, fenitrotiona, carbofurano, pirazossulfurom-etílico, bentazona, clomazona, glifosato e quincloraque; e uma dose de triciclazol e azoxistrobina. Reduções significativas no crescimento vegetativo e esporulação de M. anisopliae foram observadas para fenitrotiona, carbofurano e azoxistrobina. Observou-se redução na germinação em pré-contato para o agrotóxico azoxistrobina. O valor percentual da germinação alterou a classificação dos agrotóxicos com relação a sua seletividade sobre o entomopatógeno. No entanto, os resultados mostram que in vitro os agrotóxicos fenitrotiona, carbofurano, glifosato e azoxistrobina são prejudiciais ao isolado CG 891 de M. anisopliae.Searching for integrated control strategies for the insect-pest Tibraca limbativentris, the in vitro compatibility between isolated CG 891 of Metarhizium anisopliae and several pesticides used in the culture of irrigated rice was evaluated. The followings parameters were studied: vegetative growth, sporulation and the germination viability in pre- and post-contact of the fungus for two concentrations of fipronil, thiametoxan, fenitrothion, carbofuran, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bentazon, clomazone, glyfosate and quinclorac and one concentration of tricyclazole and azoxystrobin. Significant reductions in the vegetative growth and sporulation of M. anisopliae were observed for fenitrothion, carbofuran and azoxystrobin. The germination in pre-contact was affected by azoxystrobin. The percentage of germination changed the classification of pesticides in relation to its

  17. Pesticides and oil and grease in selected streams and lakes in northeastern Louisiana, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Benton D.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-month study was begun in April 2001 to determine the concentrations of pesticides or oil and grease in selected stream reaches and lakes within the Ouachita, Tensas, and Black River Basins in northeastern Louisiana. During April through September 2001, six monthly water samples for analysis of pesticides were collected from 22 sites: 17 sites were on 11 streams, and 5 sites were on 5 lakes. During Apirl through July 2001, four monthly samples for analysis of oil and grease were collected from 5 sites: 4 sites were on three streams, and 1 site was on a lake. A total of 131 water samples were analyzed for 17 pesticides (15 insecticides and 2 herbicides). The following classes of pesticides, as classified from the Pesticide Analysis (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6 Laboratory), are reported: organochlorine, nitrogen-phosphorus, and carbamate. The 8 pesticides detected in samples, in decreasing frequency, were as follow: atrazine, molinate, methyl parathion, 4,4'-DDT, carbofuran, diazinon, toxaphene, and 4,4'DDE. Organochlorine pesticides (insecticides) represented the majority (12 out of 17) of the pesticides analyzed. Of those 12 organochlorine pesticides, only 3 (4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, and toxaphene) were detected in the 131 samples. Of the organochlorine pesticides, 4,4'-DDT was detected most frequently (in 11 percent of the samples), and concentrations ranged from 1.22 to 4.70 ng/L (nanograms per liter). Nitrogen-phosphorus pesticides were the most frequently detected and abundant pesticides. Of all the pesticides analyzed, atrazine and molinate (nitrogen-phosphorus herbicides) were the pesticides most frequently detected (in 93 and 21 percent of the samples), had the highest and most wide-ranging concentrations (10.8 to 15,100 ng/L and 10.0 to 11,600 ng/L), and were most widely distributed throughout the study area. Carbofuran, a carbamate insecticide, was detected at 8 of the 22 pesticide data-collection sites and in 9.2 percent of the 131 samples

  18. Assessing the potential for pesticide leaching for the pine forest areas of Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Diaz, R; Loague, K

    2001-09-01

    Currently, no guidelines cover use of pesticides in the forested areas of the Canary island of Tenerife. An index-based model (Li) was used to rank the leaching potential of 50 pesticides that are, or could be, used for management purposes in the pine forest areas of Tenerife. Once the pesticides with the greatest leaching potential were identified, regional-scale groundwater vulnerability assessments, with consideration for data uncertainties, were generated using soil, climatic, and chemical information in a geographic information system framework for all pine forest areas of the island. Process-based simulations with the pesticide root zone model for the areas and pesticides of highest vulnerability were conducted to quantitatively characterize the leaching potentials. Carbofuran, hexazinone, picloram, tebuthiuron, and triclopyr were each identified as being potential leachers.

  19. Analysis of 10 systemic pesticide residues in various baby foods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Angel; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Goudah, Ayman; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Do, Jung-Ah; Choi, Ok-Ja; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-06-01

    Ten systemic pesticides, comprising methomyl, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, carbofuran, fosthiazate, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, diethofencarb, propiconazole, and difenoconazole, were detected in 13 baby foods (cereals, boiled potatoes, fruit and milk) using QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) for sample preparation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for analysis. The matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity with determination coefficients (R(2) ) >0.992. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.0015-0.003 and 0.005-0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of three different concentrations ranged from 69.2 to 127.1% with relative standard deviations pesticide residues. This method is suitable for the identification and quantification of systemic pesticides with matrix-matched standards in various baby foods. PMID:24861738

  20. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Controlled release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a two weeks mission from 2 to 15 April 1991, and continued it from the 9 to 22 November 1991 at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of the National Atomic Energy Agency, BATAN in Jakarta. Expert discussed the project and carried out experiments together with the staff of the center, introducing shellac (description in part II) as a candidate for controlled release formulations. Formulations of carbofuran, butachlor, 2,4-D and diazinon were carried out, using sand and cocconut shells as carriers. Release rates of a.i. into water have been checked and further work has been discussed. Expert assessed further needs for supply of instruments, accessories and chemicals. (author)

  1. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase source from fish, Tor tambroides for detection of carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan; Shamaan, Nor Aripin; Abd Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Jirangon, Hussain; Khalid, Ariff; Syed, Mohd Arif

    2016-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the brain tissue of local freshwater fish, Tor tambroides was isolated through affinity purification. Acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCi) was preferable synthetic substrate to purified AChE with highest maximal velocity (V(max)) and lowest biomolecular constant (K(m)) at 113.60 Umg(-1) and 0.0689 mM, respectively, with highest catalytic efficiency ratio (V(max)/K(m)) of 1648.77. The optimum pH was 7.5 with sodium phosphate buffer as medium, while optimal temperature was in the range of 25 to 35 degrees C. Bendiocarp, carbofuran, carbaryl, methomyl and propoxur significantly lowered the AChE activity greater than 50%, and the IC50 value was estimated at inhibitor concentration of 0.0758, 0.0643, 0.0555, 0.0817 and 0.0538 ppm, respectively. PMID:27498490

  2. Comparative efficacy of a red alga solieria robusta, chemical fertilizers and pesticides in managing the root diseases and growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of seaweed as soil amendment for the control of soil borne plant diseases has increased in recent years due to their environment friendly role. In screen house study, a red seaweed Solieria robusta used as soil amendment showed better suppressive effect on root rotting fungus Fusarium solani than Topsin-M, a fungicide, but was found less effective than Topsin-M against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani on soybean. Solieria robusta showed similar suppressive effect on root knot nematode as did carbofuran, a nematicide. Seaweed showed slightly better effect on plant growth than urea or potash by producing taller plants, better root length and number of flowers per plant. However, mixed application of S.robusta and Topsin-M produced greater number of flowers per plant and tallest plants. (author)

  3. 糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物的残留测定%Determination on Residues of Carbosulfan and Its Metabolites in Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 贺敏; 余苹中; 贾春虹; 赵尔成; 朱晓丹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to monitor and estimate the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycar-bofuran in brown rice. [ Method] A method was established for the simultaneous determination of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in brown rice by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) purification and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. The tested pesticides components to be measured in the samples were extracted by using the mixed solvent of ethyl-acetate and cyclohexane (1:1,V/V), purified by GPC and neutral Al2O, solid phase extraction (SPE) , and finally detected by GC-MS. [Result]The lowest limit of detection ( LOD) was 2.0 × 10-11 g for carbosulfan and carbofuran and 1.0 × 10 -l0 g for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. The lowest quantification limit was 0. 1 mg/kg for three compounds. The average recovery of each components was 77.8% -94.6% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.86% -6.58%. [ Conclusion] The sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the GPC purification and GC-MS detection method for determining the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in brown rice ave all accord with the demands of the pesticide residue analysis, and it is suitable to detect the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites in brown rice.%[目的]监测与评价糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物克百威、3-羟基克百威的残留量.[方法]建立凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)净化、气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)同时测定糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物克百威、3-羟基克百威残留的方法.样品中的待测农药组分采用环己烷-乙酸乙酯(1∶1,V/V)提取,GPC和中性氧化铝(Al2O3)小柱净化,GC-MS测定.[结果]丁硫克百威和克百威的最低检测量均为2.0×10-11g,3-羟基克百威为1.0×10-10g;最低检出质量分数均为0.1 mg/kg,各组分的添加回收率为77.8% ~94.6%,变异系数为3.86%-6.58%.[结论]

  4. Resíduos de pesticidas em águas superficiais de área de nascente do Rio São Lourenço-MT: validação de método por extração em fase sólida e cromatografia líquida Pesticide residues in surface waters at the headwaters of São Lourenço River-MT, Brazil: validation of a method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Araújo Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method using HPLC/DAD for the determination of fourteen pesticides in water based on SPE, using SDVB (styrene divynilbenzene copolymer as adsorbent was validated. Recoveries from 61 to 120%, relative standard deviation between 2 and 15% and detection limits from 0.07 to 0.75 µg L-1 were obtained. It was applied to 66 surface water samples collected in a degraded area at the headwaters of São Lourenço river, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Eight pesticides were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 35.25 µg L-1. Considering ecotoxicological data, carbendazim and carbofuran may represent a risk to aquatic organisms. These results draw attention to the contamination of this vulnerable degraded area.

  5. Resíduos de pesticidas em águas superficiais de área de nascente do Rio São Lourenço-MT: validação de método por extração em fase sólida e cromatografia líquida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Araújo Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method using HPLC/DAD for the determination of fourteen pesticides in water based on SPE, using SDVB (styrene divynilbenzene copolymer as adsorbent was validated. Recoveries from 61 to 120%, relative standard deviation between 2 and 15% and detection limits from 0.07 to 0.75 µg L-1 were obtained. It was applied to 66 surface water samples collected in a degraded area at the headwaters of São Lourenço river, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Eight pesticides were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 35.25 µg L-1. Considering ecotoxicological data, carbendazim and carbofuran may represent a risk to aquatic organisms. These results draw attention to the contamination of this vulnerable degraded area.

  6. Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

  7. 几种农药在印度禁用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱文娟

    2011-01-01

    印度南部的喀拉拉邦州在5月禁用了几种农药并建立委员会讨论其替代品,同时草拟了修改的作物管理方案,印度报纸The Hindu报道。被禁农药包括:杀虫剂卡巴呋喃(carbofuran)、甲基内吸磷(deme-ton-S-methy)l、久效磷(monocrotophos)、甲基对硫磷(parathion-methy)l、甲拌磷(phorate)、丙溴磷(profenofos)和三唑磷(triazophos),杀菌剂克瘟散(edifenphos)、

  8. Monitoramento de agrotóxicos em dois mananciais hídricos no sul do Brasil Monitoring of pesticides in two water sources in southern Brazil

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    Douglas D. Grützmacher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, avaliar e monitorar a presença de agrotóxicos nas águas do canal São Gonçalo e do rio Piratini, localizados na região sul do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Durante o cultivo do arroz irrigado foram coletadas, em cinco datas diferentes, três amostras de água do rio Piratini e quatro do canal São Gonçalo. A metodologia empregada na análise dos resíduos de quinclorac, carbofuran e clomazone, foi a Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência com Detecção por Arranjo de Diodos (HPLC-DAD e, para os resíduos de fipronil e betaciflutrina, a Cromatografia Gasosa com Detecção por Captura de Elétrons (GC-ECD. Os resultados mostraram que da semeadura à colheita a quantidade de resíduos de agrotóxicos na água diminuiu; observou-se também que no ponto mais baixo (Laranjal, maior número de análises de águas com resíduos foi detectado (onze análises com resíduo de agrotóxico. O inseticida carbofuran e o herbicida quinclorac foram os produtos que apresentaram resíduos com maior freqüência (16 e 15, respectivamente enquanto o clomazone e o fipronil indicaram sete amostras com resíduos cada uma e a betaciflutrina não foi detectada em nenhum local.The objective of this study was to evaluate and to monitor the presence of pesticides in the waters of the São Gonçalo channel and the Piratini river located in the southern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. During the rice growing season, water samples were collected five times, three samples from the river Piratini and four from the São Gonçalo canal. The methodology used for the analysis of residues of quinclorac, carbofuran and clomazone was the High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD and for residues of the pesticides fipronil and betacyfluthrin, the Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD was used. Results show that from sowing to harvesting the quantity of pesticide residues in water

  9. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

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    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  10. 徐州市葡萄主产区表层土壤和葡萄中农药残留特征与评价%Characteristics and evaluation of pesticide residues in surface soils and grapes from main grape-producing areas of Xuzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强承魁; 凤舞剑; 胡长效; 王胜永; 周保亚; 王松松; 秦越华

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of pesticide residues in soils and grapes from 3 areas (TSMC, FXSL and SNGZ) of Xuzhou city were studied. The pesticide residues were detected, and the security indexes were analyzed. The results showed that cypermethrin, carbofuran, flusilazole and metalaxyl were detected in TSMC and SNGZ surface soils, but carbofuran was not found in FXSL surface soil. The average detection rates of cypermthrin, metalaxyl, flusilzaole and carbofuran were 100% , 95. 83% , 62. 63% and 45. 70%. Cypermethrin, aldicarb sulfone and carbofurn were detected in TSMC grape, but carbofuran was not found in grapes from the other two areas. The average detection rates of cypermthrin, aldicarb sulfone and carbofurn from different producing areas were 100% , 50% and 20% . IFS andIFS of pesticide residues in grapes from 3 producing areas were less than 1. It was suggested that there were some differences in the detection rates of pesticide residues in surface soils and grapes from 3 grape-producing areas, and the levels of pesticide residues in surface soils could meet the first grade standard of GB 15618 - 1995. Pesticide residues in grapes from 3 producing areas all exceeded the requirement of the standard.%为了解徐州市葡萄主产区土壤和葡萄中农药残留特征,采集3个产区TSMC,FXSL和SNGZ表层土壤和葡萄进行305种农药残留检测,并分析其安全指数.结果表明,TSMC和SNGZ产区表层土壤中均检出氯氰菊酯、克百威、氟硅唑和甲霜灵,而FXSL未检出克百威,3个产区农药残留平均检出率依次为氯氰菊酯(100%)、甲霜灵(95.83%)、氟硅唑(62.63%)和克百威(45.70%);TSMC产区葡萄中检出氯氰菊酯、涕灭威砜和克百威,而另2个产区均未检出克百威,3个产区葡萄中农药残留平均检出率以氯氰菊酯最高(100%),其后分别为涕灭威砜(50%)和克百威(20%);各产区葡萄中农药残留的IFS和均小于1.由此可见,徐州市不同葡萄产区表层土壤

  11. 一起克百威中毒事故的调查报告%Report on a Ke Bai Wei poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向阳

    2003-01-01

    @@ 克百威(carbofuran)属氨基甲酸酯类农药,别名呋喃丹、卡巴呋喃,常用作杀虫、杀螨和杀线虫;纯品为白色晶体,具有轻微芳香气味;水中溶解度为700mg/L(25℃),经口毒性属剧毒类,经皮毒性属中等毒类;国外农药厂剂型加工者曾发生过3例中毒,表现为大量出汗、乏力、视力模糊和恶心.

  12. Evaluación biológica del manejo de picudos y nematodos fitopatógenos en plátano (Musa AAB Biological evaluation of the management of borers and phytopathogenic nematodes of plantain (Musa AAB

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    Carolina González Cardona

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la granja Montelindo, municipio de Palestina (Caldas a 5° 05' N y 75° 40' O, a 1010 m.s.n.m., 23.5 °C, precipitación anual de 2100 mm y humedad relativa de 76%, con el fin de generar información sobre el manejo de picudos y nematodos fitoparásitos del plátano. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos por bloque, tres repeticiones y 24 plantas por repetición. Para el manejo de los picudos se hicieron aplicaciones de Carbofurán, Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae en trampas tipo columna. Para el control de nematodos se hicieron aplicaciones en el suelo de Carbofurán y dos cepas comerciales de Paecilomyces lilacinus. Se evaluaron el número de adultos de picudos en trampas, la infección de estos por los hongos empleados y la población de nematodos en suelo y raíces. Se encontró que las trampas tratadas con Carbofurán fueron significativamente más efectivas para la captura de insectos. En laboratorio se estableció que M. anisopliae tuvo una mejor capacidad para infectar adultos del insecto en el campo. La población de nematodos fue menor en suelo y raíces de las plantas tratadas con Carbofurán. Paecilomyces lilacinus no fue efectivo para reducir las poblaciones de nematodos. Los géneros de nematodos predominantes fueron Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne y Helicotylenchus.This work was carried out at the ‘Montelindo’ farm, municipality of Palestina (Department of Caldas, Colombia, located at 5° 05' N and 75° 40' W, at 1010 m.a.s.l., 23.5 °C, with 2100 mm of annual rainfall, and relative humidity of 76%, in order to generate information on the management of borers and parasitic nematodes of the plantain. A completely randomised block experimental design was used, with four treatments per block, three replicates and 24 plants per replicate. For the management of borers, applications of Carbofuran, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were made

  13. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

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    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  14. Evaluación de Varios Insecticidas para el Control del Cephaloleiaspcerca avagelineataPic, Plaga de la Palma Africana

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    Urueta Sandino Eduardo

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se efectuaron varios ensayos para determinar el efecto de carbofuran 1.0, 1.5 y 2. 0 kg I. A./ha; carbaril 1.5 y 2. 0 kg I. A. /ha; lindano 1.0 y 1.5 kg I. A. /ha; diazinon 0.5 lt I. A./ha; dicrotofos 0. 5 lt I. A. /ha; fosfamidon 0.6 lt. I. A/ha; y fention 0.5 lt I. A./ha, sobre adultos y larvas de Cephaloleiasp. cerca avagelineataPic., una plaga de la palma africana en Colombia. Todos los insecticidas fueron efectivos para controlar larvas de Cephaloleiasp. en cogollos, hasta por periodos de más de 30 días. El carbofuran 2.0 kg I. A./ha carbaril 2.0 kg l . A./ha y lindano 1. 5 kg I.A. /hafueron los productos más eficientes para controlar adultos de Cephaloleia. sp. protegiendo por 15 días las hojas más jóvenes. Dicrotofos 0.5 lt I. A./ha; diazinon0.5 lt l. A./ha; fention 0.5 itI. A./ha y fosfamidon 0.6 lt I. A/ha, aparentemente no fueron efectivos para controlar las formas adultas de Cephaloleiasp. Ninguno de los insecticidas fue fitotóxico para la palma africana. /Abstract. Several tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of carbofuran 1. 0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg A.I./ha; carbaryl 1.5, 2.0 kg. A.I./ha; lindane 1.0, 1.5 kg. A.I./ha; phosphamidon 0.6 lt. A.I./ha; fenthion 0.5 lt. A.I./ha; dicrotophos 0.5 lt. A.I /ha; diazinon 0.5 lt. A.I./ha on larvae and adults of Cephaloleia. sp. near vagelineata Pic a Chrysomelidae that affects young oil palm (Elaeisguineensis leaves in Colombia. All of these insecticides controlled well Cepbaloleia sp. larvae for periods over a month. carbofuran 2 kg. A.I./ha; carbaryl 2kg. A.I./ha and lindane 1.5 kg. A. I./ha gave the best control of Cephaloleia. sp. adults, protecting young oil palm leaves up to 15 days. Dicrotophos 0.5 lts. A.I./ha; fenthion 0.5 lt. A. I./ha; phosphamidon 0.6 lt. A.I./ha; diazinon 0.5 lt. A.I./ha; apparently were not effective to control adults of Cephaloleia sp. None of the insecticides tested showed to be phytotoxic to the oil palm.

