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Sample records for carbaryl esa assessment

  1. Validation of the French version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (F-ESAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautex, Sophie; Vayne-Bossert, Petra; Bernard, Mathieu; Beauverd, Michel; Cantin, Boris; Mazzocato, Claudia; Thollet, Catherine; Bollondi-Pauly, Catherine; Ducloux, Dominique; Herrmann, François; Escher, Monica

    2017-07-24

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System is a brief, widely adopted, multidimensional questionnaire to evaluate patient-reported symptoms. To define a standard French version of the ESAS (F-ESAS), to determine the psychometric properties in French speaking patients Methods: In a first pilot study health professionals (n: 20) and patients (n: 33) defined the most adapted terms in French (F-ESAS). In a prospective multicentric study, palliative care patients completed the three forms of F-ESAS (F-ESAS-VI; VE; NU), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All patients had a test-retest evaluation during the same half-day. Standardized distraction material was used between each scale. 124 patients were included (mean age (±SD): 68.3 ±12; 70F; 54 M). Test retest reliability was high for all 3 F-ESAS and the correlation between these scales was nearly perfect (Spearman rs=0.66-0.91; pF-ESAS-VI, VE and NU performed similarly and were equally reliable, although there was a trend towards lower reliability for F-ESAS-VI. Correlation between respectively F-ESAS depression and anxiety and HADS depression and anxiety were positive (Spearman rs=0.38-0.41 for depression; Spearman rs=0.48-0.57 for anxiety pF-ESAS-VE, F-ESAS-NU and F-ESAS-VI. The F-ESAS is a valid and reliable tool for measuring multidimensional symptoms in French speaking patients with an advanced cancer. All forms of F-ESAS performed well with a trend for better psychometric performance for F-ESAS-NU, but patients preferred the F-ESAS-VE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: Effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeborn, Danielle L., E-mail: Freeborn.danielle@epa.gov; McDaniel, Katherine L., E-mail: McDaniel.kathy@epa.gov; Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov; Herr, David W., E-mail: Herr.david@epa.gov

    2015-01-15

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long–Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED{sub 30} or an ED{sub 50}–ED{sub 80} change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. - Highlights: • Pesticides with different modes of action have different effects on in vivo rodent EEG. • The EEG was also changed differently after single vs. repeated treatment with fipronil. • The data suggest that EEG may be used as an apical measure for detecting chemical effects on the central nervous system.

  3. Cholinergic and behavioral neurotoxicity of carbaryl and cadmium to larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, S.L.; Jones, S.B.; Parris, J.T.; Brewer, S.K.; Little, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals are common environmental contaminants that can cause neurotoxicity to aquatic organisms, impairing reproduction and survival. Neurotoxic effects of cadmium and carbaryl exposures were estimated in larval rainbow trout (RBT; Oncorhynchus mykiss) using changes in physiological endpoints and correlations with behavioral responses. Following exposures, RBT were videotaped to assess swimming speed. Brain tissue was used to measure cholinesterase (ChE) activity, muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MChR) number, and MChR affinity. ChE activity decreased with increasing concentrations of carbaryl but not of cadmium. MChR were not affected by exposure to either carbaryl or cadmium. Swimming speed correlated with ChE activity in carbaryl-exposed RBT, but no correlation occurred in cadmium-exposed fish. Thus, carbaryl exposure resulted in neurotoxicity reflected by changes in physiological and behavioral parameters measured, while cadmium exposure did not. Correlations between behavior and physiology provide a useful assessment of neurotoxicity.

  4. The Spanish version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r): first psychometric analysis involving patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Ana; Hribernik, Nezka; Duarte, Eva; Sanz-Rubiales, Alvaro; Centeno, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is a measure widely used in palliative care for the assessment of symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. The tool has been validated in different languages, including Spanish. A revised version (ESAS-r) was developed by Watanabe et al. in 2010. To develop the Spanish version of the ESAS-r and examine its psychometric properties. Based on the original English version, a group of experts created a Spanish version of the ESAS-r and administered it to a group of advanced cancer patients. Patients completed the ESAS and ESAS-r and were asked for their perceptions of the tool. The psychometric properties of the ESAS-r that were analyzed were equivalence, internal consistency, and discriminant validity. Sixty-six patients from Spain and Guatemala participated in the survey. Patients perceived the ESAS-r to be significantly easier to understand and easier to complete than the ESAS. Significantly, patients preferred the ESAS-r (47%) to the ESAS (15%; P<0.0007). As to reliability, we found good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.86), and the equivalence of the two versions was between 0.71 and 0.94. The ESAS-r discriminates between inpatients and outpatients (Mann-Whitney U test; P=0.02) and among those with different palliative performance status (Spearman's rho for pain, tiredness, drowsiness, lack of appetite, well-being; P<0.01). The ESAS-r is a valid instrument with adequate psychometric characteristics. This version is preferred by patients with advanced cancer. The Spanish version of the ESAS-r can, therefore, replace the use of the ESAS. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment Of The Impact Of ESA CCI Land Cover Information For Global Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Loew, A.; Hangemann, S.; Defourny, P.; Brockmann, C.; Bontemps, S.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing the issues of climate change, the European Space Agency has recently initiated the Global Monitoring of an Essential Climate Variables program (ESA Climate Change Initiative). The main objective is to realize the full potential of the long-term global Earth Observation archives that ESA has established over the last thirty years. Due to well organized data access and transparency for the data quality, as well as long-term scientific and technical support, the provided datasets have become very attractive for the use in Earth System Modeling. The Max Plank Institute for Meteorology is contributing to the ESA CCI via the Climate Modeler User Group (CMUG) activities and is responsible for providing a modeler perspective on the Land Cover and Fire Essential Climate Variables. The new ESA land cover ECV has recently released a new global 300-m land cover dataset. This dataset is supported by an interactive tool which allows flexible horizontal re-scaling and conversion from currently accepted satellite specific land classes to the model- specific Plant Functional Types (PFT) categorization. Such a dataset is an ideal starting point for the generation of the land cover information for the initialization of model cover fractions. In this presentation, we show how the usage of this new dataset affects the model performance, comparing it to the standard model set-up, in terms of energy and water fluxes. To do so, we performed a number of offline land-system simulations with original standard JSBACH land cover information and with the new ESA CCI land cover product. We have analyzed the impact of land cover on a simulated surface albedo, temperature and energy fluxes as well as on the biomass load and fire carbon emissions.

  6. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  7. Interactive effects of a bacterial parasite and the insecticide carbaryl to life-history and physiology of two Daphnia magna clones differing in carbaryl sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, Dieter I.M., E-mail: Dieter.DeConinck@UGent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc [Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, University of Leuven, Ch. Deberiotstraat 32, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, Colin R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Interactive effects between a bacterial parasite and an insecticide in Daphnia magna. ► Two D. magna clones differing strongly in their sensitivity to the insecticide. ► Effects studied on various life-history and physiological endpoints. ► Genetic differences in strength and direction of interaction effects. -- Abstract: Natural and chemical stressors occur simultaneously in the aquatic environment. Their combined effects on biota are usually difficult to predict from their individual effects due to interactions between the different stressors. Several recent studies have suggested that synergistic effects of multiple stressors on organisms may be more common at high compared to low overall levels of stress. In this study, we used a three-way full factorial design to investigate whether interactive effects between a natural stressor, the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, and a chemical stressor, the insecticide carbaryl, were different between two genetically distinct clones of Daphnia magna that strongly differ in their sensitivity to carbaryl. Interactive effects on various life-history and physiological endpoints were assessed as significant deviations from the reference Independent Action (IA) model, which was implemented by testing the significance of the two-way carbaryl × parasite interaction term in two-way ANOVA's on log-transformed observational data for each clone separately. Interactive effects (and thus significant deviations from IA) were detected in both the carbaryl-sensitive clone (on survival, early reproduction and growth) and in the non-sensitive clone (on growth, electron transport activity and prophenoloxidase activity). No interactions were found for maturation rate, filtration rate, and energy reserve fractions (carbohydrate, protein, lipid). Furthermore, only antagonistic interactions were detected in the non-sensitive clone, while only synergistic interactions were observed in the carbaryl sensitive clone

  8. ESA ExoMars: Pre-launch PanCam Geometric Modeling and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, R.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    ExoMars is the flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Aurora Programme. The mobile scientific platform, or rover, will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research. As the ExoMars rover is designed to travel kilometres over the Martian surface, high-precision rover localization and topographic mapping will be critical for traverse path planning and safe planetary surface operations. For such purposes, the ExoMars rover Panoramic Camera system (PanCam) will acquire images that are processed into an imagery network providing vision information for photogrammetric algorithms to localize the rover and generate 3-D mapping products. Since the design of the ExoMars PanCam will influence localization and mapping accuracy, quantitative error analysis of the PanCam design will improve scientists' awareness of the achievable level of accuracy, and enable the PanCam design team to optimize its design to achieve the highest possible level of localization and mapping accuracy. Based on photogrammetric principles and uncertainty propagation theory, we have developed a method to theoretically analyze how mapping and localization accuracy would be affected by various factors, such as length of stereo hard-baseline, focal length, and pixel size, etc.

  9. 77 FR 30280 - Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... about EPA's public docket visit the EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm... Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program reported carbaryl as the second most frequently...: Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001. Circular 1291. U.S. Geological Survey....

  10. Pralidoxime in carbaryl poisoning: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Hack, Jason B; Salvador, Annabella; Hoffman, Robert S

    2007-02-01

    Poisoning from organophosphates and carbamates is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Concerns have been expressed over the safety and efficacy of the use of oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) in patients with carbamate poisoning in general, and more so with carbaryl poisoning specifically. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of 2-PAM in a mouse model of lethal carbaryl poisoning. Female ICR Swiss Albino mice weighing 25-30 g were acclimated to the laboratory and housed in standard conditions. One hundred and ten mice received an LD50 dose of carbaryl subcutaneously. Ten minutes later, they were randomized by block randomization to one of eight treatment groups: normal saline control, atropine alone, 100 mg/kg 2-PAM with and without atropine, 50 mg/kg 2-PAM with and without atropine, and 25 mg/kg 2-PAM with and without atropine. All medications were given intraperitoneally and the atropine dose was constant at 4 mg/kg. The single objective endpoint was defined as survival to 24 hours. Fatalities were compared using a Chi squared or Fisher's exact test. Following an LD50 of carbaryl, 60% of the animals died. Atropine alone statistically improved survival (15% lethality). High dose 2-PAM with and without atropine was numerically worse, but not statistically different from control. While the middle dose of 2-PAM was no different than control, the addition of atropine improved survival (10% fatality). Low-dose 2-PAM statistically improved survival (25% lethality). Atropine further reduced lethality to 10%. When appropriately dosed, 2-PAM alone protects against carbaryl poisoning in mice. Failure to demonstrate this benefit in other models may be the result of oxime overdose.

  11. Stability and Repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised (ESAS-r with Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Leclair

    Full Text Available Parents report psychological distress in association with their child's cancer. Reliable tools are needed to screen parental distress over the cancer trajectory. This study aimed to estimate the stability and repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Depression and Anxiety items of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r-D; -A in parents of children diagnosed with cancer.Fifty parents (28 mothers, median age = 44 of clinically stable survivors of childhood solid and brain tumours completed questionnaires about their own distress (DT, ESAS-r-D; -A, Brief Symptom Inventory-18: BSI-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9: PHQ-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7: GAD-7 and their children's quality of life (QoL; Peds Quality of Life: PedsQL twice, with a month interval between the two assessments. At retest, parents also evaluated life events that occurred between the two time points. Hierarchical regressions explored moderators for the temporal stability of test measures.Stability estimates were ICC = .78 for the DT, .55 for the ESAS-r-D, and .47 for the ESAS-r-A. Caseness agreement between test and retest was substantial for the DT, fair for the ESAS-r-D, and slight for the ESAS-r-A. Repeatability analyses indicated that the error range for the DT was more than 2 pts below/above actual measurement, whereas it was more than 3 pts for the ESAS-r-A, and 2.5 for the ESAS-r-D. Instability of the DT could be explained by changes in children's physical QoL, but not by other components of QoL or life events. No moderators of stability could be identified for the ESAS-r items.The DT appears to be a fairly stable measure when the respondent's condition is stable yet with a relatively wide error range. Fluctuations in distress-related constructs may affect the temporal stability of the DT. The lower stability of ESAS-r items may result from shorter time-lapse instructions resulting in a greater sensitivity to change. Findings support

  12. POLARIS: ESA's airborne ice sounding radar front-end design, performance assessment and first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carlos Cilla; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the design, implementation and experimental performance assessment of the RF front-end of an airborne P-band ice sounding radar. The ice sounder design comprises commercial-of-the-shelf modules and newly purpose-built components at a centre frequency of 435 MHz with 20......% relative bandwidth. The transmitter uses two amplifiers combined in parallel to generate more than >128 W peak power, with system >60% PAE and 47 dB in-band to out-of-band signal ratio. The four channel receiver features digitally controlled variable gain to achieve more than 100 dB dynamic range, 2.4 d...

  13. Electrocardiogram of rabbits experimentally intoxicated with carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, S

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on 24 rabbits intoxicated intragastrically with carbaryl in single doses of 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed in 3 limb leads before and 1, 2, 4, 6h and 1, 2, 4, 6, 14d after intoxication and in a final stage of lethal intoxications--in a continuous manner. It has been found that, depending on the intensification of disease, ECG changes were characterized by the decreased heart rate with stimulations coming from the left ventricle, premature supraventricular stimulations, increased T wave amplitude and its reversion. These changes, except two lethal cases (1250 mg/kg), were compensated but the compensatory heart abilities decreased with increasing carbaryl doses.

  14. International X-ray Observatory (IXO) Assessment Study Report for the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    CERN Document Server

    Barcons, X; Bautz, M; Bookbinder, J; Bregman, J; Dotani, T; Flanagan, K; Fraga-Encinas, R; Grady, J; Kunieda, H; Lumb, D H; Mitsuda, K; Nandra, K; Ohashi, T; Piro, L; Rando, N; Strüder, L; Takahashi, T; Tsuru, T G; White, N E

    2011-01-01

    The International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) will address fundamental questions in astrophysics, including "When did the first SMBH form? How does large scale structure evolve? What happens close to a black hole? What is the connection between these processes? What is the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density?" This report presents an overview of the assessment study phase of the IXO candidate ESA L-class Cosmic Vision mission. We provide a description of the IXO science objectives, the mission implementation and the payload. The performance will offer more than an order of magnitude improvement in capability compared with Chandra and XMM-Newton. This observatory-class facility comprises a telescope with highly nested grazing incidence optics with a performance requirement of 2.5 sq.m. of effective area at 1.25 keV with a 5" PSF. There is an instrument complement that provides capabilities in imaging, spatially resolved spectroscopy, timing, polarimetry and high resolution dispersive spectroscopy....

  15. Use of Electroencephalography (EEG) to Assess CNS Changes Produced by Pesticides with different Modes of Action: Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Fipronil, Imidacloprid, Carbaryl, and Triadimefon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats...

  16. Use of Electroencephalography (EEG) to Assess CNS Changes Produced by Pesticides with different Modes of Action: Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Fipronil, Imidacloprid, Carbaryl, and Triadimefon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats...

  17. Carbaryl toxicity prediction to soil organisms under high and low temperature regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria P R; Cardoso, Diogo N; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Many studies on risk assessment of pesticides on non-target organisms have been performed based on standardized protocols that reflect conditions in temperate climates. However, the responses of organisms to chemical compounds may differ according to latitude and thus predicting the toxicity of chemicals at different temperatures is an important factor to consider in risk assessment. The toxic effects of the pesticide carbaryl were evaluated at different temperature regimes, which are indicative of temperate and tropical climates and are relevant to climate change predictions or seasonal temperature fluctuations. Four standard organisms were used (Folsomia candida, Eisenia andrei; Triticum aestivum and Brassica rapa) and the effects were assessed using synergistic ratios, calculated from EC/LC50 values. When possible, the MIXTOX tool was used based on the reference model of independent action (IA) and possible deviations. A decrease on carbaryl toxicity at higher temperatures was found in F. candida reproduction, but when the mixtox tool was used no interactions between these stressors (Independent Action) was observed, so an additive response was suggested. Synergistic ratios showed a tendency to synergism at high temperatures for E. andrei and B. rapa and antagonism at low temperatures for both species. T. aestivum showed to be less affected than expected (antagonism), when exposed to both low and high temperatures. The results showed that temperature may increase the deleterious effects of carbaryl to non-target organisms, which is important considering both seasonal and latitude related differences, as well as the global climate change context.

  18. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by carbaryl: Computational evidence of the ability of carbaryl to assume a planar conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Susana; Alonso, Mercedes; Herradón, Bernardo; Tarazona, José V; Navas, José

    2006-12-01

    It has been accepted that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are compounds with two or more aromatic rings in a coplanar conformation. Although general agreement exists that carbaryl is able to activate the AhR, it has been proposed that such activation could occur through alternative pathways without ligand binding. This idea was supported by studies showing a planar conformation of carbaryl as unlikely. The objective of the present work was to clarify the process of AhR activation by carbaryl. In rat H4IIE cells permanently transfected with a luciferase gene under the indirect control of AhR, incubation with carbaryl led to an increase of luminescence. Ligand binding to the AhR was studied by means of a cell-free in vitro system in which the activation of AhR can occur only by ligand binding. In this system, exposure to carbaryl also led to activation of AhR. These results were similar to those obtained with the AhR model ligand beta-naphthoflavone, although this compound exhibited higher potency than carbaryl in both assays. By means of computational modeling (molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations), the structural characteristics and electrostatic properties of carbaryl were described in detail, and it was observed that the substituent at C-1 and the naphthyl ring were not coplanar. Assuming that carbaryl would interact with the AhR through a hydrogen bond, this interaction was studied computationally using hydrogen fluoride as a model H-bond donor. Under this situation, the stabilization energy of the carbaryl molecule would permit it to adopt a planar conformation. These results are in accordance with the mechanism traditionally accepted for AhR activation: Binding of ligands in a planar conformation.

  19. Subchronic neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and their combination in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ping; Liang, Yu-Jie; Sun, Ying-Jian; Hou, Wei-Yuan; Chen, Jia-Xiang; Long, Ding-Xin; Xu, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Anticholinesterase pesticides have been widely used in agricultural and domestic settings and can be detected in the environment after long-term use. Although the acute toxic effects of chlorpyrifos and carbaryl have been well described, little is known about the chronic toxicity of the pesticides mixture. To investigate their chronic neurotoxicity, Wistar rats were exposed to chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and their mixture (MIX) for 90 consecutive days. The activities of serum cholinesterase (ChE) as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) in nerve tissues were determined. Furthermore, the histopathological examination was carried out. The results showed that ChE activity significantly decreased in all treated rats except the rats treated with low dose carbaryl. Treatment with middle- and high-dose chlorpyrifos and MIX in rats significantly inhibited AChE activity in the central nervous tissues, whereas treatment with carbaryl alone did not. In sciatic nerve, AChE activity was significantly inhibited by high-dose carbaryl and MIX, but not by chlorpyrifos alone. No significant NTE inhibition was observed in all treatment groups. Histopathological examination revealed that both chlorpyrifos and MIX treatment induced hippocampal damage. However, no obvious hippocampal damage was found in carbaryl-treated rats. Carbaryl and MIX, but not chlorpyrifos alone, induced pathological damage of sciatic nerve. Taken together, all of the results indicated that chlorpyrifos and carbaryl have different toxicological target tissues in nervous system and showed corresponding effects in the nervous tissues, which may reflect the different sensitivity of central and peripheral nervous tissues to different pesticides individually and in combination. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  20. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  1. Athena (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) Assessment Study Report for ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    CERN Document Server

    Barcons, X; Decourchelle, A; Herder, J -W den; Dotani, T; Fabian, A C; Fraga-Encinas, R; Kunieda, H; Lumb, D; Matt, G; Nandra, K; Piro, L; Rando, N; Sciortino, S; Smith, R K; Strüder, L; Watson, M G; White, N E; Willingale, R

    2012-01-01

    Athena is an X-ray observatory-class mission concept, developed from April to December 2011 as a result of the reformulation exercise for L-class mission proposals in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. Athena's science case is that of the Universe of extremes, from Black Holes to Large-scale structure. The specific science goals are structured around three main pillars: "Black Holes and accretion physics", "Cosmic feedback" and "Large-scale structure of the Universe". Underpinning these pillars, the study of hot astrophysical plasmas offered by Athena broadens its scope to virtually all corners of Astronomy. The Athena concept consists of two co-aligned X-ray telescopes, with focal length 12 m, angular resolution of 10" or better, and totalling an effective area of 1 m2 at 1 keV (0.5 m2 at 6 keV). At the focus of one of the telescopes there is a Wide Field Imager (WFI) providing a field of view of 24'\\times 24', 150 eV spectral resolution at 6 keV, and high count rate capability. At the focus of ...

  2. ESA Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviset, C.; Dowson, J.; Ortiz, I.; Parrilla, E.; Salgado, J.; Zender, J.

    2007-10-01

    The (ESA Planetary Science Archive {http://www.rssd.esa.int/psa} (PSA) hosts all the data from ESA's planetary missions into a single archive. It currently contains data from the Giotto, Mars Express, Rosetta, and Huygens spacecraft, some ground-based observations, and will host data from the Smart-1, Venus Express, and BepiColombo spacecraft in the future. Based on the NASA Planetary Data Systems (PDS) data dictionary, all datasets provided by the instrument teams are scientifically peer-reviewed and technically validated by software before being ingested into the Archive. Based on a modular and flexible architecture, the PSA offers a classical user-interface based on input fields, with powerful query and display possibilities. Data can be downloaded directly or through a more detailed shopping basket. Furthermore, a map-based interface is available to access Mars Express data without requiring any knowledge of the mission. Interoperability between the ESA PSA and the NASA PDS archives is also in progress, re-using concepts and experience gained from existing IVOA protocols. Prototypes are being developed to provide functionalities like GoogleMars, allowing access to both ESA PSA and NASA PDS data.

  3. Hydrolysis of carbaryl by a Pseudomonas sp. and construction of a microbial consortium that completely metabolizes carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapalamadugu, S; Chaudhry, G R

    1991-03-01

    Two Pseudomonas spp. (isolates 50552 and 50581) isolated from soil degraded 1-naphthol and carbaryl, an N-methylcarbamate pesticide, respectively. They utilized these compounds as a sole source of carbon. 1-Naphthol was completely metabolized to CO2 by the isolate 50552, while the carbaryl was first hydrolyzed to 1-naphthol and then converted into a brown-colored compound by the isolate 50581. The colored metabolite was not degraded, but 1-naphthol produced by the isolate 50581 during the exponential phase of growth was metabolized by the isolate 50552. The two isolates were used to construct a bacterial consortium which completely catabolized carbaryl to CO2. No metabolite was detected in the cell cultures of the consortium. The isolate 50581 harbored a 50-kb plasmid pCD1, while no plasmid was detected in the isolate 50552. The isolated bacteria individually or as a consortium may be used for detoxification of certain industrial and agricultural wastes.

  4. Love wave immunosensor for the detection of carbaryl pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Gaso, María-Isabel; García, José-Vicente; García, Pablo; March-Iborra, Carmen; Jiménez, Yolanda; Francis, Laurent-Alain; Montoya, Angel; Arnau, Antonio

    2014-09-03

    A Love Wave (LW) immunosensor was developed for the detection of carbaryl pesticide. The experimental setup consisted on: a compact electronic characterization circuit based on phase and amplitude detection at constant frequency; an automated flow injection system; a thermal control unit; a custom-made flow-through cell; and Quartz /SiO2 LW sensors with a 40 μm wavelength and 120 MHz center frequency. The carbaryl detection was based on a competitive immunoassay format using LIB-CNH45 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Bovine Serum Albumin-CNH (BSA-CNH) carbaryl hapten-conjugate was covalently immobilized, via mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer (SAM), onto the gold sensing area of the LW sensors. This immobilization allowed the reusability of the sensor for at least 70 assays without significant signal losses. The LW immunosensor showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.09 μg/L, a sensitivity of 0.31 μg/L and a linear working range of 0.14-1.63 μg/L. In comparison to other carbaryl immunosensors, the LW immunosensor achieved a high sensitivity and a low LOD. These features turn the LW immunosensor into a promising tool for applications that demand a high resolution, such as for the detection of pesticides in drinking water at European regulatory levels.

  5. Love Wave Immunosensor for the Detection of Carbaryl Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Isabel Rocha-Gaso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Love Wave (LW immunosensor was developed for the detection of carbaryl pesticide. The experimental setup consisted on: a compact electronic characterization circuit based on phase and amplitude detection at constant frequency; an automated flow injection system; a thermal control unit; a custom-made flow-through cell; and Quartz /SiO2 LW sensors with a 40 μm wavelength and 120 MHz center frequency. The carbaryl detection was based on a competitive immunoassay format using LIB-CNH45 monoclonal antibody (MAb. Bovine Serum Albumin-CNH (BSA-CNH carbaryl hapten-conjugate was covalently immobilized, via mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer (SAM, onto the gold sensing area of the LW sensors. This immobilization allowed the reusability of the sensor for at least 70 assays without significant signal losses. The LW immunosensor showed a limit of detection (LOD of 0.09 μg/L, a sensitivity of 0.31 μg/L and a linear working range of 0.14–1.63 μg/L. In comparison to other carbaryl immunosensors, the LW immunosensor achieved a high sensitivity and a low LOD. These features turn the LW immunosensor into a promising tool for applications that demand a high resolution, such as for the detection of pesticides in drinking water at European regulatory levels.

  6. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  7. Acetylcholinesterase biosensor for carbaryl detection based on interdigitated array microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhili; Guo, Yemin; Sun, Xia; Cao, Yaoyao; Wang, Xiangyou

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor with superior accuracy and sensitivity was successfully developed based on interdigitated array microelectrodes (IAMs). IAMs have a series of parallel microband electrodes with alternating microbands connected together. Chitosan was used as the enzyme immobilization material, and AChE was used as the model enzyme for carbaryl detection to fabricate AChE biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with the fabricated biosensor to detect pesticide residues. Based on the inhibition of pesticides on the AChE activity, using carbaryl as model compounds, the biosensor exhibited a wide range, low detection limit, and high stability. Moreover, the biosensor can also be used as a new promising tool for pesticide residue analysis.

  8. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  9. A regional climate model hindcast for Siberia – assessing the added value of snow water equivalent using ESA GlobSnow and reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Klehmet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the added value of a regional climate model hindcast of CCLM compared to global reanalyses in providing a reconstruction of recent past snow water equivalent (SWE for Siberia. Consistent regional climate data in time and space is necessary due to lack of station data in that region. We focus on SWE since it represents an important snow cover parameter in a region where snow has the potential to feed back to the climate of the whole Northern Hemisphere. The simulation was performed in a 50 km grid spacing for the period 1948 to 2010 using NCEP Reanalysis 1 as boundary forcing. Daily observational reference data for the period of 1987–2010 was obtained by the satellite derived SWE product of ESA DUE GlobSnow that enables a large scale assessment. The analyses includes comparisons of the distribution of snow cover extent, example time series of monthly SWE for January and April, regional characteristics of long-term monthly mean, standard deviation and temporal correlation averaged over subregions. SWE of CCLM is compared against the SWE information of NCEP-R1 itself and three more reanalyses (NCEP-R2, NCEP-CFSR, ERA-Interim. We demonstrate a significant added value of the CCLM hindcast during snow accumulation period shown for January for many subregions compared to SWE of NCEP-R1. NCEP-R1 mostly underestimates SWE during whole snow season. CCLM overestimates SWE compared to the satellite-derived product during April – a month representing the beginning of snow melt in southern regions. We illustrate that SWE of the regional hindcast is more consistent in time than ERA-Interim and NCEP-R2 and thus add realistic detail.

  10. ErythropoieSIS stimulating agent (ESA use is increased following missed dialysis sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christopher Bond

    2012-06-01

    Missed session episodes result in significant increases in ESA utilization in the post-miss period, and also in total monthly ESA use. Such increases should be considered in any assessment of impact of missed sessions: both clinical and economic.

  11. Sensitized effect of β-cyclodextrin on the fluorescence in the determination of carbaryl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-li; TANG Bo

    2004-01-01

    Based on the significant enhancement of fluorescence intensity of carbaryl in inclusion complex, a spetrofluorimetric method with high sensitivity was developed for the determination of carbaryl in aqueous solution. Under the optimum conditions, the complex had excitation and emission maxima at 278 nm and 332 nm, respectively. The linear range of the method was 7.0 ng/ml-1500 ng/ml with a detection limit of 1.2 ng/ml. The proposed method was successfully used to determine quantitatively of carbaryl in cottonseeds.

  12. BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND DEPRESSION OF THE PHOTIC AFTER DISCHARGE (PHAD) OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS (FEPS) IN LONG EVANS RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE OR REPEATED EXPOSURES TO A MIXTURE OF CARBARYL AND PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaryl and propoxur are N-methyl carbamate pesticides (NMCs) which are part of the EPA’s cumulative risk assessments for NMCs. These NMCs inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) activity and may lead to cholinergic disruption of CNS function. We used decreases in the PhAD of FEPs to indic...

  13. Venus within ESA probe reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Venus Express mission controllers at the ESA Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany are making intensive preparations for orbit insertion. This comprises a series of telecommands, engine burns and manoeuvres designed to slow the spacecraft down from a velocity of 29000 km per hour relative to Venus, just before the first burn, to an entry velocity some 15% slower, allowing the probe to be captured into orbit around the planet. The spacecraft will have to ignite its main engine for 50 minutes in order to achieve deceleration and place itself into a highly elliptical orbit around the planet. Most of its 570 kg of onboard propellant will be used for this manoeuvre. The spacecraft’s solar arrays will be positioned so as to reduce the possibility of excessive mechanical load during engine ignition. Over the subsequent days, a series of additional burns will be done to lower the orbit apocentre and to control the pericentre. The aim is to end up in a 24-hour orbit around Venus early in May. The Venus orbit injection operations can be followed live at ESA establishments, with ESOC acting as focal point of interest (see attached programme). In all establishments, ESA specialists will be on hand for interviews. ESA TV will cover this event live from ESOC in Darmstadt. The live transmission will be carried free-to-air. For broadcasters, complete details of the various satellite feeds are listed at http://television.esa.int. The event will be covered on the web at venus.esa.int. The website will feature regular updates, including video coverage of the press conference and podcast from the control room at ESA’s Operations Centre. Media representatives wishing to follow the event at one of the ESA establishments listed below are requested to fill in the attached registration form and fax it back to the place of their choice. For further information, please contact: ESA Media Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Venus Express

  14. Presence of carbaryl in the smoke of treated lodgepole and ponderosa pine bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris J.; Costello, Sheryl L.

    2013-02-01

    Lodgepole and ponderosa pine trees were treated with a 2% carbaryl solution at recreational areas near Fort Collins, CO, in June 2010 as a prophylactic bole spray against the mountain pine beetle. Bark samples from treated and untreated trees were collected one day following application and at 4-month intervals for one year. The residual amount of carbaryl was determined, and bark samples were burned to examine the smoke for the active ingredient. Smoke recovered from spiked bark samples showed a very high correlation between the treated rate and the concentration recovered from the smoke. Residual carbaryl on the bark was relatively stable throughout the study and carbaryl was detected in the smoke throughout the duration of the test.

  15. Evidence for resistance to carbaryl in poultry red mites from the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Pavlicevic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the efficiency of carbaryl under laboratory conditions, based on field populations of poultry red mites from throughout the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro over a period of 6 years (2001-2006. In 2001 samples, an excellent efficiency level of 95.7% at 0.1% carbaryl concentration after 30-minute exposure was found. The total pharmacological profile of carbaryl in relation to D. gallinae mites resulted in adequate control. However, by 2003 a significant decline in carbaryl’s efficiency was apparent. By 2005, a population of D. gallinae was discovered which showed no apparent susceptibility to carbaryl. Poultry red mite populations had by then developed extreme resistance.

  16. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  17. GRB INVESTIGATIONS BY ESA GAIA AND LOFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of studying GRBs with the ESA Gaia and LOFT missions is briefly addressed. The ESA Gaia satellite to be launched in November 2013 will focus on high precision astrometry of stars and all objects down to limiting magnitude 20. The satellite will also provide photometric and spectral information and hence important inputs for various branches of astrophysics, including the study of GRBs and related optical afterglows (OAs and optical transients (OTs. The strength of Gaia in GRB analyses will be the fine spectral resolution (spectro-photometry and ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy, which will allow the correct classication of related triggers. An interesting feature of Gaia BP and RP instruments will be the study of highly redshifted triggers. Similarly, the low dispersion spectroscopy provided by various plate surveys can also supply valuable data for investigations of high-energy sources. The ESA LOFT candidate mission, now in the assessment study phase, will also be able to detect and be used in the study of GRBs, with emphasis on low-energy (X-ray emission.

  18. Effectiveness of Ultrasound and Ultraviolet Irradiation onDegradation of Carbaryl from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl carbamate is a chemical in the carbamate family used chiefly as an insecticide. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor and is toxic to humans and classified as a likely human carcinogen. In the present study, the degradation of the carbaryl pesticide was investigated in the laboratory synthetic samples of tap water, in the effect of sonolysis and photolysis processes.Methods: This study was conducted during 2006-7 in Chemistry and Biochemistry of Pesticides Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS in Iran. The carbaryl (80% was used for preparing samples. First concentration of all samples were 4 mg/l. Sonochemical examinations in ultrasound reactor was done in two 35, 130 Hz, and 100 w, and three time. Photolysis examinations has done in the effect of 400 w lamp and moderate pressure and 6 time, then the amount of pesticide in the samples has been measured by the High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC method.Results: The highest degradation in photolysis process after 1 hour in the 35 KHz was 35%, and in the 130 KHz was 63%. Degradation of carbaryl at 130 KHz is higher than 35 KHz at the same time. Carbaryl elimination was increased by arise frequency and exposure time. After 8 min in photolysis, 100% omitting has been showed.Conclusion: Degradation of carbaryl in high frequency ultrasound wavelength was more than low frequency. Degradation of carbaryl in water, combination of high frequency ultrasound wave length and UV irradiation was considerably more effective than ultrasound or ultraviolet irradiation alone.

  19. Combined and single effects of pesticide carbaryl and toxic Microcystis aeruginosa on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerbin, S.; Kraak, M.H.S.; De Voogt, P.; Visser, P.M.; Van Donk, E.

    2010-01-01

    The combined influence of a pesticide (carbaryl) and a cyanotoxin (microcystin LR) on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria was investigated. At the beginning of the experiments animals were pulse exposed to carbaryl for 24 h and microcystins were delivered bound in Microcystis’ cells at different,

  20. Combined and single effects of pesticide carbaryl and toxic microcystis aeruginosa on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cerbin; M.H.S. Kraak; P. de Voogt; P.M. Visser; E. van Donk

    2010-01-01

    The combined influence of a pesticide (carbaryl) and a cyanotoxin (microcystin LR) on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria was investigated. At the beginning of the experiments animals were pulse exposed to carbaryl for 24 h and microcystins were delivered bound in Microcystis’ cells at different,

  1. Combined and single effects of pesticide carbaryl and toxic Microcystis aeruginosa on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerbin, S.; Kraak, M.H.S.; De Voogt, P.; Visser, P.M.; Van Donk, E.

    2010-01-01

    The combined influence of a pesticide (carbaryl) and a cyanotoxin (microcystin LR) on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria was investigated. At the beginning of the experiments animals were pulse exposed to carbaryl for 24 h and microcystins were delivered bound in Microcystis’ cells at different,

  2. Combined and single effects of pesticide carbaryl and toxic microcystis aeruginosa on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerbin, S.; Kraak, M.H.S.; de Voogt, P.; Visser, P.M.; van Donk, E.

    2010-01-01

    The combined influence of a pesticide (carbaryl) and a cyanotoxin (microcystin LR) on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria was investigated. At the beginning of the experiments animals were pulse exposed to carbaryl for 24 h and microcystins were delivered bound in Microcystis’ cells at different,

  3. ESA's SMART-1 Mission: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, G.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project Team

    SMART-1 is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme ``Cosmic Vision''. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been launched on 27 sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. SMART-1 orbit pericenter is now outside the inner radiation belt. The current status of SMART-1 will be given at the symposium. After a 15 month cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit.

  4. Metabolomic and proteomic insights into carbaryl catabolism by Burkholderia sp. C3 and degradation of ten N-methylcarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X

    2013-11-01

    Burkholderia sp. C3, an efficient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrader, can utilize nine of the ten N-methylcarbamate insecticides including carbaryl as a sole source of carbon. Rapid hydrolysis of carbaryl in C3 is followed by slow catabolism of the resulting 1-naphthol. This study focused on metabolomes and proteomes in C3 cells utilizing carbaryl in comparison to those using glucose or nutrient broth. Sixty of the 867 detected proteins were involved in primary metabolism, adaptive sensing and regulation, transport, stress response, and detoxification. Among the 41 proteins expressed in response to carbaryl were formate dehydrogenase, aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanolamine utilization protein involved in one carbon metabolism. Acetate kinase and phasin were 2 of the 19 proteins that were not detected in carbaryl-supported C3 cells, but detected in glucose-supported C3 cells. Down-production of phasin and polyhydroxyalkanoates in carbaryl-supported C3 cells suggests insufficient carbon sources and lower levels of primary metabolites to maintain an ordinary level of metabolism. Differential metabolomes (~196 identified polar metabolites) showed up-production of metabolites in pentose phosphate pathways and metabolisms of cysteine, cystine and some other amino acids, disaccharides and nicotinate, in contract to down-production of most of the other amino acids and hexoses. The proteomic and metabolomic analyses showed that carbaryl-supported C3 cells experienced strong toxic effects, oxidative stresses, DNA/RNA damages and carbon nutrient deficiency.

  5. Toxic effects of carbaryl on the histology of testes of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cakici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult toad, Bufotes variabilis. To that end, animals were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage (low dose: 50 µg/g, medium dose: 100 µg/g and high dose: 200 µg/g. After 96 h, toads were euthanized. In low-dose group, some seminiferous tubules lost their regular shape. Also, the enlargement of interstitial spaces among tubules and germ cell necrosis were determined. A weak hemorrhage was observed among some tubules. In medium-dose group, germ cell necrosis was detected in many seminiferous tubules. This time, a weak hemorrhage was detected within tubules. In the high dose group, an increase in the number of disorganized tubules were observed. Vacuolization and necrosis in germ cells of seminiferous tubules were frequently seen. According to these findings, carbaryl caused dose-related histopathological damage in testis of B. variabilis. Based on these findings, this study clearly shows that carbaryl affects male fertility in B. variabilis.

  6. Bestrijdingsmiddelen in duplicaat 24-uursvoedingen (deelrapport 2: carbaryl, carbofuran en propoxur)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goewie CE; Hogendoorn EA

    1987-01-01

    Twee series duplicaat 24-uursvoedingen, verzameld in respectievelijk oktober 1984 (52 monsters) en maart 1985 (53 monsters), werden onderzocht op de N-methylcarbamaten carbaryl, carbofuran en propoxur. Ten behoeve van dit onderzoek werd een nieuwe analysemethode ontwikkeld, gebaseerd op een aut

  7. Effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on acetylcholinesterase activity of two strains of Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hela; Bejaoui, Mustapha; Touaylia, Samir; Burga Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean François

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on the acetylcholinesterase activity in two strains (same clone A) of the crustacean cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four carbaryl concentrations (0.4, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1)) were compared against control AChE activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of carbaryl exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the two considered strains. However, different responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 0.4 µg L(-1) for strain 1 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strains 2) revealing differences in sensitivity among the two tested strains of D. magna. These results suggest that after carbaryl exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility. Moreover, our results show that strain1 is less sensitive than strain 2 in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE activity. Comparing the EC50-48 h of standard ecotoxicity test and IC50-48 h of AChE inhibition, there is the same order of sensitivity with both strains.

