Sample records for carbazides

  1. Using Fluorescence XANES Measurement to Correct the Content of Hexavalent Chromium in Chromate Conversion Coatings Determined by Diphenyl Carbazide Color Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Junichi; Ofuchi, Hironori; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Honma, Tetsuo; Sekikawa, Toshikazu; Otani, Haruka; Bando, Akio


    The Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive will take effect on July 1 of this year. From that date, the use of chromate conversion coatings containing hexavalent chromium will not be permitted. By comparing the concentration of Cr6+ determined by the diphenyl carbazide color test and by fluorescence XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) measurement, we can correct for the Cr6+ content of the color test. This will enable the use of the diphenyl carbazide color test to check product shipments in compliance with the RoHS directive

  2. Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry


    The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

  3. pH-sensitive intracellular photoluminescence of carbon nanotube-fluorescein conjugates in human ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M T; Ishikawa, F N; Gundersen, M A; Gomez, L M; Vernier, P T; Zhou, C


    To add to the understanding of the properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes in biological applications, we report a monotonic pH sensitivity of the intracellular fluorescence emission of single-walled carbon nanotube-fluorescein carbazide (SWCNT-FC) conjugates in human ovarian cancer cells. Light-stimulated intracellular hydrolysis of the amide linkage and localized intracellular pH changes are proposed as mechanisms. SWCNT-FC conjugates may serve as intracellular pH sensors.

  4. Synthesis of some Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from 2-Chloro-N-p-Tolylacetamide

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    Hanan Gh Shaaban


    Full Text Available This research includes preparation of (2-chloro-N-p-tolylacetamide (1 from the reaction of (p-aminotoluene with chloro acetyl chloride. Compound (1 reacted with thiosemi carbazide and gave compound (2, and when compound (1 reacted with semicarbazide gave compound (3. While when compound (1 reacted with thiourea it produced compound (4. Compounds (2-4 when reacted with appropriate aromatic aldehydes or ketones produced Shiff bass (5-16, which in turn reacted with chloro acetyl chloride in the present of tri ethyl amine and dioxin gave β-lactam derivatives (14-22. The structures of these compounds were characterized from their melting points, FT-IR, and NMR.

  5. Properties of photocatalytically generated oxygen species produced by Ag2Se-graphene oxide heterojunction and its application for the visible-light degradation of ammonia (United States)

    Meng, Ze-Da; Zhao, Wei; Kim, Sukyoung


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by the interactions between sunlight and light-absorbing substances in aqueous environments, and these ROS are capable of destroying various organic pollutants in wastewater. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of ammonia in petrochemical wastewater was investigated by solar light photocatalysis. We used graphene oxide modified Ag2Se nanoparticles to enhance the activity of photochemically generated oxygen (PGO) species. There was a catastrophic decrease in the surface area and pore volume of the Ag2Se-graphene oxide (Ag2Se-G) samples because of the deposition of Ag2Se. The generation of ROS was detected by the oxidation of 1,5- diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). It was revealed that the photocurrent density and PGO effect increased with the graphene oxide modified. The experimental results indicate that this heterogeneous catalyst achieved a degradation of 88.43% under visiblelight irradiation. The NH3 degradation product was N2 and neither NO2- nor NO3- were detected.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Confirmation of hydroxyl radicals ({sup •} OH) generated in the presence of TiO{sub 2} supported on AC under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhaohong, E-mail: [School of Environmental Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Yu, Fengyang; Huang, Lirong; Jiatieli, Jianaerguli; Li, Yuanyuan; Song, Lijun [School of Environmental Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Yu, Ning [Experiment Center of Environmental Monitoring of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110161 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Generation of {sup •} OH in MW integrated with loaded TiO{sub 2}/AC system was confirmed. • Confirmation of {sup •} OH was conducted using radical scavenger such as BHT, MT and VC. • More {sup •} OH was formed using anatase TiO{sub 2}/AC than rutile TiO{sub 2}/AC under MW irradiation. • Effect of mass ratio, irradiation time, catalyst dose and DPCI on {sup •} OH was studied. - Abstract: In order to study the degradation mechanism of technology of microwave (MW) combined with TiO{sub 2} supported on activated carbon (TiO{sub 2}/AC), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was explored through oxidation of 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). Furthermore, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), Mannitol (MT) and Vitamin C (VC) were used as radical scavengers to confirm the generation of the hydroxyl radicals ({sup •} OH). In addition, the influence of some parameters such as TiO{sub 2} mass ratio content, irradiation time, material dose, DPCI concentration and MW power on the determination of {sup •} OH were examined. The results showed that the {sup •} OH could be generated under MW combined with loaded TiO{sub 2}/AC. Also, anatase TiO{sub 2}/AC can generate more {sup •} OH radicals than rutile TiO{sub 2}/AC under MW irradiation. This work would provide new mechanistic insights on the enhanced degradation effect of organic pollutants in water using the supported TiO{sub 2}/AC coupled with MW technology.