  15. 饮用水中氨基甲酸酯农药的高效SPE提取与高灵敏度HPLC分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waters公司北京实验室

    2003-01-01

    @@ 用于饮用水中克百威(Carbofuran)及草肟威(Oxamyl)分析的EPA Method 531.2于2002年11月29日正式生效.该方法在Waters专为氨基甲酸酯农药优化的Alliance HPLC系统上完成方法开发与验证.新修订的方法对农药分析有更严格的灵敏度要求.为实现更低检测限的目标,EPA需要使用配有柱后衍生及荧光检测装置的HPLC系统.

  16. Fenugreek hydrogel-agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2015-07-30

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel-agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10-20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel-agarose-acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. PMID:26320646

  17. Determination of pesticides in coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water and pulp using modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; Talamini, Viviane; Facco, Janice de Fátima; Rizzetti, Tiele Medianeira; Prestes, Osmar Damian; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan

    2016-12-15

    The use of pesticides is directly linked to improvements in productivity and to the preservation of coconut palms. However pesticide analysis is necessary to determine whether pesticide residues in the food products containing coconut are within the maximum residue limits (MRLs), ensuring the quality of these products. This work aimed to develop a method for multiresidue determination of ten pesticides in coconut water and pulp using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The method was effective in terms of selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, providing LOD of 3μgkg(-1), LOQ of 10μgkg(-1) and recoveries between 70 and 120% with RSD lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to 36 samples in which residues of carbendazim, carbofuran, cyproconazole and thiabendazole were found below the LOQ in coconut water and pulp. PMID:27451226

  18. Native isolate of Trichoderma: a biocontrol agent with unique stress tolerance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, N; Khan, S S; Sundari, S Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Species of Trichoderma are widely recognized for their biocontrol abilities, but seldom studied collectively, for their plant growth promotion, abiotic stress tolerance and bioremediation properties. Our study is a concentrated effort to establish the potential of native isolate Trichoderma harzianum KSNM (T103) to tolerate biotic (root pathogens) and abiotic stresses [high salt (100-1000 mM); heavy metal (chromium, nickel and zinc: 1-10 mM); pesticides: malathion (100-600 ppm), carbofuran (100-600 ppb)], along with its ability to support plant growth. In vitro growth promotion assays with T103 treated Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo and Hordeum vulgare confirmed 'non-species specific' growth promotion effects of T103. At lower metal concentration, T103 treatment was found to completely negate the impact of metal stress [60 % increase in radicle length (RL) with no significant decrease in %germination (%G)]. Even at 10 mM metal, T103 inoculation gave 80 % increase in %G and >50 % increase in RL. In vitro experiments confirmed high metal reduction capacity (47 %-Cr, 35 %-Ni and 42 %-Zn) of T103 at concentrations as high as 4 mM. At maximum residual concentrations of malathion (440 ppm) and carbofuran (100 ppb) reported in agricultural soils, T103 maintained 80 and 100 % survivability, respectively. T103 treatment has improved %G and RL in all three hosts challenged with pesticide. Isolate T103 was found to effectively suppress growth of three major root pathogens: Macrophomina phaseolina (65.83 %) followed by Sclerotium rolfsii (19.33 %) and Fusarium oxysporum (19.18 %). In the light of these observations, native T. harzianum (T103) seems to be a competent biocontrol agent for tropical agricultural soils contaminated with residual pesticides and heavy metals. PMID:27339311

  19. Efeito do controle de nematóides na qualidade da fibra do algodoeiro Effect of nematode control on fiber properties of upland cotton

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    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.

  20. Evaluation of carbamate insecticides as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer

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    Mohd. Amanullah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer chemotherapy has already been in practice by the use of toxins and some of the specific poisonous compounds of cyanide derivatives. Carbamate insecticides inhibit cellular metabolism including energy, protein, and nucleic acid metabolism, thereby, causing cell regression and death. Aim: Preliminary evaluation of three carbamate insecticides, namely, baygon, carbaryl, and carbofuran as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer is undertaken in the present study. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of carbamates on squamous cell carcinoma was assessed in-vitro using dye binding tests. Cells were grown in microtitration ELISA plates, as adherent cultures, for six hours, and then exposed to the drugs for 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours, and finally stained with neutral red, to assess the viable cell number, and with methylene blue for the determination of protein in the monolayer. Optical density was read in an ELISA reader. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained during the experiment was subjected to statistical analysis by using the student ′t′ test. Results: The results indicated that the percentage of the viable cell number reduced with an increase in the time of exposure of the drugs. Exposure of the tumor cells to the drugs for 12 hours detached them completely from the wells, and hence, all the cells were washed out. Exposure of the drugs prior to the establishment of the culture in-vitro resulted in the non-formation of the monolayer in the wells. Conclusions: Among the three drugs studied, the survival percent was least with carbaryl treatment followed by baygon, and with carbofuran treatment it was almost near to control group.

  1. Determination of Seven Carbamates Residues in Vegetable by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定蔬菜中7种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王缇; 万妮

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish an analysis method of carbamates residues. [ Method] The residues of aldiearb sulfone, alrli-carb sulfoxide, methomy), 3-hydroxy-carbofuran, aldiearb, carbofuran and carbryl in vegetable were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detector and post-column derivation, furthermore the fortified recoveries of seven carbamates in vegetable at 0.05, 0.10 and 0. 50 mg/kg were determined. [ Result] The recoveries of seven carbamates in vegetable ranged from 74.6% to 107. 6% , and the precision was less than 10%. [ Conclusion] The method is suitable for the determination of carbamates residues in Chinese cabbage, cucumber, tomato, pepper and celery.%[目的]建立一种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留分析方法.[方法]对市场上蔬菜随机抽样,采用配荧光检测器和柱后衍生系统的高效液相色谱议测定了蔬菜中涕灭威砜、涕灭威亚砜、灭多威、3-羟基克百威、涕灭威、克百威、甲萘威7种氨基甲酸酯类农药的多残留,对每种农药进行了3种不同浓度(0.05、0.10、0.50 mg/kg)的添加回收率试验.[结果]蔬菜中7种农药的回收率在74.6% ~ 107.6%,精密度在10%以内.[结论]该方法可用于大白菜、黄瓜、番茄、辣椒、芹菜等样品中氨基甲酸酯类农药残留分析.

  2. TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM INSETICIDA E A QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIAN GOMES DE MORAES DAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment with insecticides is a routine practice that helps control initial field pests. However there is little information on the effects of insecticides on physiological quality of soybean seeds. Thus, this paper was to evaluate the effect of seed treatment with insecticides on the germination and vigor of soybean seeds. The design was completely randomized consisting of 7 treatments with 4 repetitions. The seeds of the cv. M-soy-6101 were treated with the insecticide thiamethoxam on the rate of 0.15 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds, fipronil in the rate of 0.37 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds, imidacloprido in the rate of 0,10 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds; [thiodicarb + imidacloprid] at a rates of 0.14 + 0.13 kg of a.i./ha-1, carbofuran of rate 0.52 kg of a.i./100 kg of seeds, acephate at a rate of 0.75 kg of i.a./100 kg of seeds and a control without treatment. The variables analyzed were: germination, emergence speed, root length and seedling and percentage of normal seedlings in the accelerated aging. In the greenhouse (pot of 6 dm-3 of soil were obtained levels of phytotoxicity, height and dry mass of shoots. Treatment with insecticides thiamethoxam, fipronil and imidacloprid provides adequate quality of the seeds and do not negatively affect the early development of plants. Insecticides [imidacloprid + thiodicarb], acephate and carbofuran affect the germination and vigor of soybean seeds.

  3. Bioactivity of 17 Species of Chemical Against the Adult of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus%17种农药对稻水象甲成虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于凤泉; 田春晖; 李志强; 邵凌云; 孙富余

    2013-01-01

    The results of 17 insecticides were investigted for toxicity test to water weevil adults in the laboratory with dipping-insect method showed that the sequences of bioactivities according to LC50 after 24 hours were carbofuran, cartap, phoxim, fipronil, quinalphos, carbosulfan, profenofos, bisultap, ethofenprox, triazophos, fen-propathrin, monosultap, osthole, dichlorovos, sumithion, dimethoate, malathion; after 48 hours were fipronil, carbofuran , cartap, phoxim, quinalphos, carbosulfan, profenofos, bisultap, ethofenprox, fenpropathrin, triazophos, monosultap, sumithion, osthole, dichlorovos, dimethoate, malathion.%试验利用17种药剂,采用浸虫法对稻水象甲成虫进行了室内毒力测定.结果表明:17种药剂对稻水象甲成虫24 h的毒力大小顺序为克百威>巴丹>辛硫磷>氟虫腈>喹硫磷>丁硫克百威>丙溴磷>杀虫双>醚菊酯>三唑磷>甲氰菊酯>杀虫单>蛇床子素>敌敌畏>杀螟硫磷>乐果>马拉硫磷;17种药剂对稻水象甲成虫48 h的毒力大小顺序为氟虫腈>克百威>巴丹>辛硫磷>喹硫磷>丁硫克百威>丙溴磷>杀虫双>醚菊酯>甲氰菊酯>三唑磷>杀虫单>杀螟硫磷>蛇床子素>敌敌畏>乐果>马拉硫磷.

  4. 酶试剂法快速检测常用农药残留的比较研究%Comparative Study on Enzyme Reagent Method for Rapid Detection of Common Pesticide Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易涛; 赵明明; 路磊; 丁华; 周有祥; 李书谦

    2012-01-01

    根据果蔬中农药残留检出的实际情况,采用市场上的3个商品化农残酶速测试剂盒对常见农药(水胺硫磷、敌敌畏、呋喃丹、毒死蜱、三唑磷、灭多威、氯氟氰菊酯、甲氰菊酯、百菌清、腐霉利和三唑酮)进行了灵敏度试验.结果表明,酶试剂对腐霉利、氯氟氰菊酯、甲氰菊酯、百菌清、三唑酮5种农药无抑制反应或灵敏度较差,而对其余6种农药的反应较为灵敏,其灵敏度依次为敌敌畏、呋喃丹、三唑磷、毒死蜱、水胺硫磷和灭多威.%The common residue of pesticides in fruits and vegetables, including isocarbophos, dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlor-pyrifos, triazophos, methomyl, cyhalothrin, fenpropathrin, chlorothalonil, procymidone and triazolone, were analyzed by the 3 commercial enzyme inhibition kits with the pesticide residue rapid analyzer The results showed that any enzyme reagent inhibition kit was not sensitive to procymidone, cyhalothrin, fenpropathrin, chlorothalonil and triazolone, it was only sensitive to six pesticides, the sensitivity to the six pesticides in order was dichlorvos, carbofuran, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos and methomyl.

  5. Primary study on SP1308 GR controlling and management of sugarcane borers%SP1308颗粒剂防治甘蔗螟虫药效试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍荣冬; 李廷化; 韦金凡; 雷崇华; 谭彩丽; 余凤良

    2015-01-01

    In order to define the effect of SP1308 granules controlling and management of sugarcane borers, arrange the field effective test of controlling sugarcane borer by different dosages of SP1308 GR, and com-pared with the results of group applying with 3%Carbofuran and blank control group.The results show that, after 70 days, the rate of control effect were 80.8%,87.0%,87.7%by 45,60,75kg/hm 2 at respectively,which significantly higher than that control effect of 3%Carbofuran at 60kg/hm 2. These suggest that SP1308 GR be better as alternative pesticide on controlling sugarcane borers, and the feasible dose is 45kg/hm 2.%为了明确SP1308颗粒剂对甘蔗螟虫的防治效果,以3%呋喃丹和空白为对照,进行不同剂量SP1308颗粒剂防治甘蔗螟虫药效试验.试验结果表明,药后70d,SP1308颗粒剂45kg/hm2、60kg/hm2、75kg/hm2处理对甘蔗螟虫的防治效果分别为80.8%、87.0%、87.4%,显著高于呋喃丹60kg/hm2的防治效果.SP1308颗粒剂可作为甘蔗螟虫防治中的替代用药,田间使用量以45kg/hm2为宜.

  6. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water. PMID:19700165

  7. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type). PMID:19779926

  8. Characterization of plasma cholinesterase from the White stork (Ciconia ciconia) and its in vitro inhibition by anticholinesterase pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Gravato, Carlos; Sánchez, Susana; Soler, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Blood plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity is a sensitive biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides in vertebrates. Several studies indicate that more than one ChE form may be present in blood of birds. In this study the predominant ChE activity (acetylcholinesterase - AChE- or butyrylcholinesterase - BChE-), the range of ChE activity as well as ChE age-dependent changes in non-exposed individuals of White stork (Ciconia ciconia) have been established. The in vitro sensitivity of ChE to OP and CB insecticides such as paraoxon-methyl, carbofuran and carbaryl was also investigated. Plasma ChE was characterised using three substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide, and S-butyrylthiocholine iodide) and three ChE inhibitors (eserine sulphate, BW284C51 and iso-OMPA). The results indicated that propionylthiocholine was the preferred substrate by plasma cholinesterase followed by acetylcholine and butyrylcholine and the predominant enzymatic activity in plasma of White storks was BChE. Normal plasma BChE activity in White stork was 0.32±0.01μmol/min/ml for adults and 0.28±0.03μmol/min/ml for juveniles. So, the age had no significant effect on the range of BChE activity. The study on the in vitro inhibitory potential of tested anticholinesterase pesticides on plasma ChE activity revealed that paraoxon-methyl is the most potent inhibitor followed by carbofuran and finally by carbaryl. The percentage of in vitro plasma ChE inhibition was observed to be similar between adults and juveniles.

  9. Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:26709293

  10. Analysis of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Control of Meloidogyne spp. in a Tobacco Pest Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortnum, B A; Johnson, A W; Lewis, S A

    2001-12-01

    1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) and nonfumigant nematicides were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne spp. and soil and foliar insects in a tobacco pest management system. In a field with a high Meloidogyne spp. population density (root gall index 4.0 to 4.5 on a 0 to 10 scale in untreated controls), tobacco yields and crop values increased (482 kg/ha and $1,784/ha for 1, 3-D; 326 kg/ha and $1,206/ha for fenamiphos; 252 kg/ha and $933/ha for ethoprop) with nematicide application over an untreated control. In fields with a low population density of Meloidogyne arenaria or M. incognita (root gall index 2.3 to 2.5 in untreated controls), yields ranged from 1,714 to 2,027 kg/ha and were not altered by fumigant or nonfumigant nematicide application. Carbofuran, a soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticide, reduced the number of foliar insecticide applications required to keep insect populations below treatment threshold (3.8 vs. 4.5, respectively, for treated vs. untreated). Carbofuran reduced the cost ($23/ha) of foliar insecticide treatments when compared to an untreated control. Although nonfumigant nematicides provided some soil and foliar insect control, the cost of using a fumigant plus a lower insecticidal rate of a soil insecticide/nematicide was comparable to the least expensive non-fumigant nematicide when the cost of foliar insecticide applications was included in the cost estimates. Savings in foliar insecticide cost by use of soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticides were small ($23/ha) in comparison to potential value reductions by root-knot nematodes when the nonfumigant nematicides fenamiphos or ethoprop ($578/ha and $851/ha, respectively) were used instead of 1,3-D.

  11. Comparative effect of pesticides on brain acetylcholinesterase in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Carvalho, Elba Veronica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2012-12-15

    Monitoring of pesticides based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition in vitro avoids interference of detoxification defenses and bioactivation of some of those compounds in non-target tissues. Moreover, environmental temperature, age and stress are able to affect specific enzyme activities when performing in vivo studies. Few comparative studies have investigated the inter-specific differences in AChE activity in fish. Screening studies allow choosing the suitable species as source of AChE to detect pesticides in a given situation. Brain AChE from the tropical fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized and their activities were assayed in the presence of pesticides (the organophosphates: dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, temephos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate- TEPP and the carbamates: carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC₅₀ and Ki) for each species were found and compared with commercial AChE from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). Optimal pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 35-45 °C, respectively. A. gigas AChE retained 81% of the activity after incubation at 50 °C for 30 min. The electric eel enzyme was more sensitive to the compounds (mainly carbofuran, IC₅₀ of 5 nM), excepting the one from A. gigas (IC₅₀ of 9 nM) under TEPP inhibition. These results show comparable sensitivity between purified and non-purified enzymes suggesting them as biomarkers for organophosphorus and carbamate detection in routine environmental and food monitoring programs for pesticides.