  8. 76 FR 67437 - Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-- 2011 AGENCY: Environmental... availability of draft national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life from... is today publishing draft national recommended water quality criteria for protecting aquatic life for...

  9. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  10. DARWIN mission proposal to ESA

    CERN Document Server

    Leger, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of extra-solar planets is one of the greatest achievements of modern astronomy. There are now more than 200 such objects known, and the recent detection of planets with masses approximately 5 times that of Earth demonstrates that extra-solar planets of low mass exist. In addition to providing a wealth of scientific information on the formation and structure of planetary systems, these discoveries capture the interest of both scientists and the wider public with the profound prospect of the search for life in the Universe. We propose an L-type mission, called Darwin, whose primary goal is the study of terrestrial extrasolar planets and the search for life on them. By its very nature, Darwin advances the first Grand Theme of ESA Cosmic Vision. Accomplishing the mission objectives will require collaborative science across disciplines ranging from planet formation and atmospheres to chemistry and biology, and these disciplines will reap profound rewards from their contributions to the Darwin mission...

  11. THE TREATED EGGSHELLS AS A NEW BIOSORBENT FOR ELIMINATION OF CARBARYL PESTICIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: KINETICS, THERMODYNAMICS AND ISOTHERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELHAMID BAKKA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treated eggshells (TES for removing the carbaryl pesticide from aqueous solutions was examined by biosorption process. Batch mode experiments were conducted using various parameters such as contact time, temperature, biosorbent amount, carbaryl concentration and pH. Removal efficiency of carbaryl by the TES attained 87.35 % after 60 min of contact time, using 10 mg·L-1 of pesticide and 1.5 g·L-1 of biosorbent. The results indicate that Freundlich equation is well described with the carbaryl adsorption, with correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.99. They showed that the biosorption processes were spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs energy ∆G increased with increase in temperature indicating an increase in feasibility of biosorption at low temperature. These results show that treated eggshells can be employed as an alternative to commercial adsorbents in the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions.

  12. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria P.R.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Loureiro, Susana, E-mail: sloureiro@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. - Highlights: > Climate variations may cause changes on chemicals' toxicity or bioavailability. > Earthworms and plants are exposed simultaneously to carbaryl and flood and drought conditions. > The IA model and possible deviations were used to evaluate combination exposures. > Synergism was observed for earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions. > Antagonistic interactions were observed for plants, in flood conditions and carbaryl. - Soil moisture can play an important role in carbaryl toxicity towards plants and earthworms.

  13. Enhanced irreversible sorption of carbaryl to soils amended with crop-residue-derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuping; Wu, Minwei; Jiang, Jing; Li, Liang; Sheng, G Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The irreversible sorption-desorption of carbaryl in five soil types with crop-residue-derived biochar (CBC) amendment was determined. CBC has lower surface area and micropores volume than wood-based biochar and charcoal. However, CBC amendment (0.5%) still significantly enhanced the hysteresis effect on soils, with a 1.7- to 2.8-fold increase in the hysteresis index (HI) values. The HI values increased exponentially with the increased amount of CBC but decreased exponentially with the increased amount of soil organic matter (SOM%). Furthermore, the irreversible carbaryl sorption (qirr) and the irreversibility index (Iirr) values were proportional to the amount of CBC (0-1.0%) in soils. Likewise, the SOM-rich soil (S3) was washed ten times to reduce its SOM% to evaluate the influence of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the soils on the irreversible sorption. The Iirr values of the unamended S3 increased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased, whereas those of the 1.0% CBC-amended S3 decreased. In addition, the Iirr values of the unwashed S3 were lower than those of the washed S3. By contrast, the Iirr values of the 1.0% CBC-amended S3 soil were higher in the unwashed samples than in the washed samples. These results suggested that DOM had opposite effects on the irreversible carbaryl sorption by unamended and CBC-amended soils. The DOM release may expose more irreversible adsorption sites in the soils and may cover the surface of the CBC to form a desorption-resistant fraction in its mesopore or macropore regions, thereby preventing the desorption of adsorbed carbaryl molecules.

  14. Micellar Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Carbaryl and 1-Naphthol in Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Liang Chin-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatographic procedure has been developed for the determination of carbaryl, a phenyl-N-methylcarbamate, and its main metabolite 1-naphthol, using a C18 column (250’mm’ × ’4.6’mm with a micellar mobile phase and fluorescence detection at maximum excitation/emission wavelengths of 225/333’nm, respectively. In the optimization step, surfactants sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Brij-35 and N-cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate, and organic solvents propanol, butanol, and pentanol were considered. The selected mobile phase was 0.15’M SDS-6% (v/v-pentanol-0.01’M NaH2PO4 buffered at pH 3. Validation studies, according to the ICH Tripartite Guideline, included linearity (r>0.999, limit of detection (5 and 18’ng mL-1, for carbaryl and 1-naphthol, resp., and limit of quantification (15 and 50’ng mL-1, for carbaryl and 1-naphthol, resp., with intra- and interday precisions below 1%, and robustness parameters below 3%. The results show that the procedure was adequate for the routine analysis of these two compounds in water, soil, and vegetables samples.

  15. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations on testes of levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/g. After 96 h, frogs were euthanized and dissected. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. In the low-dose group, shrinkage of some seminiferous tubules was observed. In the medium-dose group, an enlargement of interstitial spaces and germ cell necrosis were detected. In the high-dose group, prominent tubule deformation was determined. Germ cell necrosis in seminiferous tubules was frequently seen. In addition, congestion, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration and fibrosis were detected. According to these findings, it is clear that carbaryl affects male fertility in P. bedriagae.

  16. Strengthening the Security of ESA Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc

    2013-08-01

    A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.

  17. Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, S; Marshall, R S; Hunter, D L; Lowit, A

    2007-03-01

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r(2)=0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r(2)=0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides.

  18. A nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by spectrofluorimetry to determine carbaryl in different water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizi, Ahad Bavili, E-mail: a.bavili@tbzmed.ac.ir, E-mail: abavilitabrizia@gmail.com [Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad Reza [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ostadi, Hadi [Department of Chemistry, Payam-e-noor University, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, a new method based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of carbaryl from environmental water samples. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs were synthesized and modified by the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), then successfully applied for the extraction of carbaryl and its determination by spectrofluorimetry. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of carbaryl such as the amount of SDS, pH value, standing time, desorption solvent and maximal extraction volume were optimized. Under the selected conditions, carbaryl could be quantitatively extracted. Acceptable recoveries (84.5-91.9%) and relative standard deviations (6.2%) were achieved in analyzing spiked water samples. A concentration factor of 20 was achieved by the extraction of 100 mL of environmental water samples. The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 2.1 and 6.9 μg L{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of carbaryl in environmental water samples. (author)

  19. Kinetics of carbaryl degradation by anodic Fenton treatment in a humic-acid-amended artificial soil slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Kong, Lingjun; Lemley, Ann T

    2009-01-01

    A Fenton-based indirect electrochemical method, anodic Fenton treatment (AFT), developed for destroying and detoxifying pesticides in the aqueous environment, was evaluated for the degradation of a widely used pesticide, carbaryl, in an artificial soil slurry. More than 90% of carbaryl was removed in less than 20 minutes under given experimental conditions. The effect of initial slurry pH, humic acid content, initial carbaryl concentration, Fenton reagent delivery ratio, and soil/water ratio (w/v) were investigated. The results indicate that humic acid content is the key factor that slows down pesticide degradation, most probably because of its pH buffering and adsorption capacity. A kinetic model, which was shown to fit the experimental data quite well (R2 > 0.99), was developed to describe the carbaryl degradation in the soil slurry during the AFT process. In the presence of humic acid, carbaryl degradation kinetics was found to shift to a pseudo-first-order reaction after an "initiation" stage.

  20. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  1. ESA's atmospheric composition and dynamics mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Laur, Henri; Hoersch, Bianca; Ingmann, Paul; Wehr, Tobias; Langen, Joerg; Veihelmann, Ben

    For almost 15 years, ESA is providing atmospheric chemistry and composition information to the user community. In 1995, this commitment started with the GOME instrument on-board ERS-2. This mission was continued and extended with the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments on-board of ENVISAT launched in 2002. ESA is prepared to continue Envisat through 2013 in the frame of the mission extension. To respond to GMES requirements, ESA develops the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission to be launched in 2014, to continue and improve the European measurement capabilities initiated with GOME and SCIAMACHY, and continued with EUMETSAT's GOME-2 and the Dutch OMI instrument on the NASA Aura platform. In addition the Sentinel 4 and 5 missions are prepared, further improving the monitoring capabilities with geostationary observation capabilities and continuing the Low Earth Orbit Sentinel 5 Precursor well beyond 2025. At the same time, ESA is preparing two atmospheric Earth Explorer Missions. With ADM-Aeolus, a novel lidar system for the retrieval of wind speed vectors from space is being developed and planned to be launched in 2012. EarthCARE will investigate the Clouds-Aerosol-radiation-interaction with a lidar, cloud radar (provided by JAXA), multi-spectral imager and broad band radiometric instruments collocated on one platform. A major goal is the development of synergistic retrievals exploiting information from different sensors in one algorithm. The mission is planned to start in 2014. In parallel the Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 are ongoing. One of the three candidate missions is PREMIER, an infrared limb-imaging spectrometer and millimetre-wave limb-sounder planned to be launched in 2016. In addition the call of ideas for the Earth Explorer 8 has been published and the corresponding Letters of Intend have been received, including a number of proposals for mission in the atmospheric composition and dynamics domain. At the same time, the access to ESA Third

  2. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers.

  3. New ESA Earth Explorer Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herland, E.

    2006-12-01

    concentrating on the UTLS region. Linking with MetOP/NPOESS data will also useful insights into processes occurring in the lower troposphere. Carries an infrared and a microwave radiometer. FLEX Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Global remote sensing of vegetation photosynthesis through measurement of fluorescence. Photosynthesis by land vegetation is an important component of the global carbon cycle, and is closely linked to the hydrological cycle through transpiration. Will measure high spectral resolution reflectance and temperature, and provide a multi-angular capability. A-SCOPE Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth: Total column CO2 with a nadir-looking pulsed CO2 differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for better understanding of the global carbon cycle and regional CO2 fluxes, as well as for validation of greenhouse-gases emission inventories. CoReH2O Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory: Spatially detailed observations of key snow, ice, and water cycle characteristics necessary for understanding land surface, atmosphere and ocean processes and interactions by using two synthetic aperture radars at 9.6 and 17.2 GHz. Aims at closing the gaps in detailed information on snow glaciers and surface water, with improving modelling and prediction of water balance and streamflow for snow covered and glacierised basins, understanding and modelling the water and energy cycles in high latitudes, assessing and forecasting water supply from snow cover and glaciers, including the assessment of effects of climate change and monitoring land surface water extent in high latitudes and its relation to climate variability.

  4. Assessment of Serum Biomarkers in Rats After Exposure to Pesticides of Different Chemical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon...

  5. Analysis of biomarker utility using a PBPK/PD model for carbaryl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blake Phillips

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many types of biomarkers; the two common ones are biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of effect. The utility of a biomarker for estimating exposures or predicting risks depends on the strength of the correlation between biomarker concentrations and exposure/effects. In the current study, a combined exposure and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD model of carbaryl was used to demonstrate the use of computational modeling for providing insight into the selection of biomarkers for different purposes. The Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System (CARES was used to generate exposure profiles, including magnitude and timing, for use as inputs to the PBPK/PD model. The PBPK/PD model was then used to predict blood concentrations of carbaryl and urine concentrations of its principal metabolite, 1-naphthol (1-N, as biomarkers of exposure. The PBPK/PD model also predicted acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition in red blood cells (RBC as a biomarker of effect. The correlations of these simulated biomarker concentrations with intake doses or brain AChE inhibition (as a surrogate of effects were analyzed using a linear regression model. Results showed that 1-N in urine is a better biomarker of exposure than carbaryl in blood, and that 1-N in urine is correlated with the dose averaged over the last two days of the simulation. They also showed that RBC AChE inhibition is an appropriate biomarker of effect. This computational approach can be applied to a wide variety of chemicals to facilitate quantitative analysis of biomarker utility.

  6. Effects of atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl and chlorothalonil on benthic microbes and their nutrient dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elias

    Full Text Available Atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl, and chlorothalonil are detected in streams throughout the U.S. at concentrations that may have adverse effects on benthic microbes. Sediment samples were exposed to these pesticides to quantify responses of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate uptake by the benthic microbial community. Control uptake rates of sediments had net remineralization of nitrate (-1.58 NO3 µg gdm⁻¹ h⁻¹, and net assimilation of phosphate (1.34 PO4 µg gdm⁻¹ h⁻¹ and ammonium (0.03 NH4 µg gdm⁻¹ h⁻¹. Metolachlor decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake. Chlorothalonil decreased nitrate remineralization and phosphate uptake. Nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate uptake rates are more pronounced in the presence of these pesticides due to microbial adaptations to toxicants. Our interpretation of pesticide availability based on their water/solid affinities supports no effects for atrazine and carbaryl, decreasing nitrate remineralization, and phosphate assimilation in response to chlorothalonil. Further, decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake in response to metolachlor is likely due to affinity. Because atrazine target autotrophs, and carbaryl synaptic activity, effects on benthic microbes were not hypothesized, consistent with results. Metolachlor and chlorothalonil (non-specific modes of action had significant effects on sediment microbial nutrient dynamics. Thus, pesticides with a higher affinity to sediments and/or broad modes of action are likely to affect sediment microbes' nutrient dynamics than pesticides dissolved in water or specific modes of action. Predicted nutrient uptake rates were calculated at mean and peak concentrations of metolachlor and chlorothalonil in freshwaters using polynomial equations generated in this experiment. We concluded that in natural ecosystems, peak chlorothalonil and metolachlor concentrations could affect phosphate and ammonium by decreasing net assimilation, and nitrate uptake rates by

  7. Analysis of the ESA windscatterometer campaign data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, G.P. de

    1985-01-01

    All data of the ESA windscatterometer campaign as provided by the Central Data Library were analyzed. The data obtained fit in the available empirical model and the parameters of this model were determined. The data set was not only related to the actually measured windspeed at 19.5 m but also to th

  8. Hydrolysis of carbaryl by carbonate impurities in reference clay SWy-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, L Jacqueline; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Johnston, Cliff T; Boyd, Stephen A

    2004-12-29

    The influence of clay preparation methods on the sorption and hydrolysis of carbaryl (1-naphthyl, N-methyl carbamate) by K+-saturated reference smectite SWy-2 was studied. Four methods were utilized: (1) The reference (or specimen) clay used as received was K+-saturated (hereafter referred to as whole clay). (2) High-speed centrifugation (3295g) of whole clay resulted in a pellet with three discrete bands. The upper, light-colored, low-density band was obtained by manual separation (light fraction). The high-density, dark-colored material comprising the lower band (heavy fraction) was also obtained manually. (3) SWy-2 was subjected to overnight gravity sedimentation to obtain the clay-sed.) and then K+-saturated. (4) SWy-2 was subjected to low-speed centrifugation (58-60g) to separate the clay-cent.) and then K+-saturated. Each preparation of mineral fractions manifested significantly different abilities to hydrolyze carbaryl to 1-naphthol, decreasing in the order whole clay > heavy fraction > clay-sed. > light clay > clay-cent. The extent of 1-naphthol disappearance from solution, accompanied by a progressive darkening of the clay, followed the order whole clay > heavy fraction > light clay > clay-sed. > clay-cent. Using ring labeled [14C]carbaryl, approximately 61 and 15% of the total 14C activity added to the whole clay and light fraction, respectively, remained unextractable. X-ray diffraction of the heavy fraction revealed several peaks corresponding to minor impurities, including calcite and dolomite. Aqueous slurries of whole clay, light fraction, clay-sed., and heavy fraction were alkaline, whereas the pH of slurried clay-cent. was neutral. It was concluded that dissolution of inorganic carbonate impurities in SWy-2 caused alkaline conditions in the slurries leading to the hydrolysis of carbaryl. Dissolution of carbonates with sodium acetate buffer eliminated hydrolytic activity associated with SWy-2. None of the four preparation methods reliably removed

  9. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  10. Direct estimation of carbaryl by gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, Raminderjit Singh; Mandal, Kousik; Urvashi; Pandher, Suneet; Takkar, Reenu; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-07-01

    A simple and efficient analytical method was standardized for the estimation of residues of carbaryl in various substrates comprising grape berries, kinnow pulps, kinnow rind and soil. The samples were refluxed using mixture of methanol: 0.5 N HCl (1:1 v/v); diluted with brine solution, partitioned into chloroform and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Further the samples were treated with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and primary secondary amine. Final clear extracts were concentrated under vacuum and reconstituted the volume into acetone. The residues were estimated directly on gas liquid chromatograph equipped with nitrogen phosphorus detection system equipped with a capillary column packed with 5 % diphenyl 95 % dimethyl polysiloxane non-polar phase. A consistent recovery from 82 % to 97 % for carbaryl was observed when samples were spiked at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantification of the method was worked out to be 0.05 mg kg(-1) for grape berries, kinnow pulp, kinnow rind and soil.

  11. Developmental neurotoxic effects of two pesticides: Behavior and biomolecular studies on chlorpyrifos and carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iwa; Eriksson, Per; Fredriksson, Anders; Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    In recent times, an increased occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as neurodevelopmental delays and cognitive abnormalities has been recognized. Exposure to pesticides has been suspected to be a possible cause of these disorders, as these compounds target the nervous system of pests. Due to the similarities of brain development and composition, these pesticides may also be neurotoxic to humans. We studied two different pesticides, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, which specifically inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system. The aim of the study was to investigate if the pesticides can induce neurotoxic effects, when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth and maturation. The results from the present study show that both compounds can affect protein levels in the developing brain and induce persistent adult behavior and cognitive impairments, in mice neonatally exposed to a single oral dose of chlorpyrifos (0.1, 1.0 or 5mg/kg body weight) or carbaryl (0.5, 5.0 or 20.0mg/kg body weight) on postnatal day 10. The results also indicate that the developmental neurotoxic effects induced are not related to the classical mechanism of acute cholinergic hyperstimulation, as the AChE inhibition level (8-12%) remained below the threshold for causing systemic toxicity. The neurotoxic effects are more likely caused by a disturbed neurodevelopment, as similar behavioral neurotoxic effects have been reported in studies with pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and POPs, when exposed during a critical window of neonatal brain development.

  12. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  13. INHIBITION OF BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE AND THE PHOTIC AFTER DISCHARGE OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS PRODUCED BY CARBARYL IN LONG EVANS RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaryl is a widely used N-methyl carbamate pesticide that acts by inhibiting cholinesterases (ChE), which may lead to cholinergic toxicity. Flash evoked potentials (FEPs) are a neurophysiological response often used to detect central nervous system (CNS) changes following expos...

  14. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  15. Simultaneous determination of carbaryl and o-phenylphenol residues in waters by first-derivative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Rohand, J; Navalón, A; Avidad, R; Vilchez, J L

    1993-11-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method for the simultaneous determination of carbaryl (CBL) and o-phenylphenol (OPP) residue mixtures in waters has been developed. Carbaryl was hydrolysed in alkaline medium to give 1-naphthol. This compound and o-phenylphenol were fixed on QAE Sephadex A-25 gel at pH 10.75. The fluorescence of the gel, packed in a 1-mm silica cell, was measured directly with a solid-surface attachment. Overlapping of conventional fluorescence spectra is resolved by using first-derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry and allows for the complete resolution of the mixture. The range of application is between 0.4 and 25.0 ng/ml for OPP and 0.8 and 25.0 ng/ml for CBL. The detection limits for o-phenylphenol and carbaryl were 0.1 and 0.2 ng/ml, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the method are reported. The method is suitable for determination of carbaryl and o-phenylphenol residues in natural waters. Recoveries from 95 to 105% have been obtained for natural waters spiked with CBL and OPP.

  16. COMPARISON OF EEG CHANGES PRODUCED BY CARBARYL (CARBAMATE), PERMETHRIN (TYPE I PYRETHROID), AND DELTAMETHRIN (TYPE II PYRETHROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that treatment with carbaryl may alter Theta activity in the EEG (Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 108(S-1):441, 2009). In this study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by pesticides with different modes of action. Long Evans rats were ...

  17. COMPARISON OF EEG CHANGES PRODUCED BY CARBARYL (CARBAMATE), PERMETHRIN (TYPE I PYRETHROID), AND DELTAMETHRIN (TYPE II PYRETHROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that treatment with carbaryl may alter Theta activity in the EEG (Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 108(S-1):441, 2009). In this study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by pesticides with different modes of action. Long Evans rats were ...

  18. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  19. Aged garlic extract ameliorates immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity and impaired burn-healing in malathion- and carbaryl-treated male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Ahmed, Rehab S A

    2017-03-01

    Malathion and carbaryl are the most widely used organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, respectively, especially in developing countries; they pose a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of an odorless (free from allicin) Kyolic aged garlic extract (AGE, containing 0.1% S-allylcysteine; 200 mg/kg body weight) on the toxicity induced by 0.1 LD50 of malathion (89.5 mg/kg body weight) and/or carbaryl (33.9 mg/kg body weight) in male Wistar rats. Doses were orally administered to animals for four consecutive weeks. The present study showed that AGE completely modulated most adverse effects induced by malathion and/or carbaryl in rats including the normocytic normochromic anemia, immunosuppression, and the delay in the skin-burning healing process through normalizing the count of blood cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets), hemoglobin content, hematocrit value, blood glucose-6-phosphodehydrogenase activity, weights and cellularity of lymphoid organs, serum γ-globulin concentration, and the delayed type of hypersensitivity response to the control values, and accelerating the inflammatory and proliferative phases of burn-healing. In addition, AGE completely modulated the decrease in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the increase in clotting time in malathion alone and carbaryl alone treated rats. Moreover, AGE induced a significant increase (P < 0.001) in serum GSH concentration (above the normal value) and accelerating burn-healing process in healthy rats. In conclusion, AGE was effective in modulating most adverse effects induced in rats by malathion and carbaryl, and hence may be useful as a dietary adjunct for alleviating the toxicity in highly vulnerable people to insecticides intoxication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 789-798, 2017.

  20. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  1. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  2. An "ESA-affordable" Laue-lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2005-01-01

    With ESA's INTEGRAL mission gamma-ray astronomy has advanced to the point where major scientific advances must be expected from detailed studies of the many new point sources. The interest in developing focusing telescopes operating in the soft gamma-ray regime up to 1 MeV is therefore mounting...... constraints of a specific medium size launch vehicle. The introduction of the lens mass as a primary design driver has some surprising effects for the choice of material for the crystals and new tradeoff considerations are introduced....

  3. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  4. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  5. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo João Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  6. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira do Carmo, João; Hélière, Arnaud; Le Hors, L.; Toulemont, Y.; Lefebvre, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE) satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA) that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM) parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  7. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  8. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  9. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.;

    2013-01-01

    ) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class......Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  10. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. The PSA currently holds data from Mars Express, Venus Express, SMART-1, Huygens, Rosetta and Giotto, as well as several ground-based cometary observations. It will be used for archiving on ExoMars, BepiColombo and for the European contributions to Chandrayaan-1. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All PSA data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, and are made to comply with the internationally recognized PDS standards. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels through to

  11. Aspects of ESA s public outreach programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, H.

    The Science Programme Communication Service is currently implementing a new policy to increase the overall public interest in ESA Science Programme by adopting new ways of promoting its activities, accordingly to the simple principle that "different target audiences have different needs". It is clear that the general public (i.e. "the man in the street" / "the average tax- payer") rarely has the knowledge and the background to understand what exactly a space mission is, what it does and why it does it ("Mission oriented approach"). The experience has shown that a space mission becomes "popular" amongst this target audience when the relevant communication is done by passing generic/bas ic/simple messages ("Thematic oriented approach"). The careful selection of adequate supports together with efficient distribution and promotion networks are also key parameters for success of the latter approach. One should also note that the overall objective of this new policy, is to raise people's interest in space in general. By presenting the information under the ESA brand, the public will start more and more to associate this brand and Europe to space exploration. Within the next twelve months, four scientific missions will be launched. Interestingly, tree of them (SMART-1, ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS) offer a unique opportunity to implement the new communication policy under the single thematic : Europe is exploring the Solar System. Nevertheless, the study of the various mission profiles and their potential communication impact lead us to choose to reach out the general public primarily via the sub-thematic : Europe goes to Mars.

  12. Comparative toxicity of carbaryl, carbofuran, cypermethrin and fenvalerate in Metaphire posthuma and Eisenia fetida -a possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P N; Gupta, S K; Murthy, R C

    2014-02-01

    To establish the use of Metaphire posthuma as a sensitive test model for ecotoxicological studies, acute toxicity testing of carbaryl, carbofuran, cypermethrin and fenvalerate on Eisenia fetida and Metaphire posthuma were carried out. Two different types of bioassays, contact filter paper toxicity and soil toxicity bioassays were used to determine LC50 values for these insecticides. Among the tested chemicals, carbofuran was the most toxic to both the earthworm species. In paper contact method, 72 h-LC50 values of carbofuran in M. posthuma and E. fetida were found to be 0.08 μg/cm(2) and 1.55 μg/cm(2) respectively while in soil test, 14-d LC50 values were 0.49 mg/kg and 21.15 mg/kg respectively. On comparing the toxicity data of these chemicals for both the earthworm species, M. posthuma was found to be more sensitive than E. fetida. Based on the acute toxicity data, the order of toxicity of insecticides in both the test procedures was carbofuran>cypermethrin>carbaryl>fenvalerate for M. posthuma whereas for E. fetida it was carbofuran>carbaryl>fenvalerate>cypermethrin. Morphological changes also appeared in the organisms exposed to these chemicals which were more pronounced in M. posthuma at lower concentrations than E. fetida in both the test procedures. The results of the present study advocates the use of M. posthuma for ecotoxicity studies, being a more sensitive and reliable model than E. fetida. Based on the data on partial atomic charges, structural features and spectroscopic studies on carbaryl and carbofuran, a possible mechanism of toxicity of carbamate insecticides in earthworm was proposed.

  13. Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria P R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-07-01

    The increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of increased ozone layer depletion has affected crop production systems and, in combination with pesticides used in agricultural activities, can lead to greater risks to the environment. The impact of UV radiation and carbaryl singly and in combination on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Brassica rapa (turnip) was studied. The combined exposure was analyzed using the MixTox tool and was based on the conceptual model of independent action, where possible deviations to synergism or antagonism and dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern were also considered. Compared with the control, carbaryl and UV radiation individually led to reductions in growth, fresh and dry weight, and water content for both species. Combined treatment of UV and carbaryl was more deleterious compared with single exposure. For T. aestivum length, no interaction between the 2 stressors was found (independent action), and a dose-level deviation was the best description for the weight parameters. For B. rapa, dose-ratio deviations from the conceptual model were found when length and dry weight were analyzed, and a higher than expected effect on the fresh weight (synergism) occurred with combined exposure. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. [Determination of trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water by online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enzhi; Yang, Xinlei; Ye, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Cai, Xiaojun

    2011-11-01

    An online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water. The sample was injected into a UHPLC system directly after filtration with 0.22 microm membrane, and then enriched by online solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The analyte was back-flushed into the analytical column Acclaim RSLC C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.2 microm) by valve switching method. The mobile phases were 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.0, adjusted by acetic acid) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and detected by a diode array detector with the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The good linear ranges of carbaryl and carbofuran were 1.0 - 100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) larger than 0.9999, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.5 microg/L and 0.25 microg/L, respectively. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 76.0% - 120.0%. The method has been applied to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations in the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özlem

    2014-08-01

    In this study, histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 hr were investigated in the digestive tract of Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Adult frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/g. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. Esophageal cells showed vacuolization, cellular swelling, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, and necrosis. Additionally, esophageal glandular atrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells around esophageal glands were observed at medium and high doses. In the stomach, there were prominent histopathologic defects such as cellular swelling and necrosis in gastric glands, necrotic cells within the interstitial spaces, separation of epithelial cell layer, congested vessels, and hemorrhage at medium and high doses. In the intestine, detachment of epithelial layer, epithelial cell disorganization, inflammation, and necrosis were detected at medium and high doses. The results of this study showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, P. bedriagae.

  16. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO.Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR and synergism ratio (SR were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo.Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respec­tively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11- fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance.Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance.

  17. Plasma cholinesterase activity as a biomarker for quantifying exposure of green sturgeon to carbaryl following applications to control burrowing shrimp in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Alexandra T; Grue, Christian E

    2016-08-01

    Willapa Bay (Washington State, USA) has been 1 of the rare intertidal locations where large-scale pesticide applications occur. Until recently, carbaryl was applied to control burrowing shrimp that decrease commercial oyster productivity. The bay is a critical habitat for green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. However, the hazard that carbaryl poses is unknown. Surrogate seawater-acclimated white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) were exposed to 0 μg L(-1) , 30 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 300 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured. Enzyme recovery was measured in an additional cohort exposed to 1000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h. Activity of AChE was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) at concentrations ≥ 100 μg L(-1) with recovery in the 1000 μg L(-1) cohort by 72 h. Surprisingly, BChE activity was greater than controls at concentrations ≥ 300 μg L(-1) (p > 0.05), a finding confirmed in additional fish exposed to 3000 μg L(-1) for 6 h (+30%, p sturgeon before and 4 d to 5 d after application of carbaryl in Willapa Bay. Activity of BChE after application was reduced 28% (p white sturgeon exposed to carbaryl indicates that further studies are needed to better understand the risk carbaryl exposure poses to green sturgeon. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2003-2015. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. ESRD POST-HOSPITALIZATION ANEMIA AND ESA UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Yang

    2012-06-01

    The majority of hospitalizations (∼2/3 had considerable post-hosp Hb drops (mean >1g/dL, with >50% permanently reduced. ∼1.5 months were needed to recover Hb, with elevated ESA doses for >2 months. ESA dose was permanently elevated in 27% of hospitalizations that recovered Hb. Strategies to address post-hosp anemia may mitigate the protracted recovery time and increased ESA use. fx1

  19. Review of ESA Experimental Research Activities for Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Accreditation Council (RvA). Dual ISO 17025 accreditation and ISO 9001 certification processes were obtained in 2004 by the EPL and have been renewed now until...EPL dedicates 80 % of its resources to respond to customers needs and 20% to internal research, hands-on and training . The activities carried out at...endurance tests. • Internal research and hands-on of ESA staff. • Training of ESA personnel. The ESA propulsion Laboratory in the past has hosted

  20. Effects of Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Carbaryl on Fruit Thinning in ‘Kinnow’ Mandarin Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Safaei-Nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several fruit trees including some cultivars of citrus tend to develop irregular bearing. Fruit thinning has been used for hundreds of years to manipulate blooming and crop load to improve the alternate bearing process. Frequently, combination sprays of two or more chemical thinners are used in various fruit trees and the thinning responses were additive and more effective than individual compounds. In this study, we investigated the effects of Naphthalene acetic acid and carbaryl alone and in combination in thinning of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco trees. Some characteristics such as fruit weight, diameter and volume, total soluble solid (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA, vitamin C and peel thickness were measured prior to harvest for 2010 and 2011 as a complete randomized block design with 13 treatments and four replications. Results showed that the application of NAA and carbaryl alone in June drop stage of fruit growth increased fruit thinning percentage, TSS of fruit juice, fruit weight, volume, diameter and length. These chemical thinners improved fruit size significantly by increasing the leaf/fruit ratio. Combination sprays could not effectively thin fruits than individual chemicals and thus had no effect on fruit size. Fruit characteristics such as TA, ascorbic acid, TSS/TA ratio and peel thickness were not affected by our treatments.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  1. ESA's Gaia Satellite and data processing status

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Gaia, ESA's astrometric surveyor, was launched on Dec 19th 2013 from Kourou. This exciting mission intends to probe the formation history of our galaxy among other things. We will briefly describe the mission and its goals. An overview of Gaia Data Processing Analysis Consortium and the status of the on ground processing will be provided as this is intimately linked to mission performance and goals. The commissioning phase ended in July 2015, this was longer than planned due to in-flight issues. Now we are well into nominal operations and learning to deal with the Gaia we have (it is a great piece of hardware). We will share the current status of Gaia at L2 and the current end of mission performance estimates. About the speaker Since April 2014 William O'Mullane is head of the Operations Development Division in the Science and Robotic Exploration (SRE) directorate of the the European Space Agency. Based in Madrid, he was Gaia Science Operations Development manager from 2005 to launc...

  2. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  3. ESA Next Generation Radiation Monitor- NGRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desorgher, Laurent

    Precise monitoring of the highly dynamic space radiation environment around Earth is crucial for spacecraft safety, as support of radiation belt models, solar particle flux models, and space radiation effects tools. The ESA sponsored SREM is measuring the Earth's radiation belts, solar particle flux, and cosmic ray background more than one decade onboard six different spacecrafts. Recently the development of the follower of SREM, the Next Generation Radiation Monitor (NGRM), has been started within an european consortium led by RUAG space, together with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), ONERA, EREMS, and IDEAS. NGRM will measure protons from 2 MeV up to 200 MeV, electrons from 100 keV up to 7MeV, as well as LET spectrum of ions. Compared to SREM, NGRM will provide a much better energy resolution, will be smaller (<1L), lighter (<1kg) and consume less energy (<1W). In this paper we describe the design of the instrument, and present calibration tests and Monte Carlo analysis of the instrument.

  4. Euclid - an ESA Medium Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, B.

    2016-10-01

    Euclid is an ESA Medium Class mission in the Cosmic Visions program to be launched in 2020. With its 1.2 m telescope, Euclid is going to survey 15,000 deg2 of extragalactic sky in a broad optical band with outstanding image quality fit for weak gravitational lensing measurements. It will also provide near-infrared slitless spectroscopy of more than 107 emission-line galaxies with the main goal of measuring galaxy clustering. Imaging in three near-infrared bands by Euclid will be complemented by ground-based follow-up in optical bands to supply high-quality photometric redshift estimates out to z=2. In combination, its primary cosmological science drivers, weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering, will yield unprecedented constraints on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the validity of Einstein gravity on large scales. Euclid's rich datasets will facilitate further cosmological probes such as statistics of galaxy clusters or the study of galactic dark matter haloes, and a vast array of legacy science. In the following a brief overview on the Euclid mission and its key science is provided.

  5. ESA's Hipparcos finds rebels with a cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 20Kb Credits: S. Kerroudj, B. Famaey & A. Jorissen (Université Libre de Bruxelles) Artist's impression of the Milky Way Artist's impression of our galaxy, the Milky Way, an aggregate of thousands of millions of stars. The spiral arms are clearly visible. They are regions of enhanced density of stars and gas. The Sun is located near the edge of one arm, about half-way from the galactic centre. Spiral arms can impart a kick on stars orbiting close to them. These stars are then forced unto streams running inwards or outwards, whereas the bulk of stars in the Milky Way move in circular orbits around the galactic centre. Using data from ESA’s Hipparcos satellite, astronomers have now identified three such streams, reaching into the solar neighbourhood. High-resolution version (TIFF) Low-resolution version (JPG) The Sun and most stars near it follow an orderly, almost circular orbit around the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using data from ESA's Hipparcos satellite, a team of European astronomers has now discovered several groups of 'rebel' stars that move in peculiar directions, mostly towards the galactic centre or away from it, running like the spokes of a wheel. These rebels account for about 20% of the stars within 1000 light-years of the Sun, itself located about 25 000 light-years away from the centre of the Milky Way. The data show that rebels in the same group have little to do with each other. They have different ages so, according to scientists, they cannot have formed at the same time nor in the same place. Instead, they must have been forced together. "They resemble casual travel companions more than family members," said Dr Benoit Famaey, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Famaey and his colleagues believe that the cause forcing the rebel stars together on their unusual trajectory is a 'kick' received from one of the Milky Way's spiral arms. The spiral arms are not solid structures but rather regions of higher density of

  6. ESA payloads and experiments on the Foton-12 mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, P; Demets, R; Verga, A

    2000-02-01

    The international Foton-12 mission in September 1999 was a milestone in terms of payload mass, complexity and scientific diversity. ESA's contribution amounted to an unprecedented 240 kg--almost half of Foton's total payload. The Agency's 11 experiments covered fluid physics, biology, radiation dosimetry, materials science and meteoritics. This article describes the mission from an ESA perspective and highlights the initial results.

  7. ESA's Multi-mission Sentinel-1 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veci, Luis; Lu, Jun; Foumelis, Michael; Engdahl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-1 Toolbox is a new open source software for scientific learning, research and exploitation of the large archives of Sentinel and heritage missions. The Toolbox is based on the proven BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current NEST functionality including multi-mission support for most civilian satellite SAR missions. The project is funded through ESA's Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM). The Sentinel-1 Toolbox will strive to serve the SEOM mandate by providing leading-edge software to the science and application users in support of ESA's operational SAR mission as well as by educating and growing a SAR user community. The Toolbox consists of a collection of processing tools, data product readers and writers and a display and analysis application. A common architecture for all Sentinel Toolboxes is being jointly developed by Brockmann Consult, Array Systems Computing and C-S called the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). The SNAP architecture is ideal for Earth Observation processing and analysis due the following technological innovations: Extensibility, Portability, Modular Rich Client Platform, Generic EO Data Abstraction, Tiled Memory Management, and a Graph Processing Framework. The project has developed new tools for working with Sentinel-1 data in particular for working with the new Interferometric TOPSAR mode. TOPSAR Complex Coregistration and a complete Interferometric processing chain has been implemented for Sentinel-1 TOPSAR data. To accomplish this, a coregistration following the Spectral Diversity[4] method has been developed as well as special azimuth handling in the coherence, interferogram and spectral filter operators. The Toolbox includes reading of L0, L1 and L2 products in SAFE format, calibration and de-noising, slice product assembling, TOPSAR deburst and sub-swath merging, terrain flattening radiometric normalization, and visualization for L2 OCN products. The Toolbox also provides several new tools for

  8. ESA unveils its big XMM spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    have to imagine the big tube of XMM filled with focused X-rays en route to the detectors », says Robert Lainé, ESA's project manager for XMM. « That is the whole purpose of the mission, and our chief preoccupation has been with the three multi-mirror modules that accomplish it. Critics thought we were too ambitious, trying to nest 58 precisely formed mirrors together in each module. No one had ever attempted such a feat before. It was not easy, but thanks to excellent innovative work by European industry, XMM's telescopes are even better than we hoped ». X-rays are focused by glancing them off a carefully shaped mirror, like a bucket without a bottom. In a single-mirror telescope, most of the incoming X-rays miss the mirror. To catch more of them, designers nest multiple mirrors inside one another. Before XMM, astronomers had to choose between many mirrors with relatively poor focusing, or a very few mirrors with a sharp focus. With 58 precision-made mirrors in each of its three X-ray telescopes, XMM combines enormous gathering power with accurate focusing. Carl Zeiss in Germany made shaped and polished mandrels (moulds) for mirrors of 58 different diameters, up to 70 cm for the widest. Media Lario in Italy made the mirrors by electrodeposition of nickel on the mandrels, coated their inner surfaces with gold, and carefully assembled them in their nested configuration, in a framework fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. The performance of each XMM mirror module has been verified in special facilities of the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium and the Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestriche Physik in Germany. The first flight model conformed with the specification, and the second and third were even better. Some facts about XMM The total surface area of the extremely thin mirror that gathers X-rays in XMM's three multi-mirror telescopes (taken together) is larger than 200 m2. Two of the three X-ray telescopes are fitted with reflection grating spectrometers for the

  9. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  10. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  11. ESA's Cloudscape: A Review of Projects Using Cloud Technology in ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, W.; Balseiro, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    Several projects in the space agency have flirted with cloud solutions, all with fairly positive results. In this talk a quick overview of the projects will be given. They span a large number of perhaps surprising areas. Much of ESA's videoconferencing is now done using cloud resources. Perhaps more than one might expect, several projects from earth observation to astronomy use cloud tech for data processing. Some more detail will be given from the Gaia perspective, as this is the authors' area of expertise. Within Gaia we have experimented with Amazon for data processing and are investigating how catalogue access might be facilitated with this technology.