    Hill, Ross; Ralph, Peter J


    Global climate change is leading to the rise of ocean temperatures and is triggering mass coral bleaching events on reefs around the world. The expulsion of the symbiotic dinoflagellate algae is believed to occur as a result of damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of these symbionts, although the specific site of initial impact is yet to be conclusively resolved. Here, the sensitivity of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) to bleaching stress was studied as well as its natural variation between seasons. The artificial electron donor, diphenyl carbazide (DPC), was added to cultured, freshly isolated and expelled (bleaching treatments only) zooxanthellae suspensions. Chl a fluorescence and oxygen production measurements showed that upon addition of DPC, no restoration of diminished photochemical efficiency occurred under control or bleaching conditions. This result was consistent between 12 h and 5 d bleaching treatments on Pocilloporadamicornis, indicating that the OEC is not the primary site of damage, and that zooxanthellae expulsion from the host is a nonselective process with respect to the functioning of the OEC. Further experiments measuring fast induction curves (FICs) revealed that in both summer and winter, the temperature when OEC function was lost occurred between 7°C and 14°C above the sea surface temperature. FIC and oxygen production measurements of P. damicornis during exposure to bleaching stress demonstrated that the thermotolerance of the OEC increased above the temperature of the bleaching treatment over a 4 h period. This finding indicates that the OEC has the capacity to acclimate between seasons and remains functional at temperatures well above bleaching thresholds. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  8. A novel solidified floating organic drop microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of copper ions by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Cigdem Arpa; Tokgoez, Ilknur


    A rapid, simple and cost effective solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination (FI-FAAS) method for copper was developed. In this method, a free microdrop of 1-undecanol containing 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) as the complexing agent was transferred to the surface of an aqueous sample including Cu(II) ions, while being agitated by a stirring bar in the bulk of the solution. Under the proper stirring conditions, the suspended microdrop can remain at the top-center position of the aqueous sample. After the completion of the extraction, the sample vial was cooled by placing it in a refrigerator for 10 min. The solidified microdrop was then transferred into a conical vial, where it melted immediately and diluted to 300 μL with ethanol. Finally, copper ions in 200 μL of diluted solution were determined by FI-FAAS. Several factors affecting the microextraction efficiency, such as type of extraction solvent, pH, complexing agent concentration, extraction time, stirring rate, sample volume and temperature were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions for 100 mL of solution, the preconcentration factor was 333 and the enrichment factor was 324. The limit of detection (3 s) was 0.4 ng mL -1 , the limit of quantification (10 s) was 1.1 ng mL -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicate measurements of 10 ng mL -1 copper was 0.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in different water samples.