  12. Toxicity of deltamethrin on Ditylenchus destructor and the effects on its locomotion and feeding behaviors%溴氰菊酯对马铃薯腐烂茎线虫的毒力及对其运动和摄食的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大帆; 丁中; 刘建喜; 袁涛; 彭德良; 黄文坤

    2016-01-01

    Effects of deltamethrin on the mortality, locomotion and feeding behaviors of Ditylenchus destructor were investigated by dipping method, sand column method and incubating fluorescent Cy3 method, using profenofos, carbofuran and abamectin as control. The results showed that deltamethrin had moderate nematicidal activity against D. destructor, with LC50 value of 459.8 mg/L, while the LC50 values of profenofos, carbofuran and abamectin to D. destructor were 159.9, 331.9 and 257.3 mg/L, respectively. Deltamethrin also showed better inhibitive activity on the locomotion of D. destructor, with IC50 value of 3.1 mg/L, which was higher than that of profenofos (8.3 mg/L) and carbofuran (16.1 mg/L), but lower than that of abamectin (0.8 mg/L). In the case of feeding, the minimal concentration of profenofos that stimulated more than 90% nematode intake of Cy3 was 0.6 mg/L, and that of carbofuran was 40 mg/L. The minimal concentration of profenofos that inhibited all of the nematode intake of Cy3 was 360 mg/L, and that of carbofuran was 300 mg/L. Deltamethrin and abamectin could not stimulate the feeding of D. destructor. After exposure to 10 mg/L profenofos for 2 h, abamectin and deltamethrin could inhibit all of nematodes intake of Cy3 at 20 and 200 mg/L, respectively. The results indicated that deltamethrin have the potential in the control of D. destructor.%采用药液浸渍法、沙柱法以及与荧光染料 Cy3共孵育的方法,以丙溴磷、克百威和阿维菌素为对照药剂,测定了溴氰菊酯对马铃薯腐烂茎线虫 Ditylenchus destructor 的毒力以及对其运动扩散和摄食的影响。结果表明:溴氰菊酯对马铃薯腐烂茎线虫具有一定的杀灭活性,其LC50值为459.8 mg/L,活性低于丙溴磷(159.9 mg/L)、克百威(331.9 mg/L)和阿维菌素(257.3 mg/L);溴氰菊酯对马铃薯腐烂茎线虫运动扩散的抑制作用 IC50值为3.1 mg/L,其活性低于阿维菌素(0.8 mg/L),但高于丙溴磷(8.3 mg

  13. Study on A Highly Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Cabofuran%对克百威具高度特异性的免疫分析技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曙照; 冯大和; 陈美娟; 钱传范

    2000-01-01

    A hapten (CBFHI)preserving the carbamate group was synthesized and covalently conjugated to carrier proteins by the method of modified active ester to prepare synthetic antigens in which the structure of carbofuran was protruded. The antiserum with high affinity to carbofuran was obtained from New Zealand white rabbits by using synthetic antigen as immunogen. The polyclonal antibodies were separated from antiserum by salting out method and purified by reversed phase adsorption of DEAE-eellulose. The horseradish peroxidase(HRP) tagged antibody was prepared by means of modified NaIO4 method and the HRP tagged hapten was prepared by means of mixed anhydride method. Based on these, the indirect competitive ELISA, antibody or Twenty-two points, plus triple-word-score, plus fifty points for using antigen-coated direct competitive ELISAs, which are highly specific to carbofuron, were established. With optimized conditions of ELISA, the linear concentrations ranged from 10°~10-4 μg/mL and the detection limit was lower than 0. 01ng/mL for the determination of carbofuran. Some common used carbamate insecticides and BFOH didn't interfere with the analysis of carbofuron.%合成了保留氨基甲酸酯结构的克百威半抗原,并采用活性酯法与载体蛋白质共价连接制备突出克百威分子结构特征的合成抗原。以合成抗原免疫新西兰白兔获得对克百威具高亲合力的抗血清,采用硫酸铵盐析和DEAE纤维素反相吸附法分离和纯化抗体。以辣根过氧化物酶采用改良的过碘酸钠法标记抗体、混合酸酐法标记半抗原。在此基础上分别建立了对克百威具高度特异性的间接竞争,包被抗原、包被抗体直接竞争酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)法。在优化条件下,克百威测定的线性浓度范围为10°~10-4μg/mL,检测限≤0.01 ng/mL,其他常用氨基甲酸酯类杀虫剂和呋喃酚不干扰克百威的测定。

  14. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência na cultura de cana-de-açúcar tratada com nematicidas Selectivity of pre-emergence herbicides to sugarcane treated with nematicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Negrisoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a seletividade de herbicidas para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar quando aplicado em culturas tratadas com nematicidas. O experimento foi instalado em área pertencente à Usina São José, município de Borebi-SP, ano agrícola de 2000/01. A variedade de cana-de-açúcar utilizada foi a RB855113. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Cada parcela correspondeu a 27 linhas de 10,0 m, espaçadas em 1,0 m, sendo dividida em três subparcelas. As parcelas corresponderam aos tratamentos com os herbicidas, e as subparcelas, à aplicação ou não dos nematicidas carbofuran (2,10 kg ha-1 e terbufós 2,25 kg ha��. Os herbicidas testados foram: tebuthiuron (1,12 kg ha-1, ametryne (1,75 kg ha¹, sulfentrazone (0,8 kg ha-1, metribuzin (1,92 kg ha-1, isoxaflutole (0,0525 kg ha¹, clomazone (1,25 kg ha¹, oxyfluorfen (0,36 kg ha-1 e azafenidin+hexazinone (0,1575 + 0,2025 kg ha-1, sendo todos aplicados em pré-emergência, além de uma parcela como testemunha. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que os herbicidas oxyfluorfen e azafenidin+hexazinone causaram os maiores níveis de fitotoxicidade na cana-de-açúcar, independentemente do uso dos nematicidas carbofuran e terbufós. Os herbicidas tebuthiuron, ametryne, sulfentrazone, metribuzin, isoxaflutole, clomazone, oxyfluorfen e azafenidin+hexazinone, aplicados em doses representativas das comercialmente utilizadas, mostraram-se seletivos à cana-de-açúcar, não afetando seu crescimento, sua produtividade e suas características tecnológicas. Os nematicidas não interferiram nos níveis de intoxicação provocados pelos herbicidas utilizados na cultura.The objective of this work was to study the selectivity of herbicides to sugarcane when applied in crops treated with nematicides. The experiment was carried out in Borebi, São Paulo-Brazil, during the growing season 2000/2001. The sugar cane variety

  15. 反相高效液相色谱法测定有机氯及含氮杀虫剂在水体·土壤沉积物及鱼体中的残留%Determination of Organochlorine and Nitrogen Containing Pesticide Residues in Water, Sediments and Fish Samples by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Mahboob; Ghazala; S. Sultana; Muhammad Rafique Asi; S. Nadeem; A.S. Chaudhry

    2009-01-01

    With high performance liquid chromatography, the concentrations of α-endosulfan, DDE, parathion methyl, isoproturon, atrazine, carbaryl and carbofuran were determined in farmed raised fish Labeo rohita of two weight groups. All these pesticide residues were detected in fish meat samples. All these pesticide residues except isoproturon were identified in soil sediments, whereas all these pesticide residues except isoproturon, carbaryl and DDE were also present in water samples. DDT, heptachlor, β-endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, captan, cypermethrin, chlorobromuron and chlorotoluron were absent in all samples of water, sediments and fish flesh. The pesticide residues levels were in order of parathion methyl > DDE > carbofuran > atrazine > α-endosulfan>isoproturan>carbaryl. The concentrations of pesticides were higher in fish weighing 800-1 300 g than in those weighing 250-750 g. The DDE was remained highest in sediments, while that was not detected in water samples. The pesticides (endosulfan, parathion methyl, atrazine and carbofuran) had crossed their MRL values (0.001 μg/g) in water samples.%[目的]测定水体、土壤沉积物以及鱼体内有机氯及含氮杀虫剂残留物,为科学评估杀虫剂残留对巴基斯坦地区公共卫生、农业和环境的影响提供依据.[方法]以食用鱼南亚野鲮为材料,设计2组体重,采用高效液相色谱法分别测定水体、土壤沉积物以及南亚野鲮体内α-硫丹、DDE、甲基对硫磷、异丙隆、呋喃丹、阿特拉津等含量.[结果]土壤沉积物中DDE的含量达(2.340± 0.025)μg/g,在250~750 g的南亚野鲮体内的含量分别为(0.270 ± 0.000 6)μg/g,但在水体中未发现DDE残留;不同饲料中农药残留物90%为有机磷、呋喃丹以及有机氯杀虫剂,6%为杀菌剂,仅4%为除草剂,在250~750 g以及800~1 300 g的南亚野鲮体内硫丹的含量分别达到(0.491±0.000 6)μg/g和(3.050±0.060 8)μg/g,异丙隆的含量分别达到(0.010±0

  16. 药剂拌种处理对大麻病虫害的防治%Seed Dressing with Chemicals to Control Diseases and Pests of Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪友

    2012-01-01

    The method of controlling the diseases and pests of hemp by treating seeds with some fungicide and chemicals was studied comprehensively in this paper. Firstly, two combinations were selected, which performed better on the seedling emergence, survival seedlings rate, harvested plants, stalk and fiber yields, and cotrol efficiency. Secondly, a comparison experiment was made between the two combinations, the results showed that the combination of 10% metalaxyl, 48% mancozeb and 75% carbofuran per hectare could have effects by 71.4%, 80%, 75.0% and 583% respectively on controlling flea beetle, borer, stalk rot and botrytis cinerea accordingly, and the combination of 10% metalaxyl, 48% mancozeb and 75% carbofuran per hectare could have effects by 57.1%, 60.0%, 100% and 75.0% respectively on controlling the aboved diseases and pests.%本文研究了利用药剂拌种方法,对大麻病虫害进行综合防治.首先通过药剂筛选试验,选出对大麻出苗率、保苗率、收获株数提高和原茎、纤维增产及防病虫效果优异的药剂组合两个;然后再进行比较试验,对这两个药剂组合防治大麻病虫害效果进行研究.研究结果表明:每公顷用10%甲霜灵(0.75kg)+48%代森锰锌(0.9kg)+75%克百威(1.0kg)拌种,对大麻虫害跳甲、螟虫和病害茎腐病、灰霉病的防治效果分别达71.4%、80%和75.0%、58.3%;每公顷用15%多菌灵(1.0kg) +75%克百威(1.0kg)+10%福美双(1.2kg),对大麻虫害跳甲、螟虫和病害茎腐病、灰霉病的防治效果分别达57.1%、60.0%和100%、75.0%.

  17. Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah

    2015-02-01

    This 3 × 3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 μg/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 μg/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 μg/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 μg/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 μg/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 μg/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 μg/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 μg/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention

  18. Performance of a Batch System Hydrolic Press for Cocoa Butter Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  19. Uso de Bacillus subtilis no controle da meloidoginose e na promoção do crescimento do tomateiro Use of Bacillus subtilis in the control of root-knot nematode and the growth promotion in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o efeito de Bacillus subtilis (PRBS-1 como promotor de crescimento e agente de supressão de nematóides formadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. no cultivo do tomateiro. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de formulação contendo B. subtilis e o nematicida carbofuran. As plantas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação durante 85 dias, quando foram coletadas, sendo separada as raízes da parte aérea para avaliação do efeito dos tratamentos. A produção de massa fresca da parte aérea do tomate foi incrementada pelos tratamentos químico e biológico. A massa fresca de raízes foi reduzida com a aplicação de B. subtilis. O efeito do tratamento biológico sobre a reprodução do nematóide foi mais evidente pela redução de massas de ovos na raiz. O presente estudo indica que a estirpe PRBS-1 de B. subtilis promove o crescimento do tomateiro e reduz a reprodução de nematóide formador de galhas em raízes dessa planta, sob condições de casa de vegetação.The objective of this research was to evaluate the Bacillus subtilis (PRBS-1 effect as growth promoter and suppressor agent of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. in tomato cultivation. The treatments consisted in the application of B. subtilis formulation and of the nematicide carbofuran. The plants were maintained in greenhouse during 85 days, when the plants were colleted. Roots were separated from aerial part of the plants to evaluate the treatments effect. The fresh matter production by the aerial part increased either by the chemical or by the biological treatments. The fresh matter of the roots was reduced with application B. subtilis. The effect of the biological treatment on the nematode reproduction was more evident by the reduction of egg masses in the root. The present study indicates that the strain PRBS-1 of B. subtilis promotes tomato plant growth and reduces knoot-root nematode reproduction in tomato roots under greenhouse

  20. INSETICIDAS APLICADOS VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES VISANDO AO CONTROLE DAS MOSCAS BRANCAS (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. E MINADORA (Liriomyza sp. NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE WHITE FLY Bemisia tabaci GENN. AND LEAFMINER Liriomyza sp. IN BEAN CROPS BY SEED TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se o presente experimento no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de março a maio de 1993, para avaliar o controle das moscas brancas (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. e minadora (Liriomyza sp. na fase inicial da cultura do feijoeiro, com produtos aplicados via tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos constaram de: imidacloprid 700 PM nas dosagens de 140, 210, 280 e 350 gramas de ingrediente ativo (i.a/l00 kg de sementes; carbosulfan + zinco 250 TS nas dosagens de 375 e 500g i.a./100kg de sementes, comparados com o carbofuran 350 TS na dosagem de 525 g i.a./100kg de sementes (padrão. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle da mosca minadora, com porcentagens de eficiência que variaram de 93 a 99%. Imidacloprid, a partir de 280g i.a./100kg de sementes, foi igual aos outros produtos em eficiência no controle da mosca branca, com porcentagens de controle variando entre 83 a 89%.

    A trial to control the white fly Bemisia tabaci, GENN. and leafminer Liriomyza sp. was carried out in Goiânia, state of Goiás. The treatments and dosages of the insecticides per 100kg of seed were: imidacloprid (140, 210, 280 and 350g a.i., carbofuran (525 g a.i., carbosulfan (375 and 500g a.i, plus an untreated check. The application of the treatments were made on the seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the leafminer at all dosages tested and imidacloprid at the dosages of 280 and 350g a.i. per 100kg seed was similar in controlling the white fly in bean crops.

  1. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  2. Somatic Embryogenesis Cocoa Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh man santoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  3. Population of Pratylenchus coffeae (Z. and growth of Arabica coffee seedling inoculated by Pseudomonas diminuta L. and Bacillus subtilis (C..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fauzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  4. Field Evaluation of a Novel Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Attracticide for the Management of Zonocerus variegatus on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbilla, J. A.; Lawson, B. W.; Yeboah-Gyan, K.

    Cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an important vegetable grown and consumed in Ghana. Apart from infestations of the lepidopterous Plutella xylostella and Hellula undalis resulting from continuous cultivation, a new pest Zonocerus variegatus has been reported to causing damage to the crop. The efficacy of a novel pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) based novel PA-attracticide developed from treating the roots of the neophyte, Chromolaena odorata which contains PAs with Carbofuran 3G for the management of Z. variegatus was tested using cabbage as a test crop in field caged plots. Field caged plots of cabbage artificially infested with Z. variegatus were treated with and without PA-attracticide in addition to a control treatment of caged cabbage plot with no insect and PA-attracticide. The experimental design was a RCB replicated three times in two ecological zones. The results showed that the establishment, leaf and head damage of cabbage was statistically the same in the PA-treated plots and the control treatment. These treatments, however, performed significantly better than the treatment without PA-attracticide. The results obtained holds promise for mitigating the menace of the grasshopper on cabbage using PA based attracticides.

  5. Sensitive and specific multiresidue methods for the determination of pesticides of various classes in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacassie, E; Marquet, P; Gaulier, J M; Dreyfuss, M F; Lachâtre, G

    2001-09-15

    Original and sensitive multiresidue methods are presented for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of 61 pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX) OASIS cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil) pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles). Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides, but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged, respectively, from 2.5 to 20 and from 5 to 50ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods: in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran; in four other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with, respectively, parathion-ethyl, the association of bromacil and strychnine, bifenthrin and aldicarb. PMID:11516896

  6. The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU, 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment, and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs.

  7. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units≥-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams.

  8. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  9. Determination of pesticides in sugarcane juice employing microextraction by packed sorbent followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Andrade, Felipe Nascimento; Neto, Álvaro José Dos Santos; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a method for the determination of six pesticides (tebuthiuron, carbofuran, atrazine, metribuzine, ametryn, and bifenthrin) in sugarcane juice using microextraction by packed sorbent as the extraction technique. The extraction steps were optimized by factorial design, being the variables pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and solvent volume optimized for comparisons among sorbent materials. Among the evaluated materials C18-Chromabond(®) showed better extraction efficiency. A factorial design 2(3) with central point was used for the extraction cycles optimization. Draw/eject and washes cycles showed significant improvements in the extraction efficiency when the number of cycles increased. The method was validated and showed a limit of quantification in the range of 2.0-10.0 μg.L(-1) . The calibration curves were constructed by weighting models that reduced the sum of absolute residues values and improved determination coefficient. The matrix factor and extraction efficiency were 97.3-77.3% and 27.1-64.8%, respectively. The accuracy was 71.7-106.9%; precision evaluated as the coefficient of variance obtained in intra and inter day analysis was 4.5-15.9%. The method was applied to the determination of pesticide residues in four sugarcane juice samples commercially available in markets from different cities from São Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:27219489

  10. An investigation of homogeneous and heterogeneous sonochemistry for the destruction of hazardous substances. Progress report, 1996 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The primary objective of this research project is to acquire a deeper fundamental knowledge of acoustic cavitation and cavitation chemistry, and in doing so, to ascertain how ultrasonic irradiation can be more effectively applied to environmental problems. Four on-going projects will be described in this progress report, The first project is the destruction of carbofuran in a Near-Field Acoustical Processor (NAP), and the hydrodynamic characterization of the reactor. The second project is a comprehensive study of how ultrasonic frequency influences sonochemical reaction rates; the substrate it, the preliminary portion of this study has been hydrogen peroxide formation. The third project in progress is destruction of four polychlorinated biphenyls at 20 kHz. Work so far has been at 20 kHz, but the most significant portion of this project will involve a multi-frequency (ultrasonic frequency) study. Finally, the destruction of a pesticide, dichlorvos, during sonication at 500 kHz will be described. Preliminary work during the first year has emphasized determination of kinetics; further work (years 2--3) will be focused upon closing mass balances and identifying transformation products.'

  11. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening. PMID:26838378

  12. [Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan.

  13. UPLC-TOF MS Method for Rapid Screening of Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Inputs%超高效液相色谱-飞行时间质谱法快速筛查农业投入品中违规添加的氨基甲酸酯类农药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建波; 马琳; 黄兰淇

    2016-01-01

    建立了12种氨基甲酸酯类农药的超高效液相色谱-飞行时间质谱的快速筛查方法,并将其应用于100个乳油和可湿性粉剂样品的筛查中。结果表明,在农药样品中违规添加的成分包括克百威、丁硫克百威等。在0.5~100 mg/L范围内,12种氨基甲酸酯类农药的线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0.99,方法的加标回收率在85%~103%之间。%A method for rapid screening of 12 kinds of carbamate insecticides in agricultural inputs was established by UPLC-TOF MS, and the method was applied to screen carbamate insecticides in EC and WP. The results showed that carbofuran and carbosulfan were determined in the samples. At the concentration of 0.5-100 mg/L, the linear relationship was good, the correlation coefficients were more than 0.99. The recoveries were 85%-103%.