  12. Mitotic aberrations induced by carbaryl reflect tyrosine kinase inhibition with coincident up-regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity: implications for coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renglin, A; Härmälä-Brasken, A S; Eriksson, J E; Onfelt, A

    1999-05-01

    The insecticide carbaryl and its metabolite 1-naphthol cause partial uncoupling of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts; karyokinesis is blocked in metaphase, the microtubules of the spindle depolymerize and the chromosomes and spindle remnants become displaced to the periphery of the cell. A high frequency of these disturbed cells elongate and a smaller fraction initiate a cleavage furrow. Here, we attempt to determine the potential targets for carbaryl and 1-naphthol in cytokinesis-specific signalling, led by the fact that the potential protein phosphatase inhibitor 1-naphthyl phosphate was previously identified in treated cells. We found that the typical cytological pattern induced by carbaryl and 1-naphthol could be obtained with tyrphostins, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, indicating that the carbaryl-induced effects could be due to tyrosine kinase inhibition. This was confirmed by tyrosine kinase assays showing that carbaryl, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol were equally efficient at inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity as tyrphostin B44(-). As tyrosine kinases can act as regulatory factors in determining dephosphorylation rates, the activities of type-1 (PP1) and type-2A (PP2A) serine/threonine protein phosphatases were also determined. There was a clear up-regulation of the overall PP1/PP2A activities in cells treated with carbaryl, 1-naphthol or tyrphostin B44(-). This stimulation was shown to be indirect because these compounds had no effect on the activity of purified human PP1 in the test tube. 2-Naphthol, which has been found to be less efficient with regard to displacement of chromatin, did not cause up-regulation, but a significant decrease in PP1/PP2A activity. We suggest that a net decrease in tyrosine kinase activity in combination with a net increase in PP1/PP2A activity is a precondition for cell elongation and cytokinesis in mammalian cells and that the corresponding enzymes are targets in the network of activities

  13. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  14. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on pig manure-derived biochars: Impact of structural properties of biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng, E-mail: phevos1983@yahoo.com.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Hongwen, E-mail: sunhongwen@nankai.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yu, Li [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Tieheng [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► High ash content biochar can increase solution pH and released metal ions. ► Ash in biochar can combine pesticide through specific interactions. ► Composition and structure of biochar is favor for the hydrolysis of pesticides. -- Abstract: Biochars were produced from pig manure to elucidate the influence of biochars with high ash contents on the fate of pesticides. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on original biochars and deashed biochars were investigated. The two pesticides were substantially adsorbed by the biochars, with organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub oc}) values of 10{sup 2.65}–10{sup 3.66} L/kg for carbaryl and 10{sup 1.90}–10{sup 3.57} L/kg for atrazine at C{sub e} of 0.5 mg/L. Hydrophobic effect alone could not explain the sorption, and several other processes including pore-filling and π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions were involved in pesticide adsorption. Adsorption increased greatly on the deashed biochar, indicating that some organic sorption sites in the original biochars were blocked or difficult to access due to their interactions with inorganic moiety. The pesticides were found to hydrolyze faster in the presence of biochars, and in the presence of biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C, carbaryl and atrazine were decomposed by 71.8% and 27.9% in 12 h, respectively. The elevated solution pH was the main reason for the enhanced hydrolysis; however both the mineral surface and dissolved metal ions released from the biochars were confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis.

  15. ESA Sky: a new Astronomy Multi-Mission Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Merín, Bruno; Salgado, Jesús; Giordano, Fabrizio; Baines, Deborah; Sarmiento, María-Henar; Martí, Belén López; Racero, Elena; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Pollock, Andy; Rosa, Michael; Castellanos, Javier; González, Juan; De león, Ignacio; de Landaluce, Iñaki Ortiz; de Teodoro, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We present a science-driven discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions called ESA Sky that allow users to explore the multi-wavelength sky and to seamlessly retrieve science-ready data in all ESA Astronomy mission archives from a web application without prior-knowledge of any of the missions. The first public beta of the service has been released, currently featuring an interface for exploration of the multi-wavelength sky and for single and/or multiple target searches of science-rea...

  16. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... significant numbers of agricultural worker activity as designated by ESA. These Specialists shall coordinate...-related activities of significant crew leaders and growers in the area to ascertain that those...

  17. CERN News - Esa astronaut brings neutralino back from space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Visual Media Office

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut and former physicist at CERN Christer Fuglesang returns a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN after flying it to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  18. ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information derived...

  19. Application of third-order multivariate calibration algorithms to the determination of carbaryl, naphthol and propoxur by kinetic spectroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Cruz, Pablo; García-Reiriz, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    In the present work a new application of third-order multivariate calibration algorithms is presented, in order to quantify carbaryl, naphthol and propoxur using kinetic spectroscopic data. The time evolution of fluorescence data matrices was measured, in order to follow the alkaline hydrolysis of the pesticides mentioned above. This experimental system has the additional complexity that one of the analytes is the reaction product of another analyte, and this fact generates linear dependency problems between concentration profiles. The data were analyzed by three different methods: parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), unfolded partial least-squares (U-PLS) and multi-dimensional partial least-squares (N-PLS); these last two methods were assisted with residual trilinearization (RTL) to model the presence of unexpected signals not included in the calibration step. The ability of the different algorithms to predict analyte concentrations was checked with validation samples. Samples with unexpected components, tiabendazole and carbendazim, were prepared and spiked water samples of a natural stream were used to check the recovered concentrations. The best results were obtained with U-PLS/RTL and N-PLS/RTL with an average of the limits of detection of 0.035 for carbaryl, 0.025 for naphthol and 0.090 for propoxur (mg L(-1)), because these two methods are more flexible regarding the structure of the data.

  20. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems.

  1. Cholinesterase Inhibition and Depression of the Photic After Discharge of Flash Evoked Potentials Following Acute or Repeated Exposures to a Mixture of Carbaryl and Propoxur

    Science.gov (United States)

    While information exists regarding inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity, little is known about neurophysiological changes produced by a mixture of N-methyl carbamate pesticides. Previously, we reported that acute treatment with propoxur or carbaryl decreased the duration o...

  2. Dose-response and time-course of neurotoxicity and tissue concentrations of carbaryl in Brown Norway rats from preweaning to senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors impacting sensitivity to chemicals across life stages include toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic changes. We systematically compared the dose-response (3, 7.5, 15,22.5 mg/kg) and time-course (3 or 15 mg/kg at 30, 60, 120, 240 min) of acute effects of carbaryl (oral gavage) i...

  3. Euclid Assessment Study Report for the ESA Cosmic Visions

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; Leibundgut, B; Lilly, S; Nichol, R; Reéfrégier, A; Rosati, P; Steinmetz, M; Thatte, N; Valentijn, E

    2009-01-01

    Euclid is a proposed high-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe with demonstrated feasibility. Euclid's Visible - Near-InfraRed imaging and spectroscopy of the extragalactic sky will further produce extensive legacy science to the boundaries of the visible universe. The mission is optimised for two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). Euclid's wide survey will cover 20,000 deg2, measuring shapes and redshifts of galaxies to redshift 2. For weak lensing, Euclid will measure the shape of over 2 billion galaxies with a density of 30-40 resolved galaxies per arcmin2 in one broad visible R+I+Z band (550-920 nm) down to AB mag 24.5 (10sigma). The photometric redshifts for these galaxies are derived from three additional Euclid NIR bands (Y,J,H in the range 0.92-2.0 micron) reaching AB mag 24 (5sigma) in each, complemented by photometry from ground based surveys. The BAO are determined from a NIR spectroscopic survey with a...

  4. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  5. ESA Earth Observation missions at the service of geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and boundary conditions. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific endeavours. Meteorological satellites help to predict the weather and feature the most mature application of Earth observation. Over the last four decades satellites have been radically improving the accuracy of weather forecasts by providing unique and indispensable input data to numerical computation models. In addition, Essential Climate Variables (ECV) are constantly monitored within ESA's Climate Change Initiative in order to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters. All of these activities can only be carried out in international cooperation. Accordingly, ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and relevant institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges as well as to requirements resulting from political priorities, such as the United Nations' Sustainable Development

  6. ESA on RAINEWS24: A Case Study of Television Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In May 2000, ESRIN, the Italian establishment of the European Space Agency (ESA), started a collaboration with the television channel Rainews24. Rainews24 is the "allnews" channel of Italian public television (RAI) and is now about 10 years old. It transmits 24 hours a day and is the most watched all-news satellite channel in Italy. Each Thursday an ESA representative (Stefano Sandrelli) is interviewed by a professional RAI journalist in a 5-6 minute long slot that follows the 5 pm news bulletin. The broadcast is repeated late at night or in the early hours of Thursday and Friday. Interviews are strictly linked to the weekly news and are prepared on the morning of the same day by the ESA representative in collaboration with a RAI journalist. The subject is chosen from the most topical news items of the week: video, images and animations are provided by the ESA television service and by press agencies (Reuters etc.). The interviews are largely informal and resemble a dialogue rather than an academic discussion "from space". Even though they focus on ESA activities, they are not advertisements: space science and research is dealt with as a human activity, so both the positive and negative aspects of space exploration and exploitation may emerge. Although this outreach activity began as an experiment, the ESA interviews have become a fixed feature. As a result of five years of uninterrupted collaboration, over 200 interviews have been recorded, with about 30% of the interviews dedicated to pure astronomy. A welcome positive feature is that the interviews are seen by Rainews24 as an open source of daily news.

  7. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as 'L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is supporting: (1) US participation in early mission studies, (2) US technology development, (3) pre-decadal preparations, (4) ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission and (5) the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System project. This talk summarizes NASA's preparations for a future gravitational-wave mission.

  8. Technology validation of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Lemmel, Frederic; Smit, Hans; Blommaert, Sander; Oosterbroek, Tim; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Visser, Ivo; Heijnen, Jerko; Butler, Bart

    2016-07-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz. The manufacture of such large device in large quantity constitutes an unprecedented effort. To de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation team is characterizing the electro-optical performance of a number of PLATO devices before and after proton irradiation.

  9. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  10. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2004-06-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earth-orbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra-Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  11. ESA Earth terminals in the European data relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.

    1991-10-01

    The projected ESA earth terminal which will be the main traffic stations for the space/ground communications via the European Data Relay System (DRS) are considered. The major station and subsystem characteristics of these terminals as derived during the detailed definition phase by European industry are described.

  12. ESA and CERN link on data and communication

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    ESA and CERN have agreed to set up working groups to learn from each others experiences in areas such as handling and networking large amounts of data generated by large-scale experiments and in communicating the results of their experiments to the public (2 paragraphs).

  13. The BIOMASS mission — An ESA Earth Explorer candidate to measure the BIOMASS of the earth's forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scipal, K.; Arcioni, M.; Chave, J.

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) released a Call for Proposals for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission in March 2005, with the aim to select the 7th Earth Explorer (EE-7) mission for launch in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to scientific and technical assessment....

  14. ESA technology flies on Italian mini-satellite launched from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Owned by the Italian space agency (ASI) and developed by Carlo Gavazzi with contributions from many other Italian companies, MITA has two tasks to perform: in a circular orbit at 450 km altitude, the mini satellite will carry a cosmic particle detector, while its platform will be tested for the first time as a vehicle for future scientific missions. MITA also carries the MTS-AOMS payload (MicroTechSensor for Attitude and Orbit Measurement System), developed by Astrium in the framework of ESA's Technology Flight Opportunity trial programme. With the Technology Flight Opportunity scheme, funded by its General Studies Programme, ESA intends to provide access to space for European industry's technology products needing in-orbit demonstration to enhance their competitiveness on the space market. This new form of support to the European space industry ties in with ESA's strategy for fostering the competitiveness of European-made technology for eventual commercialisation. In-orbit demonstration is essential if new technologies are to compete on level terms on non-European markets. It thus consolidates strategic investments made by the space industry. The MTS-AOMS is a highly integrated sensor for autonomous attitude and orbit control systems. It combines three functions in one unit: Earth sensing, star sensing and magnetic field sensing. The equipment incorporates an active pixel array sensor and a 2-D fluxgate magnetometer. The aims of the flight are to verify in situ the payload's inherent functions and performance, which cannot be done on the ground, and to assess the behaviour of this type of technology when exposed to the space environment. The Technology Flight Opportunity rule is that ESA funds the launch and integration costs, industry the development and operating costs. According to present planning, two further in-orbit demonstrations funded by this scheme will be carried out between now and January 2001.

  15. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  16. ESA is now a major player in global space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    * Results from the star-fixing satellite Hipparcos, released this summer to the world's astronomers, give the positions and motions of 118,000 stars a hundred times more accurately than ever before. * Every day the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, examines 45 cosmic objects on average at many different wavelengths never observable before, giving fresh insights into cosmic history and chemistry. * Invaluable new knowledge of the Sun comes from SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which is the first spacecraft able to observe the Sun's deep interior as well as its stormy surface and atmosphere. Besides these missions making present headlines, several other spacecraft are helping to fulfil ESA's scientific objectives. * 2 - * The launch in October 1997 of ESA's probe Huygens, aboard the Cassini spacecraft bound for Saturn, foreshadows a breakthrough in planetary science in 2004. That is when Huygens will carry its scientific instruments into the unique and puzzling atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. * Ulysses, also built in Europe, is exploring hitherto unknown regions of space, after making the first-ever visit to the Sun's polar regions in 1994-95. It will return to the Sun in 2000-2001, to observe the effects of the climax of solar activity due at that time. * The Cluster 2 mission, announced in April 1997 and to be launched in 2000, will explore the Earth's space environment far more throughly than ever before. ESA's decision to replace the four Cluster satellites lost in a launch accident in 1996 ensures that Europe will continue as the leader in solar-terrestrial research in space. * An example of the three unique 58-mirror X-ray telescopes for the XMM mission was unveiled for the press in May 1997. When it goes into orbit in 1999 XMM will make, in seconds, observations of cosmic objects that took hours with previous X-ray astronomy missions. * The Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a partner, continues to deliver the sharpest pictures of the

  17. Operational support to collision avoidance activities by ESA's space debris office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Merz, K.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Funke, Q.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Space Debris Office provides a service to support operational collision avoidance activities. This support currently covers ESA's missions Cryosat-2, Sentinel-1A and -2A, the constellation of Swarm-A/B/C in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as missions of third-party customers. In this work, we describe the current collision avoidance process for ESA and third-party missions in LEO. We give an overview on the upgrades developed and implemented since the advent of conjunction summary messages (CSM)/conjunction data messages (CDM), addressing conjunction event detection, collision risk assessment, orbit determination, orbit and covariance propagation, process control, and data handling. We pay special attention to the effect of warning thresholds on the risk reduction and manoeuvre rates, as they are established through risk mitigation and analysis tools, such as ESA's Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software suite. To handle the large number of CDMs and the associated risk analyses, a database-centric approach has been developed. All CDMs and risk analysis results are stored in a database. In this way, a temporary local "mini-catalogue" of objects close to our target spacecraft is obtained, which can be used, e.g., for manoeuvre screening and to update the risk analysis whenever a new ephemeris becomes available from the flight dynamics team. The database is also used as the backbone for a Web-based tool, which consists of the visualization component and a collaboration tool that facilitates the status monitoring and task allocation within the support team as well as communication with the control team. The visualization component further supports the information sharing by displaying target and chaser motion over time along with the involved uncertainties. The Web-based solution optimally meets the needs for a concise and easy-to-use way to obtain a situation picture in a very short time, and the support for

  18. Using Standing Gold Nanorod Arrays as Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Substrates for Detection of Carbaryl Residues in Fruit Juice and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammarraie, Fouad K; Lin, Mengshi

    2017-01-25

    In recent years, there have been increasing concerns about pesticide residues in various foods. On the other hand, there is growing attention in utilizing novel nanomaterials as highly sensitive, low-cost, and reproducible substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. The objective of this study was to develop a SERS method for the rapid detection of pesticides that were extracted from different types of food samples (fruit juice and milk). A new SERS substrate was prepared by assembling gold nanorods into standing arrays on a gold-coated silicon slide. The standing nanorod arrays were neatly arranged and were able to generate a strong electromagnetic field in SERS measurement. The as-prepared SERS substrate was utilized to detect carbaryl in acetonitrile/water solution, fruit juices (orange and grapefruit), and milk. The results show that the concentrations of carbaryl spiked in fruit juice and milk were linearly correlated with the concentrations predicted by the partial least-squares (PLS) models with r values of 0.91, 0.88, and 0.95 for orange juice, grapefruit juice, and milk, respectively. The SERS method was able to detect carbaryl that was extracted from fruit juice and milk samples at a 50 ppb level. The detection limits of carbaryl were 509, 617, and 391 ppb in orange juice, grapefruit juice, and milk, respectively. All detection limits are below the maximum residue limits that were set by the U.S. EPA. Moreover, satisfactory recoveries (82-97.5%) were accomplished for food samples using this method. These results demonstrate that SERS coupled with the standing gold nanorod array substrates is a rapid, reliable, sensitive, and reproducible method for the detection of pesticide residues in foods.

  19. Novel pipette-tip graphene/poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel composite extractor for the analysis of carbofuran and carbaryl in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenpornpukdee, Kanokrat; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    A novel pipette-tip extractor of a graphene/poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel (graphene/PVA) composite sorbent was prepared to preconcentrate carbamate pesticides in environmental water samples before analysis with a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This novel pipette-tip extractor with the graphene/PVA sorbent exhibited a high porosity when observed through a scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Under optimal conditions, using only 1.0 mL of sample and 0.75 mL of eluting solvent, the developed method provided a wide linear range of 10-700 ng mL(-1) and 10-500 ng mL(-1) with limit of detection (LOD) of 6.40 ± 0.18 and 9.17 ± 0.34 ng mL(-1) for carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) and carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate), respectively. The pipette-tip extractor provided high extraction efficiency with high accuracy indicated, by good recoveries in the range of 74.5 ± 4.8% to 119.7 ± 1.6% and 76 ± 15% to 114 ± 19% for carbofuran and carbaryl, respectively. In addition, the fabrication procedure showed a good pipette-tip extractor-to-pipette-tip extractor reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 1.3-9.8% (n = 5). When the developed pipette-tip extractor was applied for the extraction of carbofuran and carbaryl in surface water samples near vegetable plantation areas, 25.9 ± 8.2 ng mL(-1) of carbofuran was found, and carbaryl was also detected in concentrations that ranged from 45.0 ± 4.0 to 191 ± 13 ng mL(-1).

  20. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer-Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Griesfeller, J.; Martynenko, D.; Klüser, L.; Bevan, S.; Davies, W.; Ducos, F.; Deuzé, J. L.; Graigner, R. G.; Heckel, A.; von Hoyningen-Hüne, W.; Kolmonen, P.; Litvinov, P.; North, P.; Poulsen, C. A.; Ramon, D.; Siddans, R.; Sogacheva, L.; Tanre, D.; Thomas, G. E.; Vountas, M.; Descloitres, J.; Griesfeller, J.; Kinne, S.; Schulz, M.; Pinnock, S.

    2013-08-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (2010-2013), algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1) a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2) a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome) applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3) a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008) of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun photometer

  1. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holzer-Popp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project Aerosol_cci (2010–2013, algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1 a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2 a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3 a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008 of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun

  2. ESA's X-ray space observatory XMM takes first pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Under the aegis of Prof. Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, the mission's Principal Investigators will be presenting these spectacular first images at a press conference to be held on 9 February at the ESA Vilspa facility at Villafranca/Madrid in Spain, where the XMM Science Operations Centre is located. The event will also be the occasion for several major announcements concerning the XMM mission. In particular Professor Bonnet will launch the third XMM competition "Stargazing" - previously announced in September 1999. This will address European youngsters, 16 to 18 years old, who will be offered the unique opportunity of winning observing time using the X-ray telescope. Commissioning phase starts After a successful launch from Kourou on Ariane 504 on 10 December 1999, XMM was brought to its final operational orbit in the following week. The telescope doors on the X-ray Mirror Modules and on the Optical Monitor telescope were opened on 17/18 December. The Radiation Monitor was activated on 19 December and the spacecraft was put into a quiet mode over the Christmas and New Year period. The mission's scientific data is being received, processed and dispatched to astronomers by the XMM Science Operations Centre in Villafranca. Operations with the spacecraft restarted there on 4 January when, as part of the commissioning phase, all the science payloads were switched on one after the other for initial verifications. By the week of 17 January functional tests had begun on the Optical Monitor, the EPIC pn, the two EPIC MOS and the two RGS instruments. The internal doors of the EPIC cameras were opened whilst keeping the camera filter wheels closed. Astounding first images After a series of engineering exposures, all three EPIC cameras were used in turn, between 19-24 January, to take several views of two different extragalactic regions of the Universe. These views, featuring a variety of extended and X-ray point sources, were chosen to demonstrate the full

  3. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, ESA and NASA performed joint studies of two highly capable scientific missions to the outer planets: the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM). Joint Science Definition Teams (JSDTs) were formed with U.S. and European membership to guide study activities that were conducted collaboratively by engineering teams working on both sides of the Atlantic. EJSM comprises the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) that would be provided by NASA and the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) that would be provided by ESA. Both spacecraft would be launched independently in 2020, and arrive 6 years later for a 3-4 year mission within the Jupiter System. Both orbiters would explore Jupiter's system on trajectories that include flybys of Io (JEO only), Europa (JEO only), Ganymede and Callisto. The operation of JEO would culminate in orbit around Europa while that of JGO would culminate in orbit around Ganymede. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) comprises a Titan Orbiter provided by NASA that would carry two Titan in situ elements provided by ESA: the montgolfière and the lake lander. The mission would launch in 2020 and arrive 9 years later for a 4-year duration in the Saturn system. Following delivery of the ESA in situ elements to Titan, the Titan Orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes Enceladus and Titan flybys. The montgolfière would last at least 6-12 months at Titan and the lake lander 8-10 hours. Following the Saturn system tour, the Titan Orbiter would culminate in a ~2-year orbit around Titan. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned between the orbiter and in situ elements. The ESA contribution to this joint endeavor will be implemented as the first Cosmic Vision Large-class (L1) mission; the NASA contribution will be implemented as the Outer Planet Flagship Mission. The contribution to each mission is being reviewed and

  4. Mobile communications by satellite in Europe - Overview of ESA activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogard, R.; Jongejans, A.; Bartholome, P.

    ESA is conducting studies aimed at the definition of a Land Mobile Satellite System for digital communications within the Western European region, in view of recent market studies indicating the existence of substantial demand for the provision of mobile communications services by satellite. Attention is presently given to the 'Prodat' low-rate system and its ARQ-coding scheme, Prodat's CDMA return link (noting interference protection and spectrum use efficiency criteria) and the aims of Prodat performance trials.

  5. Le CERN et l'ESA renforcent leurs liens

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    Mr Antonio Rodotà, Director General of the European Space Agency (ESA) visited CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on Thursday, 7 May. He was welcomed by Prof. Chris Llewellyn Smith, the Director General of CERN, together with his designated successor, Prof. Luciano Maiani. After very fruitful and positive discussions the Directors General agreed on the creation of Working Groups to study and propose systematic joint activities to be conducted on a regular basis between the two Organisations.

  6. ESA White paper: Atmospheric modeling: Setting Biomarkers in context

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: ESAs goal to detect biomarkers in Earth-like exoplanets in the Habitable Zone requires theoretical groundwork that needs to be done to model the influence of different parameters on the detectable biomarkers. We need to model a wide parameter space (chemical composition, pressure, evolution, interior structure and outgassing, clouds) to generate a grid of models that inform our detection strategy as well as can help characterize the spectra of the small rocky planets detected.

  7. ESA Sky: a new Astronomy Multi-Mission Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Merín, Bruno; Giordano, Fabrizio; Baines, Deborah; Sarmiento, María-Henar; Martí, Belén López; Racero, Elena; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Pollock, Andy; Rosa, Michael; Castellanos, Javier; González, Juan; León, Ignacio; de Landaluce, Iñaki Ortiz; de Teodoro, Pilar; Nieto, Sara; Lennon, Daniel J; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; O'Mullane, William

    2015-01-01

    We present a science-driven discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions called ESA Sky that allow users to explore the multi-wavelength sky and to seamlessly retrieve science-ready data in all ESA Astronomy mission archives from a web application without prior-knowledge of any of the missions. The first public beta of the service has been released, currently featuring an interface for exploration of the multi-wavelength sky and for single and/or multiple target searches of science-ready imaging data and catalogues. Future releases will enable retrieval of spectra and will have special time-domain exploration features. From a technical point of view, the system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new generation of HEALPix projections called HiPS, developed at the CDS; detailed geometrical footprints to connect the all-sky mosaics to individual observations; and direct access to science-ready data at the underlying mission-specific science archives.

  8. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  9. Tradescantia as a biomonitor for pesticide genotoxicity evaluation of iprodione, carbaryl, dimethoate and 4,4'-DDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadic, Ximena; Placencia, Fabián; Domínguez, Ana María; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    There is a current tendency to develop and apply environmentally friendly techniques that meet the requirements of green analytical chemistry as an alternative to conventional analytical methods. For toxicity evaluation, these alternatives may be found in bioassays such as Tradescantia. This technique, developed in the 1980s, is highly sensitive to evaluate environmental mutagens, simple and cheap. In this paper, the sensibility of both the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and the Tradescantia stamen hair bioassay (Trad-SH) were studied for carbaryl, dimethoate and iprodione, common agricultural and domestic pesticides that are currently used in Chile, which have never been tested with such bioassays. Biomonitor exposures were performed by capillary absorption for each individual pesticide over a wide range of concentrations, from maximum residue limits (trace levels) up to the application dose in agricultural fields. In addition, the organochloride 4,4'-DDE was included but only in the concentration range from 0.01mgL(-1) to 1mgL(-1), mimicking residue concentrations since it is not a commercial product but, rather, the main breakdown product of the persistent organochloride pesticide 4,4-DDT, whose use was discontinued in Chile in the 1980s. The Trad-MCN bioassay revealed a significant increase in micronucleus frequency at the early tetrads of meiotic pollen mother cells of the biomonitor Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea, induced by 4,4'-DDE (for 1mgL(-1)), dimethoate (for 40mgL(-1), 200mgL(-1), 400mg/L(-1)) and carbaryl (for 889mgL(-1)). Iprodione did not generate any significant change at the tested concentration. Meanwhile, the Trad-SH bioassay was carried out by analysis of the phenotype variations of the stamen hair cells of the Tradescantia clone KU-20 for the same pesticides and doses. This bioassay was not sufficiently sensitive for toxicity evaluation of most of the pesticides tested, with exception of dimethoate in low doses (2 and 5mg

  10. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  11. EsaD, a secretion factor for the Ess pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Butler, Emily K; Missiakas, Dominique M

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes the Sec-independent Ess secretion pathway, an ortholog of mycobacterial T7 secretion systems which is required for the virulence of this Gram-positive microbe. The Ess (ESX secretion) pathway was previously defined as a genomic cluster of eight genes, esxA, esaA, essA, essB, esaB, essC, esaC, and esxB. essABC encode membrane proteins involved in the stable expression of esxA, esxB, and esaC, genes specifying three secreted polypeptide substrates. esaB, which encodes a small cytoplasmic protein, represses the synthesis of EsaC but not that of EsxA and EsxB. Here we investigated a hitherto uncharacterized gene, esaD, located downstream of esxB. Expression of esaD is activated by mutations in esaB and essB. EsaD, the 617-amino-acid product of esaD, is positioned in the membrane and is also accessible to EsaD-specific antibodies on the bacterial surface. S. aureus mutants lacking esaD are defective in the secretion of EsxA. Following intravenous inoculation of mice, S. aureus esaD mutants generate fewer abscesses with a reduced bacterial load compared to wild-type parent strain Newman. The chromosomes of Listeria and Bacillus species with Ess pathways also harbor esaD homologues downstream of esxB, suggesting that the contributory role of EsaD in Ess secretion may be shared among Gram-positive pathogens.

  12. ESA SSA Space Weather Services Supporting Space Surveillance and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Fletcher, Emmet

    2012-07-01

    ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space research or services. This will be performed through providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding the planet Earth. SSA serves the implementation of the strategic missions of the European Space Policy based on the peaceful uses of the outer space by all states, by supporting the autonomous capacity to securely and safely operate the critical European space infrastructures. The Space Weather (SWE) Segment of the SSA will provide user services related to the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. These services will include near real time information and forecasts about the characteristics of the space environment and predictions of space weather impacts on sensitive spaceborne and ground based infrastructure. The SSA SWE system will also include establishment of a permanent database for analysis, model development and scientific research. These services are will support a wide variety of user domains including spacecraft designers, spacecraft operators, human space flights, users and operators of transionospheric radio links, and space weather research community. The precursor SWE services to be established starting in 2010. This presentation provides an overview of the ESA SSA SWE services focused on supporting the Space Surveillance and Tracking users. This services include estimates of the atmospheric drag and archive and forecasts of the geomagnetic and solar indices. In addition, the SSA SWE system will provide nowcasts of the ionospheric group delay to support mitigation of the ionospheric impact on radar signals. The paper will discuss the user requirements for the services, the data

  13. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Engdahl, Marcus; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Arino, Olivier; Bojkov, Bojan; Ferran, Gaston; Donlon, Craig; Kern, Michael; Scipal, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The prime objective of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 20 years. It aims to further strengthen the international leadership of European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit observations from future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address many new avenues of scientific research that will be opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 covering Sentinel 1 (FRINGE /SEASAR ), Sentinel 2 ( S2 symposium), Sentinel 3 (COAST-ALT workshop , 20 Years Progress in Radar Altimetry, Sentinel 3 OLCI/SLSTR 2012 workshop) and Sentinel 4-5 (Atmospheric Science Confrence). The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the work plan 2013 for the SEOM element. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing, validating and maintaining open-source, multi-mission, scientific software toolboxes capable to handle the Sentinels data products 2. Stimulating the development and validation of advanced EO methods and observation strategies in particular the new TOpS mode on Sentinel 1, the new band settings on Sentinel 2, the new geometry/bands of Sentinel 3 OLCI ,SLSTR intruments and the advanced delay-doppler (SAR) altimeter exploitation. 3. Continuing to federate, support and expand the multi-disciplinary expert EO research communities by organizing thematic workshops and ensuring high-quality scientific publications linked to these research domains. Promoting widespread scientific use of data. 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinel s data

  14. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  15. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz operated by Starsem, the European probe - built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet's structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On board Mars Express tests have been run to check that the instruments are functioning correctly. Mars Express has successfully come through its first power test on the whole spacecraft after the gigantic solar flare on 28 October. Since 17 November the onboard software has been 'frozen' after several updates and the spacecraft is now quietly proceeding to its destination. Before even entering into Martian orbit to perform its mission, Mars Express has to face another challenge: safely delivering the Beagle 2 lander to its destination. This task, starting on 19 December, will not be without risk. First of all, to deliver the lander where planned, Mars Express has been put on a collision course with Mars, since Beagle 2 does not have a propulsion system of its own and must therefore be 'carried' precisely to its destination. This means that after separation, Mars Express has to veer away quickly to avoid crashing onto the planet. During the cruise Beagle 2 will take its power from the mother spacecraft, Mars Express. After separation and until its solar arrays are fully deployed on the surface, Beagle 2 must rely on its own battery, which cannot last beyond 6 days. So, like a caring parent, Mars Express must release Beagle 2 at the last possible moment to ensure that the lander has enough power for the rest of its journey to the surface. Only then can Mars Express change its orientation and rapidly fire the thrusters to get away

  16. ESA on the trail of the earliest stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 3054 kb Credits: NASA Simulated image of the distant Universe as seen by JWST This is a simulated image showing the abilities of the NGST. Compared to the Hubble Space Telescope the NGST will improve our 'sight' considerably. Artist's impression of JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 3960 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of JWST Image shows an artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral Credits: ESA. Original image by the Integral IBIS team. Image processing by ESA/ECF Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral A gamma-ray burst seen by ESA's Integral satellite. This picture was taken using the Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS). Astronomers suspect that some gamma-ray bursts are the explosions of individual population III stars. Astronomers know they must have been out there: only in this way could they solve the riddle of the origin and composition of stars in today's Universe. A couple of ESA missions will help astronomers search for this elusive population. When the Universe formed, there was just hydrogen and helium. Chemical elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron and so on were forged later, in the nuclear furnaces at the hearts of stars and then cast into space at the end of the star's life. Astronomers call everything that is heavier than helium a 'metal'. All stars we can observe today contain metals. The youngest contain the most metals and astronomers call them population I stars. The oldest contain only some metals and astronomers call these population II stars. Where do these metals come from? Astronomers have theorised that a first generation of stars, which they call population III, must have existed in the early Universe. This first generation of stars must have formed using only hydrogen and helium, the only elements available in the early cosmic history. After living for 'just' a million years, they

  17. EsaD, a Secretion Factor for the Ess Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Butler, Emily K.; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes the Sec-independent Ess secretion pathway, an ortholog of mycobacterial T7 secretion systems which is required for the virulence of this Gram-positive microbe. The Ess (ESX secretion) pathway was previously defined as a genomic cluster of eight genes, esxA, esaA, essA, essB, esaB, essC, esaC, and esxB. essABC encode membrane proteins involved in the stable expression of esxA, esxB, and esaC, genes specifying three secreted polypeptide substrates. esaB, which enco...

  18. Effective methodology to derive strategic decisions from ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Top priorities in future international space exploration missions regard the achievement of the necessary maturation of enabling technologies, thereby allowing Europe to play a role commensurate with its industrial, operational and scientific capabilities. As part of the actions derived from this commitment, ESA Technology Roadmaps for Exploration represent a powerful tool to prioritise R&D activities in technologies for space exploration and support the preparation of a consistent procurement plan for space exploration technologies in Europe. The roadmaps illustrate not only the technology procurement (to TRL-8) paths for specific missions envisaged in the present timeframe, but also the achievement for Europe of technological milestones enabling operational capabilities and building blocks, essential for current and future Exploration missions. Coordination of requirements and funding sources among all European stakeholders (ESA, EU, National, and Industry) is one of the objectives of these roadmaps, that show also possible application of the technologies beyond space exploration, both at ESA and outside. The present paper describes the activity that supports the work on-going at ESA on the elaboration and update of these roadmaps and related tools, in order to criticise the followed approach and to suggest methodologies of assessment of the Roadmaps, and to derive strategic decision for the advancement of Space Exploration in Europe. After a review of Technology Areas, Missions/Programmes and related building blocks (architectures) and operational capabilities, technology applicability analyses are presented. The aim is to identify if a specific technology is required, applicable or potentially a demonstrator in the building blocks of the proposed mission concepts. In this way, for each technology it is possible to outline one or more specific plans to increase TRL up to the required level. In practice, this translates into two possible solutions: on the one

  19. Forging ties between young People from CERN and ESA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Student Club (CSC) is the official club for the community of young people at CERN. In addition to organizing regular activities for its members, the club serves as a platform for young people to come together and meet people from other backgrounds. On 11 and 12 April, the network for young people from the European Space Agency (YoungESA) organized an excursion to CERN, in which more than 30 young researchers participated. The CERN Student Club was happy to host several activities for the members of the two communities.   Some of the participants in the first meeting of the ESA-CERN student clubs. “One of the most amazing things about being a young researcher is the boundless opportunities for meeting people from all around the world, whether for the exchange of research ideas or for social purposes”, says Yi Ling Hwong, a member of the CMS experiment and Vice-president of the CERN Student Club. “In a place like CERN such occasions are abundant but t...

  20. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  1. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  2. ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Sun, called parallaxes, give the first direct measurements of the distances of large numbers of stars. With the overall calculations completed, the harvest of scientific discoveries has begun. Among those delighted with the immediate irruption into cosmology, from this spacecraft made in Europe, is ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "When supporters of the Hipparcos project argued their case," Bonnet recalls, "they were competing with astrophysical missions with more obvious glamour. But they promised remarkable consequences for all branches of astronomy. And already we see that even the teams using the Hubble Space Telescope will benefit from a verdict from Hipparcos on the distance scale that underpins all their reckonings of the expansion of the Universe." The pulse-rates of the stars Cepheid stars alternately squeeze themselves and relax, like a beating heart. They wax and wane rhythmically in brightness, every few days or weeks, at a rate that depends on their luminosity. Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory discovered in the early years of this century that bigger and more brilliant Cepheids vary with a longer period, according to a strict rule. It allows astronomers to gauge relative distances simply by taking the pulse-rates of the Cepheids and measuring their apparent brightnesses. Nearby Cepheids are typically 1000-2000 light-years away. They are too far for even Hipparcos to obtain very exact distance measurements, but by taking twenty-six examples and comparing them, Michael Feast and his colleague Robin Catchpole of RGO Cambridge arrive at consistent statistics. These define the relationship between the period and the luminosity, needed to judge the distances of Cepheids. The zero point is for an imaginary Cepheid pulsating once a day. This would be a star 300 times more luminous than the Sun, according to the Hipparcos data. The slowest Cepheid in the sample, l Carinae, has a period of 36 days and is equivalent to 18,000 suns

  3. OPSE metrology system onboard of the PROBA3 mission of ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreggia, D.; Bemporad, A.; Capobianco, G.; Fineschi, S.; Focardi, M.; Landini, F.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Romoli, M.; Cernica, I.; Purica, M.; Budianu, E.; Thizy, C.; Renotte, E.; Servaye, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, ESA has assessed several mission involving formation flying (FF). The great interest in this topics is mainly driven by the need for moving from ground to space the location of next generation astronomical telescopes overcoming most of the critical problems, as example the construction of huge baselines for interferometry. In this scenario, metrology systems play a critical role. PROBA3 is an ESA technology mission devoted to in-orbit demonstration of the FF technique, with two satellites, an occulter and a main satellite housing a coronagraph named ASPIICS, kept at an average inter-distance by about 144m, with micron scale accuracy. The guiding proposal is to test several metrology solution for spacecraft alignment, with the important scientific return of having observation of Corona at never reached before angular field. The Shadow Position Sensors (SPS), and the Optical Position Emitters Sensors (OPSE) are two of the systems used for FF fine tracking. The SPS are finalized to monitor the position of the two spacecraft with respect to the Sun and are discussed in dedicated papers presented in this conference. The OPSE will monitor the relative position of the two satellites and consists of 3 emitters positioned on the rear surface of the occulter, that will be observed by the coronagraph itself. By following the evolution of the emitters images at the focal plane the alignment of the two spacecrafts is retrieved via dedicated centroiding algoritm. We present an overview of the OPSE system and of the centroiding approach.