  9. ChromiSense: A colourimetric lab-on-a-disc sensor for chromium speciation in water. (United States)

    Duffy, G; Maguire, I; Heery, Brendan; Gers, Pauline; Ducrée, J; Regan, F


    The development of a centrifugal device for quantitative analysis of both chromium (III) and (VI) species in water is reported. ChromiSense is a colourimetric sensor system that has been applied to the measurement of chromium in spiked river water samples. For analysis, the sample is loaded into a reservoir on the disposable microfluidic disc, along with reagents. A centrifugal force is created by spinning the disc to pump liquids through microchannels, causing them to mix and react to form a coloured product. The coloured product is then presented to a low-cost optical detection system, where absorbance measurements can be recorded. The optical detection system consists of a light emitting diode (LED) and photodiode (PD) couple. Chromium (III) was measured using 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid as a ligand, forming a complex that was measured at 535nm and at 335nm. While measuring at 535nm allowed for the use of a low cost LED, the sensitivity was improved 2.5 times by measuring at 335nm. However, 335nm also yielded a diminished linear range with little improvement in limit of deteciton (LOD), and required a lengthier manufacturing process due to the need for a UV-transparent material. Chromium (VI) was detected using 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC). This standard analysis method was simplified for automation on-disc, and optimised to achieve a low LOD. The LOD for trivalent and hexavalent chromium using this device were 21mgL -1 and 4μgL -1 , respectively. The linear range for quantitative analysis was found to be 69-1000mgL -1 for Cr(III) and 14-1000μgL -1 for Cr (VI). While this range is high for Cr(III), incorporation of an off-disc pre-concentration method would make this technology suitable for environmental sample analysis. The device is simple to use, low in cost, and could provide rapid on-site measurements, with results comparable to those obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low temperature reduction of hexavalent chromium by a microbial enrichment consortium and a novel strain of Arthrobacter aurescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Vicki S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [Cr(III] and hexavalent [Cr(VI] forms. The EPA maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (0.1 ppm. Many water sources, especially underground sources, are at low temperatures (less than or equal to 15 Centigrade year round. It is important to evaluate the possibility of microbial remediation of Cr(VI contamination using microorganisms adapted to these low temperatures (psychrophiles. Results Core samples obtained from a Cr(VI contaminated aquifer at the Hanford facility in Washington were enriched in Vogel Bonner medium at 10 Centigrade with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/l Cr(VI. The extent of Cr(VI reduction was evaluated using the diphenyl carbazide assay. Resistance to Cr(VI up to and including 1000 mg/l Cr(VI was observed in the consortium experiments. Reduction was slow or not observed at and above 100 mg/l Cr(VI using the enrichment consortium. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI in the 30 and 60 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the consortium was 8 and 17 days, respectively at 10 Centigrade. Lyophilized consortium cells did not demonstrate adsorption of Cr(VI over a 24 hour period. Successful isolation of a Cr(VI reducing organism (designated P4 from the consortium was confirmed by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI at 10 Centigrade in the 25 and 50 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the isolate P4 was 3 and 5 days, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence from isolate P4 identified this organism as a strain of Arthrobacter aurescens, a species that has not previously been shown to be capable of low temperature Cr(VI reduction. Conclusion A. aurescens, indigenous to the subsurface, has the potential to be a predominant metal reducer in enhanced, in situ subsurface bioremediation efforts involving Cr(VI and possibly other heavy metals and radionuclides.

  11. Analytical recovery of Cr (VI), Mo (VI), Ti (IV) and Co (II) by N-phenyl-meta-nitro-benzohydroxamic and N-P-tolyl-meta-nitro-benzohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Abdul Aziz Malik Mohamed


    , of 82.20% for Mo (VI) at pH 1.0, and of 78.47% for Co (II) at pH 8.0, whereas N-p-tolyl-m-nitro-benzohydroxamic acid was found to have a maximum extraction of 42.25% for Ti (IV) at pH 2.0, of 97.06 for Cr (VI) at 3MH 2 SO 4 , of 81.32% for Mo (VI) at pH 1.0, and of 71.13% for Co (II)) at pH 8.0. The two reagents developed yellow colour chelate with Cr(VI) which was found to have molar absorptivity equal to 9014 L.mole -1 .cm -1 at wave length 480 nm, whereas the chelate of Cr(VI) with 1,5 diphenyl-carbazide have molar absorptivity equal to 8694 L.mole -1 .cm -1 at the same wavelength. The two reagents developed colorless chelate with Ti(IV), Mo(VI) and Co(II). (Author)

  12. BIOSORPSI DAN REDUKSI KROM LIMBAH PENYAMAKAN KULIT DENGAN BIOMASSA Fusarium sp DAN Aspergillus niger (Biosorpstion and Reduction of Chromium Bearing Tannery Wastewater Using The Biomass of Fusarium Sp. and Aspergillus niger

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    Suharjono Triatmojo


    of leather tanning waste solution. Chromium content of Fusarium sp biomass was determined by dihenyl carbazide method. Aspergillus niger was grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA solid medium for 5 days and then transferred to liquid medium containing bacto dextrose, bacto pepton and micronutrien. The biomaas was dried, and then ground and sieved at 150 um. The powder was used to remove Cr(III and Cr(IVfrom solution, The result indicated that fusarium sp biomass could be used to remove chromium from solution containing K2Cr2O7 or sludge of leather tanning waste. Longer incubation time increased chromium absorption by Fusarium sp biomass. Fusarium sp was able to reduce Cr9VI to Cr(III. the biomass of Aspergillus niger could be used to remove chromium from solution. The best result was obtained from 100 mg/l initial concentration of chromium pH 2.0, 0.1 g biomass weight, and 12 hours contact time, i.e. 96.23% for Cr(III and 96.30% for Cr(VI, respectivey.