  14. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units≥-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams. PMID:26282741

  15. Method development for determination of herbicides and insecticides in surface waters using solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of low concentrations of pesticides in surface and ground waters requires high sensitivity analytical techniques. Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) has been successfully employed to pre concentrate and extract pesticides compounds from water samples. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV/Vis detector was used to separate and quantify the extracted compounds. In this work, samples of surface waters with known concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine and trifluralin) and insecticides (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) were extracted by using SPE off-line technique. The compounds were separated and quantified by reverse phase HPLC with UV detection at 220 ηm. The extraction efficiency was compared between two columns filled with different materials: C18-bonded silica phase (500 mg) and copolymer styrenedivynilbenzene resin (250 mg). The results were evaluated as the percent recovery of compounds obtained using different solvents at different concentrations. The results showed that recovery of the analytes greater than 80 % were obtained in SPE columns filled with C18 bonded silica phase with 6 mL of acetonitrile. Once the optimum conditions were chosen for simulate water samples, the method was validated through analytical and statistical procedures and applied for surface waters. The suitability of the method was verified for the studied compounds showing good sensitivity, i. e., concentrations within the range of 0.4 to 4.0 μgL-1 of pesticides could be quantified attending the limits proposed by official regulations. (author)

  16. Identification and characterization of carbosulfan degrading bacteria from different areas of Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight different strains (BCTL 202-209) having specific ability to degrade and utilize carbofuran insecticide for their growth, were isolated from different areas of Punjab. The optical pH and temperature of the selected bacterial isolates were 6.9-7 and 30-40 deg. C, respectively. The growth patterns of these isolates were studied on LB and M9 + glucose (50 mg/100 ml), M9 + carbosulfan (5 mg/l) medium. Typical growths patterns were observed in LB medium, where as prolong log or stationary phase were noted in M9 medium. On the basis of biochemical analysis these strains were belong to genus Planococcus, Marinococcus, Sporosarcina, Bacillus, Enterococcus and Micrococcus. All these strains showed resistance against heavy metal like Hg/sup +2/, Co/sup +2/, Cr/sup +3/ and Cu/sup +2/. The antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates were also checked against nine different antibiotics. These isolates showed resistance against ampicillin, furazolidone, and fusidic acid. These isolated can be employed in the microbe based bioremediation of insecticide contaminated soil and waste water. (author)

  17. Input, flux, and persistence of six select pesticides in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivila, K.M.; Jennings, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Temporal patterns of pesticide inputs to San Francisco Bay were identified and correlated with timing of application and transport mechanism. Fluxes were calculated from measured concentrations and estimated flow. Persistence of the pesticides under typical riverine or estuarine conditions were estimated from laboratory experiments. Simazine was detected most frequently and had the highest flux into the Bay, which could be explained by its continuous use and long half-life. In comparison, diazinon was detected at lower concentrations and had a lower flux which corresponded to its lower use and shorter half-life. The order-of-magnitude lower fluxes of carbofuran and methidathion corresponded to their lower use and expected hydrolysis. Molinate was detected at the highest concentration but its flux was lower than expected, considering its very high use and persistence in the laboratory experiments. Additional loss of molinate is likely to occur from volatilization and photodegradation on the rice fields. Although thiobencarb had the second highest use, it had the lowest flux of the six pesticides, which can be attributed to its loss via hydrolysis, photodegradation, volatilization, and sorption to sediments. Fluxes into San Francisco Bay were equal to or greater than those reported for other estuaries, except for the Gulf of Mexico. ?? 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  18. Chromosomal inversions among insecticide-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi Liston, a malaria mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, N J; Hariprasad, T P N; Sanil, D; Zin, T

    2013-11-01

    Polytene chromosomes were prepared from the ovarian nurse cells of semi-gravid females of ten insecticide-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi. Altogether, 16 heterozygous paracentric inversions, namely b/+ (11D-16C) in alphamethrin; i/+ (14B-18A) and h/+ (27B-28A) in DDT; j/+ (14A-16B) in chlorpyrifos; k/+ (11D-16B) in cyfluthrin; l/+ (11A-16C) in deltamethrin; m/+ (14B-15C) and e/+ (32A-33B) in bifenthrin; n/+ (12D-14B), f/+ (33A-36A) and g/+ (33C-34A) in propoxur; o/+ (11A-12D), h/+ (37A-37C) and i/+ (31C-32C) in temephos; d/+ (33D-35C) in carbofuran and a/+ (41C-43B) in neem strains, were reported. No inversions were observed in X chromosome so far. The frequency of inversions in different insecticides was found to be highest in the 2R arm, followed by the 3R arm. Such inversions were not reported in the corresponding susceptible strains or in the parental stocks. PMID:23982309

  19. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, Christel [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, Unite PSH, F- 84914 Avignon (France); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Mazzia, Christophe [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France)], E-mail: mazzia@avignon.inra.fr

    2009-01-15

    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (K{sub m} = 77.2 mM; V{sub max} = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (K{sub m} = 222 mM, V{sub max} = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10{sup -5}-3.80 x 10{sup -8} M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10{sup -5}-2.98 x 10{sup -8} M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposure.

  20. Study on The New Methods of Degradation of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables%蔬菜残留农药降解新方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建民; 吕微; 刘红伟

    2011-01-01

    The residues of pesticides is one of the major problems influencing food safety of China.The simulation model of the degradation of three kinds of pesticides(dichlorvos,imethamidophos,carbofuran) in vegetables was established.The degradation way of closed turbocharged dynamic high concentration ozone was independent developmented.The results showed,the effect of degradation is significant,the degradation rates of organic phosphorus exceeded 93%,the degradation rates of carbofuran exceeded 88%.%农药残留是影响我国食物安全的一大关键问题。文中建立了蔬菜农药降解效果分析体系,自主研发了高浓度臭氧密闭动态增压降解方法,分析了该方法对蔬菜中常见的敌敌畏、甲胺磷和呋喃丹等3种农药残留的降解效果。结果表明,该降解方法在进行多农药高浓度残留降解时其降解效果显著,有机磷降解率均超过93%,呋喃丹降解率超过88%。

  1. Wet air oxidation of seedcorn wastes containing pesticides and insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, M.; Schlaefer, O.; Onyeche, T.I.; Schroeder, C.; Bormann, H.; Schaefer, S. [CUTEC-Inst. GmbH (Clausthal Environment Technology Inst.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wet air oxidation as an alternative treatment process to pyrolysis and combustion of seedcorn wastes was investigated in lab-scale experiments. Due to solid condition of the seed corn waste, the process has been adapted by repeated spraying of water on the seed corn bulk to avoid the production of sludge and its subsequent dewatering. Original seed corns from industrial production plants were used for a degradation kinetic study under smooth wet air oxidation conditions. The temperatures were between 80 and 150 C, the pressure from 1 to 4.5 bar and the pH at different values from 3 to 13. Degradation rates for five different compounds of pesticides and insecticides, namely Imidacloprid, Thiram, Hymexazol, Carbofuran and Tefluthrin were conducted. These compounds represent the recently used in agricultural seedcorn applications. The degradation rate depends linearly on temperature between 80 and 150 C. At 120 C the lowest degradation rate was found for Tefluthrin by 25 mg/h per L reaction volume while the highest degradation rate to be conducted was for Imidacloprid at 363 mg/h L. (orig.)

  2. Nematicidal isochromane glycoside from Kigelia pinnata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi ATOLANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic nematicides such as oxamyl and carbofuran play significant roles in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, their negative environmental impacts have it imperative to search for safer alternatives. As part of our contribution in the search for bio-nematicides, compounds from plant extract were screened for possible potent nematicidal agent. A new isochromane carboxylic acid glycoside, isolated from the leaves of Kigelia pinnata (Lam. Benth (Bignoniaceae was evaluated for its nematicidal activity. The structure of the proposed compound was characterized by various spectroscopic methods, which included UV, FTIR, 1D-, and 2D-NMR, FAB-MS, TOF-ESI-MS and TOF-ESI-MS/MS (TANDEM. The in vitro experiment conducted on the glycoside against Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and eggs indicated an induced mortality. Its activity can be compared favourably with oxamyl, when tested at 0.1 mg/mL concentration. At four hours of observation, no significant difference (P < 0.05 between oxamyl and the glycoside was observed. The present data sustains that natural glycoside is a promising oxamyl alternate for controlling nematode-induced plant root knots and may contribute to integrated pest management.

  3. Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase fromM. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENILSON F. OLIVEIRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To contribute to the development of products to controlMeloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the cultures afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

  4. Effect of presowing treatment of seeds with insecticides on parameters related to nodulation and nitrate reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ilieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of presowing treatment of seeds with insecticides on parameters related to nodulation and nitrate reduction in soybean was studied in pot trial at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria (2003-2004. It was found that insecticides Gaucho 600 FS (imidacloprid, Carbodan 35 ST (carbofuran applied for presowing treatment of seeds at the doses of 1, 2 and 3 L/100 kg seeds, and Promet 400 CS (furathiocarb (standard at the dose of 3 L/100 kg seeds, had no suppressive effect on the root length, dry root mass and specific nodulating ability of plants. When used Gaucho 600 FS at the dose of 1 L/100 kg seeds, root mass was most developed, the largest number of nodules was formed, and specific nodulating ability was highest. The common tendency for decrease of nitrate reductase activity in leaves and significant increase in stems was found. Nitrate reductase activity increased in leaves, stems and roots in treatment with Carbodan 35 ST applied at the dose of 3 L/100 kg seeds. Chlorophylls ?+b/carotenoids ratio exceeded this of the control only in treatment with Gaucho 600 FS at the dose of 1 L/100 kg seeds. However the analysis of the plant biomass did not include the amount of possible undegraded traces after using the insecticides tested.

  5. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A New Corn Seedcoating Material ——16% FKJ%16%FKJ玉米种衣剂配方筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁; 蔚荣海; 迟力佳; 李玉华

    2001-01-01

    Through experiments of many years in laboratory a nd field, a multifunctional corn seedcoating material ——16% FKJ was selected. O f various prescriptions, the one with 8% thiram+7% carbofuran+1% metalaxyl w as m ost effective for subterranean and stalk rot disease at the dosage of 1∶50 . It can be used in regions where corn stalk rot disease is more serious.%在收集大量资料的基础上,经过多年的室内、田间试验,成功地研制出多功能16%福克甲 (FKJ)玉米种衣剂,其中以有效成分克百威7%,甲霜灵1%,福美双8%(在药种比1∶50剂量下) 对玉米地下害虫、苗期茎腐病防治效果最好,适宜在玉米茎腐病发病较重的地区使用。

  7. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  8. Influence of some sol-gel synthesis parameters of mesoporous TiO2 on photocatalytic degradation of pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanopowders were produced by sol-gel technique from tetrabutyl titanate as a precursor by varying some parameters of the sol-gel synthesis like the temperature (500 and 550 °C and the duration of the calcination (1.5, 2, and 2.5 h. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD results have shown that all synthesized nanopowders are dominantly in anatase phase, with the presence of a small amount of rutile in samples calcined at 550 °C. According to the results obtained by Williamson-Hall method, the anatase crystallite size was increased with the duration of the calcination (from 24 to 29 nm in samples calcined at lower, and from 30 to 35 nm in samples calcined at higher temperature. The analysis of the shift and linewidth of the most intensive anatase Eg Raman mode confirmed the XRPD results. The analysis of pore structure from nitrogen sorption experimental data described all samples as mesoporous, with mean pore diameters in the range of 5-8 nm. Nanopowder properties have been related to the photocatalytic activity, tested in degradation of the textile dye (C.I. Reactive Orange 16, carbofuran and phenol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45018 i br. ON171032

  9. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Soil by Liquid-Solid Extraction Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of four pesticides (diazinon,acetochlor, aldrine and carbofuran belonging to different pesticide groups, extractedfrom soil samples, is described. The method presented is based on liquid-solid extraction(LSE and determination of pesticides, i.e. the pesticides were extracted by methanol-acetone mixture, purified on florisil column and eluted by ethyl acetate-acetone mixture.Optimization of the main parameters affecting the LSE procedure, such as the choiceof purification sorbent, as well as the elution solvent and its volume, were investigated indetails and optimized. Also, validation of the proposed method was done.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantificationof the pesticides studied. Relative standard deviation (RSD and recovery values formultiple analysis of soil samples fortified with 30 μg/kg of each pesticide were below 8%and higher than 89%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD for all the compounds studiedwere less than 4 μg/kg.

  10. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  11. Analysis of Carbamate Pesticides: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS666

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J; Koester, C

    2008-05-14

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method for analysis of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl, and methomyl in water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), titled Method EPA MS666. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in MS666 for analysis of carbamate pesticides in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of Method EPA MS666 can be determined.

  12. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  13. Surface properties of self-assembled monolayer films of tetra-substituted cobalt, iron and manganese alkylthio phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinbulu, Isaac Adebayo; Khene, Samson [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.z [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2010-09-30

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of iron (SAM-1), cobalt (SAM-2) and manganese (SAM-3) phthalocyanine complexes, tetra-substituted with diethylaminoethanethio at the non-peripheral positions, were formed on gold electrode in dimethylformamide (DMF). Electrochemical, impedimentary and surface properties of the SAM films were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the films. Ability of the films to inhibit common faradaic processes on bare gold surface (gold oxidation, solution redox chemistry of [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+}/[Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} and underpotential deposition (UDP) of copper) was investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), using [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} redox process as a probe, offered insights into the electrical properties of the films/electrode interfaces. Surface properties of the films were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films were employed for the electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide, carbofuran. Electrocatalysis was evidenced from enhanced current signal and less positive oxidation potential of the pesticide on each film, relative to that observed on the bare gold electrode. Mechanism of electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide was studied using rotating disc electrode voltammetry.

  14. Novel method for the determination of five carbamate pesticides in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Mei Liu; Xiao Huan Zang; Wei Hua Liu; Chun Wang; Zhi Wang

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of five carbamate pesticides(metolcarb,carbofuran,carbaryl,isoprocard and diethofencard)in water samples was developed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction(DLLME)coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector(HPLC-DAD).Some experimental parameters that influence the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized to obtain the best extraction results.Under the optimum conditions for the method,the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range from 5 to I000 ng mL-1 for all the five carbamate pesticides,with the correlation coefficients(r2)varying from 0.9984 to 0.9994.Good enrichment factors were achieved ranging from 80 to 177-fold,depending on the compound.The limits of detection(LODs)(S/N = 3)were ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 ng mL-1.The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the pesticide residues in environmental water samples.

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography multiresidue method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Albero, Beatriz; Tadeo, José Luis

    2004-11-01

    A rapid multiresidue method has been developed for the analysis of N-methylcarbamate insecticides (oxamyl, methomyl, propoxur, carbofuran, carbaryl, and methiocarb) in fruit and vegetable juices. The method is based on the adsorption of the N-methyl carbamates in Florisil and the subsequent extraction of pesticides using a low volume of acetone. Residue levels in juice were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The separation of carbamates is performed on a C8 column with water-methanol as mobile phase. Recovery studies were performed at 500-, 100-, and 10-ng/ml fortification levels, and average recoveries obtained for carbamates ranged from 79 to 109%, with relative standard deviations between 1.4 and 9.9%. The method was found to be linear over the range assayed from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml, and the detection limits for carbamates varied from 0.8 to 1.9 ng/ml. PMID:15553643

  16. Bacterial community analysis of cypermethrin enrichment cultures and bioremediation of cypermethrin contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Cypermethrin is widely used for insect control; however, its toxicity toward aquatic life requires its complete removal from contaminated areas where the natural degradation ability of microbes can be utilized. Agricultural soil with extensive history of CM application was used to prepare enrichment cultures using cypermethrin as sole carbon source for isolation of cypermethrin degrading bacteria and bacterial community analysis using PCR-DGGE of 16 S rRNA gene. DGGE analysis revealed that dominant members of CM enrichment culture were associated with α-proteobacteria followed by γ-proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Three potential CM-degrading isolates identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi JCm1, Bacillus megaterium JCm2, and Rhodococcus sp. JCm5 degraded 86-100% of CM (100 mg L(-1) ) within 10 days. These isolates were also able to degrade other pyrethroids, carbofuran, and cypermethrin degradation products. Enzyme activity assays revealed that enzymes involved in CM-degradation were inducible and showed activity when strains were grown on cypermethrin. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200 mg kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates JCm1, JCm2, and JCm5 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0516, 0.0425, and 0.0807 d(-1), respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The isolated bacterial strains were among dominant genera selected under CM enriched conditions and represent valuable candidates for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  17. A hydrological modeling framework for defining achievable performance standards for pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alain N; Lafrance, Pierre; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Konan, Brou; Quilbé, Renaud; Jiapizian, Paul; Amrani, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hydrological modeling framework to define achievable performance standards (APSs) for pesticides that could be attained after implementation of recommended management actions, agricultural practices, and available technologies (i.e., beneficial management practices [BMPs]). An integrated hydrological modeling system, Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé, was used to quantify APSs for six Canadian watersheds for eight pesticides: atrazine, carbofuran, dicamba, glyphosate, MCPB, MCPA, metolachlor, and 2,4-D. Outputs from simulation runs to predict pesticide concentration under current conditions and in response to implementation of two types of beneficial management practices (reduced pesticide application rate and 1- to 10-m-wide edge-of-field and/or riparian buffer strips, implemented singly or in combination) showed that APS values for scenarios with BMPs were less than those for current conditions. Moreover, APS values at the outlet of watersheds were usually less than ecological thresholds of good condition, when available. Upstream river reaches were at greater risk of having concentrations above a given ecological thresholds because of limited stream flows and overland loads of pesticides. Our integrated approach of "hydrological modeling-APS estimation-ecotoxicological significance" provides the most effective interpretation possible, for management and education purposes, of the potential biological impact of predicted pesticide concentrations in rivers.

  18. Highly sensitive quantitation of pesticides in fruit juice samples by modeling four-way data gathered with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence excitation-emission detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Milagros; Pinto, Licarion; Véras, Germano; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Culzoni, María J; Ugulino de Araújo, Mário C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    A study regarding the acquisition and analytical utilization of four-way data acquired by monitoring excitation-emission fluorescence matrices at different elution time points in a fast HPLC procedure is presented. The data were modeled with three well-known algorithms: PARAFAC, U-PLS/RTL and MCR-ALS, the latter conveniently adapted to model third-order data. The second-order advantage was exploited when analyzing samples containing uncalibrated components. The best results were furnished with the algorithm U-PLS/RTL. This fact is indicative of both no peak time shifts occurrence among samples and high colinearity among spectra. Besides, this latent-variable structured algorithm is capable of better handle the need of achieving high sensitivity for the analysis of one of the analytes. In addition, a significant enhancement in both predictions and analytical figures of merit was observed for carbendazim, thiabendazole, fuberidazole, carbofuran, carbaryl and 1-naphtol, when going from second- to third-order data. LODs obtained were ranged between 0.02 and 2.4μgL(-1). PMID:27154667

  19. Groundwater contamination by azinphos methyl in the northern Patagonic Region (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, M; Kirs, V; Carvajal, G; Venturino, A; Pechen de D'Angelo, A M

    1999-01-26

    Approximately 30 groundwater monitoring wells, under a fruit production field, in the Valley of the Neuquen River (Northern Patagonic, Argentina), to which different pesticides have been applied, were sampled eleven times between October 1995 and March 1997. Azinphos methyl was the main pesticide applied and it was detected with the highest frequency in groundwater wells during the period of intensive pesticide application in the Southern Hemisphere. Dimethoate, methidathion, fosmet, cipermethrin, carbaryl, propoxur, carbofuran, benomyl and carbendazim were also detected with lower frequency. The characteristic of the area under study was alkaline soil, with an organic matter content below 2.5% and texture sandy clay loam. The half life of azinphos methyl in soils was 166.2 days in the sun light for horizon A and 194.15 in the dark for horizon B. Leaching of azinphos methyl through the different soil horizons was minimum. On the basis of our lysimeter laboratory data, in which most of the pesticide was adsorbed into the soil column and only small quantities leachate, we inferred that the impact of azinphos methyl on groundwater would be minimal. However, field data indicates that there is a persistence of azinphos methyl in groundwater during the application season.