  4. 甲萘威在棉花和土壤中的残留和消解动态%Residue Dynamics of Carbaryl in Cotton and Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婧玮; 李通; 张军锋; 周玲; 司敬沛; 吴绪金

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for the safe use of carbaryl on cotton, the degradation dynamics of carbaryl in cotton and soil were studied by LC-MS/MS. The sample was extracted with methanol + dichloromethane (volume ratio of 1:99), cleaned up by amino solid phase extraction column, then determined by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that the half-lives of carbaryl in cotton leaf and soil were 1.1-1.9 days and 4.3-6.2 days, respectively. The final residues in cotton seed were all under 0.023 mg/kg. The results suggested that metaldehyde + carbaryl 30% GR could be used in cotton field at most one time and the pre-harvest interval should be 7 days.%采用液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)研究了甲萘威在棉花和土壤中的残留消解动态,为棉花上甲萘威的安全使用提供科学依据。样品经甲醇+二氯甲烷(体积比1∶99)提取,氨基固相萃取柱净化,后经LC-MS/MS测定其残留量。甲萘威在棉叶上的半衰期为1.1~1.9 d;在土壤中的半衰期为4.3~6.2 d。试验条件下,甲萘威在收获前14 d、收获前7 d、收获期棉籽中的残留量≤0.023 mg/kg。建议30%聚醛·甲萘威颗粒剂在推荐剂量下最多施药1次,采收间隔期为7 d。

  5. Depression of the photic after discharge of flash evoked potentials by physostigmine, carbaryl and propoxur, and the relationship to inhibition of brain cholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Finley, Dana; Spivey, Christopher L; Graff, Jaimie E; Herr, David W

    2008-01-01

    The effects of N-methyl carbamate pesticides on the photic after discharge (PhAD) of flash evoked potentials (FEPs) and the relationship between inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity and the PhAD were evaluated. FEPs were recorded in Long Evans rats treated with physostigmine (s.c.) 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3mg/kg (free base), in an ascorbic acid/saline vehicle, carbaryl (p.o.) 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 50 or 75 mg/kg, or propoxur (p.o.) 0, 0.3, 3, 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg in a corn oil vehicle. Physostigmine served as positive control based on literature data. Early (e.g. peak N(36)) and late FEP components (peak N(166) and PhAD) are related to the initial retino-geniculate afferent volley and higher cortical processing of visual information, respectively. Compared to controls, the PhAD duration decreased following treatment with 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg physostigmine, 7 5 mg/kg carbaryl or 30 mg/kg propoxur. Lesser changes were noted in FEP amplitudes or peak latencies. Treatment with 0.2 or 0.3 mg/kg physostigmine increased peak N(36) latency. Peak N(166) latency increased only following exposure to 40 mg/kg propoxur. None of the compounds altered peak N(36) or N(166) amplitudes. Hypothermia was observed at doses greater than 0.05 mg/kg physostigmine, at 30 or 50 mg/kg carbaryl, and after treatment with 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg propoxur. Inhibition of brain ChE activity occurred at dosages greater than 0.05 mg/kg physostigmine, 1mg/kg carbaryl, and 0.3 mg/kg propoxur. Linear regression analysis indicated that the decrease in PhAD duration correlated with decrease in brain ChE activity. The results indicate that at 30 min after treatment, inhibition of brain ChE activity did not affect cortical processing of the input from the retino-geniculate volley (evidenced by unaltered peak N(36) amplitude). However, the data suggest that disruption of cortical processing of visual signals related to FEP late components, as indicated by depression of the PhAD, was related to inhibition

  6. Optical and dark characterization of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeve, Peter; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Oosterbroek, Tim; Duvet, Ludovic; Beaufort, Thierry; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; Heijnen, Jerko; Lemmel, Frederic; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    PLATO - PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars - is the third medium-class mission (M3) to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. It is due for launch in 2025 with the main objective to find and study terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around solar-like stars. The payload consists of >20 cameras; with each camera comprising 4 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), a large number of flight model devices procured by ESA shall ultimately be integrated on the spacecraft. The CCD270 - specially designed and manufactured by e2v for the PLATO mission - is a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) back-illuminated device operating at 4 MHz pixel rate and coming in two variants: full frame and frame transfer. In order to de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section is currently validating the PLATO CCD270. This validation consists in demonstrating that the device achieves its specified electrooptical performance in the relevant environment: operated at 4 MHz, at cold and before and after proton irradiation. As part of this validation, CCD270 devices have been characterized in the dark as well as optically with respect to performance parameters directly relevant for the photometric application of the CCDs. Dark tests comprise the measurement of gain sensitivity to bias voltages, charge injection tests, and measurement of hot and variable pixels after irradiation. In addition, the results of measurements of Quantum Efficiency for a range of angles of incidence, intra- pixel response (non-)uniformity, and response to spot illumination, before and after proton irradiation. In particular, the effect of radiation induced degradation of the charge transfer efficiency on the measured charge in a star-like spot has been studied as a function of signal level and of position on the pixel grid, Also, the effect of various levels of background light on the

  7. Photometry and Low Dispersion Spectroscopy with ESA Gaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ESA satellite to be launched in 2012 will focus on highly precise astrometry of stars and all objects down to limiting magnitude 20. Albeit focusing on astrometry related matters, the satellite will also provide photometric and spectral information and hence important inputs for various branches of astrophysics. Within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 and related work package Specific Object Studies there are subwork packages accepted for optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables. Although the sampling of the photometric data will not be optimal for this type of work, the strength of Gaia in such analyses is the fine spectral resolution (spectrophotometry and ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy which will allow the correct classication of related triggers. We will review the available low dispersion spectral surveys and discuss their use for a simulation and tests of the Gaia algorithms and Gaia data.

  8. Impact of the Implementation of ESA 2010 on Volume Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Musil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume indices are connected with statistical deflation that means recalculation of macro-aggregates to constant prices. Price calculations have to follow changes in definition or delineation of macro-aggregates. New standards of National Accounts (SNA 2008, ESA 2010 respectively bring many changes that should be taken into account in volume measures. The aim of this paper is to present new methods of deflation that respekt updated definitions and principles. Concept of foreign trade has been changed significantly as globalization is going faster and faster. Re-export and merchanting have become more important especially in small open economies such as the Czech Republic. This phenomenon should be reflected in constant prices calculations. Changes in methodology have also affected volume indices.

  9. Modelling radiation damage to ESA's Gaia satellite CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Cropper, M S

    2008-01-01

    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in late 2011. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its scientific requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate the charge trapping effect of radiation damage, which causes charge transfer inefficiency. The key to calculating the probability of a photoelectron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for Gaia CCD pixels. In this paper, the first of a series, we motivate the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outline how its future results will fit into Gaia's overall radiation calibration strategy.

  10. Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

  11. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  12. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of the ESA/AMPS Copolymer%ESA/AMPS共聚物的合成、表征及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘展; 刘振法; 李晓辉; 王昕

    2013-01-01

    描述了共聚物ESA/AMPS的合成.红外光谱法和元素分析法表征了共聚物的结构.考察了其阻垢分散性能,并利用扫描电镜对形成的垢样CaCO3形貌和晶形进行了观察和分析.结果表明,共聚物具有良好的阻垢分散性能,ESA/AMPS共聚物对垢样晶形有扭曲的作用.%The synthesis of the ESA/AMPS copolymer was descripted. The structure of ESA/AMPS copolymer was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy and elemental analyzed. The performances of scale inhibition and dispersion of the ESA/AMPS copolymer were studied. Morphology and crystal of the scale sample CaCO3 was observated and analysised with SEM. The results show that the scale inhibition performance of the ESA/AMPS copolymer and dispersing performance are good and the ESA/AMPS copolymer has the role of twist on the scale morphology.

  14. CARBARYL EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF ADOLESCENT AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. Understanding age-related susceptibility is crucial in assessing the human health risks of chemicals. Growing evidence implicates as in carbamate toxicity in addition to cholinesterase-inhibit...

  15. Heterologous expression and characterization of a sigma glutathione S-transferase involved in carbaryl detoxification from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2012-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role in detoxification of xenobiotics and resistance to insecticides in insects. In the present study, a sigma-class GST gene (LmGSTs3) was identified from the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Its full-length cDNA sequence is 828 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 612 bp that encodes 204 amino acid residues. The predicted protein molecular mass and pI are 23.4 kDa and 7.62, respectively. Recombinant LmGSTs3 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble fusion protein. Its optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0. Incubation for 30 min at temperatures below 40 °C scarcely affected activity. The LmGSTs3 at pH values between 4.0 and 11.0 retained more than 80% of its original activity. Ethacrynic acid and cibacron blue were very effective inhibitors of LmGSTs3 with I50-values 1.7 and 3.7 μM, respectively. In response to heavy metal (CuSO4, CdCl2) exposure there was a concentration-dependent and time-dependent decrease in activity. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased 38.7% after LmGSTs3 were silenced. These results suggest that LmGSTs3 may be involved in carbaryl detoxification in L. migratoria manilensis.

  16. The ESA JUICE mission: the Science and the Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Rosario; Altobelli, Nicolas; Vallat, Claire; Munoz, Claudio; Andres, Rafael; Cardesin, Alejandro; Witasse, Olivier; Erd, Christian

    2017-04-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme [1]. The mission was selected in May 2012 and adopted in November 2014. The implementation phase started in July 2015, following the selection of the prime industrial contractor, Airbus Defense and Space (Toulouse, France). Due to launch in May 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in October 2029, it will spend almost three years making detailed observations of the Jovian system, with a special focus on the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the three icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. In August 2032, JUICE will then orbit Ganymede for at least ten months. The first goal of JUICE is to characterize the conditions that might have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian satellites, with special emphasis on the three giant icy worlds, likely hosting internal oceans [2]. The second goal is to explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. Focused studies of Jupiter's atmosphere and magnetosphere, and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The JUICE payload consists of 10 state-of-the-art instruments plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based instruments. This payload is capable of addressing all of the mission's science goals [1,2]. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful suite to study plasma and neutral gas environments (PEP) with remote

  17. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  18. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  19. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  20. Simulating Heavy Ion SEUs in the ESA Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Noordeh, Emil

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed SEU measurements made of the ESA Monitor at GSI, RADEF, UCL, and TAMU. An IRPP model was implemented through the use of FLUKA that was calibrated to the measurements of ions above the LET threshold. The model proved successful in reproducing proton measurements that are entirely independent of the calibration. When applied to the sub-threshold region, experimental measurements were underestimated by a factor of $\\sim$3 for the high energy ions at GSI, a factor of $\\sim$10 for the ions at UCL/RADEF, and an anomalous factor of $\\sim$300 for the ion at TAMU. Several possible sources of systematic uncertainty were investigated including sensitive volume size, BEOL thickness, and substrate thickness. Additionally, the impact of including air between the beam and the DUT as well as side effects due to the simulated geometry were explored. It was found that none of these sources can provide a substantial enough impact on the SEU cross-section to reconcile the anomalous measurement made at TAMU.

  1. Status of ESA's EarthCARE mission, passive instruments payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kotska; Hélière, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Eisinger, Michael; Wehr, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    EarthCARE is ESA's third Earth Explorer Core Mission, with JAXA providing one instrument. The mission allows unique data product synergies to improve understanding of atmospheric cloud-aerosol interactions and Earth's radiation balance. Retrieved data will be used to improve climate and numerical weather prediction models. EarthCARE accommodates two active instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID) and a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and two passive instruments: a Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) and a BroadBand Radiometer (BBR). The instruments will provide simultaneous, collocated imagery, allowing both individual and common data products. The active instruments provide data on microscopic levels, measured through the atmospheric depth. 3-D models of the atmospheric interactions are constructed from the data, which can be used to calculate radiation balance. The large footprint of the MSI provides contextual information for the smaller footprints of the active instruments. Data from the BBR allows the loop to be closed by providing a macroscopic measurement of the radiation balance. This paper will describe the passive instruments development status. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. To reduce uncertainty in the radiance to flux conversion, three independent view angles are observed for each scene. The combined data allows more accurate flux calculations, which can be further improved using MSI data.

  2. ESA's new European Hubble Science Archive at ESAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) has recently launched a new version of the European Hubble Space Telescope science archive. The new and enhanced archive offers several new features, some of which are not available anywhere else. The new web-based archive has been completely re-engineered and is now faster, more accurate and more robust than ever. Several of its unique features will be presented: the possibility of seeing the exact footprint of each observations on top of an optical all-sky image, the online visualization and inspection of FITS headers, imaging and spectral observation previews without downloading files or the possibility to search for data that has not yet been published in refereed journals. This state-of-the-art science data archive will be the new main access point to HST data for the European astronomical community and will be enhanced in the near-future to include the Hubble Source Catalogue or other high-level data products as required.

  3. Science performance of Gaia, ESA's space-astrometry mission

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2012-01-01

    Gaia is the next astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), following up on the success of the Hipparcos mission. With a focal plane containing 106 CCD detectors, Gaia will survey the entire sky and repeatedly observe the brightest 1,000 million objects, down to 20th magnitude, during its 5-year lifetime. Gaia's science data comprises absolute astrometry, broad-band photometry, and low-resolution spectro-photometry. Spectroscopic data with a resolving power of 11,500 will be obtained for the brightest 150 million sources, down to 17th magnitude. The thermo-mechanical stability of the spacecraft, combined with the selection of the L2 Lissajous point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system for operations, allows stellar parallaxes to be measured with standard errors less than 10 micro-arcsecond (muas) for stars brighter than 12th magnitude, 25 muas for stars at 15th magnitude, and 300 muas at magnitude 20. Photometric standard errors are in the milli-magnitude regime. The spectroscopic data allows the measurem...

  4. Research recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angie

    Many experts believe that artificial gravity will be required for an interplanetary mission. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for simplifying operational activities, much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before artificial gravity can be successfully implemented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team on Artificial Gravity recommended a comprehensive program to determine the gravity threshold required to reverse or prevent the detrimental effects of microgravity and to evaluate the effects of centrifugation on various physiological functions. Part of the required research can be accomplished using animal models on a dedicated centrifuge in low Earth orbit. Studies of human responses to centrifugation could be performed during ambulatory, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight studies. Artificial-gravity scenarios should not be a priori discarded in Moon and Mars mission designs. One major step is to determine the relationship between the artificial gravity dose level, duration, and frequency and the physiological responses of the major body functions affected by spaceflight. Once its regime characteristics are defined and a dose-response curve is established, artificial gravity should serve as the standard against which all other countermeasure candidates are evaluated, first on Earth and then in space.

  5. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  6. Spaceborne measurement of Greenland ice sheet changes: the ESA Greenland CCI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Meister, Rakia

    The ESA “Greenland_ice_sheet_cci” project is currently making past and present space measurements of Greenland ice sheet changes available for use by scientists, stakeholders and the general public. The data are part of a large set of ECV’s (Essential Climate Variables) made available by the ESA ...

  7. The DTU-ESA Millimeter-Wave Validation Standard Antenna – Manufacturing and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav;

    2015-01-01

    A new precision tool for antenna test range qualification and inter-comparisons at mm-waves – the mm-VAST antenna – is under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with TICRA under a European Space Agency (ESA) contract. The DTU-ESA mm-VAST antenna will facilitate...

  8. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Rosetta’s unique instruments, such as its ultraviolet light instrument ALICE, should be able to make critical contributions to the American mission. About Rosetta Rosetta is the first mission designed to both orbit and land on a comet, and consists of an orbiter and a lander. The spacecraft carries 11 scientific experiments and will be the first mission to undertake long-term exploration of a comet at close quarters. After entering orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the spacecraft will release a small lander onto the icy nucleus. Rosetta will orbit the comet for about a year as it heads towards the Sun, remaining in orbit for another half-year past perihelion (closest approach to the Sun). Comets hold essential information about the origin of our Solar System because they are the most primitive objects in the Solar System and their chemical composition has changed little since their formation. By orbiting and landing on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta will help us reconstruct the history of our own neighbourhood in space. Note for broadcasters: The ESA TV Service will transmit a TV exchange with images of the fly-by, together with science results/images from observations as far as available on 11 March. For further details : http://television.esa.int

  9. An ESA roadmap for geobiology in space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Geobiology, and in particular mineral-microbe interactions, has a significant role to play in current and future space exploration. This includes the search for biosignatures in extraterrestrial environments, and the human exploration of space. Microorganisms can be exploited to advance such exploration, such as through biomining, maintenance of life-support systems, and testing of life-detection instrumentation. In view of these potential applications, a European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team "Geobiology in Space Exploration" was developed to explore these applications, and identify research avenues to be investigated to support this endeavour. Through community workshops, a roadmap was produced, with which to define future research directions via a set of 15 recommendations spanning three key areas: Science, Technology, and Community. These roadmap recommendations identify the need for research into: (1) new terrestrial space-analogue environments; (2) community level microbial-mineral interactions; (3) response of biofilms to the space environment; (4) enzymatic and biochemical mineral interaction; (5) technical refinement of instrumentation for space-based microbiology experiments, including precursor flight tests; (6) integration of existing ground-based planetary simulation facilities; (7) integration of fieldsite biogeography with laboratory- and field-based research; (8) modification of existing planetary instruments for new geobiological investigations; (9) development of in situ sample preparation techniques; (10) miniaturisation of existing analytical methods, such as DNA sequencing technology; (11) new sensor technology to analyse chemical interaction in small volume samples; (12) development of reusable Lunar and Near Earth Object experimental platforms; (13) utility of Earth-based research to enable the realistic pursuit of extraterrestrial biosignatures; (14) terrestrial benefits and technological spin-off from existing and future space

  10. CHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.

  11. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  12. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The exploration and search for life on Mars forms a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space agency will launch the ExoMars Rover and Lander to further this exploration. The key science objectives of the ExoMars Rover are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface; and 3) to characterise the surface environment. To meet these objectives ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a range of complementary techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers). The choice of landing site is vital if ExoMars' scientific objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (≥3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for long-term, or frequently reoccurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is only a few km, but the uncertainty in the location of the landing site forms an elliptical of size ~ 100 by 15 km); and (v) have little dust coverage. In addition, in order to land and operate safely, various 'engineering constraints' apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum, (iii) few steep slopes within the uncertainty ellipse. These constraints are onerous. In particular, the objective to drill into sediments, the requirement for distributed targets within the ellipse, and the ellipse size, make ExoMars site selection extremely challenging. To meet these challenges, we have begun an intensive study of the martian landscape to identify as many possible ExoMars landing sites as possible. We have converted the current engineering constraints into

  13. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  14. Approach to technology prioritization in support of moon initiatives in the framework of ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleina, Sara Cresto; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    technology prioritization's criteria and to assess the final achievement of each path, i.e. the cost-effectiveness. The risk associated to each path is also evaluated. In the second part of the paper, these prioritization methodologies have been applied to some of the building blocks of relevance for the mission concepts under evaluation at ESA (such as Tele-robotic and autonomous control systems; Storable propulsion modules and equipment) and the results are presented to highlight the approach for an effective TRL increase. Eventually main conclusions are drawn.

  15. EsaC substrate for the ESAT-6 Secretion Pathway and its role in persistent infections of S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Burts, Monica L.; DeDent, Andrea C.; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes the specialized secretion system Ess (ESAT-6 secretion system). The ess locus is a cluster of eight genes (esxAB, essABC, esaABC) of which esxA and esxB display homology to secreted ESAT-6 proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. EsxA and EsxB require EssA, EssB and EssC for transport across the staphylococcal envelope. Herein, we examine the role of EsaB and EsaC and show that EsaB is a negative regulator of EsaC. Further, EsaC production is repressed when staphy...

  16. Cholinesterase inhibition and depression of the photic after discharge of flash evoked potentials following acute or repeated exposures to a mixture of carbaryl and propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Lyke, Danielle F; Hertzberg, Richard C; Haber, Lynne; Kohrman-Vincent, Melissa; Li, Ruosha; Pan, Yi; Lyles, Robert H; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Macmillan, Denise K; Zehr, R Dan; Swank, Adam E; Herr, David W

    2012-06-01

    Previously, we reported that acute treatment with propoxur or carbaryl decreased the duration of the photic after discharge (PhAD) of flash evoked potentials (FEPs). In the current studies, we compared the effects of acute or repeated exposure to a mixture of carbaryl and propoxur (1:1.45 ratio; propoxur:carbaryl) on the duration of the PhAD and brain ChE activity in Long Evans rats. Animals were exposed (po) either to a single dose (0, 3, 10, 45 or 75 mg/kg), or 14 daily dosages (0, 3, 10, 30, 45 mg/kg), of the mixture. Acute and repeated treatment with 3mg/kg (or greater) of the mixture produced dose-related inhibition of brain ChE activity. Compared to controls, the PhAD duration decreased after acute administration of 75 mg/kg or repeated treatment with 30 mg/kg of the mixture. The linear relationship between the percent of control brain ChE activity and the PhAD duration was similar for both exposure paradigms. Dose-response models for the acute and repeated exposure data did not differ for brain ChE activity or the duration of the PhAD. Repeated treatment with the mixture resulted in slightly less (13-22%) erythrocyte ChE inhibition than acute exposure. Both acute and repeated treatment resulted in dose-additive results for the PhAD duration and less than dose-additive responses (6-16%) for brain ChE activity for the middle range of dosages. Acute treatment resulted in greater than dose-additive erythrocyte ChE inhibition (15-18%) at the highest dosages. In contrast, repeated treatment resulted in less than dose-additive erythrocyte ChE inhibition (16-22%) at the middle dosages. Brain and plasma levels of propoxur and carbaryl did not differ between the acute and repeated dosing paradigms. In summary, a physiological measure of central nervous system function and brain ChE activity had similar responses after acute or repeated treatment with the carbamate mixture, and brain ChE showed only small deviations from dose-additivity. Erythrocyte ChE activity had

  17. Electrochemical nonenzymatic sensor based on CoO decorated reduced graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of carbofuran and carbaryl in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, MingYan; Huang, JunRao; Wang, Meng; Zhang, DongEn; Chen, Jun

    2014-05-15

    A novel nonenzymatic sensor based on cobalt (II) oxide (CoO)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was developed for the detection of carbofuran (CBF) and carbaryl (CBR). Two well-defined and separate differential pulse voltammetric peaks for CBF and CBR were obtained with the CoO/rGO sensor in a mixed solution, making the simultaneous detection of both carbamate pesticides possible. The nonenzymatic sensor demonstrated a linear relationship over a wide concentration range of 0.2-70 μM (R=0.9996) for CBF and 0.5-200 μM (R=0.9995) for CBR. The lower detection limit of the sensor was 4.2 μg/L for CBF and 7.5 μg/L for CBR (S/N=3). The developed sensor was used to detect CBF and CBR in fruit and vegetable samples and yielded satisfactory results.

  18. An evaluation of the MEDALUS ESA index (environmental sensitivity to land degradation), from regional to plot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavado Contador, J. J.; Schnabel, S.; Gomez Gutierrez, A.

    2009-07-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity to land degradation have been carried out for the region of Extramadura, Sw Spain, by means of the modelling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use) which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index) that incorporates data on environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as on anthropogenic factors (management). Two maps of environmental sensitivity to degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes of sensitivity) have been made. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. The influence of the synthesis method of Ti/RuO{sub 2} electrodes on their stability and catalytic activity for electrochemical oxidation of the pesticide carbaryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.É.S. [Laboratório de Eletroquímica e Nanotecnologia, Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP)/Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Processos, Universidade Tiradentes, 49032–490 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Silva, R.S. [Laboratório de Materiais Cerâmicos Avançados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49.100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Carlesi Jara, C. [Escuela de Ingeniería Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil No 2147, 2362804 Valparaíso (Chile); Eguiluz, K.I.B. [Laboratório de Eletroquímica e Nanotecnologia, Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP)/Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Processos, Universidade Tiradentes, 49032–490 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Salazar-Banda, G.R., E-mail: gianrsb@gmail.com [Laboratório de Eletroquímica e Nanotecnologia, Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP)/Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Processos, Universidade Tiradentes, 49032–490 Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2014-11-14

    In this study, we developed dimensionally stable anodes of titanium covered with ruthenium oxides (Ti/RuO{sub 2}) using sol–gel, Pechini and ionic liquid (IL) methodologies. The electrochemical efficiency of these electrodes was then evaluated regarding electrochemical degradation of the pesticide carbaryl. The UV–visible spectroscopy measurements showed that the electrodes obtained by the IL and Pechini methods were more effective at pesticide degradation compared with the sol–gel electrode, especially at high current density values. Carbaryl degradation after 2 h of electrolysis at 30 mA cm{sup −2} was 96.4% and 95.5% for the electrodes obtained by the IL and Pechini methods, respectively, while the degradation was 65.0% for the electrodes obtained by the sol–gel method. Additionally, the electrodes prepared by the IL and Pechini methods showed greater physical and electrochemical stability when compared to electrodes obtained by the sol–gel method. Electrodes prepared by the IL method with a few covering layers (three) achieved an elevated and constant area in a more efficient way than electrodes prepared by the Pechini and sol–gel methods. This fact can be attributed to the higher viscosity of the ionic liquid-based precursor solution, which transfers a higher amount of Ru in one single layer, compared to the other methods studied, thus reducing the time for synthesis, the number of calcination steps and the production costs of electrodes. - Highlights: • We developed dimensionally stable anodes containing ruthenium oxides. • Sol–gel, Pechini and ionic liquid methodologies were used. • The ionic liquid method covers the surfaces more efficiently and with few layers. • The proposed method reduces the time and production cost for synthesis of electrodes. • The electrodes synthesized present high stability and pesticide degradation activity.

  20. ESA Science Archives, VO tools and remote Scientific Data reduction in Grid Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; de La Calle, I.; Fajersztejn, N.; Freschi, M.; Gabriel, C.; Gomez, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Ibarra, A.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Micol, A.; Parrilla, E.; Ortiz, I.; Osuna, P.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the latest functionalities of the ESA Science Archives located at ESAC, Spain, in particular, the following archives : the ISO Data Archive (IDA {http://iso.esac.esa.int/ida}), the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA {http://xmm.esac.esa.int/xsa}), the Integral SOC Science Data Archive (ISDA {http://integral.esac.esa.int/isda}) and the Planetary Science Archive (PSA {http://www.rssd.esa.int/psa}), both the classical and the map-based Mars Express interfaces. Furthermore, the ESA VOSpec {http://esavo.esac.esa.int/vospecapp} spectra analysis tool is described, which allows to access and display spectral information from VO resources (both real observational and theoretical spectra), including access to Lines database and recent analysis functionalities. In addition, we detail the first implementation of RISA (Remote Interface for Science Analysis), a web service providing remote users the ability to create fully configurable XMM-Newton data analysis workflows, and to deploy and run them on the ESAC Grid. RISA makes fully use of the inter-operability provided by the SIAP (Simple Image Access Protocol) services as data input, and at the same time its VO-compatible output can directly be used by general VO-tools.

  1. Has ESA's XMM-Newton cast doubt over dark energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 hi-res Size hi-res: 100k Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 The fuzzy object at the centre of the frame is one of the galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton in its investigation of the distant Universe. The cluster, designated RXJ0847.2+3449, is about 7 000 million light years away, so we see it here as it was 7 000 million years ago, when the Universe was only about half of its present age. This cluster is made up of several dozen galaxies. Observations of eight distant clusters of galaxies, the furthest of which is around 10 thousand million light years away, were studied by an international group of astronomers led by David Lumb of ESA's Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. They compared these clusters to those found in the nearby Universe. This study was conducted as part of the larger XMM-Newton Omega Project, which investigates the density of matter in the Universe under the lead of Jim Bartlett of the College de France. Clusters of galaxies are prodigious emitters of X-rays because they contain a large quantity of high-temperature gas. This gas surrounds galaxies in the same way as steam surrounds people in a sauna. By measuring the quantity and energy of X-rays from a cluster, astronomers can work out both the temperature of the cluster gas and also the mass of the cluster. Theoretically, in a Universe where the density of matter is high, clusters of galaxies would continue to grow with time and so, on average, should contain more mass now than in the past. Most astronomers believe that we live in a low-density Universe in which a mysterious substance known as 'dark energy' accounts for 70% of the content of the cosmos and, therefore, pervades everything. In this scenario, clusters of galaxies should stop growing early in the history of the Universe and look virtually indistinguishable from those of today. In a paper soon to be published by the European journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, astronomers from the XMM

  2. EsaC substrate for the ESAT-6 secretion pathway and its role in persistent infections of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burts, Monica L; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M

    2008-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes the specialized secretion system Ess (ESAT-6 secretion system). The ess locus is a cluster of eight genes (esxAB, essABC, esaABC) of which esxA and esxB display homology to secreted ESAT-6 proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. EsxA and EsxB require EssA, EssB and EssC for transport across the staphylococcal envelope. Herein, we examine the role of EsaB and EsaC and show that EsaB is a negative regulator of EsaC. Further, EsaC production is repressed when staphylococci are grown in broth and increased when staphylococci replicate in serum or infected hosts. EsaB is constitutively produced and remains in the cytoplasm whereas EsaC is secreted. This secretion requires an intact Ess pathway. Mutants lacking esaB or esaC display only a small defect in acute infection, but remarkably are unable to promote persistent abscesses during animal infection. Together, the data suggest a model whereby EsaB controls the production of effector molecules that are important for host pathogen interaction. One such effector, EsaC, is a secretion substrate of the Ess pathway and implements its pathogenic function during infection.

  3. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable...

  4. IMPROVING THE SKILL AND THE INTEREST OF WRITING ADVERTISEMENTS AND POSTERS THROUGH ESA SEQUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The action reserach aims at improving the students’ writing skill especially to write advertsements and posters. Both are the short functional texts to be learned at the first semester of the ninth grade. According to the data on pre cycle, the students of class IXA Junior High School Swadhipa Natar, South Lampung got difficulties in writing advertisements and posters. A treatment was necessary to help the students overcome their problem. To consider the related literature, the writer decided to implement ESA sequence in the class. The elements of teaching in ESA Sequence are Engage (to arouse the students’ interests, Study (learn the language focus, and Activate (use the language freely and communicatively.The data were taken from the test of the linguistic competence mastery, the students writing, and the questionnaire. The result shows ESA Sequence can improve the students’ ability in writing advertisements and posters.Key words : ESA (Engange Study Activate, advertisement, poster.

  5. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  6. ESA is hot on the trail of Geminga

    Science.gov (United States)

    XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twi hi-res Size hi-res: 68 kb Credits: ESA XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twin tails This image was captured by the EPIC camera on board the satellite. The motion of Geminga across the sky is indicated, showing that the tails are trailing the neutron star. The scale bar corresponds to a distance of 1.5 million million kilometres at the distance of Geminga. Computer models of the shock wave created by Geminga hi-res Size hi-res: 522 kb Credits: Patrizia Caraveo Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga show that the best matches to the data occur if the neutron star is travelling virtually across our line of sight. These correspond to the inclinations of less than 30 degrees. A neutron star measures only 20-30 kilometres across and is the dense remnant of an exploded star. Geminga is one of the closest to Earth, at a distance of about 500 light-years. Most neutron stars emit radio emissions, appearing to pulsate like a lighthouse, but Geminga is 'radio-quiet'. It does, however, emit huge quantities of pulsating gamma rays making it one of the brightest gamma-ray sources in the sky. Geminga is the only example of a successfully identified gamma-ray source from which astronomers have gained significant knowledge. It is 350 000 years old and ploughs through space at 120 kilometres per second. Its route creates a shockwave that compresses the gas of the interstellar medium and its naturally embedded magnetic field by a factor of four. Patrizia Caraveo, Instituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Milano, Italy, and her colleagues (at CESR, France, ESO and MPE, Germany) have calculated that the tails are produced because highly energetic electrons become trapped in this enhanced magnetic field. As the electrons spiral inside the magnetic field, they emit the X-rays seen by XMM-Newton. The electrons themselves are created

  7. Come to Noyon (France) and follow the solar eclipse with ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    ESA will feature a special exhibition stand where the public, amateurs and press can obtain information. During the partial eclipse phases, the latest images from ESA's solar observatory SOHO and from other European eclipse sites, coming via the Internet or traditional broadcast, will be shown on a large video screen. The magic of the total eclipse in Noyon will last 2 minutes and 11 seconds. ESA has set up a multi-site eclipse imaging campaign over Europe to capture a long eclipse sequence from the Atlantic, the UK, France (Noyon and Strasbourg), Germany, Austria/ Hungary (at an international camp of young astronomers) and Romania. High-definition still and video images of the eclipse will be available live on the Internet. Check our site http://sci.esa.int/eclipse99/ Noyon will also host a press briefing at the eclipse site Media Centre at 9h30-10h30, and again at 13h15-14h15, after the eclipse shadow has left Europe. Opportunities for interviews with ESA multi-language staff and other specialists will be possible after the eclipse. Over the week leading up to the eclipse, ESA representatives are also participating in press and public conferences. Daily press conferences are scheduled in Strasbourg at the France 3 Auditorium from 4 to 11 August at 16:00-18:00 hrs, in Paris at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle from 5 -12 August (except 11 August) at 10:00-12:00 hrs, and in Stuttgart at the Science Fair, where an ESA/Max Plank Institute stand has also been set up.

  8. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme.

  9. ESA-UbiSite: accurate prediction of human ubiquitination sites by identifying a set of effective negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jyun-Rong; Huang, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Hsu, Kai-Ti; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2017-03-01

    Numerous ubiquitination sites remain undiscovered because of the limitations of mass spectrometry-based methods. Existing prediction methods use randomly selected non-validated sites as non-ubiquitination sites to train ubiquitination site prediction models. We propose an evolutionary screening algorithm (ESA) to select effective negatives among non-validated sites and an ESA-based prediction method, ESA-UbiSite, to identify human ubiquitination sites. The ESA selects non-validated sites least likely to be ubiquitination sites as training negatives. Moreover, the ESA and ESA-UbiSite use a set of well-selected physicochemical properties together with a support vector machine for accurate prediction. Experimental results show that ESA-UbiSite with effective negatives achieved 0.92 test accuracy and a Matthews's correlation coefficient of 0.48, better than existing prediction methods. The ESA increased ESA-UbiSite's test accuracy from 0.75 to 0.92 and can improve other post-translational modification site prediction methods. An ESA-UbiSite-based web server has been established at http://iclab.life.nctu.edu.tw/iclab_webtools/ESAUbiSite/ . syho@mail.nctu.edu.tw. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  11. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  12. Combined Toxicity of Carbaryl and Fenvalerate to Fertility in Male Rats%西维因与氰戊菊酯联合染毒对雄性大鼠的生殖毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 王秀琴; 田晓梅; 董桂清; 张鹏举

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the combined toxic effects of carbaryl and fenvalerate on testicular lipid peroxidation, sperm parameters,the level of serum hormone and other effects in male rats. Methods According to 2×2 factorial analysis, forty healthy and clean adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, including one control group (given corn oil) and three experimental groups:carbaryl (1/50 LD50,11.2 mg/kg, dissolved in coin oil),fenvalerate (1/50 LD50,9.02 mg/kg, dissolved in coin oil) and carbaryl +fenvalerate (11.2 mg/kg + 9.02 mg/kg, dissolved in coin oil), 10 rats in each group, the treatment was conducted through gavage,once a day,for eight consecutive weeks. Body weight gain,testis and epididymis organ weights were determined and the organ coefficients were counted. Sperm parameters were determined (sperm counts,the spermatozoon survival rate and the rate of the sperm deformation). The activity of lipid peroxidation SOD,GSH,GST and MDA in testis homogenate were measured by the spectrophotometric method. The testosterone, LH and FSH levels were determined in the serum by radioimmunoassay. Results There was no interaction between carbaryl and fenvalerate on rat body weight gain, organ body weight ratios of testis and epididymis (P>0.05). There was antagonism between carbaryl and fenvalerate on the spermatozoon.survival rate and the rate of the sperm deformation. There was no interaction between carbaryl and fenvalerate on the sperm counts.-There was antagonism between carbaryl and fenvalerate on the activity of SOD and MDA in testicle (P<0.01, P<0.05). There was no interaction between carbaryl and fenvalerate on the activity of GST and GSH in testicle (P>0.05). There was antagonism between carbaryl and fenvalerate on the testosterone, LH and FSH1 evels in the serum (.P<:0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion Carbaryl combined with fenvalerate can cause obvious toxic effects on reproductive function in male rats. The change of testosterone biosynthetic

  13. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Media representatives are invited to INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September to learn about the mission and attend a ceremony at which a container filled with Ferrari's distinctive 'Rosso Corsa' red paint will be integrated with the spacecraft. Mr Antonio Rodotà (ESA Director General), Professor David Southwood (ESA Director of Science), senior representatives of the space industry and a representative from Ferrari will be giving presentations. Together with the ESA Mars Express project manager and project scientist, they will be available for interviews. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September are kindly requested to complete the accreditation form and fax it to: Franco Bonacina, Head of Media Relations ESA/HQ, Paris, France Tel. +33 (0) 1 53697155 Fax. +33 (0) 1 53697690 Notes for Editors: 1. On 18 September at INTESPACE, Toulouse, ESA will integrate a sample of Ferrari's 'Rosso Corsa' red paint with the Mars Express spacecraft. This event is part of a new ESA communication policy aimed mainly at the general public. Ferrari have much to celebrate: the outstanding success of the Scuderia Ferrari, winning their fourth consecutive Formula One constructors' championship and Michael Schumacher his fifth Formula One drivers' championship. Responding to an ESA proposal, Ferrari have agreed to send the symbol of their winning formula on the ESA mission to the Red Planet. When Mars Express blasts into orbit next summer at 10 800 kilometres per hour, it will be the fastest that Ferrari's distinctive red paint has ever travelled. Following successful completion of a series of rigorous tests, the Ferrari red paint sample will be officially certified 'space qualified' at a ceremony at INTESPACE. Housed in a specially constructed glass globe known as FRED, it will then be formally integrated with the Mars Express craft. 2. The main objective of the Mars Express mission is to detect the presence of water below the

  14. Validation of the ESA CCI soil moisture product in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ru; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Zhe; Quaye-Ballard, Jonathan Arthur; You, Jiajun; Shen, Xiaoji; Gao, Wei; Huang, LiJun; Zhao, Yinghui; Ke, Zunyou

    2016-06-01

    The quality of a newly merged soil moisture product (ECV_SM v0.1) from active and passive microwave sensors has attracted widespread international attention. The performance evaluation of this product will benefit studies on climate, meteorology, agriculture, hydrology, ecology and the environment. In this study, meteorological station data and the Noah soil moisture product were used to validate the ECV_SM product in China. First, some conventional statistical measures, such as correlation coefficients, bias, root mean square difference (RMSD) and mean relative error (MRE), were computed to describe the level of agreement between the meteorological station data and ECV_SM values. The accuracy was moderately high (the correlation was significant at the 0.05 level), although the two datasets differed slightly for various types of land cover. Compared with cropland and urban and built-up areas, the performance of ECV_SM was best in grassland regions. Second, the triple collocation technique was used to assess the random error in the meteorological station data, Noah soil moisture product and ECV_SM product. The mean errors in these three datasets were 0.108, 0.079 and 0.075 m3 m-3, respectively, on July 8, 2010 and 0.099, 0.061 and 0.059 m3 m-3, respectively, on October 8, 2010. Only two days of data were used for the triple collocation test as a representative, but this cannot precisely indicate that the test results on any other day correspond with the test results on these two days. Additionally, a trend analysis of ECV_SM during 2003-2010 was carried out using the Mann-Kendall trend test.

  15. Sorption and Catalytic Hydrolysis of Carbaryl on Pig-Manure-Derived Biochars%猪粪制备的生物炭对西维因的吸附与催化水解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 武健羽; 李力; 刘娅; 孙红文; 孙铁珩

    2012-01-01

    以猪粪为原料,在不同温度下制备生物炭,并对其进行除灰处理,研究了不同处理温度和灰分含量的生物炭与西维因的相互作用.猪粪制备的生物炭含有无机矿物、不定型有机质和结晶态芳香碳,且随处理温度升高,灰分含量增加,BET比表面积增加.生物炭对西维因的吸附表现为非线性,等温线符合Freundlich方程,且随生物炭制备温度的升高,非线性增强.生物炭除灰后,吸附作用大大增强,表明有机碳与无机成分复合造成其一部分吸附点位的损失.生物炭对西维因的吸附由亲脂性分配与特殊作用力构成,随着生物炭不同以及西维因浓度的变化,吸附机制发生变化.生物炭可提高溶液pH,pH随生物炭添加量和处理温度而升高,生物炭含有的矿物对西维因水解具有催化作用,其水解速率及程度与生物炭灰分含量呈正相关.%Biochars are residue elemental carbonaceous products of incomplete combustion of biomass. Due to their huge surface area and active composition, biochars exert great impacts on the transfer and fate of exotic chemicals. Till now, majority of research has been concentrated on biochars with plant origin, and seldom studies used biochars derived from animal wastes that usually contain more mineral. In the present study, biochars were prepared from pig manure under different temperatures, and ash was removed from biochars to make a comparison. The interactions between biochar samples and carbaryl were studied. Biochars are composed of mineral, amorphous carbon and aromatic carbon crystallites. Ash content and BET surface area increased with biochar generation temperature. Adsorption of carbaryl on biochars was nonlinear and adsorption curve was fitted to Freundlich model. The nonlinearity of sorption isotherm increased with biochar generation temperature. The sorption increased after mineral was removed from biochars, indicating that some sorption sites of organic carbon

  16. ESA parabolic flights, drop tower and centrifuge opportunities for university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, N.; Ventura-Traveset, J.; de Lophem, T.L.; Lopez de Echazarreta, C.; Pletser, V.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    "Fly Your Thesis!—An Astronaut Experience" is an educational programme launched by the ESA Education Office that aims to offer to European students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually fly, a scientific experiment as part of their Master or Ph.D. thesis. Selected teams accompany t

  17. ESA'S POLarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS): design and first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Krozer, Viktor;

    2010-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark has developed and tested a P-band ice sounding radar for European Space Agency (ESA). With the recent by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) allocation of a radar band at 435 MHz, increased interest in space-based sounding of the Earth s ice caps ha...