  20. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that π-π interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

  1. Sequential injection kinetic spectrophotometric determination of quaternary mixtures of carbamate pesticides in water and fruit samples using artificial neural networks for multivariate calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ning; Fan, Shihua

    2009-12-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric determination of a quaternary carbamate pesticide mixture consisting of carbofuran, propoxur, metolcarb and fenobucarb using sequential injection analysis (SIA). The procedure was based upon the different kinetic properties between the analytes reacted with reagent in flow system in the non-stopped-flow mode, in which their hydrolysis products coupled with diazotized p-nitroaniline in an alkaline medium to form the corresponding colored complexes. The absorbance data from SIA peak time profile were recorded at 510 nm and resolved by the use of back-propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms for multivariate quantitative analysis. The experimental variables and main network parameters were optimized and each of the pesticides could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg mL -1, at a sampling frequency of 18 h -1. The proposed method was compared to other spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of mixtures of carbamate pesticides, and it was proved to be adequately reliable and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the four pesticide residues in water and fruit samples, obtaining the satisfactory results based on recovery studies (84.7-116.0%).

  2. Natural impacted freshwaters: in situ use of alginate immobilized algae to the assessment of algal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A X R; Tamanaha, M S; Horita, C O; Radetski, M R; Corrêa, R; Radetski, C M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an in situ phytotoxicity test using alginate-immobilized algae for 60 days, in the assessment of water quality in an impacted small peri-urban stream. After laboratory optimization of algae immobilization/de-immobilization processes, the performance of immobilized/de-immobilized algae was compared to the performance of free algae in terms of specific algal growth and sensitivity. This was done by comparing 72 h EC50 values obtained with zinc and the pesticides clomazone and carbofuran. The results showed a similar performance, which allow us to conclude that immobilization for 60 days do not cause any significant alteration in algae physiology. In the field, immobilized algae were exposed at different times (2, 4 and 7 days) to water samples in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Both laboratory and field experiments indicated that alginate-immobilized algae for 60 days were sufficiently sensitive for use in the in situ assessment of water quality.

  3. Validation of method for determination of different classes of pesticides in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Costa, Fabiane Pinho; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2010-04-14

    In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of different classes of pesticides, carbofuran (insecticide), clomazone (herbicide) and tebuconazole (fungicide) in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection. Some experimental parameters that influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the disperser solvents and extraction solvents, extraction time, speed of centrifugation, pH and addition of salt were examined and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of pesticides in water at spiking levels between 0.02 and 2.0 microg L(-1) ranged from 62.7% to 120.0%. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.9% and 9.1% (n=3). The limits of quantification of the method considering a 50-fold preconcentration step were 0.02 microg L(-1). The linearity of the method ranged from 1.0 to 1000 microg L(-1) for all compounds, with correlation coefficients varying from 0.9982 to 0.9992. Results show that the method we propose can meet the requirements for the determination of pesticides in water samples. The comparison of this method with solid-phase extraction indicates that DLLME is a simple, fast, and low-cost method for the determination of pesticides in natural waters.

  4. Multi-residue detection of pesticides using a sensitive immunochip assay based on nanogold enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Meijing; Guo, Yirong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Yihua; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-09-28

    This paper describes the development of a new multiplex immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seven pesticides (triazophos, methyl-parathion, fenpropathrin, carbofuran, thiacloprid, chlorothalonil, and carbendazim). Sixteen pairs of pesticide antibodies and antigens were screened for reactivity and cross-reaction. A microarray chip consisting of seven antigens immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane was then constructed. Nanogold was employed for labeling and signal amplification to obtain a sensitive colorimetric immunoassay. The direct and indirect detection formats were further compared using primary antibody-gold and secondary antibody-gold conjugates as tracers. An integrated 7-plex immunochip assay based on the indirect model was established and optimized. The detection limits for the pesticides were 0.02-6.45 ng mL(-1), which meets detection requirements for pesticide residues. Naked-eye assessment showed the visual detection limits of the assay ranged from 1 to 100 ng mL(-1). Spiked recovery results demonstrated that the immunochip assay had potential for multi-analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. The proposed microarray methodology is a flexible and versatile tool, which can be applied to other competitive multiplex immunoassays for small molecular compounds. PMID:27619097

  5. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening.

  6. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  7. Direct surface analysis of pesticides on soil, leaves, grass, and stainless steel by static secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E.; Olson, J.E.; Miller, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Direct surface analyses by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed for the following pesticides adsorbed on dandelion leaves, grass, soil, and stainless steel samples: alachlor, atrazine, captan, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorosulfuron, chlorthal-dimethyl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, malathion, methomyl, methyl arsonic acid, mocap, norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, paraquat, temik, and trifluralin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate static SIMS as a tool for pesticide analysis, principally for use in screening samples for pesticides. The advantage of direct surface analysis compared with conventional pesticide analysis methods is the elimination of sample pretreatment including extraction, which streamlines the analysis substantially; total analysis time for SIMS analysis was ca. 10 min/sample. Detection of 16 of the 20 pesticides on all four substrates was achieved. Of the remaining four pesticides, only one (trifluralin) was not detected on any of the samples. The minimum detectable quantity was determined for paraquat on soil in order to evaluate the efficacy of using SIMS as a screening tool. Paraquat was detected at 3 pg/mm{sup 2} (c.a. 0.005 monolayers). The results of these studies suggest that SIMS is capable of direct surface detection of a range of pesticides, with low volatility, polar pesticides being the most easily detected. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Use of botanical extracts, cassava wastewater and nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode on carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of several plant species have shown promising in controlling root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, one of the most limiting agents for carrot cultivation. The current study evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from seven botanical species applied to 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 days after sowing 'Nantes' carrots in soil infested with root-knot nematode. Three other treatments included cassava wastewater, distilled water (control, which were applied in the same periods of the extracts application, in addition to carbofuran 50G (80Kg/ha, which was applied once at 60 days after carrot sowing. Evaluations were performed at 90 days after inoculation to determine shoot and root fresh weight, as well as the diameter and the length of principal roots and the number of galls on primary and secondary roots. Plants treated with cassava wastewater, extracts of Ricinus communis L. seeds, Crotalaria juncea L. seeds, R. communis leaves + branches + fruits, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves + branches + inflorescences and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. seeds showed the highest rates of total weight (root + shoot and shoot weight. The extract of R. communis leaves + branches + fruits provides the highest total root weight and principal root diameter. Cassava wastewater and extracts of R. communis seeds provided the highest principal root weight. The extract of R. communis seeds and cassava wastewater can be considered promising for the alternative control of M. incognita.

  9. Fate of carbosulfan and monocrotophos in sandy loam soils of Pakistan under field conditions at different watertable depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Shahzad, Farina

    2010-05-01

    Information regarding pesticide mobility is critical for the evaluation of pesticide management practices. For this purpose, lysimetric studies were conducted to develop assessment schemes to protect groundwater from unacceptable effects caused by pesticide use. By using these studies, specific monitoring actions and prevention measures for the protection of waters can be studied, and the results thus obtained can provide the local authorities and the decision makers with an identification tool for demarcating risk areas. Pesticide residues were found at the bottom of lysimeters in the following pattern i.e., 1.52 > 2.1 > 2.74 m which could represent an "index of risk" for groundwater pollution. Regressions built for carbofuran and monocrotophos against watertable depths showed a decreasing trend of pesticide in higher watertable treatments. These findings support the existence of a significant role for chromatographic flow in sandy texture soil. Moreover, the higher values of pesticide residue at the bottom of lysimeters reflect that chromatographic flow as well as preferential flow pattern prevails during higher precipitation events. The precipitation received during the study was higher than the 10 year average and can be considered relatively as a worst case scenario. Finally, the authors have recommended a standardized pesticide monitoring scheme for groundwater in accordance with the already validated generic schemes in developed countries. PMID:21491630

  10. Simultaneous analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes by using a derivatisation step and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Nief, Marie; Fabritius, Marie; Racault, Lucie; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2011-11-01

    This work presents a new method to analyse simultaneously by GC-MS 31 pesticides from different chemical classes (2,4 D, 2,4 MCPA, alphacypermethrin, bifenthrin, bromoxynil, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, clopyralid, cyprodinil, deltamethrin dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, diflufenican, diuron, fenoxaprop, flazasulfuron, fluroxypyr, ioxynil, isoxaben, mecoprop-P, myclobutanil, oryzalin, oxadiazon, picloram, tau-fluvalinate tebuconazole, triclopyr, trifluralin and trinexapac-p-ethyl). This GC-MS method will be applied to the analysis of passive samplers (Tenax(®) tubes and SPME fiber) used for the evaluation of the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by non-agricultural pesticides. The method involves a derivatisation step for thermo-labile or polar pesticides. Different agents were tested and MtBSTFA (N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide), a sylilation agent producing very specific fragments [M-57], was retained. However, diuron could not be derivatised and the isocyanate product was used for identification and quantification. Pesticides which did not need a derivatisation step were not affected by the presence of the derivatisation agent and they could easily be analysed in mixture with derivatised pesticides. The method can be coupled to a thermal-desorption unit or to SPME extraction for a multiresidue analysis of various pesticides in atmospheric samples. PMID:21962330

  11. Accelerated biodegradation of selected nematicides in tropical crop soils from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Pérez-Rojas, Greivin; Castro-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    Degradation and mineralization behavior of selected nematicides was studied in soil samples from fields cultivated with banana, potato, and coffee. Degradation assays in most of the studied soils revealed shorter half-lives for carbofuran (CBF) and ethoprophos (ETP) in samples with a history of treatment with these compounds, which may have been caused by enhanced biodegradation. A short half-life value for CBF degradation was also observed in a banana field with no previous exposure to this pesticide, but with a recent application of the carbamate insecticide oxamyl, which supports the hypothesis that preexposure to oxamyl may cause microbial adaptation towards degradation of CBF, an observation of a phenomenon not yet tested according to the literature reviewed. Mineralization assays for CBF and terbufos (TBF) revealed that history of treatment with these nematicides did not cause higher mineralization rates in preexposed soils when compared to unexposed ones, except in the case of soils from coffee fields. Mineralization half-lives for soils unexposed to these pesticides were significantly shorter than most reports in the literature in the same conditions. Mineralization rates for soils with a previous exposure to these pesticides were also obtained, adding to the very few reports found. This paper contributes valuable data to the low number of reports dealing with pesticide fate in soils from tropical origin.

  12. Human metabolic interactions of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2007-01-01

    Investigations utilizing recombinant human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as well as human hepatocytes have revealed a number of interactions not only between different environmental chemicals (ECs) but also between ECs and endogenous metabolites. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are potent inhibitors of the human metabolism of carbaryl, carbofuran, DEET and fipronil, as well as the jet fuel components, nonane and naphthalene. OPs are potent irreversible inhibitors of testosterone metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and of estradiol metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. All of these CYP inhibitions are believed to be due to the release of reactive sulfur during CYP-catalyzed oxidative desulfuration. It has also been shown that the esterase(s) responsible for the initial step in permethrin metabolism in human liver is inhibited by both chlorpyrifos oxon and carbaryl. A number of pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, and the repellent, DEET, have been shown to be inducers of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes, with fipronil being the most potent. Several agrochemicals, including fipronil and the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, show toxicity toward human hepatocytes with fipronil being the most potent in this regard. Endosulfan-alpha, which has shown promise as a model substrate for phenotyping CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes, is also an inducer of CYP2B6, acting through the PXR receptor.

  13. Supercritical fluid chromatography with photodiode array detection for pesticide analysis in papaya and avocado samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pano-Farias, Norma S; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Jorge; Jurado, José M; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    To improve the analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices with economic importance, alternative chromatographic techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography, can be used. Supercritical fluid chromatography has barely been applied for pesticide analysis in food matrices. In this paper, an analytical method using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detection has been established for the first time for the quantification of pesticides in papaya and avocado. The extraction of methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, carbofuran, and carbaryl was performed through the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology. The method was validated using papaya and avocado samples. For papaya, the correlation coefficient values were higher than 0.99; limits of detection and quantification ranged from 130-380 and 220-640 μg/kg, respectively; recovery values ranged from 72.8-94.6%; precision was lower than 3%. For avocado, limit of detection values were ˂450 μg/kg; precision was lower than 11%; recoveries ranged from 50.0-94.2%. Method feasibility was tested for lime, banana, mango, and melon samples. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, and carbaryl, toxics pesticides used worldwide. The methodology presented in this work could be applicable to other fruits. PMID:25641906

  14. An investigation of homogeneous and heterogeneous sonochemistry for the destruction of hazardous substances. Progress report, 1996--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, I.

    1997-01-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to acquire a deeper fundamental knowledge of acoustic cavitation and cavitation chemistry, and in doing so, to ascertain how ultrasonic irradiation can be more effectively applied to environmental problems. Four on-going projects will be described in this progress report, The first project is the destruction of carbofuran in a Near-Field Acoustical Processor (NAP), and the hydrodynamic characterization of the reactor. The second project is a comprehensive study of how ultrasonic frequency influences sonochemical reaction rates; the substrate it, the preliminary portion of this study has been hydrogen peroxide formation. The third project in progress is destruction of four polychlorinated biphenyls at 20 kHz. Work so far has been at 20 kHz, but the most significant portion of this project will involve a multi-frequency (ultrasonic frequency) study. Finally, the destruction of a pesticide, dichlorvos, during sonication at 500 kHz will be described. Preliminary work during the first year has emphasized determination of kinetics; further work (years 2--3) will be focused upon closing mass balances and identifying transformation products.'

  15. CONTROLE QUÍMICO E BIOLÓGICO DA BROCA-PELUDA, Hyponeuma sp. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE, NA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvelena Vanzolini Segato

    2012-05-01

    experiment was carried out in variety SP 81-3250, ratoon cane, in a randomized block design, where five treatments were repeated four times in plots of 42 m2.The treatments were: (i Beauveria bassiana (Boveriz™Biocontrol, 5x1013 conidia ha-1, (ii Metarhizium anisopliae(Metarriz™Biocontrol, 5x1013 conidia ha-1, (iii carbofuran (Furadan™SC 350, 5 L ha-1, (iv thiamethoxam(Actara™WG 250, 1.5 kg ha-1, (v control. The evaluations were periodic, counting the number of live caterpillarsper linear meter per replicate. The fungi tested were not effective in controlling Hyponeuma sp., probably becausethey were applied in the dry season. The insecticides carbofuran and thiamethoxam were efficient in controlling thepest from 14 days after application, but thiamethoxam caused a reduction of 93.4% at 28 days after application,which is the most effective insecticide.

  16. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milho tratadas associadas a polímeros durante o armazenamento Performance of corn seeds treated with furazin and maxin in association with polimers, during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de produtos fitossanitários aplicados via sementes é uma prática rotineira para a cultura do milho. No entanto, a crescente preocupação com o meio ambiente e com a segurança humana torna necessário o desenvolvimento de tecnologias que venham reduzir os riscos com a manipulação destes fitoprotetores, sendo este um dos principais objetivos do uso de polímeros. Assim, com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de milho submetidas a tratamentos fitossanitários em associação com diferentes polímeros, durante o armazenamento. Para tanto, as sementes de milho dos híbridos AG9010 e AG122 foram tratadas ou não com inseticida carbofuran (nome comercial: Furazin na dosagem de 1,5 L/100 kg de sementes e em mistura com o fungicida fludioxonil (nome comercial: Maxin na dosagem de 100 mL/100 kg de sementes. Durante o tratamento das sementes foram utilizados ou não os polímeros 1519 na dosagem de 50 mL/100 kg de sementes e 1080 na dosagem de 100 mL/100 kg de sementes. As sementes foram acondicionadas em embalagens de papel multifoliado e armazenadas durante seis meses sob condições ambientais. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada antes e após o armazenamento, por meio das seguintes determinações: teste de germinação, teste de frio, teste de emergência em bandeja, determinação de sementes infestadas, índice de velocidade de emergência e teste de sanidade. Conclui-se que a peliculização não afeta a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milho e a aplicação de Furazin e/ou Maxin, sobre as sementes de milho, é tecnicamente viável. Sementes de milho de alta qualidade inicial podem ser tratadas e armazenadas por seis meses, sem que haja comprometimento de sua qualidade fisiológica.The use of phytosanitary chemicals applied via seeds is a routine practice for corn crop, nevertheless, the growing concern about environment and human security make it necessary to develop new

  17. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515 tratada com nematicidas Selectivity of herbicides applied on pre-emergence of nematicide-treated sugarcane crop (RB 867515

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Barela

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação simultânea de duas ou mais classes de defensivos sobre uma cultura agrícola pode provocar toxicidade às plantas. Assim, conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas à cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515, quando aplicados em condição de pré-emergência, em áreas previamente tratadas com nematicidas no sulco de plantio. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área comercial de produção de cana-de-açúcar, no município de Piracicaba - SP, entre abril de 2003 e julho de 2004. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre nove fatores herbicidas e quatro fatores nematicidas. Os herbicidas usados no experimento foram: sulfentrazone, tebuthiuron, metribuzin, ametrina, diuron, clomazone, pendimethalin e diuron + hexazinone, além de uma testemunha capinada. Os nematicidas utilizados foram: carbofuran, terbufós, aldicarb e uma testemunha sem nematicida. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade das diferentes combinações aos 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a brotação, o rendimento (t ha-1 e os parâmetros tecnológicos qualitativos. Observou-se que a seletividade inicial dos herbicidas foi prejudicada em função da interação das diferentes classes de defensivos utilizadas. Os sintomas de fitotoxicidade foram agudos, e os casos mais evidentes se originaram da associação dos nematicidas com clomazone, pendimethalin e tebuthiuron. Contudo, os danos fitotóxicos não se refletiram em perdas significativas de rendimento ou de qualidade de colmos, fato esse que pode ter sido influenciado pela capacidade de recuperação de injúrias apresentada pela variedade RB 867515, pela ocorrência de altas infestações de nematóides ou pela elevada variabilidade experimental.Simultaneous applications of two or more classes of herbicides on a crop may promote ,totoxicity in the plants. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide selectivity in sugarcane, when applied under pre-emergence condition, in