  18. ESA parabolic flights, drop tower and centrifuge opportunities for university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, N.; Ventura-Traveset, J.; de Lophem, T.L.; Lopez de Echazarreta, C.; Pletser, V.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    "Fly Your Thesis!—An Astronaut Experience" is an educational programme launched by the ESA Education Office that aims to offer to European students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually fly, a scientific experiment as part of their Master or Ph.D. thesis. Selected teams accompany t

  19. ESA parabolic flights, drop tower and centrifuge opportunities for university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, N.; Ventura-Traveset, J.; de Lophem, T.L.; Lopez de Echazarreta, C.; Pletser, V.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    "Fly Your Thesis!—An Astronaut Experience" is an educational programme launched by the ESA Education Office that aims to offer to European students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually fly, a scientific experiment as part of their Master or Ph.D. thesis. Selected teams accompany

  20. Definition of accurate reference pattern for the DTU-ESA VAST12 antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav; Burgos, Sara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the DTU-ESA 12 GHz validation standard (VAST12) antenna and a dedicated measurement campaign carried out in 2007-2008 for the definition of its accurate reference pattern are first described. Next, a comparison between the results from the three involved measurement facilities...

  1. Mida suudab muusikateraapia? / Melanie Voigt, Esa Ala-Ruona ; inetrvjueerinud Kristel Kossar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias toimunud Euroopa Muusikateraapia Konföderatsiooni peaassambleel ja sümpoosionil ettekannetega esinenud muusikaterapeudid Malanie Voigt Saksamaalt ja Esa Ala-Ruona Soomest räägivad tööst puuetega lastega ja tööstressist ning heliilmast

  2. Vibration-free 5 K sorption cooler for ESA's Darwin mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.F.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Rogalla, H.; Linder, M.

    2002-01-01

    ESA's Darwin mission is an Infrared Space Interferometer that will search for terrestrial planets in orbit around other stars. It uses six free-flying telescopes that are stabilized with respect to each other to less than 10 nm by utilizing micro-Newton ion thrusters. As a consequence, hardly any vi

  3. Mida suudab muusikateraapia? / Melanie Voigt, Esa Ala-Ruona ; inetrvjueerinud Kristel Kossar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias toimunud Euroopa Muusikateraapia Konföderatsiooni peaassambleel ja sümpoosionil ettekannetega esinenud muusikaterapeudid Malanie Voigt Saksamaalt ja Esa Ala-Ruona Soomest räägivad tööst puuetega lastega ja tööstressist ning heliilmast

  4. Korean Diaspora in the Age of Globalization: Early Study Abroad (ESA) College Students in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Young

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of international Korean college students in the Midwest who have gone through the early study abroad (ESA) period in the US during their formative secondary school education and the influence of the experiences into their college lives in the mega campus. Two overarching research questions are: 1) how do…

  5. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  6. IMPROVING THE SKILL AND THE INTEREST OF WRITING ADVERTISEMENTS AND POSTERS THROUGH ESA SEQUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Fatma Yuniarti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The action reserach aims at improving the students’ writing skill especially to write advertsements and posters. Both are the short functional texts to be learned at the second semester. According to the data on pre cycle, the students of second semester got difficulties to write advertisements and posters. A treatment was necessary to help the students overcome their problem. To consider the related literature, the writer decided to implement ESA sequence (Harmer 2001 in the class. The elements of teaching in ESA Sequence are Engage (to arouse the students’ interests, Study (learn the language focus, and Activate (use the language freely and communicatively. The data were taken from the test of the linguistic competence mastery, the students writing, and the questionnaire. The students’ linguistic competence got increased as shown by the score (58 in pre-cycle, 66 in cycle 1, and 70 in cycle 2. The students’ ability to write the short functional texts also get improved as indicated by the average score on writing tasks (53 in pre-cycle, 63 in cycle 1, 72 in cycle 2. The interest also gets better as shown by the score of the questionnaire (22,3 in pre-cycle, 33,5 in cycle 1, and 37 in cycle 2. It means ESA Sequence can improve the studets’ ability to write advertisements and posters.Key words : advertisement, ESA (Engange Study Activate, poster

  7. Hypogonadism associated with muscle atrophy, physical inactivity and ESA hyporesponsiveness in men undergoing haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cobo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Hypogonadism is common in our male haemodialysis population and is associated with higher ESA doses, reduced muscle mass and lower physical activity. The link between low testosterone levels and physical inactivity may conceivably relate to reduced muscle mass due to inadequate muscle protein synthesis.

  8. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  9. Inter-comparison of ice sheet mass balance products from GRACE: ESA CCI Round Robin results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.

    Both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) have been identified as key parameters, so called Essential Climate Variables (ECV), in the climate system. Within the framework of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA), reliable long-term satel...

  10. Galileo: ESA's greatest endeavor; the embodiment of Europe's choise to remain a world-power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeftink, D.

    2011-01-01

    Galileo is a global satellite navigation system that is being built at the initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Union (EU). It is going to be Europe's own independent satellite system, invulnerable to ill-willing foreign governments. This ambitious project is part of Europe

  11. Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as a surrogate species in assessing contaminant risk to two endangered cyprinodontids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecken-Folse, J.; Albrecht, B. [TRAC Labs., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Mayer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Ellersieck, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Sappington, L. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were tested as a surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for the endangered Leon Springs pupfish (C. bovinus) and desert pupfish (C. macularius). Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper sulfate, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accordance with ASTM guidelines. Sheepshead minnows were always more sensitive than pupfish, but the differences were small. 96-h LC50s for sheepshead minnows and Leon Springs pupfish were, respectively: carbaryl (4.2 and 4.6 mg/L), copper sulfate (2.5 and 4.6 mg/L), 4-nonylphenol (0.46 and 0.48 mg/L), pentachlorophenol (0.05 and 0.08 mg/L), permethrin (1 7 and 21 ug/L). Only one test could be conducted with desert pupfish and carbaryl, with the sheepshead minnow being more sensitive (7.3 vs 4.2 mg/L). These data, along with other data from the US NBS, Columbia, MO (two surrogate and six endangered freshwater fishes), indicate that toxicity test data for surrogate fishes can be used reliably to predict chemical toxicity to endangered fishes by interspecies correlations. However, the correlations were generally best within a family, particularly with the Cyprinodontids.

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  13. 饮用水中甲萘威、呋喃丹残留量的高效液相色谱法测定%Determination of carbaryl and carbofuran in dringking water by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑶

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法同时测定饮用水中甲萘威和呋喃丹农药残留的方法.方法:样品用二氯甲烷提取,氮吹近干,甲醇+水(60+40)为流动相,柱温35℃,流速1.0 ml/min,紫外检测器进行检测,波长280 nm.结果:本法回收率为87.6%~%.2%; RSD为2.0%~4.6%;检测限:甲萘威为0.010 μg/ml,呋喃丹为0.037μg/ml.结论:所建立的方法,操作简单,稳定性好,结果准确、可靠,可用于饮用水中甲萘威、呋喃丹的同时测定.%Objective;To develop a method to detect carbaryl and carbofuran in drinking water by HPLC at the same time. Methods; The sample was extracted by dichloromethane, concentrated by N2 gas and separated with C18 column by UV at 280 ran,using methanol -water (60-40)as mobile phase, temperature of 35℃ and a flowrate of 1.0 ml/min. ReasultS; The recoveries were 87.6% -96.2% corresponding RSD were 2.0% -4.6% and the detection limit of Carbaryl was 0.010 μg/ml, the detection limit of carbofuran was 0.037 μg/ml. Conclusion; The method is simple with good stability, whose result is precise and believable, so it is suitable for detecting carbaryl and carbofuran in drinking water at the same time.

  14. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  15. The ESA FELYX High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set System Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberner, M.; Shutler, J.; Walker, P.; Poulter, D.; Piolle, J.-F.; Donlon, C.; Guidetti, V.

    2013-10-01

    Felyx is currently under development and is the latest evolution of a generalised High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set system funded by ESA. It draws on previous prototype developments and experience in the GHRSST, Medspiration, GlobColour and GlobWave projects. In this paper, we outline the design and implementation of the system, and illustrate using the Ocean Colour demonstration activities. Felyx is fundamentally a tool to facilitate the analysis of EO data: it is being developed by IFREMER, PML and Pelamis. It will be free software written in python and javascript. The aim is to provide Earth Observation data producers and users with an opensource, flexible and reusable tool to allow the quality and performance of data streams from satellite, in situ and model sources to be easily monitored and studied. New to this project, is the ability to establish and incorporate multi-sensor match-up database capabilities. The systems will be deployable anywhere and even include interaction mechanisms between the deployed instances. The primary concept of Felyx is to work as an extraction tool. It allows for the extraction of subsets of source data over predefined target areas(which can be static or moving). These data subsets, and associated metrics, can then be accessed by users or client applications either as raw files or through automatic alerts. These data can then be used to generate periodic reports or be used for statistical analysis and visualisation through a flexible web interface. Felyx can be used for subsetting, the generation of statistics, the generation of reports or warnings/alerts, and in-depth analyses, to name a few. There are many potential applications but important uses foreseen are: * monitoring and assessing the quality of Earth observations (e.g. satellite products and time series) through statistical analysis and/or comparison with other data sources * assessing and inter-comparing geophysical inversion algorithms * observing a given phenomenon

  16. ESA's Support To Science Element (STSE): A New Opportunity for the Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, D.; Herland, E.-A.

    2009-04-01

    In 1998, the document ESA SP-1227: "The Science and Research Elements of ESA's Living Planet Programme", laid out the research objectives for the scientific component of the Living Planet Program. These were formulated around four themes: Earth Interior, Physical Climate, Geosphere/Biosphere and Atmosphere & Marine Environment: Anthropogenic Impact. These themes encompassed the full scope of Earth Science. Although no specific area of Earth Science was prioritised, the document emphasised the need to move towards an integrated Earth System Model, where the role of internationally coordinated scientific programmes and coordination with national programmes and other agencies and organisations were recognised as being a key aspect of the science strategy. In 2006, the EO Science Strategy was updated (ESA/PB-EO(2006)89) under the auspices of the ESA's Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) in wide consultation with the scientific community. The resulting document: "The Changing Earth - New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme" (ESA/SP-1304) outlines the new scientific direction for the future progress of the ESA Living Planet Programme. In particular, the document set out the 25 major challenges for our understanding of the Earth System with especial focus on those areas of knowledge where satellite data may make a major contribution. Achieving those challenges will require a large international effort involving, novel observation, enhanced data sets, improved models and coordinated research. ESA is contributing to those efforts through its missions (e.g., the ERS1 and 2, ENVISAT, the Meteorological satellites and the coming Earth Explorers and Sentinel series) and exploitation programs. However, in order to further reinforce the ESA support to the scientific community, a dedicated element of the Envelop program was launched in 2008, the Support To Science Element (STSE). STSE aims at providing "scientific support for both future and on

  17. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut applicants for Columbus missions I: Aptitude testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Christoph; Goeters, Klaus-Martin

    European participation in the Space Station Freedom brought about new challenges for the psychological selection of astronaut candidates, particularly in respect to specific demands of long duration space flights. For this reason existing selection criteria and methods were reassessed. On these grounds a study was undertaken applying a unique composition of aptitude tests to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers who are highly comparable to the expected astronaut applicants with respect to age and education. The tests assessed operational aptitudes such as logical reasoning, memory function, perception, spatial orientation, attention, psychomotor function, and multiple task capacity. The study goals were: 1) Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests in a normative group; 2) Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national groups can be examined; 3) Identification of test methods which consider general and special operational demands of long duration space flights. Based on the empirical findings a test battery was arranged for use in the selection of ESA astronaut applicants. Results showed that 16 out of the 18 employed tests have good psychometric qualities and differentiate reliably in the special group of testees. The meta structure of the test battery as described by a factorial analysis is presented. Applicability of tests was generally high. Tests were culture-fair, however, a relation between English language skills and test results was identified. Since most item material was language-free, this was explained with the importance of English language skills for the understanding of test instructions. Solutions to this effect are suggested.

  18. The Arabidopsis defence response mutant esa1 as a tool to discover novel resistance traits against Fusarium diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijck, van W.; Wouters, P.F.J.; Brouwer, M.; Windelinckx, A.; Goderis, I.J.W.M.; Bolle, De M.F.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Delauré, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant esa1 was previously shown to exhibit enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. In this work, we tried to elaborate on this susceptibility by investigating whether the esa1 ph

  19. Long-term Preservation of Earth Observation Data and Knowledge in ESA through CASPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Albani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ESA-ESRIN, the European Space Agency Centre for Earth Observation (EO, is the largest European EO data provider and operates as the reference European centre for EO payload data exploitation. EO Space Missions provide global coverage of the Earth across both space and time generating on a routine continuous basis huge amounts of data (from a variety of sensors that need to be acquired, processed, elaborated, appraised and archived by dedicated systems. Long-term Preservation of these data and of the ability to discover, access and process them is a fundamental issue and a major challenge at programmatic, technological and operational levels.Moreover these data are essential for scientists needing broad series of data covering long time periods and from many sources. They are used for many types of investigations including ones of international importance such as the study of the Global Change and the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES Program. Therefore it is of primary importance not only to guarantee easy accessibility of historical data but also to ensure users are able to understand and use them; in fact data interpretation can be even more complicated given the fact that scientists may not have (or may not have access to the right knowledge to interpret these data correctly.To satisfy these requirements, the European Space Agency (ESA, in addition to other internal initiatives, is participating in several EU-funded projects such as CASPAR (Cultural, Artistic, and Scientific knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval, which is building a framework to support the end-to-end preservation lifecycle for digital information, based on the OAIS reference model, with a strong focus on the preservation of the knowledge associated with data.In the CASPAR Project ESA plays the role of both user and infrastructure provider for one of the scientific testbeds, putting into effect dedicated scenarios with the aim of validating the

  20. Spreading the usage of NAPEOS, the ESA tool for satellite geodesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, T. A.; Otten, M.; Flohrer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over the recent years the Navigation Package for Earth Orbiting Satellites, NAPEOS, has evolved to a great tool for satellite geodesy. It is developed and maintained at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) NAPEOS is capable of processing data from all GNSS systems, all DORIS, and all SLR observations. And, NAPEOS is used for generating state of the art products for all three satellite-geodetic techniques and there corresponding services: IGS, IDS, and ILRS. ESA owned software is in general available free of charge to any entity in the ESA member states as the developments have been paid by public funding. Thus NAPEOS is, in principle, available free of charge but under a strict license agreement with ESA. However, ESA does not provide any support on how to use the software. And like most research oriented packages learning such software from scratch is at the very least an "adventure". In 2009 we therefore started a company, called PosiTim, with the prime focus on delivering services and support for the NAPEOS software package. PosiTim currently offers the following services and support for NAPEOS: • Distribution of the NAPEOS software through a sub-license agreement with ESA. • Detailed step by step installation guide. The installation procedure includes the execution of some data processing to test and validate the installation. • Detailed user manual describing and discussing a few key processing examples. • Software installation support including compiler/platform dependent bug-fixing. • Software development collaboration. PosiTim provides access to its version controlled software repository, which allows for sharing the latest software developments. • Annual (target bi-annual) NAPEOS training course. • Technical support, e.g., answer questions by e-mail. • Collaboration with universities to "tailor" NAPEOS to their (research) needs. In our presentation we will start with a brief overview of the NAPEOS

  1. Proteomic analysis of the quorum-sensing regulon in Pantoea stewartii and identification of direct targets of EsaR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Stevens, Ann M

    2013-10-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized.

  2. Susceptibility of the aging Brown Norway rat to carbaryl, an anti-cholinesterase-based insecticide: Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proportion of aged in the United States is projected to expand markedly for the next several decades. Hence, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of young adult, mature adult, a...

  3. Exoplanets and Formation of Planetary Systems: Studies With Esa Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    Several space missions from the ESA Science Horizons 2000 Programme address key questions on the formation/evolution of planetary systems and on the study of ex- oplanets: - How do solar systems form ? (with HST, ISO, NGST, FIRST/Herschel, Rosetta, Gaia) - Geological evolution of terrestrial planets (with Living planet, Mars- express, SMART-1, Venus-express, Bepi-Colombo) - History and Role of impacts (with SMART-1, Bepi-Colombo, outer planets missions) - How to detect other solar systems and habitable zones (with space photometry, COROT, Eddington, Gaia, Dar- win) - Water and ices on other planets and comets (with instruments on Mars Express, Rosetta and other planetary missions) - Signature of biosphere and photosynthesis evolution (living Planet missions, Darwin) We shall review how the results from these ESA missions (and other relevant missions from other agencies) can be exploited in synergy to advance our knowledge on the formation of solar systems and on exoplanets.

  4. UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science An Update on Their Achievements

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, H J

    1999-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, expensive observatories are being erected at La Silla (Chile), Mauna Kea (Hawai), Las Palmas (Canary Island), and Calar Alto (Spain), to name a view. In 1990, at the beginning of The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Bahcall [2]), the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science initiated the establishment of small astronomical telescope facilities, among them many particularly supported by Japan, in developing countries in Asia and the Pacific (Sri Lanka, Philippines), Latin America and the Caribbean (Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Paraguay), and Western Asia (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco). The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to network these small observatory facilities through similar research and education programmes and at the same time encourage the incorporation of cultural elements predominant in the respective cultures. Cross-cultural integration and multi-lingual scientific cooperation may well be a dominant theme in the ne...

  5. The ESA climate change initiative: Satellite data records for essential climate variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, R.; Merchant, C.J.; Saunders, R.

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) to provide satellite-based climate data records (CDRs) that meet the challenging requirements of the climate community. The aim is to realize the full potential of the long-term Earth observation (EO) archives...... that both ESA and third parties have established. This includes aspects of producing a CDR, which involve data acquisition, calibration, algorithm development, validation, maintenance, and provision of the data to the climate research community. The CCI is consistent with several international efforts...... targeting the generation of satellite derived climate data records. One focus of the CCI is to provide products for climate modelers who increasingly use satellite data to initialize, constrain, and validate models on a wide range of space and time scales....

  6. System concepts and enabling technologies for an ESA low-cost mission to Jupiter / Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, P.; Koeck, C.; Kemble, Steve; Atzei, Alessandro; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The European Space Agency is currently studying the Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME), as part of its Technology Reference Studies (TRS), used for its development plan of technologies enabling future scientific missions. The JME focuses on the exploration of the Jovian system and particularly of Europa. The Jupiter Minisat Orbiter (JMO) study concerns the first mission phase of JME that counts up to three missions using pairs of minisats. The scientific objectives are the investigation of Europa's global topography, the composition of its (sub)surface and the demonstration of existence of a subsurface ocean below its icy crust. The present paper describes the candidate JMO system concept, based on a Europa Orbiter (JEO) supported by a communications relay satellite (JRS), and its associated technology development plan. It summarizes an analysis performed in 2004 jointly by ESA and the EADS-Astrium Company in the frame of an industrial technical assistance to ESA.

  7. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) approach uses data generated by a set (ensemble) of perturbed numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations for a sample time period to statistically diagnose the sensitivity of a specified forecast variable (metric) for a target location to parameters at other locations and prior times referred to as the initial condition (IC) or state variables. The ESA approach was tested on the large-scale atmospheric prediction problem by Ancell and Hakim 2007 and Torn and Hakim 2008. ESA was adapted and applied at the mesoscale by Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) to the Tehachapi Pass, CA (warm and cools seasons) and Mid-Colombia Basin (warm season only) wind generation regions. In order to apply the ESA approach at the resolution needed at the mesoscale, Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) developed the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA). MOOA uses a multivariate regression on a few select IC parameters at one location to determine the incremental improvement of measuring multiple variables (representative of the IC parameters) at various locations. MOOA also determines how much information from each IC parameter contributes to the change in the metric variable at the target location. The Zack et al. studies (2010a, b, and c), demonstrated that forecast sensitivity can be characterized by well-defined, localized patterns for a number of IC variables such as 80-m

  8. The ESA Polar Platform: A work-horse for future Earth Observation Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibaldi, G. G.; Cendral, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Long Term Plan, the Earth Observation Missions play a very important role in contributing to a better knowledge and monitoring of the Earth Environment. Within the range of future Earth Observation missions, the low altitude sun synchronous polar orbit is of special interest because it offers a repeated coverage of the complete surface of the Earth. For this type of mission, a large number of instruments having different technology and application objectives have been developed or are under development in Europe. To cope with those needs, ESA has initiated the development of the Polar Platform as part of its infrastructure to become the work-horse of future Earth Observation Missions in the Polar orbits. This spacecraft bus, through its design modularity, can cope with a wide range of payload complements and instrument requirements so that the future development emphasis in Europe can be placed on payload and observations rather than repeated satellite developments. The Polar Platform design makes maximum use of the SPOT and ERS programmes experience and design in order to reduce development risk and minimize costs. The modular design can cope with different payload accommodation, power and mass requirements as well as different orbit altitudes. The development is well advanced and is now well into the detailed design and development programme, with components and long lead hardware procurement already initiated. The development of the payload complement for the first mission has been initiated in parallel via the POEM-1 Programme. The Polar Platform will also make use of the other ESA's future infrastructure, such as the Ariane 5 Launcher as well as the Data Relay Satellite System in order to ensure global coverage of observations. The launch of the first ESA Polar Platform Mission carrying the POEM-1 Mission is planned for mid-1988. The performance requirements, design and status of development of the Polar Platform

  9. Swarm Utilisation Analysis: LEO satellite observations for the ESA's SSA Space Weather network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Stolle, Claudia; Rauberg, Jan; Olsen, Nils; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Gullikstad Johnsen, Magnar; Hall, Chris

    2017-04-01

    ESA's (European Space Agency) constellation mission Swarm was successfully launched on 22 November 2013. The three satellites achieved their final constellation on 17 April 2014 and since then Swarm-A and Swarm-C orbiting the Earth at about 470 km (flying side-by-side) and Swarm-B at about 520 km altitude. Each of Swarm satellite carries instruments with high precision to measure magnetic and electric fields, neutral and plasma densities, and TEC (Total Electron Content) for which a dual frequency GPS receiver is used. SUA (Swarm Utilisation Analysis) is a project of the ESA's SSA (Space Situational Awareness) SWE (Space Weather) program. Within this framework GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany) and DTU (National Space Institute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark) have developed two new Swarm products ROT (Rate Of change of TEC) and PEJ (Location and intensity level of Polar Electrojets), respectively. ROT is derived as the first time derivative from the Swarm measurements of TEC at 1 Hz sampling. ROT is highly relevant for users in navigation and communications: strong plasma gradients cause GPS signal degradation or even loss of GPS signal. Also, ROT is a relevant space weather asset irrespective of geomagnetic activity, e.g., high amplitude values of ROT occur during all geomagnetic conditions. PEJ is derived from the Swarm measurements of the magnetic field strength at 1 Hz sampling. PEJ has a high-level importance for power grid companies since the polar electrojet is a major cause for ground-induced currents. ROT and PEJ together with five existing Swarm products TEC, electron density, IBI (Ionospheric Bubble Index), FAC (Field-Aligned Current), and vector magnetic field build the SUA service prototype. This prototype will be integrated into ESA's SSA Space Weather network as a federated service and will be available soon from ESA's SSA SWE Ionospheric Weather and Geomagnetic Conditions Expert Service Centres (ESCs).

  10. ESA MS Nicollier extends mockup tetherline prior to JSC WETF simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, turning a crank, extends a tetherline from a reel mounted on a mockup of the forward payload bay (PLB) bulkhead. Nicollier familiarizes himself with the operation of the safety tether system prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and participating in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simu- lation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  11. The Marco Polo mission: a sample return from a low-albedo Near Earth Object in the ESA Cosmic Vision Program 2015-2025

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Patrick; Barucci, Antonella; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boenhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Jürgen; Yano, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) which was originally proposed as a joint European-Japanese mission for the scientific program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency (ESA) in June 2007 and selected for an assessment study until fall 2009. The main goal of this mission is to return a sample from a dark taxonomic type (low albedo) NEO for detailed laboratory analysis in order to answer questions related to planetary formation, evolution and the or...

  12. Benefits of ESA Gravity-Related Hands-on Programmes for University Students' Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Natacha; Ha, Lily; Galeone, Piero

    2016-10-01

    The Education Office of the European Space Agency (ESA) offers university students, from ESA Member and Cooperating States, the opportunity to perform investigations in physical sciences, life sciences, and technology, under different gravity conditions through three educational programmes. The "Fly Your Thesis!" (FYT) programme makes use of parabolic flights and the "Drop Your Thesis!" (DYT) programme utilizes a drop tower as microgravity carriers, while the "Spin Your Thesis!" (SYT) programme uses a large centrifuge to create hypergravity. To date, more than hundred university students had the chance to participate in the design, development, and performance of one or more experiments during dedicated campaigns. In the following paper, we examine demographics of past participants of the ESA Education Office gravity-related opportunities over the past seven years and evaluate the benefits of these educational programmes for the participants' studies and careers. Student teams that participated in one of the programmes between 2009 and 2013 were contacted to fill in a questionnaire. The feedback from the students demonstrate significant benefits extending far beyond the primary educational objectives of these programmes.

  13. ESA SSA Space Radiation Expert Service Centre: the Importance of Community Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Norma; Dierckxsens, Mark; Kruglanski, Michel; De Donder, Erwin; Calders, Stijn; Messios, Neophytos; Glover, Alexi

    2017-04-01

    End-users in a wide range of sectors both in space and on the ground are affected by space weather. In the frame of its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme (http://swe.ssa.esa.int/) the European Space Agency (ESA) is establishing a Space Weather (SWE) Service Network to support end-users in three ways: mitigate the effects of space weather on their systems, reduce costs, and improve reliability. Almost 40 expert groups from institutes and organisations across Europe contribute to this Network organised in five Expert Service Centres (ESCs) - Solar Weather, Heliospheric Weather, Space Radiation, Ionospheric Weather, Geomagnetic Conditions. To understand the end-user needs, the ESCs are supported by the SSCC (SSA Space Weather Coordination Centre) that offers first line support to the end-users. Here we present the mission of the Space Radiation ESC (R-ESC) (http://swe.ssa.esa.int/space-radiation) and the space domain services it supports. Furthermore, we describe how the R-ESC project complements past and ongoing projects both on national level as well as international (e.g. EU projects), emphasizing the importance of inter-disciplinary communication between different communities ranging from scientists, engineers to end-users. Such collaboration is needed if basic science is to be used most efficiently for the development of products and tools that provide end-users with what they actually need. Additionally, feedback from the various communities (projects) is also essential when defining future projects.

  14. Expression of CD133, PAX2, ESA, and GPR30 in invasive ductal breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qun; LI Ji-guang; ZHENG Xin-yu; JIN Feng; DONG Hui-ting

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomarkers in breast neoplasms provide invaluable information regarding prognosis and help determining the optimal treatment. We have examined the possible correlation between cancer stem cell (CSC)-Iike markers (CD133,paired box gene 2 protein (PAX2), epithelial specific antigen (ESA)), and a new membrane estrogen receptor (G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)) in invasive ductal breast carcinomas with known clinicopathological parameters, tumor recurrence, and expression of some known biomarkers.Methods In 74 invasive ductal breast carcinomas, we investigated the protein expression of these molecular markers by immunohistochemistry, and their associations with known clinicopathological parameters, tumor recurrence, and expression of some known biomarkers. We studied the interrelationship between the expressions of these proteins.Results CD133, a putative CSC marker, was positively related to tumor size, tumor stage, and lymph node metastasis.PAX2 was negatively correlated with tumor recurrence. ESA, one of the breast CSC markers, was an indicator of tumor recurrence. GPR30 was associated with hormone receptors. Despite the correlation between GPR30 and the nuclear estrogen receptor, the expression was dependent. Positive staining of GPR30 in tumors displayed a significant association with high C-erbB2 expression and a tendency for tumor recurrence. A positive relationship between GPR30 and CD133 existed.Conclusion Detecting the expression of CD133, PAX2, ESA, and GPR30 in invasive ductal breast carcinomas may be of help in more accurately predicting the aggressive properties of breast cancer and determining the optimal treatment.

  15. Taking CERN and ESA technology to the World’s largest industry fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Signed just two weeks ago, the new CERN-ESA agreement is already bearing fruit. This week, our two organisations went to the World’s leading industrial fair, the Hannover Messe, with a joint stand showcasing technologies derived from particle physics and space research.   The notion that space brought us Teflon is something of a cliché, and of dubious veracity, while the World Wide Web is the technology most closely, and in this case correctly, identified with CERN. But technology transfer from ESA and CERN goes well beyond clichés: much of the technology we take for granted today can be traced back to basic research in the highly demanding research fields our organizations deal in. This is a message that both CERN and ESA strive to communicate, and the Hannover Messe gave us that opportunity. But going to Hannover was about more than showcasing past success: it was first and foremost about laying the groundwork for future success. Much of the technology deve...

  16. Transcriptome-based analysis of the Pantoea stewartii quorum-sensing regulon and identification of EsaR direct targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Burke, Alison Kernell; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V; Stevens, Ann M

    2014-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a proteobacterium that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants. The bacteria form a biofilm in the xylem of infected plants and produce capsule that blocks water transport, eventually causing wilt. At low cell densities, the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory protein EsaR is known to directly repress expression of esaR itself as well as the genes for the capsular synthesis operon transcription regulator, rcsA, and a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, dkgA. It simultaneously directly activates expression of genes for a putative small RNA, esaS, the glycerol utilization operon, glpFKX, and another transcriptional regulator, lrhA. At high bacterial cell densities, all of this regulation is relieved when EsaR binds an acylated homoserine lactone signal, which is synthesized constitutively over growth. QS-dependent gene expression is critical for the establishment of disease in the plant. However, the identity of the full set of genes controlled by EsaR/QS is unknown. A proteomic approach previously identified around 30 proteins in the QS regulon. In this study, a whole-transcriptome, next-generation sequencing analysis of rRNA-depleted RNA from QS-proficient and -deficient P. stewartii strains was performed to identify additional targets of EsaR. EsaR-dependent transcriptional regulation of a subset of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that EsaR directly bound 10 newly identified target promoters. Overall, the QS regulon of P. stewartii orchestrates three major physiological responses: capsule and cell envelope biosynthesis, surface motility and adhesion, and stress response. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) 1.53.69.71.55 - Fax. +33 (0) 1.53.69.76.90. For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  18. 新型绿色阻垢剂ESA/AA/AMPS的合成及性能研究%Synthesis and performance of a new type of green scale inhibitor ESA/AA/AMPS copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯素敏; 师艳雪; 秦宗仁; 张改然; 尹丽胖

    2012-01-01

    以马来酸酐为原料,双氧水为氧化剂,钨酸钠为催化剂合成了中间体环氧琥珀酸(ESA),再以环氧琥珀酸(ESA)、丙烯酸(AA)、2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)为原料,过硫酸铵为引发剂,合成了新型绿色阻垢剂ESA/AA/AMPS三元共聚物.用静态阻垢法评价了该产品的综合阻垢性能和稳锌能力,结果表明:ESA/AA/AMPS三元共聚物阻碳酸钙垢的效果与聚环氧琥珀酸(PESA)基本相当,而阻磷酸钙垢、硫酸钙垢及稳锌能力均明显优于PESA.%With maleic anhydride as raw material, hydrogen peroxide as oxidan, and sodium tungstate as catalyst, the intermediate epoxy succinic acid(ESA) is synthesized. Then, with epoxy succinate (ESA), acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) as raw materials, and ammonium persulfate as initiator, a new type of green scale inhibitor ESA/AA/AMPS copolymer is synthesized. The overall inhibiting performence and the capacity of stabilizing zinc are evaluated by the static scale method. The test results show that ESA/AA/AMPS copolymer's inhibiting ability for calcium carbonate scale is roughly equal to PESA, and its ability in resisting calcium phosphate scale, calcium sulfate scale and the capacity of stabling zinc are significantly better than PESA.

  19. ESA理论在高职院校民航英语口语教学中的运用%Application of ESA theory in aviation oral English teaching of vocational colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2016-01-01

    随着航空业国际化的纵深发展,口语交际能力已经成为航空服务从业人员专业素质的一个重要考核点。以 Harmer 的 ESA 理论为指导,结合学情特点,灵活融入 ESA 理论三要素到民航英语口语教学过程中,将有效提升学生的口语交际能力。%With the development of the aviation industry internationalization, oral communicative competence has become an important factor in the assessment for the professional quality of aviation employees. Taking Harmer's ESA theory as the guide, combining with the characteristics of students, and integrating three elements of ESA theory into the process of civil aviation oral English teaching, which will effectively promote students' ability in communication capacity of oral English.

  20. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  1. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  2. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  3. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions.
 The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  4. Determination of Carbofuran, Carbaryl and Atrazine in Water by SPE-HPLC%固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定水中呋喃丹、甲萘威和阿特拉津

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小敏; 葛洪波; 李爱民; 马先锋; 宋国强

    2011-01-01

    采用固相萃取-高效液相色谱(SPE - HPLC)二极管阵列检测器同时测定水中呋喃丹、甲萘威和阿特拉津,以甲醇-水为流动相,采用梯度洗脱方式,选择220 nm为检测波长,二氯甲烷为洗脱剂.呋喃丹在0.200 mg/L ~5.00 mg/L、甲萘威和阿特拉津在0.020 mg/L~5.00 mg/L范围内线性良好,检出限分别为0.24 μg/L、0.019 μg/L和0.035 μg/L,两个质量水平水样加标平均回收率为84.0%~103%,RSD为1.6% ~8.5%.%A method was established for determination of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine in water samples by solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatograph ( HPLC ) using methanol-water as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The detection was made on a diode array detector at 220 nm. Dichlo-romethane was selected as eluting solvent. The results indicated that the good linear ranges were 0. 200 mg/L ~ 5. 00 mg/L for carbofuran, and 0.020 mg/L ~5.00 mg/L for carbaryl and atrazine. The detection limits of the method were 0. 24 μg/L, 0.019 μg/L and 0.035 μg/L for carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine, respectively. The average recoveries of spiked standard materials at two quantity levels were from 84.0 % to 103% , and RSD was from 1.6% to 8. 5%.

  5. Validation of aerosol optical depth uncertainties within the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebel, Kerstin; Povey, Adam; Popp, Thomas; Capelle, Virginie; Clarisse, Lieven; Heckel, Andreas; Kinne, Stefan; Klueser, Lars; Kolmonen, Pekka; de Leeuw, Gerrit; North, Peter R. J.; Pinnock, Simon; Sogacheva, Larisa; Thomas, Gareth; Vandenbussche, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainty is a vital component of any climate data record as it provides the context with which to understand the quality of the data and compare it to other measurements. Therefore, pixel-level uncertainties are provided for all aerosol products that have been developed in the framework of the Aerosol_cci project within ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI). Validation of these estimated uncertainties is necessary to demonstrate that they provide a useful representation of the distribution of error. We propose a technique for the statistical validation of AOD (aerosol optical depth) uncertainty by comparison to high-quality ground-based observations and present results for ATSR (Along Track Scanning Radiometer) and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) data records. AOD at 0.55 µm and its uncertainty was calculated with three AOD retrieval algorithms using data from the ATSR instruments (ATSR-2 (1995-2002) and AATSR (2002-2012)). Pixel-level uncertainties were calculated through error propagation (ADV/ASV, ORAC algorithms) or parameterization of the error's dependence on the geophysical retrieval conditions (SU algorithm). Level 2 data are given as super-pixels of 10 km x 10 km. As validation data, we use direct-sun observations of AOD from the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) and MAN (Maritime Aerosol Network) sun-photometer networks, which are substantially more accurate than satellite retrievals. Neglecting the uncertainty in AERONET observations and possible issues with their ability to represent a satellite pixel area, the error in the retrieval can be approximated by the difference between the satellite and AERONET retrievals (herein referred to as "error"). To evaluate how well the pixel-level uncertainty represents the observed distribution of error, we look at the distribution of the ratio D between the "error" and the ATSR uncertainty. If uncertainties are well represented, D should be normally distributed and 68.3% of values should

  6. A case study of desertification hazard mapping using the MEDALUS (ESAs methodology in southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Taghipour-Javi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs prone to desertification can lead to substantial gains in the efficiency of land use planning and partly avoid negative outcomes. The main objectives of this research were the monitoring and mapping of ESAs to desertification in the agro-ecosystem of the Khanmirza plain, Iran, during two time series (2000 and 2013. In the current study, an adjusted “Mediterranean desertification and land use (MEDALUS” approach was applied to identify the most ESAs to desertification in the study area and monitorchanges inthe environmental sensitivity area indicator (ESAIbetween 2000 and 2013 over the studied area.Fivemain thematic indicators have been evaluated including, Soil quality indicator (SQI, Management quality indicator (MQI, Climate quality indicator (CQI, Vegetation quality indicator (VQI, and Irrigation water quality indicator (IWQI. Results show that the areas affected by the critical desertification status covered approximately 7% of the farmlands and the meadowlands in this agro-ecosystem region in the year 2000. Likewise, in 2013, almost 24% of the study area was sensitive to and affected by desertification, giving a rate of increase of approximately 1.3% per year.More than half of the land used for agriculture has been moderately to severely degraded. The results also show that the central places intheregionwere affected by farmlands and meadowlands degradingto barrenlands due to mismanagement and a lack ofeffective planning withland and water resources. However, rehabilitation of irreversibly degraded land requires serious measures that aim torestore the capability of those areas and increase resistance to degradation through effective planning in water and land in the region.

  7. The new Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santa; Besse, Sebastien; Heather, Dave; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime; ESDC (European Space Data Centre) Team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more specialised views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will be also up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's ExoMars and upcoming BepiColombo missions. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). This contribution will introduce the new PSA, its key features and access interfaces.

  8. The ESA SSA NEO Coordination Centre contribution to NEO hazard monitoring and observational campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Marco; Borgia, Barbara; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Perozzi, Ettore

    2015-08-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has recently been established in Frascati, near Rome, within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks is the coordination of observational activities related to the NEO hazard, and the distribution of relevant and up-to-date information on NEOs to both the scientific community and general users through its web portal (http://neo.ssa.esa.int).On the observational side, the NEOCC is linked to an increasingly large worldwide network of collaborating observatories, ranging from amateurs observers to large professional telescopes. The Centre organizes observation campaigns, alerting the network to suggest urgent or high-priority observations, and providing them with observational support.The NEOCC is also directly obtaining astrometric observations of high-priority targets, especially Virtual Impactors (VIs), on challenging objects as faint as magnitude 26.5, thanks to successful collaborations with ESO VLT in Chile and the INAF-sponsored LBT in Arizona. In addition, the Centre carries out regular monthly runs dedicated to NEO follow-up, recovery and survey activities with the 1-meter ESA OGS telescope in Tenerife.From a service perspective, the NEO System hosted at the NEOCC collects data and information on NEOs produced by various European services (e.g. NEODyS, EARN) and makes them available to a variety of users, with a particular focus on objects with possible collision solutions with the Earth. Among the tools provided through the web portal are the Risk List (a table of all known NEOs with impact solutions), a table of recent and upcoming close approaches, a database of physical properties of NEOs and the so-called Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations, and prioritise their observational activities accordingly.The results of our recent observation campaigns and some major recent improvements to the NEO System will presented and

  9. DTU-ESA millimeter-wave VAlidation STandard antenna (mm-VAST) - detailed design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav;

    2015-01-01

    A design of a well-characterized, mechanically and thermally stable multi-frequency VAlidation STandard antenna for mm-wave frequencies (mm-VAST) developed in an ESA project is presented. The antenna will facilitate inter-comparison and validation of antenna measurement ranges at K/Ka and Q/V bands...... in response to on-going deployment of satellite communication services at 20/30 GHz (K/Ka-band) as well as future commercial use of the 40/50 GHz bands (Q/V-band)....

  10. Hypergravity Facilities in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Program - Current Research Activities and Future Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frett, Timo; Petrat, Guido; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Research on Artificial Gravity (AG) created by linear acceleration or centrifugation has a long history and could significantly contribute to realize long-term human spaceflight in the future. Employing centrifuges plays a prominent role in human physiology and gravitational biology. This article gives a short review about the background of Artificial Gravity with respect to hypergravity (including partial gravity) and provides information about actual ESA ground-based facilities for research on a variety of biosystems such as cells, plants, animals or, particularly, humans.

  11. Dualidade e ironia em Esaú e Jacó

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Ana Maria Medeiros da

    2016-01-01

    Resumo O artigo aborda o tema da ironia no texto de Machado de Assis, a partir de uma leitura da psicanálise. Propõe os conceitos de narcisismo das pequenas diferenças a partir de Freud, na análise do romance Esaú e Jacó. Situa a escolha forçada como impossibilidade de escolha, nas posições dos personagens construídos nesse romance. Desenvolve como a dualidade de opostos é transposta na narrativa pela construção da ironia.

  12. Effect of a More Permeable Dialysis Membrane on ESA Resistance in Hemodialysis Patients--A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Ugo; Liebchen, Ariane; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Beck, Werner; Longhena, Giorgio Romei

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients often show impaired response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Extended HD membrane permeability may potentially improve ESA response. Twenty-four prevalent HD patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks use of high cut-off (HCO) membrane (in every second dialysis treatment) or continued treatment with high-flux membrane. We monitored changes in hemoglobin (Hb), ESA dose, and key biochemical markers. The Hb level increased in the study group (from 11.6 ± 1.0 to 12.5 ± 1.5 g/dl; p = 0.038) but was stable in the control group. Variation over time in ESA dose and ESA resistance index did not differ between groups. HCO membrane usage for 12 weeks led to decreased hepcidin level, from 303 ± 189 to 157 ± 83 ng/ml (p = 0.024); serum albumin level decreased and stabilized 15 ± 6% below baseline. These results indicate that use of a more permeable dialysis membrane may improve ESA responsiveness in iron-replete HD patients. Extensive albumin removal may preclude long-term use of the HCO membrane. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. ESA radiation and micro-meteoroid models applied to Space Weathering of atmosphere-less bodies: icy moons and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Cornet, Thomas; Schmidt, Jürgen; Navarro, Sara; Erd, Christian; Witasse, Olivier; Rodmann, Jens; Mints, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    The Galilean moons reveal large albedo variations on their surfaces, in particular between their leading and trailing hemispheres. The differences observed are likely the results of a balance between various weathering processes of the surface, determined by the moons' local environment. Chemical and physical alterations occur at the surface, triggered by multiple exogenic energy deposit processes (radiolysis, plasma sputtering, micro-meteoroids impacts, …).The observed variations are probably due to anisotropy in the energy fluxes received on each hemisphere and due to to a different relative contribution of the weathering agents (plasma, dust…) as function of the distance to Jupiter. We will be testing this hypothesis by estimating quantitatively the kinetic energy flux impacting different part of the surfaces of the Galilean moons. This work is essential in the context of the future missions to the Jovian moons, such as the JUICE ESA mission, as a proper understanding of the moons' surface history can be achieved only if one is able to constrain the balance between exogenic and endogenic alteration processes.Impacts of dust particles coming from the Galilean moons and evolving dynamically in the Jovian system will be simulated using the Jovian Micrometeoroid Environment Model (JMEM) [1]. Direct interplanetary dust impacts are simulated using the prediction of the Interplanetary Micrometeoroid Environment Model (IMEM) [2] computed at Jupiter's Hill radius, taking into account gravitational focusing by the planet. Finally, electron and ion fluxes interacting with different parts of the moons' surfaces can be estimated using the Jovian Specification Environment model (JOSE) [3].In parallel, signature of surface weathering will be assessed using reflectance maps based on the Galileo imaging data.Those models will also be applied, for comparison, to other atmosphere-less bodies of the solar system such as the asteroids Ceres, Vesta and Pallas.References[1] Liu et

  14. A stable, unbiased, long-term satellite based data record of sea surface temperature from ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Nick; Good, Simon; Merchant, Chris

    2013-04-01

    The study of climate change demands long-term, stable observational records of climate variables such as sea surface temperature (SST). ESA's Climate Change Initiative was set up to unlock the potential of satellite data records for this purpose. As part of this initiative, 13 projects were established to develop the data records for different essential climate variables - aerosol, cloud, fire, greenhouse gases, glaciers, ice sheets, land cover, ocean colour, ozone, sea ice, sea level, soil moisture and SST. In this presentation we describe the development work that has taken place in the SST project and present new prototype data products that are available now for users to trial. The SST project began in 2010 and has now produced two prototype products. The first is a long-term product (covering mid-1991 - 2010 currently, but with a view to update this in the future), which prioritises length of data record and stability over other considerations. It is based on data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series of satellite instruments. The product aims to combine the favourable stability and bias characteristics of ATSR data with the geographical coverage achieved with the AVHRR series. Following an algorithm selection process, an optimal estimation approach to retrieving SST from the satellite measurements from both sensors was adopted. The retrievals do not depend on in situ data and so this data record represents an independent assessment of SST change. In situ data are, however, being used to validate the resulting data. The second data product demonstrates the coverage that can be achieved using the modern satellite observing system including, for example, geostationary satellite data. Six months worth of data have been processed for this demonstration product. The prototype SST products will be released in April to users to trial in their work. The long term product will be available as

  15. ESA e l’utilizzo di tecnologia Grid e SOA per l’Osservazione della Terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cossu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ESA grid and SOA Technologies for Earth ObservationDue to its intensive data processing and highly distributedorganization, the multidisciplinary Earth Science (ES applications community is uniquely positioned for the uptake and exploitation of Grid technologies. This article describes a number of initiatives that the European Space Agency is carrying focusing on a ES e-collaboration platform that makes use of Grid and SOA technologies. Starting from the experience gained so far with ESA Grid Processing on Demand, we will discuss the vision of a dedicated ES platform. The aim is to enable scientists to locate, access, combine and integrate historical and fresh Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors archived in large distributed repositories. The big challenge is to allow Earth Science communities to easil and quickly derive objective information and share knowledge based on all environmentally sensitive domains. The GENESIDR project is already taking important steps in developing this platform.

  16. The GHG-CCI Project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative: Data Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Feng, L.; Frankenberg, C.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Kaminski, T.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. v.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P. I.; Parker, R.; Sundstrom, A.-M.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg- cci.org/) of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is to generate global atmospheric satellite-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) data sets as needed to improve our understanding of the regional sources and sinks of these important greenhouse gases (GHG). Here we present an overview about the latest data set called Climate Research Data Package No. 3 (CRDP3). We focus on the GHG-CCI project core data products, which are near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb) retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT (2009-today) nadir mode radiance observations in the near- infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. The GHG- CCI products are primarily individual sensor Level 2 products. However, we also generate merged Level 2 products ("EMMA products"). Here we also present a first GHG-CCI Level 3 product, namely XCO2 and XCH4 in Obs4MIPs format (monthly, 5°x5°).

  17. Overview on calibration and validation activities for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bouzinac, Catherine; Delwart, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verification, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites and will be repeated, in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES, in spring 2010. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation

  18. ESA takes part in Earth observation and space science experiments on board the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The ATLAS-2 mission is focusing on Earth observation and space science; three out of the seven instruments have been developed by scientific institutes in Belgium, France and Germany, with support from ESA. Four experiments have been provided by NASA and US scientists. The three European instruments have already shown an excellent performance during the first Atlas mission in March 1992, when they were tended by payload specialist Dirk Frimout, a Belgian astronaut and ESA staff member. Although the main scientific objective of the series of Atlas missions is to achieve continuity of annual measurements over a period as long as a decade, the first scientific results from Atlas can already be considered as a contribution to critical research topics, in particular the environment. The data from ATLAS-2 will add to this achievement. Two European instruments, Solcon and Solspec, are measuring to a very high degree of precision the total irradiation the Earth receives from the Sun - the "solar constant" -and the spectral distribution of this radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. Knowledge of the solar constant and the solar radiation spectrum matters not only for a better understanding of the Sun, but also for improving numerical models of climate and climate change. SOLCON was developed under the responsibility of Dr. Dominique Crommelynck of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Brussels, Belgium. SOLSPEC was instead developed under the responsibility of Dr. Gerard Thuillier of the CNRS, Verrieres le Buisson, France. One of these instruments will be fully remote-controlled by scientists from a laboratory in Belgium, via telecommunications links to the Shuttle, and the data of another will be transmitted to Belgium in real time to follow the results obtained. This approach is known as telescience: using telescience, a scientist can monitor his experiment in real-time, repeat it with different settings, consult his team, process data and adapt his measurements when

  19. ESA's X-ray space telescope proves supernovae can cause mysterious gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    By analysing the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst in the X-ray light, scientists produced the first ever evidence of the presence of chemical elements which were the unmistakable remnants of a supernova explosion which had occurred just a few days before. "We can now confidently say that the death of a massive star, a supernova, was the cause of a gamma-ray burst. However we still don't know exactly how and why these bursts, the most energetic phenomena in the Universe, are triggered," says ESA astronomer Norbert Schartel, a co-author of the original paper, published today in Nature. Gamma-ray bursts were first discovered in 1967 by chance, when satellites designed to look for violations of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty detected strong gamma-ray emissions coming from sources not in the vicinity of Earth, but from outer space. They have been a mystery ever since. They occur as often as several times a day but last for no longer than a couple of minutes, and there is no way to predict when or where the next burst will occur. Consequently they are very difficult to study. For three decades it was not even known whether the explosions were close, in our own Milky Way galaxy, or far away in distant galaxies. But astronomers set up an 'alert system'. This allows them to see the 'afterglow' of the burst before it fades away, by quickly aiming their telescopes at the precise location in the sky shortly after a detector triggers the alert. It is now clear that the bursts occur in galaxies millions of light-years away. The longest burst Technically called 'GRB 011211', it was first detected on 11 December 2001 at 19:09:21 (Universal Time), by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. The burst lasted for 270 seconds - the longest one observed by the satellite. A few hours afterwards, when a first analysis confirmed that a burst had indeed been registered, the BeppoSAX team alerted the rest of the astronomical community. ESA's XMM-Newton arrived on the scene 11 hours after the

  20. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  1. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  2. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  3. ESA Hyporesponsiveness Is Associated with Adverse Events in Maintenance Hemodialysis (MHD Patients, But Not with Iron Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kuragano

    Full Text Available It has been reported that hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA is associated with adverse events in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. However, it has not been determined whether higher iron storage is associated with an improved response, including better survival, to ESA.We measured serum ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb, and transferrin saturation (TSAT levels every three months for two years in 1,095 MHD patients. The weekly dose of ESA to Hb ratio was also calculated as an index of ESA responsiveness (ERI.A significant correlation (p280; however, serum ferritin and TSAT levels did not predict a higher ERI. In the time-dependent Cox hazard model, the risk for a composite event in the patients with a high ERI (≥280 and a high ferritin level (≥100 ng/mL was significantly greater (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09, P = 0.033 than that for patients with a high ERI and a low ferritin (<100 ng/mL level.Hb was dependent upon ferritin levels in patients with ferritin levels <50 ng/mL but not in patients with ferritin levels ≥50 ng/mL. Patients with hyporesponsiveness to ESA had a greater risk of composite events, but ERI was unrelated to iron storage.

  4. Employability Skills Assessment: Measuring Work Ethic for Research and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, HwaChoon; Hill, Roger B.

    2016-01-01

    The Employability Skills Assessment (ESA) was developed by Hill (1995) to provide an alternative measure of work ethic needed for success in employment. This study tested goodness-of-fit for a model used to interpret ESA results. The model had three factors: interpersonal skills, initiative, and dependability. Confirmatory factor analysis results…

  5. The cytotoxic effect of Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) on cancer cells and its application to molecular probe for drug delivery system using lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, T; Ohama, Y; Fukuda, A; Hayashi, M; Kawakubo, A; Kato, K

    2001-07-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) derived from a marine red alga, Eucheuma serra, is a lectin that specifically binds to mannose-rich carbohydrate chains. ESA is a monomeric molecule, with a molecular weight of29,000. ESA induced cell death against several cancer cell lines, such as colon cancer Colo201 cells and cervix cancer HeLa cells. DNA ladder detection and the induction of caspase-3 activity suggested that the cell death induced by ESA against cancer cells was apoptosis. ESA bound to the cell surface of Colo201 cells in the sugar chain dependent manner. This means that the binding of ESA to the cell surface is specific for mannose-rich sugar chains recognized by ESA. The binding of ESA to the cell surface of Colo201 cells was slightly suppressed by the high concentrations of serum because of the competition with serum components possessing the mannose-rich sugar chain motifs. On the other hand, a lipid vesicle is a very useful microcapsule constructed by multilamellar structure,and adopted as drug or gene carrier. ESA was immobilized on the surface of the lipid vesicles to apply the lipid vesicles to cancer specific drug delivery system. ESA-immobilized lipid vesicles were effectively bound to cancer cell lines compared with plane vesicles.

  6. Una manera de nombrar el deseo en Toda esa gran verdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio List

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la novela Toda esa gran verdad (2006 del mexicano Eduardo Montagner. El artículo centra su atención en el tema de la sexualidad, particularmente la del personaje principal. La idea es reflexionar acerca de formas disidentes de la sexualidad que rompen con las maneras normativas y que son sancionadas socialmente. En este caso en particular, unas botas de hule son el centro de la atención de un joven de una comunidad rural que dice estar enamorado del dueño de dicho calzado. Él va aprendiendo que un sujeto fetichista requiere de su objeto para disfrutar del placer erótico.

  7. Evaluation of the ESA Sea Ice CCI (SICCI) project sea ice concentration data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Bell, Louisa; Ivanova, Natalia;

    around these two SIC values; consequently SIC can be negative or above 100%. In order to fully evaluate SICCI SIC this natural variability needs to be taken into account. In contrast to most other SIC retrieval algorithms the SICCI algorithm does not filter spurious sea ice over open water with a weather......During phase 1 of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) climate change initiative (CCI) sea ice project (SICCI project) a sea ice concentration (SIC) data product was produced by employing a hybrid SIC retrieval algorithm comprising the Bristol and the Comiso-Bootstrap algorithm in frequency mode. SIC...... filter because by doing so often substantial portions of the sea ice cover along the ice edge are discarded....

  8. Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) a high sensitive accelerometer for ``BepiColombo'' ESA CORNERSTONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    2001-12-01

    The targets of the ESA CORNERSTONE mission to Mercury "BepiColombo" are concerned with both planetary and magnetospheric physics and to test some aspects of the general relativity. A payload devoted to a set of experiments named radio science is located within one of the three proposed modules, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). In particular, a high sensitivity accelerometer ( a minFisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), with the financial support of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A prototype of such an instrument was constructed, matching the requirements of the radio science experiment. Results of the study concerning the use of ISA in the BepiColombo mission are reported here, particular care being devoted to the description of the instrument and to its sensitivity and thermal stabilisation.

  9. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W.T.; Murphy IV, Frank V.; Gould, Ty A.; Jambeck, Per; Val, Dale L.; Cronan, Jr., John E.; Beck von Bodman, Susan; Churchill, Mair E.A. (UIUC); (Colorado); (Connecticut)

    2009-04-22

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 {angstrom}. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified.

  10. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  11. A new 25 years Arctic Sea level record from ESA satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Knudsen, Per

    the ESA GOCE mission we are now able to derive a mean dynamic topography of the Arctic Ocean with unprecedented accuracy to constrain the ocean circulation. We present both a new estimation of the mean ocean circulation and new estimates of large scale sea level changes based on satellite data and perform......The Arctic is an extremely challenging region for the use of remote sensing for ocean studies. One is the fact that despite 25 years of altimetry only very limited sea level observations exists in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation is changing...... and through development of tailored retrackers dealing with presence of sea ice within the radar footprint, we can now develop sea surface height and its variation in most of the Arctic Ocean. We have processed 5 years of Cryosat-2 data quantified as either Lead or Ocean data within the Cryosat-2 SAR mask...

  12. ESA's approach to nuclear power sources for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerer, L.; Gardini, B.; Gianfiglio, G. [ESA - ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear power sources for space (NPS) are, according to current physics knowledge, the only power source option for some classes of space missions. Europe has successfully used nuclear power sources for space exploration missions (e.g. Huygens lander on Titan, Ulysses spacecraft). While some small-scale study and development efforts have been undertaken at national level during the past 40 years, these did not go beyond study and early prototype designing level. In the light of further European integration and European ambitions in space, an independent working group involving European institutional stakeholders has discussed options and proposed coherent European positions concerning the safety, use and development of NPS technology in Europe. This paper presents safety aspects and options as identified by this European Working Group and ongoing related ESA (European Space Agency) activities in this field. (authors)

  13. Research and Education in Basic Space Science The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Naimiy, H M K; Chamcham, K; de Alwis, S P; De Carias, M C P; Haubold, H J; Boggino, A E T

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agencyis holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of theworldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countriesof Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean(Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt,Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits ofthe workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshopslead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia,Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, andUruguay. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to networkthese astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and educationprogrammes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has beendeveloped for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in anuniversity environment.

  14. Modelling electron distributions within ESA's Gaia satellite CCD pixels to mitigate radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Burt, D; Robbins, M S

    2009-01-01

    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented positional accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. At L2, protons cause displacement damage in the silicon of CCDs. The resulting traps capture and emit electrons from passing charge packets in the CCD pixel, distorting the image PSF and biasing its centroid. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate this effect. The key to calculating the probability of an electron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for the Gaia CCD pixels. In Seabroke, Holland & Cropper (2008), the first paper of this series, we motivated the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outlined how its future resu...

  15. Evaluation of the ESA Sea Ice CCI (SICCI) project sea ice concentration data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Bell, Louisa; Ivanova, Natalia

    During phase 1 of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) climate change initiative (CCI) sea ice project (SICCI project) a sea ice concentration (SIC) data product was produced by employing a hybrid SIC retrieval algorithm comprising the Bristol and the Comiso-Bootstrap algorithm in frequency mode. SIC...... process, and SIC total uncertainty. A flag layer allows to identify where SIC may be less reliable. The unlimited SIC contains the full range of SIC values retrieved. The natural variability of the measured TBs around the typical TBs at 0% and 100% SIC (the so-called tie points) causes SIC to spread...... around these two SIC values; consequently SIC can be negative or above 100%. In order to fully evaluate SICCI SIC this natural variability needs to be taken into account. In contrast to most other SIC retrieval algorithms the SICCI algorithm does not filter spurious sea ice over open water with a weather...

  16. A new 25 years Arctic Sea level record from ESA satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Knudsen, Per

    the ESA GOCE mission we are now able to derive a mean dynamic topography of the Arctic Ocean with unprecedented accuracy to constrain the ocean circulation. We present both a new estimation of the mean ocean circulation and new estimates of large scale sea level changes based on satellite data and perform......The Arctic is an extremely challenging region for the use of remote sensing for ocean studies. One is the fact that despite 25 years of altimetry only very limited sea level observations exists in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation is changing...... and through development of tailored retrackers dealing with presence of sea ice within the radar footprint, we can now develop sea surface height and its variation in most of the Arctic Ocean. We have processed 5 years of Cryosat-2 data quantified as either Lead or Ocean data within the Cryosat-2 SAR mask...

  17. Monitoring of the reflectors of ESA's Planck telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parian, Jafar Amiri; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2007-11-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. Planck's objective is to analyze, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the cosmic microwave background. To achieve this aim well-manufactured reflectors are used as parts of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of the Secondary and Primary Reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with diameters of 1.1 and 1.9 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at temperatures down to 95K, using close-range photogrammetric techniques. We have designed an optimal close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the Primary and Secondary Reflectors with a mean relative precision better than 1:1,000,000 and 1:400,000, respectively, to achieve the requested accuracies. Special considerations have been taken into account in different steps of design, such as the determinability of additional parameters under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources of errors. A least squares best-fit ellipsoid was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflector. We present our procedure and the results of processing the photogrammetric measurements of the Flight Models of the Primary and Secondary Reflectors which were executed by Thales Alenia Space France under ESA-ESTEC contract in vacuum and at very low temperatures.

  18. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  19. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  20. Harmonisation and diagnostics of MIPAS ESA CH4 and N2O profiles using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errera, Quentin; Ceccherini, Simone; Christophe, Yves; Chabrillat, Simon; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Lambert, Alyn; Ménard, Richard; Raspollini, Piera; Skachko, Sergey; van Weele, Michiel; Walker, Kaley A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses assimilation experiments of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) profiles retrieved from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). Here we focus on data versions 6 and 7 provided by the ESA processor. These data sets have been assimilated by the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE). The CH4 and N2O retrieved profiles can oscillate, especially in the tropical lower stratosphere. Using the averaging kernels of the observations and a background error covariance matrix, which has previously been calibrated, allows the system to partly remedy this issue and provide assimilated fields that are more regular vertically. In general, there is a good agreement between the BASCOE analyses and independent observations from ACE-FTS (CH4 and N2O) and MLS (N2O), demonstrating the general good quality of CH4 and N2O retrievals provided by MIPAS ESA. Nevertheless, this study also identifies two issues in these data sets. First, time series of the observations show unexpected discontinuities due to an abrupt change in the gain of MIPAS band B, generally occurring after the instrument decontamination. Since the calibration is performed weekly, the abrupt change in the gain affects the measurements until the subsequent calibration is performed. Second, the correlations between BASCOE analyses and independent observations are poor in the lower stratosphere, especially in the tropics, probably due to the presence of outliers in the assimilated data. In this region, we recommend using MIPAS CH4 and N2O retrievals with caution.

  1. ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integral solves mystery hi-res Size hi-res: 60 kb Credits: Credit: ESA, F. Lebrun (CEA-Saclay). ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery The central regions of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as seen by Integral in gamma rays. With its superior ability to see faint details, Integral correctly reveals the individual sources that comprised the foggy, gamma-ray background seen by previous observatories. The brightest 91 objects seen in this image were classified by Integral as individual sources, while the others appear too faint to be properly characterized at this stage. During the spring and autumn of 2003, Integral observed the central regions of our Galaxy, collecting some of the perpetual glow of diffuse low-energy gamma rays that bathe the entire Galaxy. These gamma rays were first discovered in the mid-1970s by high-flying balloon-borne experiments. Astronomers refer to them as the 'soft' Galactic gamma-ray background, with energies similar to those used in medical X-ray equipment. Initially, astronomers believed that the glow was caused by interactions involving the atoms of the gas that pervades the Galaxy. Whilst this theory could explain the diffuse nature of the emission, since the gas is ubiquitous, it failed to match the observed power of the gamma rays. The gamma rays produced by the proposed mechanisms would be much weaker than those observed. The mystery has remained unanswered for decades. Now Integral's superb gamma-ray telescope IBIS, built for ESA by an international consortium led by Principal Investigator Pietro Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), has seen clearly that, instead of a fog produced by the interstellar medium, most of the gamma-rays are coming from individual celestial objects. In the view of previous, less sensitive instruments, these objects appeared to merge together. In a paper published today in "Nature", Francois Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France) and his collaborators report the discovery of 91 gamma

  2. ESA New Generation Science Archives: New Technologies Applied to Graphical User Interface Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M.; Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Castellanos, J.; Cheek, N.; Costa, H.; Fajersztejn, N.; Gonzalez, J.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Ortiz, I.; Osuna, P.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Science Archives and VO Team (SAT) has undertaken the effort to build state of the art sub-systems for its new generation of archives. At the time of writing this abstract, the new technology has already been applied to the creation of the SOHO and EXOSAT Science Archive s and will be used to re-engineer some of the already existing ESA Science Archives in the future. The Graphical User Interface sub-system has been designed and developed upon the premises of building a lightweight rich client application to query and retrieve scientific data quickly and efficiently; special attention has been paid to the usability and ergonomics of the interface. The system architecture relies on the Model View Controller pattern, which isolates logic from the graphical interface. Multiple window layout arrangements are possible using a docking windows framework with virtually no limitations (InfoNode). New graphical components have been developed to fulfill project-specific user requirements. For example video animations can be generated at runtime based on image data requests matching a specific search criteria. In addition, interoperability is achieved with other tools for data visualization purposes using internationally approved standards (c.f., IVOA SAMP), a messaging protocol already adopted by several analysis tools (ds9, Aladin, Gaia). In order to avoid the increasingly common network constraints affecting the end-user’s daily work the system has been designed to cope with possible restrictive firewall set up. Therefore, ESA New Generation archives are accessible from anyplace where standard basic port 80 HTTP connections are available.

  3. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission candidate as ESA-M3 class mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; Lara, Luisa-M.; Marty, Bernard; Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, Andy; Bohnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John R.; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.

    2015-03-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESAfs Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, as well as optimization of the mission. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return: the choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily compared to a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible to obtain from a single object. Precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude-dependent trend, with the most-weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system

  4. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  5. Digressões psicopatológicas sobre os primogénitos ou o mito de Esaú

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, José Carlos Coelho

    1998-01-01

    Utilizando analogias entre o «fado-destino» e o «fado- canção», o autor aborda a situação dos primogénitos, tentando descrever alguns problemas típicos destes casos. Ilustra, por fim, a sua comunicação com o mito bíblico de Esaú. Abstract: Using analogies between «fado-fate» and «fadosong », the author rnakes an approach to first sons’ situation, trying to describe some typical problems of these cases. Finaily, he illustrates the relation to biblical myth of Esaú. ...

  6. The ESA-NASA 'CHOICE' Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, as an Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregu1ation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E,; Feuerecker, M.; Salam, A. P.; Rybka, A.; Stowe, R. P.; Morrels, M.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Quintens, Roel; Thieme, U.; hide

    2011-01-01

    For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assess innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivataion and stress factors during Concordia winter-over deployment. To date, not all samples have been analyzed. Here, only data will be preliminary presented for those parameters where sample/data analysis is completed (i.e., Leukocyte subsets, T cell function, and intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles.)

  7. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Sato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009 was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA, was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.

  8. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-05-29

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.

  9. Science of the Joint ESA-NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel; Greeley, Ron

    2010-05-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international joint mission under study by NASA and ESA, has the overarching theme to investigate the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites—three of which are believed to harbor internal oceans—are the key to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. To this end, the reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO will execute a coordinated exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO carry sets of complementary instruments, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. Encompassed within the overall mission theme are two science goals, (1) Determine whether the Jupiter System harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes within the Jupiter System. The science objectives addressed by the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressed by the second goal are to: i) understand the

  10. ESA's high-energy observatories spot doughnut-shaped cloud with a black-hole filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 7265 KB Credits: ESA, V. Beckmann (GSFC) Doughnut-shaped cloud surrounds black hole This artist's impression shows the thick dust torus that astronomers believe surrounds supermassive black holes and their accretion discs, like the one harboured in the nucleus of the spiral galaxy NGC 4388. When the torus is seen `edge-on’ as in this case, the visible light emitted by the accretion disc is partially blocked. However, the sharp X-ray and gamma-ray eyes of XMM-Newton and Integral can peer through the thick dust and see how the energy released by the accretion disc interacts with and is absorbed by the torus. Black holes are objects so compact and with gravity so strong that not even light can escape from them. Scientists think that `supermassive’ black holes are located in the cores of most galaxies, including our Milky Way galaxy. They can contain the mass of thousands of millions of suns, confined within a region no larger than our Solar System. They appear to be surrounded by a hot, thin disk of accreting gas and, farther out, the thick doughnut-shaped torus. Depending on the inclination of the torus, it can hide the black hole and the hot accretion disc from the line of sight. Galaxies in which a torus blocks the light from the central accretion disc are called `Seyfert 2’ types and are usually faint to optical telescopes. Another theory, however, is that these galaxies appear rather faint because the central black hole is not actively accreting gas and the disc surrounding it is therefore faint. An international team of astronomers led by Dr Volker Beckmann, Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, USA) has studied one of the nearest objects of this type, a spiral galaxy called NGC 4388, located 65 million light years away in the constellation Virgo. Since NGC 4388 is relatively close, and therefore unusually bright for its class, it is easier to study. Astronomers often study black holes that are aligned face-on, thus avoiding the

  11. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  12. The Pilot Project 'Optical Image Correlation' of the ESA Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform (GTEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Since more than 20 years, "Earth Observation" (EO) satellites developed or operated by ESA have provided a wealth of data. In the coming years, the Sentinel missions, along with the Copernicus Contributing Missions as well as Earth Explorers and other, Third Party missions will provide routine monitoring of our environment at the global scale, thereby delivering an unprecedented amount of data. While the availability of the growing volume of environmental data from space represents a unique opportunity for science, general R&D, and applications, it also poses major challenges to fully exploit the potential of archived and daily incoming datasets. Those challenges do not only comprise the discovery, access, processing, and visualization of large data volumes but also an increasing diversity of data sources and end users from different fields (e.g. EO, in-situ monitoring, and modeling). In this context, the GTEP (Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform) initiative aims to build an operational distributed processing platform to maximize the exploitation of EO data from past and future satellite missions for the detection and monitoring of natural hazards. This presentation focuses on the "Optical Image Correlation" Pilot Project (funded by ESA within the GTEP platform) which objectives are to develop an easy-to-use, flexible and distributed processing chain for: 1) the automated reconstruction of surface Digital Elevation Models from stereo (and tristereo) pairs of Spot 6/7 and Pléiades satellite imagery, 2) the creation of ortho-images (panchromatic and multi-spectral) of Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, Spot 6/7 and Pléiades scenes, 3) the calculation of horizontal (E-N) displacement vectors based on sub-pixel image correlation. The processing chains is being implemented on the GEP cloud-based (Hadoop, MapReduce) environment and designed for analysis of surface displacements at local to regional scale (10-1000 km2) targeting in particular co-seismic displacement and slow

  13. Shape modeling technique KOALA validated by ESA Rosetta at (21) Lutetia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carry, B.; Kaasalainen, M.; Merline, W. J.; Müller, T. G.; Jorda, L.; Drummond, J. D.; Berthier, J.; O'Rourke, L.; Ďurech, J.; Küppers, M.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Dumas, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    We present here a comparison of our results from ground-based observations of asteroid (21) Lutetia with imaging data acquired during the flyby of the asteroid by the ESA Rosetta mission. This flyby provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and calibrate our method of determination of size, 3-D shape, and spin of an asteroid from ground-based observations. Knowledge of certain observable physical properties of small bodies (e.g., size, spin, 3-D shape, and density) have far-reaching implications in furthering our understanding of these objects, such as composition, internal structure, and the effects of non-gravitational forces. We review the different observing techniques used to determine the above physical properties of asteroids and present our 3-D shape-modeling technique KOALA - Knitted Occultation, Adaptive-optics, and Lightcurve Analysis - which is based on multi-dataset inversion. We compare the results we obtained with KOALA, prior to the flyby, on asteroid (21) Lutetia with the high-spatial resolution images of the asteroid taken with the OSIRIS camera on-board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, during its encounter with Lutetia on 2010 July 10. The spin axis determined with KOALA was found to be accurate to within 2°, while the KOALA diameter determinations were within 2% of the Rosetta-derived values. The 3-D shape of the KOALA model is also confirmed by the spectacular visual agreement between both 3-D shape models (KOALA pre- and OSIRIS post-flyby). We found a typical deviation of only 2 km at local scales between the profiles from KOALA predictions and OSIRIS images, resulting in a volume uncertainty provided by KOALA better than 10%. Radiometric techniques for the interpretation of thermal infrared data also benefit greatly from the KOALA shape model: the absolute size and geometric albedo can be derived with high accuracy, and thermal properties, for example the thermal inertia, can be determined unambiguously. The corresponding Lutetia analysis leads

  14. Examining Environmental Gradients with Remotely Sensed Data - the ESA GlobPermafrost project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Annett; Grosse, Guido; Kääb, Andreas; Westermann, Sebastian; Strozzi, Tazio; Wiesmann, Andreas; Duguay, Claude; Seifert, Frank Martin; Obu, Jaroslav; Nitze, Ingmar; Heim, Birgit; Haas, Antoni; Widhalm, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost cannot be directly detected from space, but many surface features of permafrost terrains and typical periglacial landforms are observable with a variety of EO sensors ranging from very high to medium resolution at various wavelengths. In addition, landscape dynamics associated with permafrost changes and geophysical variables relevant for characterizing the state of permafrost, such as land surface temperature or freeze-thaw state can be observed with space-based Earth Observation. Suitable regions to examine environmental gradients across the Arctic have been defined in a community white paper (Bartsch et al. 2014). These transects have been updated within the ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements Earth Observation (EO) products to support research communities and international organisations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Prototype product cases will cover different aspects of permafrost by integrating in situ measurements of subsurface properties and surface properties, Earth Observation, and modelling to provide a better understanding of permafrost today. The project will extend local process and permafrost monitoring to broader spatial domains, support permafrost distribution modelling, and help to implement permafrost landscape and feature mapping in a GIS framework. It will also complement active layer and thermal observing networks. Both lowland (latitudinal) and mountain (altitudinal) permafrost issues are addressed. The selected transects and first results will be presented. This includes identified needs from the user requirements survey, a review of existing land surface products available for the Arctic as well as prototypes of GlobPermafrost datasets, and the permafrost information system through which they can be accessed. Bartsch, Annett; Allard, Michel; Biskaborn, Boris Kolumban; Burba, George; Christiansen, Hanne H; Duguay

  15. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Cazenave, Anny; Larnicol, Gille

    -to-date production. To this extent, the ECV time series has benefited from yearly extension and it now covers the period 1993-2014. A full reprocessing of the dataset will be available in 2016. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required...

  16. Approaching the Next Millennium: Educational Service Agencies in the 1990s. ESA Study Series: Report No. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, E. Robert; Turner, Walter G.

    State-endorsed education service agency (ESA) type organizations are found in 26 state school systems, 23 of which have a complete statewide network serving all local districts. These organizations promote collaboration among local school districts in substate regions or serve as a conduit for implementation of state initiatives. This report…

  17. UPLC -MS/MS 法同时测定水中甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津%Simultaneous Determination of Carbaryl,Carbofuran and Atrazine in Water by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏勇; 王海燕; 陈美芳

    2015-01-01

    Carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine in water were detected simultaneously by UPLC-MS /MS after filtered thought 0.22 μm filter.The effect of instrument conditions and filter materials on the determination of carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine were investigated.Under the optimized conditions,the linear range was 0.01 μg /L ~1 0.0 μg /L.The detection limits for carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine was 6.1 ng /L,2.8 ng /L and 3.1 ng /L,respectively.Average recoveries at three spiking levels were in the range of 96.4% ~1 1 0%. The established method was applied to detect carbaryl,carbofuran and atrazine in source water and drinking wa-ter.All of the target compounds were not detected.The average recoveries of actual sample spiked with carbaryl, carbofuran and atrazine were between 81 .4% and 97.2%.%水样经聚四氟乙烯滤头过滤,直接用超高效液相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱(UPLC -MS /MS)同时测定甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津。通过试验考察不同材质滤头和各仪器条件对测定的影响,并确定最佳分析条件,使该方法在0.01μg /L ~10.0μg /L 范围内线性良好。甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津的方法检出限分别为6.1 ng /L、2.8 ng /L、3.1 ng /L,空白水样的3个质量浓度加标回收率在96.4%~110%之间。该方法用于测定实际水源水及饮用水中的甲萘威、呋喃丹和阿特拉津,结果均未检出,实际水样平均加标回收率为81.4%~97.2%。

  18. Assimilating ESA-CCI Soil Moisture into the JULES-EMPIRE Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaife, T. L.; Black, E.; Browne, P.; Lewis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface models, such as the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES, the land surface component of the Hadley Centre models) are used in a wide variety of applications, such as climate modelling, flood prediction and crop yield forecasting. However, how best to implement Data Assimilation (DA) for these models remains an open question. At a fundamental level these models are very different from atmospheric models for which traditional DA was developed. This poster describes the integration of JULES with the EMPIRE framework. EMPIRE (Employing MPI for Researching Ensembles) implements a test bed for ensemble based DA techniques that makes use of MPI message passing to exploit all available processing power. In particular EMPIRE contains several flavours of Particle Filter which show promise for the land surface DA problem. Examples of assimilating soil moisture observations from the ESA CCI data set into JULES are given for a number of sites in Africa. The model ensemble is generated by considering uncertainty in the driving data taken from the TAMSAT operational rainfall product. The results show considerable improvement in the modelled soil moisture and in particular the seasonal timing of the soil wetness.

  19. The instrument control unit of the ESA-PLATO 2.0 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Cosentino, R.; Giusi, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Ottensamer, R.; Steller, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pace, E.; Plasson, P.; Peter, G.; Pagano, I.

    2016-07-01

    PLATO 2.0 has been selected by ESA as the third medium-class Mission (M3) of the Cosmic Vision Program. Its Payload is conceived for the discovery of new transiting exoplanets on the disk of their parent stars and for the study of planetary system formation and evolution as well as to answer fundamental questions concerning the existence of other planetary systems like our own, including the presence of potentially habitable new worlds. The PLATO Payload design is based on the adoption of four sets of short focal length telescopes having a large field of view in order to exploit a large sky coverage and to reach, at the same time, the needed photometry accuracy and signalto- noise ratio (S/N) within a few tens of seconds of exposure time. The large amount of data produced by the telescope is collected and processed by means of the Payload's Data Processing System (DPS) composed by many processing electronics units. This paper gives an overview of the PLATO 2.0 DPS, mainly focusing on the architecture and processing capabilities of its Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the electronic subsystem acting as the main interface between the Payload (P/L) and the Spacecraft (S/C).

  20. Joint European x-ray monitor (JEM-X): x-ray monitor for ESA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1996-01-01

    JEM-X will extend the energy range of the gamma ray instruments on ESA's INTEGRAL mission (SPI, IBIS) to include the x-ray band. JEM-X will provide images with arcminute angular resolution in the 2 - 60 keV band. The baseline photon detection system consists of two identical, high pressure, imaging...... microstrip gas chambers, each with a collecting area of 500 cm(superscript 2). They view the sky through a coded aperture mask (0.5 mm tungsten) at a separation of 3.4 m. The two detector boxes are formed from 2 mm thick stainless steel plate and are filled with 5 bar Xe. The field of view is defined....... The detector sensor elements consists of microstrip plates shaped as regular octagons with a diameter of 292 mm. The basic microstrip pattern is similar to the one chosen for the HEPC/LEPC detector system on SRG. The detector position resolution will be sufficient to ensure an angular resolution for JEM...