  18. Resíduos de agrotóxicos na água de rios da Depressão Central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Residues of pesticides in the water of the Depression Central rivers in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Enio Marchesan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A atividade orizícola é conduzida com uso intensivo de agrotóxicos, os quais, dependendo do manejo e das precipitações pluviais, podem chegar até os rios. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar resíduos dos herbicidas clomazona, quincloraque, propanil, bentazona, 2,4-D e imazethapyr e dos inseticidas carbofurano e fipronil nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim, situados na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, nas safras de 2003/04 a 2007/08, com coletas realizadas de novembro a fevereiro (cultivo do arroz. As análises dos herbicidas e do carbofurano foram realizadas por HPLC-DAD, e a análise do fipronil foi realizada por GC-ECD. Na safra 2003/04, em ambos os rios, os herbicidas clomazona, 2,4-D e propanil foram os mais frequentes nas amostras de água. Na safra 2004/05, o quincloraque foi detectado em maior número de amostras, já nas safras 2005/06 e 2006/07 fipronil foi o agrotóxico mais frequente nas amostras nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim. Na safra de 2007/08, houve menor presença de resíduos de agrotóxicos nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim. Há presença de agrotóxicos utilizados na lavoura de arroz nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim durante o período de cultivo de arroz irrigado, destacando-se, entre os analisados, os herbicidas clomazona e quincloraque e o inseticida fipronil.The rice-growing activity is conducted out with intensive use of agrochemicals, which, depending on the management and rainfall can reach rivers. The study aimed to determine the residues of herbicides clomazone, quinclorac, propanil, bentazone, 2,4-D and imazethapyr and insecticides carbofuran and fipronil in the Vacacaí and Vacacaí-Mirim rivers, located in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul, in the crop of 2003/04 untill 2007/08. Samples were collected from November to February (rice growing season. Analysis of herbicides and carbofuran were performed by HPLC-DAD and fipronil by GC-ECD. During 2003/04, in both rivers, the herbicide

  19. Influência da época de aplicação de nematicidas em soqueiras sobre as populações de nematóides e a produtividade da cana-de-açúcar Application period effect of nematicides in sugarcane ratoon on nematodes populations and sugarcane yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de definir a melhor época para aplicação de nematicidas em soqueiras, desenvolveram-se seis experimentos, em canaviais colhidos entre julho e novembro, fazendo aplicação de nematicidas aos 5, 20, 40 ou 60 dias depois da colheita. A aplicação de nematicidas contribuiu para incrementos significativos de produtividade em cinco dos seis experimentos instalados. No experimento em que não se observou incremento significativo de produtividade, as populações de nematóides na área estavam baixas. Nos três tratamentos nematicidas estudados (aldicarb 150G a 8 kg ha-1 ou a 10 kg ha-1 e carbofuran 100G 21 kg ha-1 observou-se desempenho semelhante quanto à redução populacional de nematóides e incrementos de produtividade. Para os experimentos colhidos na época seca, observaram-se os maiores incrementos quando os nematicidas foram aplicados aos 40 ou 60 dias depois do corte. Para o experimento colhido na época chuvosa, os maiores incrementos foram verificados em aplicações feitas aos 20 ou 60 dias depois do corte. Pelos resultados, sugere-se que o período após colheita que se deve aguardar para aplicar o nematicida, a fim de obter os melhores incrementos de produtividade, varia em função da época de colheita do canavial, sendo maior (40 a 60 dias em canaviais colhidos em época seca e menor (20 dias em canaviais colhidos na época chuvosa.The objective of this work was to define the best period of nematicides application in sugarcane ratoon, Six experiments were carried out in the sugarcane field harvested from July through November during which nematicides were applied at 5, 20, 40 or 60 days after harvesting. Nematicides contributed to increase yield in five of the six experiments. In the experiment in which yield increase was not observed, nematode population was low. The three nematicide treatments (aldicarb 150G at doses 8 kg.ha-1 or 10 kg.ha-1 and carbofuran 100G 21 kg.ha-1 promoted similar reductions in the

  20. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FENOTÍPICA DE BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS ENDOFÍTICAS ISOLADAS DE CANA DE AÇÚCAR PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIAS ISOLATED OF SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Cavalcante de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inoculantes contendo microrganismos diazotróficos na cana-de-açúcar pode contribuir para a promoção do crescimento destas plantas e promover ganhos significativos na produtividade. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho caracterizar bactérias diazotróficas isoladas de colmos cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados os meios de cultivo semi-sólidos NFb e JNFb sem adição de nitrogênio. Foram isoladas cinco estirpes nativas de bactérias diazotróficas as quais foram avaliadas microscopicamente pela coloração de Gram e em relação à resistência intrínseca aos antibióticos; fungicida furadan (i.a. carbofuran e inseticida regente (i.a. fipronil, e à capacidade de fixar o nitrogênio em condições de casa-de-vegetação e campo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que todos os isolados apresentaram características de bacilos Gram-negativos, e ampla resistência aos antibióticos. A estirpe nativa UCCBc5 apresentou resistência ao fungicida furadan e ao inseticida regente. As bactérias isoladas UCCBc1 e UCCBc5 apresentam capacidade e eficiência de fixar o nitrogênio atmosférico em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Verificou-se que a estirpe UCCBc5, resistente ao furadan e ao regente apresentou capacidade fixadora do nitrogênio atmosférico, em condições de campo. Na avaliação de doses de inoculante observou-se que existe relação dose de inoculante/ eficiência de fixação de nitrogênio. Estes resultados permitiram afirmar que as bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas podem ser utilizadas, em alguns casos, como substituto da adubação nitrogenada, na cultura de cana-de- açúcar.The use of inoculants containing diazotrophic microorganism in sugarcane can contribute to promoting the growth of these plants and tp promote significant gains in productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize diazotrophic bacteria isolated from stalks of sugarcane. We used the means of a semi-solid NFB and JNFb

  1. Fate and effects of pesticides under tropical field conditions. Implications for and research needs in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , atrazine, maneb and carbofuran) in agricultural soils under tropical field conditions. (author). 27 refs, 6 tabs

  2. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide air concentrations in Canadian agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Tuduri, Ludovic; Harner, Tom; Blanchard, Pierrette; Waite, Don; Poissant, Laurier; Murphy, Clair; Belzer, Wayne; Aulagnier, Fabien; Li, Yi-Fan; Sverko, Ed

    The Canadian Pesticide Air Sampling Campaign was initiated in 2003 to assess atmospheric levels of pesticides, especially currently used pesticides (CUPs) in agricultural regions across Canada. In the first campaign during the spring to summer of 2003, over 40 pesticides were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of pesticides in the Canadian atmosphere was shown to reflect the pesticide usage in each region. Several herbicides including triallate, bromoxynil, MCPA, 2,4-D, dicamba, trifluralin and ethalfluralin were detected at highest levels at Bratt's Lake, SK in the prairie region. Strong relationships between air concentrations and dry depositions were observed at this site. Although no application occurred in the Canadian Prairies in 2003, high air concentrations of lindane ( γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) were still observed at Bratt's Lake and Hafford, SK. Two fungicides (chlorothalonil and metalaxyl) and two insecticides (endosulfan and carbofuran) were measured at highest levels at Kensington, PEI. Maximum concentrations of chlorpyrifos and metolachlor were found at St. Anicet, QC. The southern Ontario site, Egbert showed highest concentration of alachlor. Malathion was detected at the highest level at the west coast site, Abbotsford, BC. In case of legacy chlorinated insecticides, high concentrations of DDT, DDE and dieldrin were detected in British Columbia while α-HCH and HCB were found to be fairly uniform across the country. Chlordane was detected in Ontario, Québec and Prince Edward Island. This study demonstrates that the sources for the observed atmospheric occurrence of pesticides include local current pesticide application, volatilization of pesticide residues from soil and atmospheric transport. In many instances, these data represent the first measurements for certain pesticides in a given part of Canada.

  4. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  5. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  6. Analysis on the Field Tests of Several Kinds of Fungicides to Prevent Root Rot in Mung Bean%几种杀菌剂防治绿豆根腐病田间药效试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玲玲; 刘峰; 崔秀辉; 李清泉; 王成; 闫锋; 赵秀梅; 季生栋

    2011-01-01

    以绿豆品种绿丰5号为试材,研究了35%甲霜灵干粉剂、50%福美双可湿性粉剂和35%多.福.克悬浮种衣剂3种药剂对其根腐病的防治效果。结果表明:35%多.福.克悬浮种衣剂,药种比1∶40拌种处理的产量极显著高于其它处理,为1 413.7 kg.hm-2;其对绿豆根腐病的防治效果较好,并且持效期长。绿豆出苗后10、30、60 d对绿豆根腐病的防治效果分别为82.6%、64.1%和69.4%。%The prevention effect of 35 % Metalaxyl DP, 50 % Thiram WP and 35 % Carbendazim· Thiram · Carhofuran FS on root rot of mung bean was studied. The results showed that., the yield of the treatment by seed dressing on the ratio of 1 : 40 of 35 % Carbendazim. Thiram- Carbofuran FS was extremely significant higher than the other treatments,and it was 1 413.7 kg·hm^2. Its prevention effect on the root rot of mung bean was the best and had long lasting time. The prevention effect of mung bean root rot were 82. 6 %-0.64. 1 % and 69.4% respectively at 10,30 and 60 days after mung bean emergence.

  7. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  8. Differential expression of glutathione s-transferase enzyme in different life stages of various insecticide-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi: A malaria vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sanil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Interest in insect glutathione s-transferases (GSTs has primarily focused on their role in insecticide resistance. These play an important role in biotransformation and detoxification of many different xenobiotic and endogenous substances including insecticides. The GST activity among 10 laboratory selected insecticide resistant and susceptible/control strains of Anopheles stephensi was compared using the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB. The difference in the GST activities of different life stages of diverse insecticide resistant strains was compared and presented. Methods: About 100 larvae, pupae, adult males, adult females and eggs (100 μg in total weight were collected and used for the experiment. The extracts were prepared from each of the insecticide-resistant strains and control. Protein contents of the enzyme homogenate and GST activities were determined. Results: Deltamethrin and cyfluthrin-resistant strains of An. stephensi showed significantly higher GST activity. Larvae and pupae of DDT-resistant strain showed peak GST activity followed by the propoxur-resistant strain. On contrary, the GST activity was found in reduced quantity in alphamethrin, bifenthrin, carbofuran and chloropyrifos resistant strains. Adults of either sexes showed higher GST activity in mosquito strain resistant to organophosphate group of insecticides namely, temephos and chloropyrifos. Interpretation & conclusion: The GST activity was closely associated with almost all of the insecticides used in the study, strengthening the fact that one of the mechanisms associated with resistance includes an increase of GST activity. This comparative data on GST activity in An. stephensi can be useful database to identify possible underlying mechanisms governing insecticide-resistance by GSTs.

  9. Anticholinesterase Toxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milatovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinesterase compounds, organophosphates (OPs and carbamates (CMs are commonly used for a variety of purposes in agriculture and in human and veterinary medicine. They exert their toxicity in mammalian system primarily by virtue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition at the synapses and neuromuscular junctions, leading into the signs of hypercholinergic preponderance. However, the mechanism(s involved in brain/muscle damage appear to be linked with alteration in antioxidant and the scavenging system leading to free radical-mediated injury. OPs and CMs cause excessive formation of F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes, in vivo biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and of citrulline, a marker of NO/NOS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS generation. In addition, during the course of these excitatory processes and inhibition of AChE, a high rate of ATP consumption, coupled with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, compromise the cell's ability to maintain its energy levels and excessive amounts of ROS and RNS may be generated. Pretreatment with N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist memantine, in combination with atropine sulfate, provides significant protection against inhibition of AChE, increases of ROS/RNS, and depletion of high-energy phosphates induced by DFP/carbofuran. Similar antioxidative effects are observed with a spin trapping agent, phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN or chain breaking antioxidant vitamin E. This review describes the mechanisms involved in anticholinesterase-induced oxidative/nitrosative injury in target organs of OPs/CMs, and protection by various agents.

  10. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.

  11. Flyash in the plant protection scenario of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanasamy, P. [Annamalaio University, Annamalainagar (India). Dept. of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture

    2003-07-01

    To counter pesticidal hazards in agriculture and the environment, intensive efforts are in full swing to unearth pest control technologies involving biological pesticides and other substances of natural origin. Considering flyash, a waste material available in enormous quantities from thermal power plants, a series of probes were made to assess utility of the lignite flyash (LFA) and coal flyash (CFA) as a pesticide and a carrier in insecticide formulation. Specific doses of PFA were evaluated for their efficacy against pests of rice and vegetables like eggplant, bhendi and tomato in laboratory and field conditions. Insecticides like B.H.C. 10% dust and 50% wettable powder, and Malathion 25% wp and Carbofuran 3% granules were synthesized with LFA as a carrier following ISI specifications and were evaluated against rice pests in comparison with commercial chemicals. Results revealed that PFA and CFA were found effective at 40 kg/ha against various pests of rice, egg plant, bhendi and tomato. Fly ash dust expressed its potential in effecting changes in body organs, major biochemical and by histology of certain key pests, thus rendering them dead ultimately. All the flyash-based insecticides excelled the commercial chemical pesticides in their efficacy against rice pest and their cost of production was significantly less than that of the marketed products. Based on the findings, a package of recommendations involving flyash for rice and vegetables has been developed. Utilisation of fly ash as a dust insecticide and a carrier in insecticide formulations will interest those concerned about profitable exploitation of the flyash in agriculture. 11 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Environmental hazard of pesticides applied in the border region between Platinum and Amazon Basins at the turn to century XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Rieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the environmental risk of pesticide prescribed in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, at the turn of the 21st century. Methods: The study used data of agronomic prescriptions for pesticides issued in the biennium of 1999-2000 in 24 cities located in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results: The most widely used pesticides in the study region are class II (very dangerous and III (dangerous in number of prescriptions (N = 2,828, 86.8% andquantity prescribed (N = 344,765, 90.4%. Among class III pesticides, a strong inversion was observed in the number of prescriptions (N = 1,274; 39.1% and quantity prescribed (N = 237,319; 62.2%, indicating a lower number of prescriptions, but with higher amountprescribed. The proportion of prescriptions for products amid the various classes of Potential of Environmental Dangers (PPA ranking model, apllied in Brazil changed over the two years (c2=20,814; DF=3; p < 0,01. The 10 most prescribed products (11 activecompounds were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, sulfluramid, chlorimuron ethyl, fipronil, diuron, paraquat, methamidophos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, and seven of them were ranked as PPA class I or II. Conclusions: The ratio between the number of pesticide prescriptions and the quantities prescribed among the various classes of PPA showed alteration over crop years. The most reported products in this border region were classified as the most dangerous ones, with diverse mechanisms of action and potential risksto living organisms. This suggests the need to define specific policies and carefully designed strategies to prevent environmental disaster in this region.

  13. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation;Remediacao de solos contaminados com agrotoxicos pelo tratamento com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-07-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  14. Optimization and validation of a methodology for the qualitative determination of polar pesticides in a carbonated soft drink and some cookies for EFS-CG/DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis of polar pesticides has been qualitatively interest in forensic scientific research by toxicological qualities to the attainment of crimes against human life, pets and plants; associating people and objects in the scene and the possible ways in which the events occurred. The Unidad de Toxicos y Varios of the Seccion de Quimica Analitica of the Departamento de Ciencias Forenses has analyzed polar pesticides and other families to concentration levels, is compared to the environmental analysis and quality control of food. The compounds are used in Costa Rica in recent years as acute chemical weapon to commit crimes against human and animal life. The toxic and lethal amounts of polar pesticides in mammals orally have been milligram level. The Seccion de Quimica Analitica has developed a qualitative methodology to analyze polar pesticides as minor components. The need for reliable analytical quality results has made it necessary to approach a review of the methodology of routine. The review has been solved by selecting two matrices characteristics in such cases: a solid food commercially known as maria biscuits and a carbonated cola. Analytes have been selected based on: greater toxicity, broad spectrum of analytes polarity, the octanol-water partition constant, the water solubility among others. The extraction of analytes in matrices has been selected by solid-phase extraction. The instrumental technique used is gas chromatography with mass selective detector. A method of acquisition optimized in its injection is used. The analysis of instrumental signals were obtained in scanning mode all ions formed, known as Scan and by monitoring mode of ions selected ions (MIS), analysis of the data is acquired in Scan mode because concentration levels of work. The methodology for the qualitative determination of pesticide meets the criteria established for the chemical identification of analytes carbofuran, phorate, terbufos, methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos and

  15. [Phagodeterrent and systemic activity of a fomulation derived from an extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae) on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Javier; Hilje, Luko; Durón, Julio; Cartín, Víctor; Calvo, Marco A

    2010-03-01

    A key neotropical pest of mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.), the larva of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) commonly bores into the main shoot of these valuable timber species, causing forking of the stems. Therefore, it would be desirable to count upon a phagodeterrent and systemic product which could readily protect young tissues. Since crude extracts of common rue foliage (Ruta chalepensis L.) have phagodeterrent activity on H. grandella larva, a product was formulated by combining such an extract with a number of coadjuvants, and was assessed on 75-100 cm tall Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) trees, inside a greenhouse. A completely randomized design was used, with 10 trees per each one of the following treatments: the formulated product, an absolute control (distilled water), a relative control (carbofuran, 1%m/v in water), and the relative control without the crude extract. Number of attacks to the main shoot, fallen leaves and frass piles were recorded, as well as tunnel length. Regarding these variables, the formulated product provided excellent protection to treated trees, with only 0.1 attacks to the main shoot, on the average, at the end of the evaluation period. Likewise, when the systemic activity of the crude extract was assessed, substances present in it were able to translocate and get assimilated by the trees, thereafter causing phagodeterrence to larvae. Finally, an espectrophotometry analysis (performed at a wavelength of 355 nm) allowed us to determine the concentration (403+/-1 mg/l) and percentage (0.40%) of the flavonoid rutin in the crude extract, which eventually may be used as an analytical marker compound, should an industrial formulation be developed.