  1. BOL and EOL Characterization of Azur 3G Lilt Solar Cells for ESA Juice Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorenko Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we describe the results of electrical characterization of AZUR SPACE triple-junction solar cells at a sun light intensity of 3.7% AM0 and temperatures down to −150°C. At these conditions, which are relevant for the anticipated ESA JUICE mission, the cell efficiency reaches 33.5 % at BOL. Special attention has been paid to the establishing of an in-situ characterization procedure for defining EOL cell characteristics after electron and proton irradiation at low temperature low intensity condition. It was shown that solar cells irradiated at low temperature exhibit a strong recovery effect within short time after stopping the irradiation whereas the absolute value of the recovery depends on the irradiation fluence and particle type. Further on, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the maximum power, Pmp, is much stronger than the degradation of Isc and Voc values. Experimentally defined remaining factors for electron and proton irradiation and the quantification of the observed recovery effects allow a realistic prediction of the solar cell performance at JUICE mission conditions and are essential for the planned solar cell qualification activities.

  2. Planetary protection R&D activities in the ESA exploration programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    Since the begin of the Aurora exploration programme in 2001 the Human Spaceflight Microgravity and Exploration Directorate HME of ESA has invested in research and development activities related to planetary protection Some of these activities are focused on the recently approved ExoMars mission others are applicable to Mars missions in general including MSR the technology development of the latter one being part of the exploration core programme The proposed activities have been approved and initiated An overview of the activities and first results will be presented The main activities are begin itemize item Bioburden and Biodiversity evaluation in S C Facilities this activity will cover a period of almost two years and include the standard assay extension of the standard assay culture conditions identification of isolates using 16S rDNA via PCR and test of a rapid spore assay Protocols are developed in coordination with NASA-JPL item Extension of dry heat microbial reduction process to higher temperatures this activity will include a detailed study of the humidity effect on the inactivation kinetics This activity is in coordination with efforts at NASA-JPL item Validation of a dry heat sterilization process item Development of a low-temperature sterilization method the focus of this activity is on vapor hydrogen peroxide item Robotic capabilities for clean AIV AIT item Decontamination of man-rated systems item Definition of functional requirements for a Mars Sample Return Biological Containment Facility end itemize In

  3. Silvaco ATLAS model of ESA's Gaia satellite e2v CCD91-72 pixels

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Burt, D; Robbins, M S; 10.1117/12.856958

    2010-01-01

    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for CCD radiation damage and CCD geometric distortion. In this paper, the third of the series, we present our 3D Silvaco ATLAS model of the Gaia e2v CCD91-72 pixel. We publish e2v's design model predictions for the capacities of one of Gaia's pixel features, the supplementary buried channel (SBC), for the first time. Kohley et al. (2009) measured the SBC capacities of a Gaia CCD to be an order of magnitude smaller than e2v's design. We have found the SBC doping widths that yield these measured SBC capacities. The widths are systematically 2 {\\mu}m offset to the nominal widths. These offsets appear to be uncalibrated systematic offsets in e2v photolithography, which could either be du...

  4. Digging supplementary buried channels: investigating the notch architecture within the CCD pixels on ESA's Gaia satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Murray, N J; Crowley, C; Hopkinson, G; Brown, A G A; Kohley, R; Holland, A

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Gaia satellite has 106 CCD image sensors which will suffer from increased charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a result of radiation damage. To aid the mitigation at low signal levels, the CCD design includes Supplementary Buried Channels (SBCs, otherwise known as `notches') within each CCD column. We present the largest published sample of Gaia CCD SBC Full Well Capacity (FWC) laboratory measurements and simulations based on 13 devices. We find that Gaia CCDs manufactured post-2004 have SBCs with FWCs in the upper half of each CCD that are systematically smaller by two orders of magnitude (<50 electrons) compared to those manufactured pre-2004 (thousands of electrons). Gaia's faint star (13 < G < 20 mag) astrometric performance predictions by Prod'homme et al. and Holl et al. use pre-2004 SBC FWCs as inputs to their simulations. However, all the CCDs already integrated onto the satellite for the 2013 launch are post-2004. SBC FWC measurements are not available for on...

  5. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    After six months of investigations and analysis by a joint ESA/NASA Huygens Recovery Task Force (HRTF), senior management from the two space agencies and members of the Cassini-Huygens scientific community have endorsed several modifications to the mission. These will ensure a return close to 100% of the Huygens science data, with no impact on the nominal prime Cassini tour after the third Titan encounter. The modifications have been introduced because of a design flaw in the Huygens communication system. This problem meant that the Huygens receiver was unable to compensate for the frequency shift between the signal emitted by the Probe and the one received by the Orbiter, due to the Doppler shift (**). This would have resulted in the loss of most of the unique data returned from the Probe during its descent through Titan’s dense atmosphere. To ensure that as much data as possible is returned from the pioneering Probe, the HRTF proposed a new schedule for Cassini’s first orbits around Saturn. The agreed scenario involves shortening Cassini’s first two orbits around the ringed planet and adding a third which provides the required new geometry for the Huygens mission to Titan. In the new scenario, the arrival at Saturn on 1 July 2004 remains unchanged. However, Cassini’s first flyby of Titan will now occur on 26 October, followed by another on 13 December. The Huygens Probe will be released towards Titan on 25 December, for an entry into the moon’s atmosphere 22 days later, on 14 January 2005, seven weeks later than originally planned. To reduce the Doppler shift in the signal from Huygens, the Cassini Orbiter will fly over Titan’s cloud tops at a much higher altitude than originally planned - 65,000 km instead of 1,200 km. This higher orbit has the added advantage that Cassini will be able to preserve the four-year baseline tour through the Saturn system, by resuming its original orbital plan in mid-February 2005. “In any complex space mission problems

  6. Spaceflight opportunities on the ISS for plant research — The ESA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Two ESA facilities will be available for plant research and other biological experiments on the International Space Station: the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) and BIOLAB. While BIOLAB will be launched with the European “Columbus” Module, MCS will be part of the Early Utilisation Agreement with NASA and integrated in the US Lab. Both facilities use standard Experiment Containers, mounted on two centrifuge rotors providing either microgravity or variable g-levels up to 2xg. Transparent covers allow illumination and observation (also near-infrared) of the internal experiment hardware containing the plant specimen. Standard interface plates provide each container with power and data lines, gas supply (controlled CO2, O2 and water vapour concentration; ethylene removal), and -for MCS only- connectors to water reservoirs. Besides the two concepts of environmental control in both facilities, there is a difference in container size (BIOLAB 0.36 1, height with respect to the g-vector 60 mm; MCS 0.58 1, height 160 mm) and in the degree of automation. The design of BIOLAB and MCS will be complimentary to NASA's Plant Research Unit (volume 20 1, height 380 mm) and should allow continuation of Space research on protoplasts, callus cultures, algae, fungi and seedlings, as earlier flown on Biorack, and new experiments with larger specimens of fungi, mosses and vascular plants.

  7. Is the 2008 NASA/ESA double Einstein ring actually a ringhole signature?

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that whereas the Shatskiy single rings produced by the gravitational inner field of a spherically symmetric wormhole could not be used to identify the presence of such tunnelings in the universe or the existence of a parallel universe, the image which the inner gravitational field of a ringhole with toroidal symmetry would allow us to detect from a single luminous source is that of two concentric bright rings, and this is a signature that cannot be attributed to any other single astronomical object in whichever universe it may be placed. At the beginning of 2008 the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope revealed a never-before-seen phenomenon in space: a pair of glowing rings, one nestled inside the other like a bull's-eye pattern. It is also argued that such a discovery may well be attributed to the first astronomical ringhole found in the universe. After all, a ringhole is a perfectly valid solution to the Einstein equations and the stuff which makes it possible is becoming more and more familiar in ...

  8. GRAVITAS : General Relativistic Astrophysics VIa Timing And Spectroscopy: An ESA M3 mission proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Nandra, Kirpal; Fabian, Andy; Strueder, Lothar; Willingale, Richard; Watson, Mike; Jonker, Peter; Kunieda, Hideyo; Miniutti, Giovanni; Motch, Christian; Predehl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    GRAVITAS is an X-ray observatory, designed and optimised to address the ESA Cosmic Vision theme of "Matter under extreme conditions". It was submitted as a response to the call for M3 mission proposals. The concept centres around an X-ray telescope of unprecedented effective area, which will focus radiation emitted from close to the event horizon of black holes or the surface of neutron stars. To reveal the nature and behaviour of matter in the most extreme astrophysical environments, GRAVITAS targets a key feature in the X-ray spectra of compact objects: the iron Kalpha line at ~6.5 keV. The energy, profile, and variability of this emission line, and the properties of the surrounding continuum emission, shaped by General Relativity (GR) effects, provide a unique probe of gravity in its strong field limit. Among its prime targets are hundreds of supermassive black holes in bright Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), which form the perfect laboratory to help understand the physical processes behind black hole growth....

  9. Go-ahead for ESA's new millennium space observatories Planck and FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Planck and FIRST will be launched together in the year 2007. Planck is a cosmology mission, designed to test the models describing the origin and evolution of the early Universe. It will do so by studying the Cosmic Background Radiation, a light emitted shortly after the Big Bang that fills the whole Universe and can be detected today, like an "echo" of that primeval explosion. Astronomers consider it a "fossil" radiation, since it holds a lot of information about both the past and the future of the Universe. "Planck will determine fundamental characteristics of the Universe, such as its geometry, its density, and the rate at which it expands. It will also provide important clues as to the kind of matter that fills the Universe", explains Planck Project Scientist Jan Tauber, at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in The Netherlands. More precisely, the task of Planck will be to measure the temperature of the "echo" of the Big Bang over the whole sky. Though at the time of its emission the Cosmic Background Radiation was very hot, some 3000 degrees, it has since expanded and cooled together with the entire cosmos to a much lower temperature, namely about minus 270 degrees centigrade (3 degrees Kelvin). Planck will look for differences in this temperature as slight as a few microkelvin, thin variations like clots that are, in fact, the "seeds" of the huge condensations of matter in today's Universe. "It will be like watching the birth of the galaxies, the galaxy clusters, all the large-scale structures that we observe today", Tauber says. The two instruments on board Planck, now approved by ESA, are the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and the High Frequency Instrument (HFI).They will cover a very broad range of frequencies (between 30 and 857 Gigahertz). The HFI will be designed and built by a Consortium of about 20 institutes led by Jean-Loup Puget of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay (France). The LFI will be designed and built

  10. Physical properties of ESA/NASA Rosetta target asteroid (21) Lutetia: Shape and flyby geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Carry, B; Leyrat, C; Merline, W J; Drummond, J D; Conrad, A; Weaver, H A; Tamblyn, P M; Chapman, C R; Dumas, C; Colas, F; Christou, J C; Dotto, E; Perna, D; Fornasier, S; Bernasconi, L; Behrend, R; Vachier, F; Kryszczynska, A; Polinska, M; Fulchignoni, M; Roy, R; Naves, R; Poncy, R; Wiggins, P

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We determine the physical properties (spin state and shape) of asteroid (21) Lutetia, target of the ESA/NASA Rosetta mission, to help in preparing for observations during the flyby on 2010 July 10 by predicting the orientation of Lutetia as seen from Rosetta. Methods. We use our novel KOALA inversion algorithm to determine the physical properties of asteroids from a combination of optical lightcurves, disk-resolved images, and stellar occultations, although the latter are not available for (21) Lutetia. Results. We find the spin axis of (21) Lutetia to lie within 5 degrees of ({\\lambda} = 52 deg., {\\beta} = -6 deg.) in Ecliptic J2000 reference frame (equatorial {\\alpha} = 52 deg., {\\delta} = +12 deg.), and determine an improved sidereal period of 8.168 270 \\pm 0.000 001 h. This pole solution implies the southern hemisphere of Lutetia will be in "seasonal" shadow at the time of the flyby. The apparent cross-section of Lutetia is triangular as seen "pole-on" and more rectangular as seen "equator-on". The ...

  11. ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    First image from the XMM-LSS survey hi-res Size hi-res: 87 kb Credits: ESA First image from the XMM-LSS survey The first image from the XMM-LSS survey is actually a combination of fourteen separate 'pointings' of the space observatory. It represents a region of the sky eight times larger than the full Moon and contains around 25 clusters. The circles represent the sources previously known from the 1991 ROSAT All-Sky Survey. A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region hi-res Size hi-res: 86 kb Credits: ESA A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region of the image and identifies the possible cluster. Each point on this graph represents a single X-ray photons detected by XMM-Newton. Most come from distant actie galaxies and the computer must perform a sophisticated, statistical computation to determine which X-ray come from clusters. Contour map of clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 139 kb Credits: ESA Contour map of clusters The computer programme transforms the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of the cluster's probable extent and superimposes it over the CFHT snapshot, allowing the individual galaxies in the cluster to be targeted for further observations with ESO's VLT, to measure its distance and locate the cluster in the universe. Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies like our own which themselves congregate into clusters. These clusters are 'strung' throughout the Universe in a web-like structure. Astronomers have studied this large-scale structure of the nearby Universe but have lacked the instruments to extend the search to the large volumes of the distant Universe. Thanks to its unrivalled sensitivity, in less than three hours, ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton can see back about 7000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size, and clusters of galaxies

  12. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  13. Media event at ESOC: closest encounter between ESA's comet chaser Rosetta and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The critical close swingby of Mars is needed to use the gravity of Mars to modify the spacecraft’s speed and direction. Rosetta will emerge from its martian encounter pointed towards its next target, Earth ! It arrives for a second swingby of our home planet on 13 November (the first having already taken place on 4 March 2005). To take advantage of this upcoming closest of encounters with the Red Planet, Rosetta’s instruments - as well as those on its lander - will be switched on over predefined time slots to perform a series of scientific observations, including planetary imaging. Flight controllers at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) have already set everything ready for this crucial manoeuvre. Launched on 2 March 2004 on an Ariane 5 rocket, Rosetta is the first probe ever designed to enter orbit around a comet’s nucleus and release a lander onto its surface. Arriving at comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the probe will take over a year to conduct a thorough scientific study of this remnant of the primitive nebula which gave birth to our solar system some 4.6 billion years ago. By the end of its epic journey, Rosetta will have performed three Earth and one Mars swingbys in all. It will also have studied asteroids Steins and Lutetia, in September 2008 and July 2010 respectively. Media representatives wishing to follow this Rosetta Mars swingby from the ESOC control centre in Darmstadt/Germany are requested to complete and return the attached reply form. For further information, please contact : ESA Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Programme Rosetta Mars swingby 25 February 2007, 2 a.m. start 02:00 - Doors open & Filming opportunity in Mission Control Room 02:40 - Welcome by David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 02:50 - Rosetta Mars swingby the manoeuvres and flight dynamics, Uwe Feucht, Head of Flight Dynamics Division/Team 03:00 - En route science, first images

  14. JANUS: the visible camera onboard the ESA JUICE mission to the Jovian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Jaumann, Ralf; Cremonese, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Harald; Debei, Stefano; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Holland, Andrew; Lara, Luisa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission [1] was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE is now in phase A-B1 and its final adoption is planned by late 2014. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. Main targets for this mission will be Jupiter, its satellites and rings and the complex relations within the system. Main focus will be on the detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), thanks to several fly-bys and 9 months in orbit around Ganymede. JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) is the camera system selected by ESA to fulfill the optical imaging scientific requirements of JUICE. It is being developed by a consortium involving institutes in Italy, Germany, Spain and UK, supported by respective Space Agencies, with the support of Co-Investigators also from USA, France, Japan and Israel. The Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto show an increase in geologic activity with decreasing distance to Jupiter [e.g., 2]. The three icy Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa show a tremendous diversity of surface features and differ significantly in their specific evolutionary paths. Each of these moons exhibits its own fascinating geologic history - formed by competition and also combination of external and internal processes. Their origins and evolutions are influenced by factors such as density, temperature, composition (volatile compounds), stage of differentiation, volcanism, tectonism, the rheological reaction of ice and salts to stress, tidal effects, and interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere and space. These interactions are still recorded in the present surface geology. The record of geological processes spans from possible cryovolcanism through widespread tectonism to surface degradation and impact cratering

  15. ESA's Soil Moisture dnd Ocean Salinity Mission - Contributing to Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The focus of this paper will be on SMOS's contribution to support water resource management: SMOS surface soil moisture provides the input to derive root-zone soil moisture, which in turn provides the input for the drought index, an important monitoring prediction tool for plant available water. In addition to surface soil moisture, SMOS also provides observations on vegetation optical depth. Both parameters aid agricultural applications such as crop growth, yield forecasting and drought monitoring, and provide input for carbon and land surface modelling. SMOS data products are used in data assimilation and forecasting systems. Over land, assimilating SMOS derived information has shown to have a positive impact on applications such as NWP, stream flow forecasting and the analysis of net ecosystem exchange. Over ocean, both sea surface salinity and severe wind speed have the potential to increase the predictive skill on the seasonal and short- to medium-range forecast range. Operational users in particular in Numerical Weather Prediction and operational hydrology have put forward a requirement for soil moisture data to be available in near-real time (NRT). This has been addressed by developing a fast retrieval for a NRT level 2 soil moisture product based on Neural Networks, which will be available by autumn 2015. This paper will focus on presenting the

  16. Radiometric model for the stereo camera STC onboard the BepiColombo ESA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Martellato, Elena; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    The STereoscopic imaging Channel (STC) is one of the instruments on-board the BepiColombo mission, which is an ESA/JAXA Cornerstone mission dedicated to the investigation of the Mercury planet. STC is part of the Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS) suite. STC main scientific objective is the 3D global mapping of the entire surface of Mercury with a mean scale factor of 55 m per pixel at periherm. To determine the design requirements and to model the on-ground and in-flight performance of STC, a radiometric model has been developed. In particular, STC optical characteristics have been used to define the instrument response function. As input for the model, different sources can be taken into account depending on the applications, i.e. to simulate the in-flight or on-ground performances. Mercury expected radiance, the measured Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) integrating sphere radiance, or calibrated stellar fluxes can be considered. Primary outputs of the model are the expected signal per pixel expressed in function of the integration time and its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These outputs allow then to calculate the most appropriate integration times to be used during the different phases of the mission; in particular for the images taken during the calibration campaign on-ground and for the in-flight ones, i.e. surface imaging along the orbit around Mercury and stellar calibration acquisitions. This paper describes the radiometric model structure philosophy, the input and output parameters and presents the radiometric model derived for STC. The predictions of the model will be compared with some measurements obtained during the Flight Model (FM) ground calibration campaign. The results show that the model is valid, in fact the foreseen simulated values are in good agreement with the real measured ones.

  17. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  18. The stereo camera on the ESA mission BepiColombo; a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, Gabriele

    The stereo camera is a channel of SIMBIOSYS, one of the payload instruments on board the Mercury Planetary Orbiter of the ESA mission BepiColombo. The main scientific objective is the global mapping of the entire surface of Mercury in 3D and colors with a scale factor of 50 m/pixel at the periherm. It will allow to generate the Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface improving the interpretation of morphological features at different scales and topographic relationships. The harsh environment of Mercury will strongly affect the functionalities and performance of the instruments and reduce the resources allocated to the payload. Even for the stereo camera, as for most of the instrument on board BepiColombo, we had to find a new concept. We have implemented an original optical design and a new technique of acquiring the stereo pairs for generating the Digital Terrain Model of the surface, the PUSH-FRAME. This new technique will have an impact on the software chain will generate the DTM and on the observation strategy. At the same time we have started several simulations on the scientific performance and on the impact that instrument and mission parameters may have on the stereo reconstruction. In particular, we will show the results of the simulations on the impact of the compression factor applied to the images to the stereo reconstruction. The instrument concept is composed by two sub-channels, looking at the surface at +/- 20° from the nadir direction, converging on the same bidimensional focal plane assembly based on a new Si-PIN CMOS detector, with no mechanism. The configuration of the focal plane assembly allows to apply the push-frame technique to acquire the stereo images.

  19. Columnar- Equiaxed Transition in Solidification processing: The ESA-MAP CETSOL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billia, Bernard; Gandin, Charles-André; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Browne, David; Dupouy, Marie-Danielle

    2005-03-01

    Many castings are the result of a competition between the growth of columnar and equiaxed grains. Indeed, microstructures are at the center of materials science and engineering, and solidification is the most important processing route for structural materials, especially metals and alloys. Presently, microstructure models remain mostly based on diffusive transport mechanisms so that there is a need of critical benchmark data to test fundamental theories of microstructure formation, which often necessitates to have recourse to solidification experiments in the reduced-gravity environment of space. Accordingly, the CETSOL (Columnar-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification processing)-MAP project of ESA is gathering together European groups with complementary skills to carry out experiments and model the processes, in particular in view of the utilization of reduced-gravity environment that will be afforded by the International Space Station (ISS) to get benchmark data. The ultimate objective of the CETSOL research program is to significantly contribute to the improvement of integrated modeling of grain structure in industrially important castings. To reach this goal, the approach is devised to deepen the quantitative understanding of the basic physical principles that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales, govern microstructure formation in solidification processing under diffusive conditions and with fluid flow in the melt. Pending questions are attacked by well-defined model experiments on technical alloys and/or on model transparent systems, physical modeling at microstructure and mesoscopic scales (e.g. large columnar front or equiaxed crystals) and numerical simulation at all scales, up to the macroscopic scales of casting with integrated numerical models.

  20. The Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter : An ESA Contribution to the Europa-Jupiter System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Fujimoto, M.; EJSM/Jupiter Science Definition Team

    2008-09-01

    In the framework of an outer planets mission, under study after the NASA-Juno mission, the Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would combine a fleet of up to three satellites in order to investigate in depth many questions related to the Jupiter System. These investigations are essential for our understanding of the emergence and evolution of habitable worlds, not only within the Solar System, but also for extrasolar planets investigations. Scientific targets of EJSM will focus on Europa and Ganymede as a key pair of Galilean satellites, to address the questions on their habitability, formation, and internal structure, as well as the coupling with the whole Jovian system : Jupiter's atmosphere and interior, magnetosphere and magnetodisk. .In combination with a Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO likely provided by NASA) and a Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO likely provided by JAXA), ESA is studying a Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The mission scenario includes a direct launch in 2020 with a transfer time to Jupiter of 6 years. After the orbit insertion around Jupiter, a first phase ( 2 years) will be devoted to Jupiter system and Callisto studies, with multiple flybys of Callisto planned at low altitude ( 200 km), followed by a Ganymede orbit insertion and extensive study of Ganymede ( 1 year). In-depth comparative study of inner (Io and Europa) and outer (Ganymede and Callisto) satellites with combined payload of JEO and JGO will address the question of the relative geological evolution of the satellites. On JGO, the transport phenomena in the magnetosphere of Jupiter will be studied in combination with JMO, and the Ganymede magnetosphere will be observed in situ. Jupiter atmosphere investigations on JGO will focus on coupling phenomena between troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, the stratospheric composition and the question of thermospheric heating.

  1. Conceptual design of the X-IFU Instrument Control Unit on board the ESA Athena mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, L.; Ligori, S.; Capobianco, V.; Bonino, D.; Valenziano, L.; Guizzo, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Athena is one of L-class missions selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program for the science theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. The Athena model payload includes the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), an advanced actively shielded X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer for high spectral resolution imaging, utilizing cooled Transition Edge Sensors. This paper describes the preliminary architecture of Instrument Control Unit (ICU), which is aimed at operating all XIFU's subsystems, as well as at implementing the main functional interfaces of the instrument with the S/C control unit. The ICU functions include the TC/TM management with S/C, science data formatting and transmission to S/C Mass Memory, housekeeping data handling, time distribution for synchronous operations and the management of the X-IFU components (i.e. CryoCoolers, Filter Wheel, Detector Readout Electronics Event Processor, Power Distribution Unit). ICU functions baseline implementation for the phase-A study foresees the usage of standard and Space-qualified components from the heritage of past and current space missions (e.g. Gaia, Euclid), which currently encompasses Leon2/Leon3 based CPU board and standard Space-qualified interfaces for the exchange commands and data between ICU and X-IFU subsystems. Alternative architecture, arranged around a powerful PowerPC-based CPU, is also briefly presented, with the aim of endowing the system with enhanced hardware resources and processing power capability, for the handling of control and science data processing tasks not defined yet at this stage of the mission study.

  2. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Schulte, Wolfgang; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Demets, René; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  3. Web-GIS visualisation of permafrost-related Remote Sensing products for ESA GlobPermafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A.; Heim, B.; Schaefer-Neth, C.; Laboor, S.; Nitze, I.; Grosse, G.; Bartsch, A.; Kaab, A.; Strozzi, T.; Wiesmann, A.; Seifert, F. M.

    2016-12-01

    The ESA GlobPermafrost (www.globpermafrost.info) provides a remote sensing service for permafrost research and applications. The service comprises of data product generation for various sites and regions as well as specific infrastructure allowing overview and access to datasets. Based on an online user survey conducted within the project, the user community extensively applies GIS software to handle remote sensing-derived datasets and requires preview functionalities before accessing them. In response, we develop the Permafrost Information System PerSys which is conceptualized as an open access geospatial data dissemination and visualization portal. PerSys will allow visualisation of GlobPermafrost raster and vector products such as land cover classifications, Landsat multispectral index trend datasets, lake and wetland extents, InSAR-based land surface deformation maps, rock glacier velocity fields, spatially distributed permafrost model outputs, and land surface temperature datasets. The datasets will be published as WebGIS services relying on OGC-standardized Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) technologies for data display and visualization. The WebGIS environment will be hosted at the AWI computing centre where a geodata infrastructure has been implemented comprising of ArcGIS for Server 10.4, PostgreSQL 9.2 and a browser-driven data viewer based on Leaflet (http://leafletjs.com). Independently, we will provide an `Access - Restricted Data Dissemination Service', which will be available to registered users for testing frequently updated versions of project datasets. PerSys will become a core project of the Arctic Permafrost Geospatial Centre (APGC) within the ERC-funded PETA-CARB project (www.awi.de/petacarb). The APGC Data Catalogue will contain all final products of GlobPermafrost, allow in-depth dataset search via keywords, spatial and temporal coverage, data type, etc., and will provide DOI-based links to the datasets archived in the

  4. PACA_Rosetta67P: Global Amateur Observing Support for ESA/Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Alexander, Claudia; Morales, Efrain; Feliciano-Rivera, Christiana

    2015-11-01

    The PACA (Professional - Amateur Collaborative Astronomy) Project is an ecosystem of several social media platforms (Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, Flickr, Vimeo) that takes advantage of the global and immediate connectivity amongst amateur astronomers worldwide, that can be galvanized to participate in a given observing campaign. The PACA Project has participated in organized campaigns such as Comet Observing Campaign (CIOC_ISON) in 2013 and Comet Siding Spring (CIOC_SidingSpring)in 2014. Currently the PACA Project is supporting ESA/Rosetta mission with ground-based observations of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) through its perihelion in August 2015 and beyond; providing baseline observations of magnitude and evolution from locations around the globe. Comet 67P/CG will reach its brightest post-perihelion and pass closest to Earth in November 2015. We will present the various benefits of our professional - amateur collaboration: developing and building a core astronomer community; defining an observing campaign from basic information of the comet from its previous apparitions; coordinating with professionals and the mission to acquire observations, albeit low-resolution, but on a long timeline; while addressing the creation of several science products such as the variation of its magnitude over time and the changing morphology. We will present some of our results to date and compare with observations from professionals and previous apparations of the comet. We shall also highlight the challenges faced in building a successful collaborative partnership between the professional and amateur observers and their resolution. With the popularity of mobile platforms and instant connections with peers globally, the multi-faceted social universe has become a vital part of engagement of multiple communities for collaborative scientific partnerships and outreach. We shall also highlight other cometary observing campaigns that The PACA Project has initiated to evolve

  5. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  6. Chandra Contributes to ESA's Integral Detection of Closest Gamma-Ray Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, and also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs should emit similar amounts of gamma-ray energy. The fraction of it detected at Earth should then depend on the 'width' (opening angle) and orientation of the beam as well as on the distance. The energy received should be larger when the beam is narrow or points towards us and smaller when the beam is broad or points away from us. New data collected with ESA's high energy observatories, Integral and XMM-Newton, now show that this picture is not so clear-cut and that the amount of energy emitted by GRBs can vary significantly. "The idea that all GRBs spit out the same amount of gamma rays, or that they are 'standard candles' as we call them, is simply ruled out by the new data," said Dr Sergey Sazonov, from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia) and the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching near Munich (Germany). Sazonov and an international team of researchers studied the GRB detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 and given the code-name of GRB 031203. Within a record 18 seconds of the burst, the Integral Burst Alert System

  7. Outsourcing the development of specific application software using the ESA software engineering standards the SPS software Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, B

    1995-01-01

    CERN is considering outsourcing as a solution to the reduction of staff. To need to re-engineer the SPS Software Interlock System provided an opportunity to explore the applicability of outsourcing to our specific controls environment and the ESA PSS-05 standards were selected for the requirements specification, the development, the control and monitoring and the project management. The software produced by the contractor is now fully operational. After outlining the scope and the complexity of the project, a discussion on the ESA PSS-05 will be presented: the choice, the way these standards improve the outsourcing process, the quality induced but also the need to adapt them and their limitation in the definition of the customer-supplier relationship. The success factors and the difficulties of development under contract will also be discussed. The maintenance aspect and the impact on in-house developments will finally be addressed.

  8. Post-Decadal White Paper: A Dual-Satellite Dark-Energy/Microlensing NASA-ESA Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A confluence of scientific, financial, and political factors imply that launching two simpler, more narrowly defined dark-energy/microlensing satellites will lead to faster, cheaper, better (and more secure) science than the present EUCLID and WFIRST designs. The two satellites, one led by ESA and the other by NASA, would be explicitly designed to perform complementary functions of a single, dual-satellite dark-energy/microlensing ``mission''. One would be a purely optical wide-field camera, with large format and small pixels, optimized for weak-lensing, which because of its simple design, could be launched by ESA on relatively short timescales. The second would be a purely infrared satellite with marginally-sampled or under-sampled pixels, launched by NASA. Because of budget constraints, this would be launched several years later. The two would complement one another in 3 dark energy experiments (weak lensing, baryon oscillations, supernovae) and also in microlensing planet searches. Signed international agr...

  9. The Sodankylä in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jaakko; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Smolander, Tuomo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Bircher, Simone; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade there has been considerable development in remote sensing techniques relating to soil moisture retrievals over large areas. Within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) a new soil moisture product has been generated, merging different satellite-based surface soil moisture based products. Such remotely sensed data need to be validated by means of in situ observations in different climatic regions. In that context, a comprehensive, distributed network of in situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture, as well as soil temperature, has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network forms a calibration and validation (CAL-VAL) reference site and is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. In this paper we present the Sodankylä CAL-VAL reference site soil moisture observation network, its instrumentation as well as its areal representativeness over the study area and the region in general as a whole. As an example of data utilization, comparisons of spatially weighted average top-layer soil moisture observations between the years 2012 and 2014 against ESA CCI soil moisture data product estimates are presented and discussed. The comparisons were made against a single ESA CCI data product pixel encapsulating most of the Sodankylä CAL-VAL network sites. Comparisons are made with daily averaged and running weekly averaged soil moisture data as well as through application of an exponential soil moisture filter. The overall achieved correlation between the ESA CCI data product and in situ observations varies considerably (from 0.479 to 0.637) depending on the applied comparison perspective. Similarly, depending on the comparison perspective used, inter-annual correlation comparison results exhibit even more pronounced variation, ranging from 0.166 to 0.840.

  10. Status and Progress in the Space Surveillance and Tracking Segment of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    launching States or Organisations. One of the most predominant international recommendations related to space debris mitigation are the guidelines of...the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC)6. In this regard, a direct consequence of this request is the necessity to cover all man...Document ESA internal document, SSA-SST-RS-CRD-1001, November 2009. 5 H. Krag, H. Klinkrad , T. Flohrer, E. Fletcher and N. Bobrinsky, The European space

  11. The Impact of ESA Elements on Motivation of EFL Learners to Speak: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a best course of action to boost English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners’ motivation to speak has been a controversial issue among EFL instructors. The present study aims to investigate the probable impact of Harmer’s ESA (Engagement, Study, and Activate elements implementation on motivation of EFL learners to speak. To meet this objective, first, the pre-treatment questionnaire was delivered to 15 EFL learners at the beginning of the term to measure ‘input motivation’. After collecting information from the pre-treatment questionnaire, the students were taught for nearly two months by applying ESA elements, and then the post-treatment questionnaire was given to the same students to gather information of students’ motivation changes, students’ attitudes towards techniques and activities applied by teachers and their preferences. Additionally, to triangulate the results, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was run to see if there is any relationship between the learners’ speaking performance and their motivation to speak. In sum, the results of the questionnaires and correlation analysis proved that the treatment of the learners via ESA approach was quite influential in boosting EFL learners’ motivation to speak. It is expected that the findings of the study may significantly contribute to work of EFL teachers, EFL learners, policy makers, supervisors and researchers.

  12. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  13. ESA DUE GlobTemperature project: Infrared-based LST Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermida, Sofia; Pires, Ana; Ghent, Darren; Trigo, Isabel; DaCamara, Carlos; Remedios, John

    2016-04-01

    One of the purposes of the GlobTemperature project is to provide a product of global Land Surface Temperature (LST) based on Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth polar Orbit (LEO) satellite data. The objective is to use existing LST products, which are obtained from different sensors/platforms, combining them into a harmonized product for a reference view angle. In a first approach, only infra-red based retrievals are considered, and LEO LSTs will be used as a common denominator among geostationary sensors. LST data is provided by a wide range of sensors to optimize spatial coverage, namely: (i) 2 LEO sensors - the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) series of instruments on-board ESA's Envisat, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board NASA's TERRA and AQUA; and (ii) 3 GEO sensors - the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), the Japanese Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on-board the Japanese Meteorological Association (JMA) Multifunction Transport SATellite (MTSAT-2), and NASA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The merged LST product is generated in two steps: 1) calibration between each LEO and each GEO that consists in the removal of systematic differences (associated to sensor type and LST algorithms, including calibration, atmospheric and surface emissivity corrections, amongst others) represented by linear regressions; 2) angular correction that consists in bringing all LST data to reference (nadir) view. Angular effects on LST are estimated by means of a kernel model of the surface thermal emission, which describes the angular dependence of LST as function of viewing and illumination geometry. The model is adjusted to MODIS and SEVIRI/MSG LST estimates and validated against LST retrievals from those sensors obtained for other years (not used in the calibration). It is shown that the model leads to a reduction of LST

  14. Status of the Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA) for ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Hauke; Luedicke, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA) is one of the instruments selected for ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). A fundamental goal of any exploratory space mission is to characterize and measure the shape, topography, and rotation of the target bodies. A state of the art tool for this task is laser altimetry because it can provide absolute topographic height and position with respect to a body centered reference system. With respect to Ganymede, the GALA instrument aims at mapping of global, regional and local topography; confirming the global subsurface ocean and further characterization of the water-ice/liquid shell by monitoring the dynamic response of the ice shell to tidal forces; providing constraints on the forced physical librations and spin-axis obliquity; determining Ganymede's shape; obtaining detailed topographic profiles across the linear features of grooved terrain, impact structures, possible cryo-volcanic features and other different surface units; providing information about slope, roughness and albedo (at 1064nm) of Ganymede's surface. After several flyby's (Ganymede, Europa, Callisto) it is scheduled that the JUICE orbiter will enter first into an elliptical orbit (200 km x 10.000 km) for around 150 days and then into a circular orbit (500 km) around Ganymede for 130 days. Accordingly to the different orbits and trajectories, distances to the moons respectively, the spot size of the GALA laser varies between 21 m and 140 m. GALA uses the direct-detection (classical) approach of laser altimetry. Laser pulses are emitted at a wavelength of 1064 nm by using an actively Q-switched Nd:Yag laser. The pulse energy and pulse repetition frequency are 17 mJ at 30 Hz (nominal), respectively. For targeted observations and flybys the frequency can be switched to 50 Hz. The emission time of each pulse is measured by the detector. The beam is reflected from the surface and received at a 25 cm diameter telescope. The returning laser pulse is refocused onto

  15. The ESA SMOS+SOS Project: Oceanography using SMOS for innovative air-sea exchange studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Martin, Matthew; Ash, Ellis; Reverdin, Gilles; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    We report on the work plan of the SMOS+Surface Ocean Salinity and Synergy (SMOS+SOS) project. SMOS+SOS is funded through the Support to Science Element (STSE) component of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Observation Envelope Programme. The SMOS+SOS consortium consists of four organisations namely the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the LOCEAN/IFREMER/CATDS research team (France), the Met Office (UK) and Satellite Oceanographic Consultants Ltd (UK). The end of the SMOS+SOS project will be marked by a final open workshop most likely hosted by the UK Met Office in September/October 2014. The project is concerned with demonstrating the performance and scientific value of SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) products through a number of well-defined case studies. The case studies include: Amazon/Orinoco plumes (freshwater outflow); Agulhas and Gulf Stream (strong water mass boundary); Tropical Pacific/Atlantic (strong precipitation regime); sub-tropical North Atlantic (ie SPURS; strong evaporative regime); and Equatorial Pacific (equatorial upwelling). With SMOS measuring the SSS in the top cm of the ocean, validating SMOS against in situ salinity data taken typically at a few meters depth introduces assumptions about the vertical structure of salinity in the upper ocean. To address these issues, the project will examine and quantify discrepancies between SMOS and in situ surface salinity data at various depths in different regions characterised by strong precipitation or evaporation regimes. Equally, data editing and spatio-temporal averaging play a central role in determining the quality, errors and correlations in SMOS SSS data. The project will explore various processing and spatio-temporal averaging choices to define the SMOS SSS products that best address the needs of the oceanographic and data assimilation user community. One key aspect of this project is to determine how one can achieve useful accuracy/uncertainty in SSS without jeopardising SMOS's ability

  16. 柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法测定水中呋喃丹和甲萘威%HPLC Determination of Carbofuran and Carbaryl in Water with Post-Colunm Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健明; 莫婉湫; 陈明

    2011-01-01

    提出了测定水中呋喃丹和甲萘威的柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法。水样经盐酸酸化至pH 3后,用0.45μm水性滤膜过滤,取200μL水样直接进样,用Waters Carbamate Analysis分析柱(3.9 mm×150 mm,5μm)和以甲醇-乙腈-水(1+1+3)混合液作为流动相进行分离。分离后用2 g·L-1氢氧化钠溶液进行水解,用每升中含邻苯二甲醛0.1 g、十水硼酸钠19.1 g及2-巯基乙醇0.5 mL的溶液进行衍生化,用荧光检测器在激发波长(λex)为339 nm,发射波长(λem)为445 nm处检测。方法检出限(3S/N)均为4×10-4mg·L-1。应用此方法测定了水厂出厂水和河水中呋喃丹和甲萘威,并用标准加入法做回收试验,测得其平均回收率依次为93.0%~98.0%之间和93.0%~99.4%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)小于0.50%。%HPLC was applied to the determination of the insecticides carbofuran and carbaryl in water with post-derivatization. The water sample was adjusted to pH 3 with HC1 and filtered with hydrophilic filtering membrane of 0. 45 μm. 200 μL of the filtrate was taken for HPLC analysis. Waters Carbamate Analysis column (3. 9 mm× 150 mm, 5 μm) and mobile phase of a mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-H2O (1 + 1+3) were used in the separation. The eluate was hydrolyzed with 2 g ? L-1 NaOH solution and derivatized with a solution containing 0. 1 g phthaldehyde. 19. 1 g of sodium borate (10 hydrate) and 0. 5 mL of 2 mercaptoethanol per liter of the solution. Fluorescence detection was made at λex 339 nm and λem 445 nm. Detection limits (3S/N) found were same as 4× 10-4mg ? L-1 for both the insecticides. Samples of tap water and river water were analyzed by the proposed method and recovery was tested by addition of standards, values of recovery found were in the ranges of 93. 0% - 98. 0% (for carbofuran) and 93. 0%-99. 4% (for carbaryl) with values of RSD's (n=6) less than 0. 50%.