  16. Toxicological and biochemical characterizations of AChE in phosalone-susceptible and resistant populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ali; Talebi-Jahromi, Khalil; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The toxicological and biochemical characteristics of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in nine populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were investigated in Kerman Province, Iran. Nine A. pistaciae populations were collected from pistachio orchards, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), located in Rafsanjan, Anar, Bam, Kerman, Shahrbabak, Herat, Sirjan, Pariz, and Paghaleh regions of Kerman province. The previous bioassay results showed these populations were susceptible or resistant to phosalone, and the Rafsanjan population was most resistant, with a resistance ratio of 11.3. The specific activity of AChE in the Rafsanjan population was significantly higher than in the susceptible population (Bam). The affinity (K(M)) and hydrolyzing efficiency (Vmax) of AChE on acetylthiocholine iodide, butyrylthiocholine iodide, and propionylthiocholine odide as artificial substrates were clearly lower in the Bam population than that in the Rafsanjan population. These results indicated that the AChE of the Rafsanjan population had lower affinity to these substrates than that of the susceptible population. The higher Vmax value in the Rafsanjan population compared to the susceptible population suggests a possible over expression of AChE in the Rafsanjan population. The in vitro inhibitory effect of several organophosphates and carbamates on AChE of the Rafsanjan and Bam populations was determined. Based on I50, the results showed that the ratios of AChE insensitivity of the resistant to susceptible populations were 23 and 21.7-fold to monocrotophos and phosphamidon, respectively. Whereas, the insensitivity ratios for Rafsanjan population were 0.86, 0.8, 0.78, 0.46, and 0.43 for carbaryl, eserine, propoxur, m-tolyl methyl carbamate, and carbofuran, respectively, suggesting negatively correlated sensitivity to organophosphate-insensitive AChE. Therefore, AChE from the Rafsanjan population showed negatively

  17. Gas-particle partitioning of pesticides in atmospheric samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, Astrid; Millet, Maurice; Mirabel, Philippe; Wortham, Henri

    A filter-XAD-2 resin plug high-volume air sampler was used to collect the particle (P) and vapour (V) phases of 11 pesticides. The atmospheric concentrations were measured simultaneously at three sites characterised as remote (Aubure in the Vosges mountains), rural (Colmar, in the upper Rhine Valley), and urban (Strasbourg, in the upper Rhine Valley). The measured concentrations, which agree with those of literature, were used to study the influence of the physico-chemical parameters on the V/P partitioning. The behaviour observed on two organochlorine pesticides ( α-HCH and HCB), carbaryl, and trifluraline corresponds to the one presented in literature for organochlorine and PAH. Therefore, the V/P partitioning is mainly controlled by temperature, total suspended particle (TSP), and vapour pressure. Nevertheless, the slope of the regression line of log( A.TSP/ F ) against log P° l (where A and F are, respectively, the gas and particulate concentrations and P° l is the subcooled liquid-vapour pressure) is less compared with that presented in literature (0.36 against approximately 0.85). This difference could possibly result from the low TSP concentrations measured in our study. For some pesticides (trifluraline, γ-HCH, mecoprop, carbofuran and atrazine) the description of the V/P partitioning is improved by using relative humidity in addition to the three previous environmental parameters (temperature, TSP and vapour pressure). There seems to exist a competition mechanism between water molecules in gas phase and pesticides to adsorb on the receiving sites of the particles. By this mechanism increase in the atmospheric relative humidity induces a simultaneous increase of pesticides in the gas phase.

  18. Testing of leachability and persistence of sixteen pesticides in three agricultural soils of a semiarid Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Garrido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching, the movement of water and chemicals into deeper soil layers and groundwater is a subject of worldwide interest because a high percentage of drinking water is extracted from groundwater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential leaching and persistence of sixteen pesticides (one fungicide, three nematicides/insecticides, and twelve herbicides for three Mediterranean agricultural soils with similar texture (clay loam but different organic matter content (1.2-3.1%. Adsorption was studied in batch experiments and leaching was tested using disturbed soil columns (40 cm length × 4 cm i.d.. Degradation studies were carried out during 120 days under laboratory conditions. Mobility experiments showed that pesticides can be grouped according to their potential leaching. Thus, pesticides showing medium leachability were included in group 1 (referred as G1 while those with high leachability were termed as G2. The differences observed in the leachability can be attributed to the different organic carbon (OC content in the soils (0.7-1.8%. Values of log KOC were higher in the order: soil C > soil B > soil A, which agrees with the OC content in each soil. The calculated half-lives ranged from 4.2 days for carbofuran in soil A to 330 days for prometon in soil C. As a general rule, when higher OC content in the soil the greater persistence of the pesticide was observed as a consequence of the increased adsorption. The first order kinetics model satisfactorily explains the disappearance of the studied pesticides in the soil.

  19. Chromogenic platform based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase for visible unidirectional assay of organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Zheng [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Chi Chensen [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Bor Luh Food Safety Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Bai Bing; Liu Gang; Rao Qinxiong [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Peng Shaojie [Institute of Shanghai Food and Drug Supervision, 615 Liuzhou Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Liu Hong [Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai 200336 (China); Zhao Zhihui [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Zhang Dabing [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Bor Luh Food Safety Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu Aibo, E-mail: wuaibo@saas.sh.cn [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A visible chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of OP and CM insecticide residues was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement and quantitative analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitivity, capabilities of resisting interferences and storage stability were desirable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix effects were acceptable and detection performance was satisfactory in real application. - Abstract: In this study we propose a chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) insecticide residues, based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase (R-DmAChE) as enzyme and indoxyl acetate as substrate. The visible chromogenic strip had the advantages identical to those of commonly used lateral flow assays (LFAs) with utmost simplicity in sample loading and result observation. After optimization, depending on the color intensity (CI) values, the well-established assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement via naked eyes and quantitative analysis by colorimetric reader with the desirable IC{sub 50} values against the tested six insecticides (0.06 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of carbofuran, 0.28 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of methomyl, 0.03 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of dichlorvos, 31.6 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of methamidophos, 2.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of monocrotophos, 6.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of omethoate). Acceptable matrix effects and satisfactory detection performance were confirmed by in-parallel LC-MS/MS analysis in different vegetable varieties at various spiked levels of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 1} {mu}g g{sup -1}. Overall, the testified suitability and applicability of this novel platform meet the requirements for practical use in food safety management and environmental monitoring, especially in the developing world.

  20. L'acétylcholinestérase des poissons, cible des organophosphorés et des carbamates. Caractérisation du gène et des formes moléculaires de l'enzyme chez Danio rerio. Effets des anticholinestérasiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERTRAND C.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available L'acétylcholinestérase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7 est une enzyme indispensable de la transmission synaptique cholinergique. Son inhibition par les organophosphorés et les carbamates est à la base de certains traitements insecticides et nématicides utilisés en agriculture. Les faunes sauvage (en particulier les poissons et domestique sont exposées aux résidus des traitements anticholinestérasiques. La mesure de l'inhibition de l'activité AChE chez ces espèces est un marqueur fiable de l'exposition. Ceci est montré ici pour l'AChE de carpes exposées expérimentalement au carbofuran (carbamate. Nous présentons parallèlement des données sur le gène de l'AChE chez Danio rerio et sur les formes moléculaires de l'enzyme chez Danio, Cyprinus carpio et Oncorhynchus mykiss. Contrairement à ce qui est observé chez d'autres vertébrés, le gène d'AChE de Danio ne possède pas d'exon H et seules les sous-unités de type T ont pu être identifiées chez ces trois espèces. Des résultats préliminaires d'hybridation in situ sur les embryons sont présentés et nous discutons l'intérêt des expériences de transgenèse dans l'oeuf de Danio pour étudier d'éventuelles fonctions morphogénétiques de l'AChE au début du développement.

  1. Applicability of a carbamate insecticide multiresidue method for determining additional types of pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, R T; August, E M

    1983-03-01

    Several fruits and vegetables were fortified at a low (0.02-0.5 ppm) and at a high (0.1-5 ppm) level with pesticides and with a synergist, and recoveries were determined. Analyses were performed by using 3 steps of a multiresidue method for determining N-methylcarbamates in crops: methanol extraction followed by removal of plant co-extractives by solvent partitioning and chromatography with a charcoal-silanized Celite column. Eleven compounds were determined by using a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a reverse phase column and a fluorescence detector. Twelve additional compounds were determined by using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a nonpolar packed column and an electron capture or flame photometric detector. Recoveries of 10 pesticides (azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, azinphos methyl oxygen analog, carbaryl, carbofuran, naphthalene acetamide, naphthalene acetic acid methyl ester, napropamide, phosalone, and phosalone oxygen analog) and the synergist piperonyl butoxide, which were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, averaged 100% (range 86-117) at the low fortification level and 102% (range 93-115) at the high fortification level. Quantitative recovery of naphthalene acetamide through the method required that an additional portion of eluting solution be passed through the charcoal column. Recoveries of 7 additional pesticides (dimethoate, malathion, methyl parathion, mevinphos, parathion, phorate oxygen analog, and pronamide), which were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), averaged 108% (range 100-120) at the low fortification level and 107% (range 99-122) at the high fortification level. DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, phorate, and pirimiphos ethyl, which were determined by GLC, were not quantitatively recovered. PMID:6853408

  2. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. PMID:25217998

  3. Analysis of airborne pesticides from different chemical classes adsorbed on Radiello® Tenax® passive tubes by thermal-desorption-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Fabritius, Marie; Nief, Marie; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Briand, Olivier; Tuduri, Ludovic; Millet, Maurice

    2015-02-01

    An analytical methodology using automatic thermal desorption (ATD) and GC/MS was developed for the determination of 28 pesticides of different chemical classes (dichlobenil, carbofuran, trifluralin, clopyralid, carbaryl, flazasulfuron, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, cyprodinil, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, oxadiazon, myclobutanil, buprofezin, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl, ioxynil, diflufenican, tebuconazole, bifenthrin, isoxaben, alphacypermethrin, fenoxaprop and tau-fluvalinate) commonly used in nonagricultural areas in atmospheric samples. This methodology was developed to evaluate the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by nonagricultural pesticides. Pesticides were sampled passive sampling tubes containing Tenax® adsorbent. Since most of these pesticides are polar (clopyralid, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl and ioxynil), a derivatisation step is required. For this purpose, a silylation step using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MtBSTFA) was added before thermal desorption. This agent was chosen since it delivers very specific ions on electronic impact (m/z = M-57). This method was established with special consideration for optimal thermal desorption conditions (desorption temperature, desorb flow and duration; trap heating duration and flow; outlet split), linear ranges, limits of quantification and detection which varied from 0.005 to 10 ng and from 0.001 to 2.5 ng, respectively, for an uncertainty varied from 8 to 30 %. The method was applied in situ to the analysis of passive tubes exposed during herbicide application to an industrial site in east of France. PMID:25205153

  4. Larval susceptibility of an insecticide-resistant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population to soil insecticides: laboratory bioassays, assays of detoxification enzymes, and field performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R J; Scharf, M E; Meinke, L J; Zhou, X; Siegfried, B D; Chandler, L D

    2000-02-01

    Soil insecticides were evaluated in laboratory and field studies against larvae of an insecticide resistant population (Phelps County, NE) of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Insecticide toxicity was evaluated by topical application of technical insecticides to 3rd instars from Saunders County, NE (susceptible) and Phelps County populations. Resistance ratios (LD50 Phelps County/LD50 Saunders County) for the insecticides methyl parathion, tefluthrin, carbofuran, terbufos, and chlorpyrifos were 28.0, 9.3, 8.7, 2.6 and 1.3, respectively. Biochemical investigation of suspected enzymatic resistance mechanisms in 3rd instars identified significant elevation of esterase activity (alpha and beta naphthyl acetate hydrolysis [3.8- and 3.9-fold]). Examination of 3rd instar esterases by native PAGE identified increased intensity of several isoenzymes in the resistant population. Assays of cytochrome P450 activity (4-CNMA demethylation and aldrin epoxidation) did not identify elevated activity in resistant 3rd instars. Granular soil insecticides were applied at planting to corn, Zea mays L., in replicated field trials in 1997 and 1998 at the same Phelps County site as the source of resistant rootworms for the laboratory studies. In 1997, planting time applications of Counter 20CR, Counter 15 G (terbufos), and Lorsban 15 G (chlorpyrifos) resulted in the lowest root injury ratings (1-6 Iowa scale); 2.50, 2.55, 2.65, respectively (untreated check root rating of 4.55). In 1998, all insecticides performed similarly against a lower rootworm density (untreated check root rating of 3.72). These studies suggest that resistance previously documented in adults also is present in 3rd instars, esterases are possibly involved as resistance mechanisms, and resistance to methyl parathion in adults is also evident in larvae, but does not confer cross-resistance in larvae to all organophosphate insecticides.

  5. Metabolic interactions of agrochemicals in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2008-06-01

    Agrochemicals and other xenobiotics are metabolized by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) to products that may be more or less toxic than the parent chemical. In this regard, phase-I XMEs such as cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are of primary importance. Interactions at the level of metabolism may take place via either inhibition or induction of XMEs. Such interactions have often been investigated, in vitro, in experimental animals, using subcellular fractions such as liver microsomes, but seldom in humans or at the level of individual XME isoforms. The authors have been investigating the metabolism of a number of agrochemicals by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms and have recently embarked on studies of the induction of XMEs in human hepatocytes. The insecticides chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, carbofuran and fipronil, as well as the repellant DEET, are all extensively metabolized by human liver microsomes and, although a number of CYP isoforms may be involved, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are usually the most important. Permethrin is hydrolyzed by esterase(s) present in both human liver microsomes and cytosol. A number of metabolic interactions have been observed. Chlorpyrifos and other phosphorothioates are potent inhibitors of the CYP-dependent metabolism of both endogenous substrates, such as testosterone and estradiol, and exogenous substrates, such as carbaryl, presumably as a result of the interaction of highly reactive sulfur, released during the oxidative desulfuration reaction, with the heme iron of CYP. The hydrolysis of permethrin in human liver can be inhibited by chlorpyrifos oxon and by carbaryl. Fipronil can inhibit testosterone metabolism by CYP3A4 and is an effective inducer of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes.

  6. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health.

  7. 辽宁玉米几种病虫害综合防控技术初探%The Comprehensive Prevention and Control Technology of Early Main Diseases and Insect Pests on Maize in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董怀玉; 王大为; 董智; 王丽娟; 刘可杰; 赵荧彤; 郑丽娇; 栾好民

    2015-01-01

    针对辽宁省玉米生产中病虫害防控措施少且田间作业实施较难的实际情况,于2014年在辽西地区,以玉米顶腐病、玉米螟和灰斑病为防治对象,对玉米播种期和喇叭口期2个时期进行药剂防治主要病虫害综合防控技术进行了初步探讨,取得理想的效果:播种时采用7.5%克百威·戊唑醇悬浮种衣剂包衣处理种子,可有效的防控玉米顶腐病,防效达到90.66%~100%;喇叭口期采用一次机械喷雾的方式进行药剂防治,玉米螟的防治效果达到87.28%,玉米灰斑病的发病级别和病情指数分别下降0.9~2.52和46.79%~56.24%,降低了病虫害对玉米产量的影响,挽回产量损失3.91%~10.09%。%Aim at the situation of default in comprehensive prevention and control technology of main diseases and insect pests,and difficulty in field operation in corn production of Liaoning province. Taking maize top rot,maize borer and gray leaf spot as the objects of prevention and treatment,We preliminarily researched the comprehensive prevention and control technology of these diseases with chemicals in sowing and whorl stage in the west of Liaoning province in 2014. The results showed that treating with 7. 5% Carbofuran and tebucon-azole floating suspeusion seed coating agent was the best way to control corn top rot,with 90. 66% ~ 100%control efficacy;the chemical prevention using machine spray in corn whorl stage was taken,the control effi-cacy of corn borer was up to 87. 28% ,the disease grade and disease index of gray leaf spot was down to 0. 9~ 2. 52 and 46. 79% ~ 56. 24% . These measures reduced the effects of diseases and insect pests on corn yield,and the loss of corn yield was reduced by 3. 91% ~ 10. 09% .

  8. Development of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, O; de Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; de Ryckel, B; Pussemier, L; Debongnie, Ph; Culot, M

    2005-01-01

    Several studies carried out in Europe showed the importance of direct losses to the contamination of surface water by pesticides. These pesticides losses can occur at the farm site when the sprayer equipment is filled with the pesticide formulation (spills, overflowing, leaking) and during the clean-up (rinsing) of the sprayer after the treatment. In Belgium studies are carried out on biofilters to treat in an efficient way effluents containing pesticides. The biofilter substrate is elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and peat or composted material, able to absorb or degrade the active substances. Biofilters consist in systems of 2 or 3 units depending on the spray equipment of the farmer and on the configuration of the farmyard. Each unit is made from a 1 m3 plastic container and the different units are stacked in a vertical pile and connected between them using plastic valves and pipes. Eight pilot systems were installed in March 2002 in seven farms and in one agricultural school, all selected in the loamy region of Belgium specialised in arable crops such as cereals, sugar beets and vegetables. The efficacy (yield) of the systems was determined by measuring the balance of the inputs and outputs of the pesticides. Results were expressed in percent of pesticide retained on the biofilters. The results obtained after two years with 5 tracer pesticides (atrazine, carbofuran, diuron, lenacil and simazine) brought on the biofilter installations are very satisfactory since the percentage of retention is generally higher than 95% of the amount applied. In the beginning of 2004, ten new pilot biofilters were installed in several farms or agricultural technical centres (producing cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, fruits or ornamental plants), and in a municipal maintenance service. Some biofilters were installed in duplicate in order to compare the efficacy of different substrates. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for the

  9. 云南省玉米种子带菌检测及种衣剂处理的生物学效应%Testing of Seed Borne Fungi of Major Corn Varieties from Yunnan Province and Effect of Seed Coating Treatment with Different Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健强; 刘西莉; 朱春雨; 罗军; 朱建军; 李小林; 浦恩堂; 张松

    2001-01-01

    This study reported the testing of seed borne fungi of major corn varieties from Yunnan province and effect of seed coating treatment with four different formulations by means of petri-dish testing and field experiment.The results showed that Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyce, and Trichoderma were main seed borne fungi on the surface of 3 major corn variesties from Yunnan province; Helminthosporium, Rhizopus, Fusarium, and Penicillium represented main seed borne fungi inside. Nigrospora, Alternaria, and Phoma were minor seed borne fungi. The fungi on the seed surface and inside expressed significantly difference among experimental varieties. 20% Carbofuran-Thiram seed coating formulation (specific for corn seed coating treatment) provided a good control for seed borne fungi, increased seed germination and seedling emergence. Apron and Celest treatment expressed obvious sound seedling.%采用平皿测定方法和田间小区试验对云南省3个主栽玉米品种分别进行了种子带菌检测和4种不同种衣剂包衣处理的生物学效应研究。结果表明,玉米种子表面携带的优势菌群主要为青霉菌(Penicillium)、根霉菌(Rhizopus)、瓶梗青霉菌(Paecilomyces)和木霉菌(Trichoderma);种子内部寄藏的真菌主要有长蠕孢菌(Helminthosporium)、根霉菌(Rhizopus)、镰刀菌(Fusarium)和青霉菌(Penicillium),其它分离频率较高的寄藏真菌还有黑孢霉菌(Nigrospora)、交链孢菌(Alternaria)和茎点霉菌(Phoma)等;种子表面和内部携带真菌种类在品种之间有较大差异。20%克福种衣剂对种子带菌消毒、提高发芽和出苗率效果显著;Apron和Celest在促进壮苗方面具有良好的作用。

  10. Investigation on pesticide residues in some vegetables and teas in Quanzhou city in 2010%泉州市2010年部分蔬菜茶叶中农药残留状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志定; 黄盈煜; 苏晓鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的:为了解我市经过这十年来的食品污染物监测以后,目前蔬菜茶叶中农药残留状况.方法:按照GB/T5009.218-2008和GB2763-2005的方法进行检验和评价.结果:2010年采集蔬菜和茶叶25类104份样品,开展40种农药的检测.检出28份,其中超标4份,总检出率为26.9%.超标率为3.8%,合格率为96.2%,结论:泉州市的蔬菜茶叶均受到不同程度的污染,检出率略有上升,在蔬菜和茶叶中有违规使用甲胺磷、克百威、三氯杀螨醇现象.应加强农药管理,建立食品中农药残留的监测网络,从源头上对食品安全进行有效的控制.%Objective:To investigate the contamination status of pesticide residues in some vegetable and tea in QuanZhou since the food pollution surveillance was carried out for ten years. Methods: All of collected samples were detected with the method of "Determination of Multi Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables" (GB/T5009.218 -2008), and "The Maximum Residue Limits of Pesticides in Food" (GB2763 - 2005 ). Results: In 2010, 104 samples in 25 different kinds of vegetables and teas were collected. And 40 items of pesticide residues were detected. The detection result shows that 28 samples have been detected pesticide residues and 4 of them exceed the national standard. The total detection rate and exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in foods were 26.9% and 3. 8% respectively and the quality rate was 96.2%. Conclusion: There were various degrees of pesticide contamination on vegetables and teas in Quanzhou market and the detection rate increased slightly. The illegal use of methamidophos, carbofuran and dicofol was found in vegetables and teas. The pesticides management and monitoring network in foods should be strengthened to control food safety effectively in the source.

  11. 批发市场蔬菜农药残留调查及风险评估%Pesticide Residue Investigation and Risk Assessment of Vegetables from Vegetable Wholesale Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温雅君; 高景红; 李玲; 崔洁静

    2011-01-01

    [目的]调查北京市批发市场蔬菜的农药残留情况并进行风险评估.[方法]对北京市9个大型蔬菜批发市场6类蔬菜中的16种农药残留进行抽样检测.[结果]北京市蔬菜农药残留超标率全年呈先下降后上升的趋势;不同种类蔬菜的农药残留超标率依次为豆类>绿叶类>白菜类>茄果类>甘蓝类、瓜类;毒死蜱和克百威2种农药造成蔬菜农药残留超标的比例较高;全年的蔬菜农药安全指数均小于1,说明所检测的农药残留量没有安全风险.[结论]该研究为批发市场蔬菜质量安全监管提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to investigate and estimate risk of pesticide residue in vegetables from vegetable wholesale markets in Beijing. [Method] Sixteen pesticides residues in 6 kinds of vegetables from 9 large marketplaces in Beijing were detected by random sampling. [ Result] The results showed that over standard rate of pesticide residue tended to increase first then decrease. Over standard rate of pesticide residue in different kinds of vegetables was investigated as follows; legumes > leaf vegetables>Chinese cabbages>eggplants> cabbages and cucurbits. Pesticide residues over standard in vegetables were mainly caused by chlorpyrifos and carbofuran. Safety indexes of all pesticides were lower than 1 in each sample during a whole year,showing that pesticide residues were safe. [Conclusion] The paper provides a theoretical basis for supervising vegetable safety of vegetable wholesale markets.

  12. Intoxicação em cães e gatos: diagnóstico toxicológico empregando cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia líquida de alta pressão com detecção ultravioleta em amostras estomacais Intoxication in dogs and cats: toxicological diagnosis using thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in stomach samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Picada Bulcão

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotóxicos e raticidas são responsáveis por inúmeras intoxicações humanas e animais. Dados preliminares sugerem que o uso ilegal desses compostos com a finalidade de intoxicação fatal em pequenos animais é uma prática comum na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O Laboratório de Toxicologia (LATOX recebe amostras de casos em que a principal suspeita é a intoxicação por agrotóxicos ou raticidas (lícitos e ilícitos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um levantamento das intoxicações de pequenos animais, analisadas pelo LATOX no período de 2004 a 2008, sendo identificados os xenobióticos por meio de métodos analíticos otimizados pelo laboratório, incluindo screening por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e possível confirmação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV. No período, foram analisadas 68 amostras oriundas de intoxicações em cães e gatos. As amostras biológicas analisadas foram o estômago e o conteúdo estomacal, das quais a CCD permitiu a identificação de carbamatos, warfarina e estricnina. Esta mostrou ser uma técnica qualitativa eficiente e adequada para esse propósito, além de ser relativamente rápida, de baixo custo e de sofrer pouca interferência de componentes da matriz. Também foi realizado um screening toxicológico por CLAE-UV para os carbamatos n-metilados: aldicarb, carbaril, carbofuran e propoxur. O resultado das análises indicou que o principal agente tóxico encontrado foi o aldicarb (chumbinho, responsável por 39,7% das intoxicações (27 casos, seguido por estricnina (seis casos, warfarina (três casos e monofluoracetato de sódio (um caso. Sendo assim, o "chumbinho" foi o principal agente envolvido em intoxicações de cães e gatos na região central do Estado no período avaliado, e os métodos analíticos CCD e CLAE-UV podem ser utilizados de forma eficiente na rotina laboratorial para identificação e confirmação dos xenobi

  13. Pesticide trends in major rivers of the United States, 1992-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    agricultural and urban applications—simazine, tebuthiuron, Dacthal, pendimethalin, chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, fipronil, carbofuran, and carbaryl—had concentration trends that were mostly explained by a combination of agricultural-use trends and concentration trends in urban streams that were evaluated in a separate companion study. The importance of the urban stream trends for explaining concentration trends in major rivers indicates the significance of nonagricultural uses of some pesticides to concentrations in major rivers despite the much smaller area of urban land use compared to agriculture. Deethylatrazine, a degradate of atrazine, was the only pesticide compound assessed that had frequent occurrences during 1997–2006 and 2001–10 of concentration trends in the opposite direction of use trends (atrazine use). The nested analysis for the Mississippi River indicates that most trends observed in the largest rivers—multiple Mississippi River sites, the Ohio River, and the Missouri River—are consistent with streamflow contributions and concentration trends observed at tributary sites. Streamflow (incorporated into the trend model and shown in the nested basin analysis), trends in agricultural use of pesticides (quantified in this report), and urban use of pesticides (represented by concentration trends in a companion study of urban streams) are all important influences on pesticide concentrations in streams and rivers. Consideration of these influences is vital to understanding trends in pesticide concentrations.

  14. Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    Water and suspended-sediment samples were collected at eight sites on the Alamo and New Rivers in the Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin of California and analyzed for both current-use and organochlorine pesticides by the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were collected in the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, corresponding to the seasons of greatest pesticide use in the basin. Large-volume water samples (up to 650 liters) were collected at each site and processed using a flow-through centrifuge to isolate suspended sediments. One-liter water samples were collected from the effluent of the centrifuge for the analysis of dissolved pesticides. Additional samples were collected for analysis of dissolved organic carbon and for suspended-sediment concentrations. Water samples were analyzed for a suite of 61 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 25 pesticides were detected in the water samples, with seven pesticides detected in more than half of the samples. Dissolved concentrations of pesticides observed in this study ranged from below their respective method detection limits to 8,940 nanograms per liter (EPTC). The most frequently detected compounds in the water samples were chlorpyrifos, DCPA, EPTC, and trifluralin, which were observed in more than 75 percent of the samples. The maximum concentrations of most pesticides were detected in samples from the Alamo River. Maximum dissolved concentrations of carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion exceeded aquatic life benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for these pesticides. Suspended sediments were analyzed for 87 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using microwave-assisted extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and either carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges or deactivated Florisil for removal of matrix interferences. Twenty current-use pesticides were detected in the suspended

  15. HUBUNGAN KADAR ENZYM KHOLINESTERASE DENGAN KADAR HORMON THYROID PADA WUS DI DAERAH GONDOK ENDEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukati S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Relationship Between Cholinesterase Enzym and Iodine Status of Child Bearing Age Woman (CBAW In The Endemic Goitre Area.Background: Pesticide as a pollutant substance is a goitrogenic agent. It can form a strong complex bound with iodine in the body. Women who ive in the endemic goiter, area where the iodine source in the nature is limited and frequently exposed by pesticide, can increase the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD.Objectives: To find out the relationship between cholinesterase enzyme concentration (as an indicator of pesticide exposure in the body and iodine status of women in the endemic goiter area.Methods: The study was conducted in Pakis sub district, Magelang Regency, Central Java on July to November 2005. The design of the research was "cross-sectional" study. Samples were 265 women of child bearing age (17-35 years old. The data collected were concentration of free T4 (FT4 , cholinesterase enzyme in plasma, intake of cyanide originated from food, concentration of urine iodine excretion (UIE, type of contraception used and nutritional status. The concentration of serum FT4 were divided into two group (< 0.79 ng/gL = low > nonnal. These data were analyzed by using chi-square test with odd ratio at 95% CL. Association between independent and dependent variables by controlling other variable were analyzed by multiple logistic regression.Results: Pesticides that frequently used in the area of study was Organophosphate and Carbamat The pesticide residue on raw vegetables was Carbofuran. Its concentration was 0.056 to 55.65 mg/kg. The highest residues was found in cabbage and it had exceeded the maximum limit of permitted residue. The pesticide residue of cooked vegetables was very low. Low concentration of cholinesterase enzyme (< 3600 U/L was found in 3.8% women. More than 29% had low iodine status. Logistic regression analysis showed that women exposed to pesticide had 33 fold greater risk for IDD than that of

  16. Determination of Carbamate Pesticides Residues in Vegetables by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定蔬菜中氨基甲酸酯类农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长朋; 杨丽君; 徐成钢; 时文春; 王静

    2011-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 5 carbamate pesticides, including aldicarb, aldicarbsulfoxide, aldicarbsulfone, carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in products of vegetables. Homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrle. The extracts were dehydrated with sodium sulphate anhydrous. The extract layer was concentrated in 40°C by vacuum rotary steam to 1. 0 mL,and dried by nitrogen flowing,then redissolved in 0. 1% formic acid issolution. Identification of 5 carbamate pesticides was achieved by electospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and quantification analysis was performed with matrix-matched standard calibration. The results indicated that, under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity for 5 carbamate pesticides over the concentration range of 5. 0 - 100 jug/kg. Detection limits were 5. 0 μg/kg. The mean recoveries varied from 61. 3% to 123% at three spiked levels of 5. 0,10 and 20 μg/kg. The RSDs were less than 15%. This method is sensitive and reproducible,and suitable for the routine determination of 5 carbamate pesticides residues in vegetables.%建立了高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-MS/MS)法同时测定蔬菜中涕灭威、涕灭威砜、涕灭威亚砜、克百威、三羟基克百威5种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留的方法.样品均质后,经乙腈提取,无水硫酸钠脱水.提取液40℃减压旋蒸浓缩至1.0mL,氮气吹干后,0.1%甲酸水溶解定容;采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱电喷雾多反应监测模式检测.实验结果表明,5种氨基甲酸酯类农药在5.0~100 μg/kg范围内线性关系良好.检出限均为5.0μg/kg.6种空白基质样品中5.0、10、20 μg/kg 3水平的加标回收率为61.30%~123%,相对标准偏差均在15%以内.该方法操作简单、灵敏度高、重现性好,可用于蔬菜中5种氨

  17. 液相色谱-串联质谱法测定植物源性食品中16种氨基甲酸酯类农药及其代谢物%Determination of 16 carbamate pesticides and metabolite residues in plant-derived foodstuffs by high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬; 陈瑞春; 郭春海; 窦彩云

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立液相色谱-串联质谱法测定植物源性食品中16种氨基甲酸酯类农药及其代谢物(涕灭威、涕灭威亚砜、涕灭威砜、灭害威、恶虫威、甲萘威、克百威、乙霉威、仲丁威、茚虫威、异丙威、灭多威、速灭威、杀线威、抗蚜威和残杀威)残留量的方法。方法样品用0.1%冰醋酸-乙腈提取,提取液经过滤、浓缩后用石墨化炭黑/氨基固相萃取柱净化,采用多反应监测(multi-reaction monitoring, MRM)正离子扫描模式进行准确的定性和定量分析。结果16种氨基甲酸酯类农药在5~500 ng/mL浓度范围内均呈良好线性。16种农药在苹果、菠菜、山药、大米、大豆和生姜6种基质中的检出限和定量下限为2.0µg/kg和5.0µg/kg,在低、中、高3个水平的加标回收率为71.0%~108.0%之间, RSDs (relative standard deviations)为2.03%~11.30%。结论该方法简单快速,其灵敏度、准确度和精密度均能满足农药残留分析的要求。%Objective To establish a high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for determination 16 kinds of carbamate pesticides and their metabolites (aldicarb, al-dicarb-sulfoxide, aldicarb-sulfone, aminocarb, bendicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, diethofencarb, fenobucarb, in-doxacarb, isoprocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, pirimicarb and propoxur) in plant-derived foodstuffs. Methods Samples were extracted with 0.1%formic acid-acetonitrile solution. After concentrated, the solution was cleaned up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) column of envi-Carb/NH2, the mode of multi-reaction moni-toring positive ion scanning was adopted for both the quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results Calibra-tion curves showed a good linearity over the range of 5~500 ng/mL. The limits of detection (LOD) were 2.0 µg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 5.0 µg/kg for all the 16 pesticides spiked in apple, spinach, Chinese yam, rice, soybean and ginger

  18. 茶树油清除豇豆农药残留的效果%Effects of tea tree oils on removing pesticide residue in cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽静; 程盛华; 李积华; 黄茂芳; 唐永富; 朱德明

    2013-01-01

    dissolve the organophosphate pesticides depending on the compatibility principle. For carbamate pesticides, such as carbofuran, owing to its high polarity, TTO could not infiltrate into the internal of cowpeas to dissolve the residuals, resulting in the lower clearing efficiency. In conclusion, to remove pesticide residues, the commercially available extract TTO was more effective than deionized water in removing pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. In comparison, WTTO was even more effective in removing pesticide residues than the same concentration of TTO. Among all treatments, 0.8% WTTO showed the greatest removal efficiency. The removal rates achieved by WTTO were as follows: 80.48% for isocarbophos, 94.54% for malathion, 82.79% for triazophos, 84.58% for chlorpyrifos, 72.20% for omethoate, 80.51% for cypermethrin, and 72.21% for meta-tolyl-N-methylcarbamate (MTMC). Therefore, TTO is expected to be useful as a fruit and vegetable cleaning adjuvant.%  为研究茶树油清除果蔬农药残留的效果,该试验选取豇豆为供试材料,以不同浓度的茶树油和水溶性茶树油等清洗处理,利用气相色谱和气相色谱-质谱联用检测豇豆内有机磷类、拟除虫菊酯类和氨基甲酸酯类的农药残留量,计算农药清除率.供试7种农药中,水胺硫磷、马拉硫磷、氧乐果、三唑磷、毒死蜱、氯氰菊酯和速灭威在豇豆中的初始浓度分别为:20.395、1.690、6.524、10.719、0.160、12.104和23.057 mg/kg.茶树油处理后检测结果表明,茶树油具有清除残留在豇豆中农药的能力,清除效果随茶树油浓度增加而增强;清除有机磷类农药效果较拟除虫菊酯类和氨基甲酸酯类农药明显.茶树油比去离子水、市售果蔬农残清洗剂清除农药残留效果显著,同时,相同浓度的水溶性茶树油比相应茶树油清除农药残留能力强.0.8%水溶性茶树油清除效果最佳,清除率分别为水胺硫磷80.48%

  19. 镇江部分食用农产品污染物调查%Investigation about pollutants in edible agricultural products in Zhenjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩方岸; 陈建新; 徐岚; 蒋兆峰; 张春玲; 宋寅生; 巢秀琴

    2011-01-01

    , respectively. The pesticides detected were dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, methamidophos, dichlorvos, malathion, carbofuran, dicofol, chlorpyrifos-methyl and atrazine, etc. The detection rate of pesticide residues in agricultural food products was not different between the two regions, but the amount of pesticides detected was different between the two regions ( P < 0. 05). The detection rate of pesticides in raw grains and vegetables were significantly different between the two regions ( P < 0. 05 ). There was a positive correlation ( r = 0. 97 ) of organophosphorus pesticides with the cancer prevalence in the two regions, which showed a dose-effect relationship. Conclusion The contamination of cadmium and pesticide to agricultural food products might have some influence on the prevalence of cancer.

  20. DEF对大豆蚜羧酸酯酶活性的抑制及其增效作用%The effects of pretreatment with S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on carboxylesterase activity and susceptibility to eight kinds of insecticides in the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正堂; 肖达; 卢延; 李锦钰; 董金锦; 宋敦伦; 高希武

    2011-01-01

    The effects of exposing aphids to S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate ( DEF) on the effectiveness of eight kinds of insecticides and on aphid carboxylesterase activity, were investigated in Aphis glycines (Matsumura). Aphids were collected in the field and reared on soybean seedlings in a laboratory for more than 30 generations. The results show that beta-cypermethrin had the highest insecticidal activity on soybean aphids that had been exposed to DEF for 10 h. The carboxylesterase activity of soybean aphids decreased gradually after exposure to DEF for 2 h, and reached its lowest level, 69. 6% , after 10 h. Activity gradually recovered after 24 h. The LC,0 values of eight insecticides with three treatments; exposure to DEF, pesticides mixed with DEF and pesticides without DEF, were as follows; beta-cypermethrin ( 0. 294, 0. 613, 0. 814 mg · L-1), deltamethrin (0. 047, 0. 181, 0. 340 mg · L-1), omethoate (91. 025, 144. 882, 107. 999 mg ·L-1), malathion (78.212, 147.546, 141.912 mg · L-1), imidacloprid (1.778, 7.689, 11.876 mg · L-1), acetamiprid (0.814, 5.931, 9.581 mg· L-1), methomyl (7.120, 19.559, 37.335 mg · L-1) and carbofuran (11.298, 20.957 , 23.927 mg · L-1). The results suggest that the inhibitory effect of DEF on carboxylesterase was significantly greater in soybean aphids that had been exposed to DEF for 10 h. The pretreatment of soybean aphids with DEF may enhance insecticide activity compared to either using insecticides without such pretreatment, or applying a mixture of insecticide and DEF. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the chemical control of soybean aphids in thefield.%对采自田间的大豆蚜Aphis glycines Matsumura在室内不接触任何药剂的情况下连续饲养30代以上作为被测虫源,研究DEF(1,2,4-三丁基三硫磷酸酯)不同时间处理大豆蚜后对高效氯氰菊酯等8种药剂的增效作用,以及大豆蚜体内羧酸酯酶的活性变化.结果显示,高效氯氰菊酯对经DEF处理10 h的大