  17. The design of Janus, the visible camera for the ESA JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Schmitz, Nicole; Castro, José Maria; Leese, Mark; Debei, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio; Michalik, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. During the whole operational phase, JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) will acquire panchromatic and narrow-band images in the visible - NIR range of many targets within the Jovian system: the Galilean satellites surfaces and exospheres, Jupiter atmosphere, minor and irregular satellites, the ring system. After a long trade-off between different design solutions, based on performance requirements, mission design and constraints, the present JANUS design has been based on the following architectural choices detailed below. A catoptric telescope with excellent optical quality is coupled with a framing CMOS detector, avoiding any scan-ning mechanism or operational requirement on the S/C. The three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) off-axis design with F#=4.67 allows an MTF between 62% and 72% at Nyquist, with good straylight rejection. The detector is the CIS115 from e2v; it is a CMOS with a squared 7 micron pixel pitch and image format of 2000x1504. It performs a high readout rate of up to 40 Mpixel/s, high quantum efficiency and low readout noise and dark signal. Fine tuning of instrument parameters allows to perform both high resolution targeted observations and lower resolution global coverage of targets, as required to meet science objectives. The IFoV (Fieldo of View per pixel) is 15 microrad, al-lowing sampling of 7.5 m/pixel from 500 km and 15 km/pixel from 10E6 km, while the FoV is 1.72x1.29 deg. The acquisition parameters allow to cope with the many different observation requirements and conditions that JANUS will face. Design of the two electronics units (a proximity electronics controlling the detector and a main electronics controlling the instrument and the interfaces with

  18. Earth Observation in aid of surge monitoring and forecasting: ESA's eSurge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Phillip; Cipollini, Paolo; Snaith, Helen; Høyer, Jacob; Dwyer, Ned; Dunne, Declan; Stoffelen, Ad; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    The understanding and realistic modelling of surges supports both preparation and mitigation activities and should eventually bring enormous societal benefits, especially to some of the world's poorest countries. Earth Observation data from satellites have an important role to play in storm surge monitoring and forecasting, but the full uptake of these data by the users (such as environmental agencies and tidal prediction centres) must be first encouraged by showcasing their usefulness, and then supported by providing easy access. The European Space Agency has recognized the above needs and, through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, has initiated in 2011 the eSurge project, whose aims are: a) to contribute through Earth Observation to an integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting as part of a wider optimal strategy for building an improved forecast and warning capability for coastal inundation; and b) to increase the use of the advanced capabilities of ESA and other satellite data for storm surge applications. The project is led by Logica UK, with NOC (UK), DMI (Denmark), CMRC (Ireland) and KNMI (Netherlands) as scientific partners. eSurge aims to provide easy access to a wide range of relevant data for a range of historical surge events, as well as performing a series of experiments to demonstrate the value of this data, and running workshops and training courses to help users make use of the available data. The eSurge database of Earth Observation and in situ measurements for past surge events is now publicly available. In 2013 the project moves into its service demonstration phase, adding more data and events, including a demonstration near real time service. The project works closely with its users in order to meet their needs and to maximise the return of this data. A novel dataset provided by eSurge is coastal altimetry. Coastal altimetry has a prominent role to play as it measures directly the total water level envelope

  19. ESA Data User Element PERMAFROST: a spaceborne permafrost monitoring and information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Heim, B.; Boike, J.; Elger, K.; Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Westermann, S.; Sobiech, J.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost is a subsurface phenomenon whose ground thermal regime is mainly influenced by air temperature, land cover, soil and rock properties and snow parameters. Many spaceborne applications are potentially indicative for the thermal state of Permafrost, such as ‘land surface temperature’, ‘surface moisture’, ‘freeze/thaw’, ‘terrain’, ‘vegetation’ and ‘changes of surface waters’. The major task of the ESA Data User Element Permafrost project is to develop circumarctic/-boreal Earth Observation services of these parameters with extensive involvement of the permafrost research community The DUE PERMAFROST datasets will be processed in the EO-PERMAFROST Information System and provided via a WebGIS-interface. Further information is available at www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/ permafrost. In order to set up the required validation tasks and information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Most of the foreseen DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing applications are well established and can optimally become operational. The goal of DUE PERMAFROST is to lend confidence in their scientific utility for high-latitude permafrost landscapes. Therefore, a major component is the evaluation of the DUE PERMAFROST products. Ground measurements in the high-latitude landscapes involve challenging logistics and are networked on multidisciplinary and circum-arctic level by the Permafrost community. The International Permafrost Association (IPA) has built up the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) that is a network of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) projects. A major part of the DUE PERMAFROST core User group is contributing to GTN-P. Additional members of these programs and circum-arctic networks have also been involved in the consulting process and ground data providing process. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and

  20. The ESA WACMOS-ET project: advancing in the production of evapotranspiration from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water and energy cycles. It is highly variable in both space and time, across climates and ecosystems, and difficult to estimate as it does not produce either absorption or emission of electromagnetic signals, which precludes a direct estimation from remote sensing techniques. Therefore global observations related to atmospheric and surface parameters have to be combined with an interpretive model to derive an observational ET product at the global scale. Recent comparisons of satellite-based ET products (e.g., within the LandFlux initiative of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment, GEWEX) have been very useful in providing a first measure of product differences, but not very conclusive in terms of understanding the sources of uncertainty. To further advance in this direction a systematic ET inter-comparison is needed whereby the different ET algorithms are run using (to the greatest possible extent) the same driving data and model protocols. In response to this need, ESA has initiated the WACMOS-ET project, a follow on of the first WACMOS project. While the first WACMOS addressed several components of the water and energy cycle, WACMOS- ET focuses on ET production by different methodologies, and it is aimed at advancing towards the development of ET estimates at global and regional scales. The main objectives are to develop a Reference Input Data Set (RIDS) to derive and validate ET estimates, and to perform a cross-comparison, error characterization, and validation exercise of a group of selected ET algorithms driven by the RIDS. Compared with previous efforts primarily based on combining off-the-shelf input products, the preparation of the RIDS with a large degree of internal consistency is considered essential to (1) evaluate the skill of present algorithms in producing ET, (2) facilitate the attribution of the observed differences to model and driving data limitations, and (3) set up a solid

  1. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on the ESA Envisat satellite produced by UPA (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Launched in March 2002 by the European Space Agency (ESA), Envisat is the largest Earth Observation spacecraft ever built. It carries ten sophisticated optical and...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on the ESA Envisat satellite produced by EUR (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Launched in March 2002 by the European Space Agency (ESA), Envisat is the largest Earth Observation spacecraft ever built. It carries ten sophisticated optical and...

  4. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (155'000 SAR passes and 41'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing according to their specific requirements by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing, which can be lengthy due to the required intense number-crunching inherent to SAR processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the awarded development contracts by confronting the deliverables to ESA's prototype, is now made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for on-site demonstrations/training in

  5. Farewell to a legendary mission : ESA to hand over the IUE archive to the world scientific community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The IUE Archive, storing two decades of ultraviolet astronomy, has become a historical reference. It contains more than 110 000 spectra from observations that in most cases cannot be repeated, and is an excellent source for studying variable phenomena. The long time-lapse covered and the stability of the instrument have enabled astronomers to witness events they never thought they would, such as the metamorphosis of a very old star into a beautiful planetary nebula: a hot central star surrounded by glowing gas and dust. The IUE archive was the first astronomical archive accessible online -- back in 1985, when the World Wide Web did not even exist-- and has been a key catalyst for science: it has triggered the publication of 3 600 articles in refereed journals so far, and a whole generation of astrophysicists have used IUE data at some stage. During IUE's lifetime the archive was managed by ESA, from the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station near Madrid (Spain). But not any longer. The IUE archive will now belong to the world scientific community. ESA has created INES (IUE Newly Extracted Spectra), a distribution system that allows IUE data to be accessed faster and more easily from non-ESA national hosts throughout the world, managed entirely by local experts. INES maintenance costs are minimal, and the system is designed for ready incorporation of whatever innovations might come in the future. "The INES system and its data guarantee that future generations of astronomers will be able to use IUE data as much as they want, regardless of whether they know about the technicalities of the mission or whether there is an improvement in archive technology. And the distributed structure is better adapted to changes in user needs than a single archive centre", says Antonio Talavera from the Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics (LAEFF), based at Villafranca. "ESA has created INES using a minimalist engineering approach for the world scientific community

  6. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this presentation is to feature the G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 and Sentniel-3 data, which was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (210'000 SAR passes and 120'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the multi-mission Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing, according to their specific requirements, by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the development contracts awarded by confronting the deliverables to ESA's computations, has been made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for hands-on demonstrations/training in

  7. Technology Transfer from Particle Physics and Space Research ­ CERN-ESA Stand at Hannover Messe 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In April 2014, for the first time, CERN and ESA took part together to the Hannover Messe, one of the world`s largest industrial fairs (170000 visitors). The stand was organized by the Technology Transfer Offices of the two Organizations as a first visible implementation of a bilateral collaboration agreement recently signed. Several spin-off companies from both Organizations could promote their products on the stand and some very high potential impact technologies were showcased (including for instance the advanced composite materials under development in the frame of EuCARD-2).

  8. Cluster and SOHO - A joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rudolf; Domingo, Vicente; Shawhan, Stanley D.; Bohlin, David

    1988-01-01

    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed.

  9. Recent Advances in Antenna Measurement Techniques at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav; Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports recent antenna measurement projects and research at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility at the Technical University of Denmark. High-accuracy measurement projects for the SMOS, SENTINEL-1, and BIOMASS missions of the European Space Agency were driven...... by uncertainty requirements of a few hundredths of dB for the directivity and correspondingly strong requirements for gain and/or phase. Research and development of 1:3 bandwidth range probes, and the near-field to far-field transformation algorithm accounting for the higher-order azimuthal modes...

  10. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  11. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  12. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  13. Development and characterization of a human antibody reference panel against erythropoietin suitable for the standardization of ESA immunogenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Daniel T; Barger, Troy E; King, Chadwick; Grauer, Stephanie; Haldankar, Raj; Hsu, Eric; Wu, Michelle Min; Shiwalkar, Mukta; Sanchez, Sergio; Kuck, Andrew; Civoli, Francesca; Sun, Jilin; Swanson, Steven J

    2012-08-31

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has been used therapeutically for more than two decades in the treatment of anemia. Although EPO is generally well tolerated, in rare cases, patients have developed anti-EPO antibodies that can negatively impact safety and efficacy. Therefore, the detection of antibodies against EPO is a regulatory requirement during clinical development and post-approval. Although it is a rare phenomenon, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a serious complication than can result from antibodies that develop and neutralize EPO as well as endogenous erythropoietin. Currently, there are no universally accepted analytical methods to detect the full repertoire of binding and neutralizing anti-EPO antibodies. A number of different methods that differ in terms of antibodies detected and assay sensitivities are used by different manufacturers. There is also a lack of antibody reference reagents, and therefore no consistent basis for detecting and measuring anti-EPO antibodies. Reference reagents, with established ranges, are essential to monitor the safety and efficacy of all erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) structurally related to human erythropoietin. This is the first report of the development and characterization of a panel of fully human antibodies against EPO suitable as reference reagents. The characteristics of antibodies within the panel were selected based on the prevalence of non-neutralizing IgG and IgM antibodies in non-PRCA patients and neutralizing IgG antibodies, including IgG1 and IgG4, in antibody-mediated PRCA subjects. The reference panel includes antibodies of high- and low-affinity with binding specificity to neutralizing and non-neutralizing erythropoietin epitopes. The subclass of human antibodies in this reference panel includes an IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4, as well as an IgM isotype. This antibody panel could help select appropriate immunogenicity assays, guide validation, and monitor assay performance

  14. Athena: ESA's X-ray observatory to study the Hot and Energetic Universe in the late 2020s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcons, X.

    2016-06-01

    Athena (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) is the X-ray observatory mission selected by ESA to address the Hot and Energetic Universe theme, due for launch in 2028. In this presentation, on behalf of the Athena Science Study Team (ASST), I will provide an overview of the Athena science objectives, developed thanks to the support of a large community and describe the Athena mission concept and its instruments. I will also report on a number of on-going study activities, including those aiming at placing Athena in the broad astrophysical context of the late 2020s.

  15. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  16. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    At 1.25 billion km from Earth, after a 7-year journey through the Solar system, ESA’s Huygens probe is about to separate from the Cassini orbiter to enter a ballistic trajectory toward Titan, the largest and most mysterious moon of Saturn, in order to dive into its atmosphere on 14 January. This will be the first man-made object to explore in-situ this unique environment, whose chemistry is assumed to be very similar to that of the early Earth just before life began, 3.8 billion years ago. The Cassini-Huygens pair, a joint mission conducted by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), was launched into space on 15 October 1997. With the help of several gravity assist manoeuvres during flybys of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it took almost 7 years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. The Cassini orbiter, carrying Huygens on its flank, entered an orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004, and began to investigate the ringed planet and its moons for a mission that will last at least four years. The first distant flyby of Titan took place on 2-3 July 2004. It provided data on Titan's atmosphere which were confirmed by the data obtained during the first close flyby on 26 October 2004 at an altitude of 1174 km. These data were used to validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. A second close flyby of Titan by Cassini-Huygens at an altitude of 1200 km is scheduled on 13 December and will provide additional data to further validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. On 17 December the orbiter will be placed on a controlled collision course with Titan in order to release Huygens on the proper trajectory, and on 21 December (some dates and times are subject to minor adjustment for operational reasons, except the entry time on 14 January which is know to within an accuracy of under 2 minutes) all systems will be set up for separation and the Huygens timers will be set to wake the probe a few hours before its arrival at Titan. The Huygens probe is due to separate on

  17. Design concepts and options for the Thermal Infrared Imager (TIRI) as part of ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Licandro, Javier; Reyes, Marcos; Delbo, Marco; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Arnold, Jessica; Howe, Chris

    2016-04-01

    ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is being studied as part of the joint ESA/NASA AIDA mission for launch in 2020. AIDA's primary mission is to investigate the effect of a kinetic impactor on the secondary component of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos in late 2022. AIM will characterise the Didymos system and monitor the response of the binary system to the impact. A multi-spectral, thermal-infrared imaging instrument (TIRI) will be an essential component of AIM's remote sensing payload, as it will provide key information on the nature of the surfaces (e.g. presence or absence of materials, degree of compaction, and rock abundance of the regolith) of both components in the Didymos system. The temperature maps provided by TIRI will be important for navigation and spacecraft health and safety for proximity/lander operations. By measuring the asteroids' diurnal thermal responses (thermal inertia) and their surface compositions via spectral signatures, TIRI will provide information on the origin and evolution of the binary system. In this presentation we will discuss possible instrument design for TIRI, exploring options that include imaging spectroscopy to broadband imaging. By using thermal models and compositional analogues of the Didymos system we will show how the performance of each design option compares to the wider scientific goals of the AIDA/AIM mission.

  18. Additional spectra of asteroid 1996 FG3, backup target of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, J; Ali-Lagoa, V; Licandro, J; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Campins, H

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is the current backup target of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission, selected for the study phase of ESA M3 missions. It is a primitive (C-type) asteroid that shows significant variation in its visible and near-infrared spectra. Here we present new spectra of 1996 FG3 and we compare our new data with other published spectra, analysing the variation in the spectral slope. The asteroid will not be observable again over the next three years at least. We obtained the spectra using DOLORES and NICS instruments at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), a 3.6m telescope located at El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma, Spain. To compare with other published spectra of the asteroid, we computed the spectral slope S', and studied any plausible correlation of this quantity with the phase angle (alpha). In the case of visible spectra, we find a variation in spectral slope of Delta S' = 0.15 +- 0.10 %/10^3 A/degree for 3 < alpha < 18 degrees, in good agreement with ...

  19. Overview on calibration and validation activities and first results for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bouzinac, Catherine; Delwart, Steven; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characteri-sation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verifica-tion, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites and will be repeated, in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES, in spring 2010. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation

  20. High dose ESAs are associated with high iPTH levels in hemodialysis patients with end-stage kidney disease: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan eChen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are the two most common complications associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs are widely used in the management of anemia in hemodialysis patients. A reverse correlation has been established between hyperparathyroidism and hemoglobin levels. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the relationship of high dose ESAs and hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients with anemia. Methods: A total of 240 uremic patients maintained on regular hemodialysis were enrolled into this study. Among them, 142 patients were treated with Epiao® (epoetin-alfa and 98 patients were treated with Recormon® (epoetin-beta. The target hemoglobin concentration was 110-130 g/L. Laboratory measurements including hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, intact-parathyroid hormone (iPTH, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were collected. Results: Hemoglobin concentration increased as iPTH level decreased by stratification. However, no significant association between anemia and calcium or phosphorus level was found. Patients with iPTH levels within 150-300 pg/mL had the highest levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Patients treated with Recormon and Epiao had similar hemoglobin concentrations. However, the dose of Recormon for anemia treatment was significantly less than that the dose of Epiao (P<0.05. The level of iPTH in the Recormon group was significantly lower than in the Epiao group. In patients with hemoglobin levels between 110-130 g/L (P<0.05, iPTH level was found to be significantly lower in patients treated with lower doses of ESAs than in patients treated with higher doses of ESAs, no matter which ESA was used (Recormon or Epiao, P<0.05. Conclusions: The dose of ESAs might be positively associated with iPTH level, suggesting that a reasonable hemoglobin target can be achieved by using the lowest possible ESA dose.

  1. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  2. Upgrade of the ESA DRAMA OSCAR Tool: Analysis of Disposal Strategies Considering Current Standards for Future Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V.; Sanchez-Ortiz, N.; Gelhaus, J.; Kebschull, C.; Flegel, S.; Mockel, M.; Wiedemann, C.; Krag, H.; Vorsmann, P.

    2013-08-01

    In 2008 the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 62/217, endorsing the space debris mitigation guidelines (SDMG) of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS). These guidelines contain recommendations for satellite operators to implement measures for various mission phases in order to reduce the further accumulation of space debris in space and especially within the protected regions. These are defined within the SDMG as being the LEO region (up to 2,000 km altitude) and the GEO region (∼200 km in altitude around the GEO altitude and ∼15 degrees latitude). In the first version of ESA's DRAMA tool suite, OSCAR (Orbital SpaceCraft Active Removal) was designed as a tool to allow users the analysis of different disposal stragies for spacecraft in the LEO and GEO region. The upgrade of the ESA DRAMA tool suite by TUBS and DEIMOS under ESA/ESOC contract included the development of a renewed version of the existing OSCAR tool, allowing in its current version the consideration of different future solar and geomagnetic activity scenarios and besides the already known disposal systems (chemical and electric propulsion, as well as electrodynamic tether) the analysis of the orbital evolution using drag augmentation devices. One of the primary goals was to implement techniques recommended by current standards. The recommendations from the SDMG were used for the definition of the critical regions as well as compliance criteria, the user may check his disposal strategy against. For satellites operating in GEO, the ISO 26872:2010 (Space Systems - Disposal of satellites operating at geosynchronous altitude) standard was accounted for. For the generation of future solar and geomagnetic activity, the standards ISO 27852:2011 (Space Systems -Estimation of orbit lifetime) and the ECSS-E-ST-10-04C (Space engineering - Space environment) have been considered and recommended modeling approaches were implemented. In this paper, the OSCAR tool is presented, giving

  3. Geophysical validation of temperature retrieved by the ESA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT atmospheric limb-emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS has been operating since March 2002 onboard of the ENVIronmental SATellite of the European Space Agency (ESA. The high resolution (0.035 cm−1 full width half maximum, unapodized limb-emission measurements acquired by MIPAS in the first two years of operation have very good geographical and temporal coverage and have been re-processed by ESA with the most recent versions (4.61 and 4.62 of the inversion algorithms. The products of this processing chain are pressures at the tangent points and geolocated profiles of temperature and of the volume mixing ratios of six key atmospheric constituents: H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O and NO2. As for all the measurements made with innovative instruments and techniques, this data set requires a thorough validation. In this paper we present a geophysical validation of the temperature profiles derived from MIPAS measurements by the ESA retrieval algorithm. The validation is carried-out by comparing MIPAS temperature with correlative measurements made by radiosondes, lidars, in-situ and remote sensors operated either from the ground or stratospheric balloons.

    The results of the intercomparison indicate that the bias of the MIPAS profiles is generally smaller than 1 or 2 K depending on altitude. Furthermore we find that, especially at the edges of the altitude range covered by the MIPAS scan, the random error estimated from the intercomparison is larger (typically by a factor of two to three than the corresponding estimate derived on the basis of error propagation.

    In this work we also characterize the discrepancies between MIPAS temperature and the temperature fields resulting from the analyses of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The bias and the standard deviation of these discrepancies are consistent with those obtained when

  4. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARIN Level-2 geophysical data products.. The Processor will make use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products. These output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and other NetCDF tool. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARIN FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development experiments, to support the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training in training courses and workshops, cross-comparison against third party products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation for the Sentinel-3 Topographic mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal

  5. Geophysical validation of temperature retrieved by the ESA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT atmospheric limb-emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS has been operating since March 2002 onboard of the ENVIronmental SATellite of the European Space Agency (ESA. The high resolution (0.035 cm−1 limb-emission measurements acquired by MIPAS in the first two years of operation have very good geographical and temporal coverage and have been re-processed by ESA with the most recent versions (4.61 and 4.62 of the inversion algorithms. The products of this processing chain are geolocated profiles of temperature and of the volume mixing ratios of six key atmospheric constituents: H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O and NO2. As for all the measurements made with innovative instruments and techniques, this data set requires a thorough validation. In this paper we present a geophysical validation of the temperature profiles derived from MIPAS measurements by the ESA retrieval algorithm. The validation is carried-out by comparing MIPAS temperature with correlative measurements made by radiosondes, lidars, in-situ and remote sensors operated either from the ground or stratospheric balloons.

    The results of the intercomparison indicate that the bias of the MIPAS profiles is generally smaller than 1 or 2 K depending on altitude. Furthermore we find that, especially at the edges of the altitude range covered by the MIPAS scan, the random error estimated from the intercomparison is larger (typically by a factor of two to three than the corresponding estimate derived on the basis of error propagation.

    In this work we also characterize the discrepancies between MIPAS temperature and the temperature fields resulting from the analyses of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The bias and the standard deviation of these discrepancies are consistent with those obtained when comparing MIPAS to correlative measurements; however, in this case the

  6. The Close-Up Imager Onboard the ESA ExoMars Rover: Objectives, Description, Operations, and Science Validation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Jean-Luc; Westall, Frances; Hofmann, Beda A.; Spray, John; Cockell, Charles; Kempe, Stephan; Griffiths, Andrew D.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Colangeli, Luigi; Koschny, Detlef; Föllmi, Karl; Verrecchia, Eric; Diamond, Larryn; Josset, Marie; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Esposito, Francesca; Gunn, Matthew; Souchon-Leitner, Audrey L.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Korablev, Oleg; Erkman, Suren; Paar, Gerhard; Ulamec, Stephan; Foucher, Frédéric; Martin, Philippe; Verhaeghe, Antoine; Tanevski, Mitko; Vago, Jorge L.

    2017-07-01

    The Close-Up Imager (CLUPI) onboard the ESA ExoMars Rover is a powerful high-resolution color camera specifically designed for close-up observations. Its accommodation on the movable drill allows multiple positioning. The science objectives of the instrument are geological characterization of rocks in terms of texture, structure, and color and the search for potential morphological biosignatures. We present the CLUPI science objectives, performance, and technical description, followed by a description of the instrument's planned operations strategy during the mission on Mars. CLUPI will contribute to the rover mission by surveying the geological environment, acquiring close-up images of outcrops, observing the drilling area, inspecting the top portion of the drill borehole (and deposited fines), monitoring drilling operations, and imaging samples collected by the drill. A status of the current development and planned science validation activities is also given.

  7. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  8. Molecular chirality in meteorites and interstellar ices, and the chirality experiment on board the ESA cometary Rosetta mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrgorodska, Iuliia; Meinert, Cornelia; Martins, Zita; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-01-26

    Life, as it is known to us, uses exclusively L-amino acid and D-sugar enantiomers for the molecular architecture of proteins and nucleic acids. This Minireview explores current models of the original symmetry-breaking influence that led to the exogenic delivery to Earth of prebiotic molecules with a slight enantiomeric excess. We provide a short overview of enantiomeric enhancements detected in bodies of extraterrestrial origin, such as meteorites, and interstellar ices simulated in the laboratory. Data are interpreted from different points of view, namely, photochirogenesis, parity violation in the weak nuclear interaction, and enantioenrichment through phase transitions. Photochemically induced enantiomeric imbalances are discussed more specifically in the topical context of the "chirality module" on board the cometary Rosetta spacecraft of the ESA. This device will perform the first enantioselective in situ analyses of samples taken from a cometary nucleus. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  10. Improved Oceanographic Measurements from SAR Altimetry: Results and Scientific Roadmap from ESA CryoSat Plus for Oceans Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, P. D.; Andersen, O.; Stenseng, L.; Boy, F.; Cancet, M.; Cipollini, P.; Gommenginger, C.; Dinardo, S.; Egido, A.; Fernandes, M. J.; Garcia, P. N.; Moreau, T.; Naeije, M.; Scharroo, R.; Lucas, B.; Benveniste, J.

    2016-08-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the CryoSat mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the CryoSat SIRAL altimeter also presents significant potential benefits for ocean applications including improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution.The "Cryosat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of Cryosat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O project were: To build a sound scientific basis for new oceanographic applications of Cryosat-2 data; to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised.This task was addressed within four specific themes: Open Ocean Altimetry; High Resolution Coastal Zone Altimetry; High Resolution Polar Ocean Altimetry; High Resolution Sea-Floor Bathymetry, with further work in developing improved geophysical corrections. The Cryosat Plus 4 Oceans (CP4O) consortium brought together a uniquely strong team of key European experts to develop and validate new algorithms and products to enable users to fully exploit the novel capabilities of the Cryosat-2 mission for observations over ocean. The consortium was led by SatOC (UK), and included CLS (France), Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands), DTU Space (Denmark), isardSat (Spain), National Oceanography Centre (UK), Noveltis (France), Starlab (Spain) and the University of Porto (Portugal).This paper presents an overview of the major results and outlines a proposed roadmap for the further development and exploitation of these results in operational and scientific applications.

  11. Report on the decade of un/esa workshops on basic space science: the international perspective from small astronomical telescopes to the world space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, H.; Wamsteker, W.

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observational programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). Elements of the Workshops, focusing on teaching, observing programmes, and the Japanese donation programme for small astronomical telescopes are briefly summarized in the first part of this paper. A report on the recent UN/ESA Workshop on Basic Space Science, held at CONAE of Argentina in 2002, and a full report on achievements of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science for the period of time from 1991 to 2002 is contained in the second part of this paper. Since 1991, similar reports, issued for each of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science, have been brought to the attention of UN Member States on an annual basis with the objective to gain more support for the world wide development of astronomy. WWW: http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/

  12. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  13. SINBAD electronic models of the interface and control system for the NOMAD spectrometer on board of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo Zafra, José M.; Sanz Mesa, Rosario; Gómez López, Juan M.; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Aparicio del Moral, Beatriz; Morales Muñoz, Rafael; Candini, Gian Paolo; Pastor Morales, M. Carmen; Robles Muñoz, Nicolás.; López-Moreno, José Juan; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Neefs, Eddy; Drummond, Rachel; Delanoye, Sofie; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Clairquin, Roland; Ristic, Bojan; Maes, Jeroen; Bonnewijn, Sabrina; Patel, Manish R.; Leese, Mark

    2016-07-01

    NOMAD is a spectrometer suite: UV-visible-IR spectral ranges. NOMAD is part of the payload of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. SINBAD boards are in charge of the communication and management of the power and control between the spacecraft and the instrument channels. SINBAD development took four years, while the entire development and test required five years, a very short time to develop an instrument devoted to a space mission. The hardware of SINBAD is shown in the attached poster: developed boards, prototype boards and final models. The models were delivered to the ESA in order to testing and integration with the spacecraft.

  14. Development of concepts for human labour accounting in Emergy Assessment and other Environmental Sustainability Assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Human labour is central to the functioning of any human-influenced process. Nevertheless, Environmental Sustainability Assessments (ESAs) do not systematically include human labour as an input. Systematic omission of labour inputs in ESAs may constitute an unfortunate, significant bias in favour...... of labour intensive processes and a systematic underestimation of environmental impacts has implications for decision-making. A brief review of the evaluation of human labour in ESAs reveals that only Emergy Assessment (EmA) accounts for labour as standard. Focussing on EmA, we find, however...... calculation approach is demonstrated using examples from the literature (USA, with allocation based on educational level; Ghana, with allocation based on income level; the World, with no allocation). We elaborate on how labour may be considered as endogenous or exogenous to the studied system, and how inputs...

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Biosimilar, Reference Product and Other Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs Still Covered by Patent in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer Patients: An Italian Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylenia Ingrasciotta

    Full Text Available Since 2007 biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs are available on the Italian market. Very limited post-marketing data exist on the comparative effectiveness of biosimilar and originator ESAs.This population-based study was aimed to compare the effects of biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs still covered by patent on hemoglobinemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD and cancer patients in a Local Health Unit (LHU from Northern Italy.A retrospective cohort study was conducted during the years 2009-2014 using data from Treviso LHU administrative database. Incident ESA users (no ESA dispensing within 6 months prior to treatment start, i.e. index date (ID with at least one hemoglobin measurement within one month prior to ID (baseline Hb value and another measurement between 2nd and 3rd month after ID (follow-up Hb value were identified. The strength of the consumption (as total number of defined daily dose (DDD dispensed during the follow-up divided by days of follow-up and the difference between follow-up and baseline Hb values [delta Hb (ΔHb] were evaluated. Based on Hb changes, ESA users were classified as non-responders (ΔHb≤0 g/dl, responders (02 g/dl. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model to identify predictors for responsiveness to treatment was performed. All analyses were stratified by indication for use and type of dispensed ESA at ID.Overall, 1,003 incident ESA users (reference product: 252, 25.1%; other ESAs covered by patent: 303, 30.2%; biosimilars: 448, 44.7% with CKD or cancer were eligible for the study. No statistically significant difference in the amount of dose dispensed during the follow-up among biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs covered by patent was found in both CKD and cancer. After three months from treatment start, all ESAs increased Hb values on average by 2g/dl. No differences in ΔHb as well as in frequency of non-responders, responders and highly responders among

  16. 气相色谱-串联质谱法测定水中痕量有机磷农药和甲萘威%Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides and Carbaryl in Environmental Water by Gas Chromatography with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施择; 黄云; 张榆霞; 赵安楠; 金玉; 铁程

    2014-01-01

    A method of gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was estab-lished for determining organophosphorus pesticides and carbaryl in water.The experimental results showed that all the target compounds had good linear relations in the range of 20.0 μg/L~1 000 μg/L.The method limits of detection were 0.004 μg/L~0.01 μg/L.The recoveries of the target compounds ranged from 71.8% to 94.5%and the RSDs were between 3.7% ~8.5% for three concentrations of 0.02 μg/L,0.05 μg/L and 0.1 μg/L. The method could meet the requirements for determination of trace organophosphorus pesticide and carbaryl in water samples.%采用二氯甲烷萃取水样,气相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定水中有机磷农药和甲萘威。试验表明:方法在20.0μg/L ~1000μg/L范围内,各目标化合物线性良好;方法检出限为0.004μg/L~0.01μg/L;对实际水样进行3个质量浓度水平的加标回收试验,回收率在71.8%~94.5%之间,RSD为3.7%~8.5%,满足水中痕量有机磷农药和甲萘威的测定要求。

  17. 不同毒力株弓形虫速殖子排泄分泌抗原(ESA)对小鼠自然杀伤细胞(NK)作用的比较%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT VIRULENT STRAINS OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII EXCRETORY-SECRETORY ANTIGENS (ESA) ON MURINE NK CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛雯倩; 张洁; 陈金铃; 李冉; 王勇; 吴江平

    2012-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of different virulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii excretory-secretory antigens ( ESA ) on murine NK cells, 18 C57BL/6J mice were used and treated with 200 jxL different strains of T. gondii ESA ( containing ESA 0. 002 nig) or PBS, respectively. The numbers of splenic NK cells in splenocytes were measured by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity of NK cells on YAC-1 cells were detected by LDH method. The IFN-7 levels in serum were also tested by ELISA. The result showed that the numbers of NK cells in either RH ESA or PRU ESA treated groups were increased significantly compared with that of PBS control ( 3. 08 ±0. 39 )% ( P < 0. 001 ). In addition, the increasement in RH ESA treated group ( 5. 97 ±0. 26 )% was higher than that in PRU ESA treated group ( 3. 32 ± 0. 29 )% , and the difference is of statistic significance ( P < 0. 001 ). The cytotoxic effects of NK cells on YAC-1 cells in both RH ESA and PRU ESA treated groups were increased obviously compared with that of PBS control ( P < 0. 01 ). The levels of sera IFN-7 in both RH ESA and PRU ESA treated groups were increased significantly compared with that of PBS control ( P < 0. 01 ). Also, the increasement in RH ESA treated group was higher than that in PRU ESA treated group, and the difference is of statistic significance ( P < 0. 05 ). The results suggested that T. gondii ESA could activate NK cells and the efficiency of RH ESA was higher than that of PRU ESA.%为观察不同毒力株弓形虫排泄分泌抗原(Excretory-Secretory antigen,ESA)对小鼠NK细胞的作用,将18只雌性C57BL/6J小鼠随机分为3组,各组每鼠分别腹腔注射刚地弓形虫RH株ESA 200 μL(含ESA 0.002 mg),PRU株ESA 200 μL(含ESA 0.002 mg)和PBS 200 μL.于注射后6天取脾,流式细胞仪检测脾脏NK细胞的比例,并用乳酸脱氢酶(Lactate dehydrogenase,LDH )法检测各组NK细胞的杀伤活性,ELISA检测血清IFN-γ水平.结果显示,RH株ESA处理组NK细胞比例(5.97±0.26)%,PRU

  18. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  19. The E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA Euclid Dark Energy Mission: a general view after positive conclusion of the assesment phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F.M.; Cimatti, A.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Butler, R.C.; Content, R.; Corcione, L.; Rosa, A.de; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gianotti, F.; Giro, E.; Grange, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Ligori, S.; Martin, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Riva, M.; Robberto, M.; Sharples, R.; Spanó, P.; Talbot, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Wink, R.; Zamkotsian, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Euclid Near-Infrared Spectrometer (E-NIS) Instrument was conceived as the spectroscopic probe on-board the ESA Dark Energy Mission Euclid. Together with the Euclid Imaging Channel (EIC) in its Visible (VIS) and Near Infrared (NIP) declinations, NIS formed part of the Euclid Mission Concept

  20. TROPOMI on the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor: A GMES mission for global observations of the atmospheric composition for climate, air quality and ozone layer applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veefkind, J.P.; Aben, I.; McMullan, K.; Förster, H.; Vries, J. de; Otter, G.; Claas, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Haan, J.F. de; Kleipool, Q.; Weele, M. van; Hasekamp, O.; Hoogeveen, R.; Landgraf, J.; Snel, R.; Tol, P.; Ingmann, P.; Voors, R.; Kruizinga, B.; Vink, R.; Visser, H.; Levelt, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    The ESA (European Space Agency) Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5 P) is a low Earth orbit polar satellite to provide information and services on air quality, climate and the ozone layer in the timeframe 2015-2022. The S-5 P mission is part of the Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security (GMES)

  1. The E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA Euclid Dark Energy Mission: a general view after positive conclusion of the assesment phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F.M.; Cimatti, A.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Butler, R.C.; Content, R.; Corcione, L.; Rosa, A.de; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gianotti, F.; Giro, E.; Grange, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Ligori, S.; Martin, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Riva, M.; Robberto, M.; Sharples, R.; Spanó, P.; Talbot, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Wink, R.; Zamkotsian, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Euclid Near-Infrared Spectrometer (E-NIS) Instrument was conceived as the spectroscopic probe on-board the ESA Dark Energy Mission Euclid. Together with the Euclid Imaging Channel (EIC) in its Visible (VIS) and Near Infrared (NIP) declinations, NIS formed part of the Euclid Mission Concept deriv

  2. The rcsA Promoter of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii Features a Low-Level Constitutive Promoter and an EsaR Quorum-Sensing-Regulated Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Carlier, Aurelien L.; von Bodman, S B

    2006-01-01

    The upstream region of the Pantoea stewartii rcsA gene features two promoters, one for constitutive basal-level expression and a second autoregulated promoter for induced expression. The EsaR quorum-sensing repressor binds to a site centered between the two promoters, blocking transcription elongation from the regulated promoter under noninducing conditions.

  3. ESA CryoVEx 2014 - Airborne ASIRAS radar and laser scanner measurements during 2014 CryoVEx campaign in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, S. M.; Nielsen, J. E.; Sørensen, L. Sandberg;

    This report outlines the airborne field operations with the ESA airborne Ku‐band interferometric radar (ASIRAS), coincident airborne laser scanner (ALS) and vertical photography to acquire data over sea‐ and land ice along validation sites and CryoSat‐2 ground tracks. The airborne campaign was co...

  4. Rotational variation of the spectral slope of (21) Lutetia, the second asteroid target of ESA Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarin, M.; Magrin, S.; Marchi, S.; Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Barbieri, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2010-11-01

    The ESA Rosetta mission, launched in 2004 March, will flyby the second asteroid target (21) Lutetia in 2010 July. This asteroid is quite different from (2867) Steins, encountered by Rosetta in 2008 September. Lutetia is in fact a much larger asteroid, approximately 100km of diameter, as compared to the 5 km of Steins and also its surface composition seems fairly different. A wide international ground-based observational campaign has been carried out and is still going on to obtain information on the object. In this context, we observed Lutetia four times spectroscopically in the visible region totally covering its rotational period. In this paper we have compared all our observations, in order to try to shed more light on its nature. Moreover, an analysis of the geometric configuration of Lutetia during the several observations has also been performed. Our paper points out small variations of reflectance over the surface, possibly due to a large crater. However, the nature of Lutetia remains still elusive, probably because it could be a transition object between X and C taxonomic classes, pointing out to the crucial values of the forthcoming flyby to clarify the situation. Therefore, all the information we have gathered and here discussed have been very useful also to better define the observational strategy of the asteroid by Rosetta.

  5. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  6. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  7. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  8. The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV data record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coldewey-Egbers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the new GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV data record which has been created within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI. Total ozone column observations – based on the GOME-type Direct Fitting version 3 algorithm – from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY, and GOME-2 have been combined into one homogeneous time series, thereby taking advantage of the high inter-sensor consistency. The data record spans the 15-year period from March 1996 to June 2011 and it contains global monthly mean total ozone columns on a 1° × 1° grid. Geophysical ground-based validation using Brewer, Dobson, and UV-visible instruments has shown that the GTO-ECV level 3 data record is of the same high quality as the equivalent individual level 2 data products that constitute it. Both absolute agreement and long-term stability are excellent with respect to the ground-based data, for almost all latitudes apart from a few outliers which are mostly due to sampling differences between the level 2 and level 3 data. We conclude that the GTO-ECV data record is valuable for a variety of climate applications such as the long-term monitoring of the past evolution of the ozone layer, trend analysis and the evaluation of Chemistry–Climate Model simulations.

  9. Protein sequences insight into heavy metal tolerance in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 encoded by plasmid pESA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Kajsik, Michal; Forsythe, Stephen; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2015-12-01

    The recently annotated genome of the bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 suggests that the organism has the ability to bind heavy metals. This study demonstrates heavy metal tolerance in C. sakazakii, in which proteins with the heavy metal interaction were recognized by computational and experimental study. As the result, approximately one-fourth of proteins encoded on the plasmid pESA3 are proposed to have potential interaction with heavy metals. Interaction between heavy metals and predicted proteins was further corroborated using protein crystal structures from protein data bank database and comparison of metal-binding ligands. In addition, a phylogenetic study was undertaken for the toxic heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which generated relatedness clustering for lead, cadmium and arsenic. Laboratory studies confirmed the organism's tolerance to tellurite, copper and silver. These experimental and computational study data extend our understanding of the genes encoding for proteins of this important neonatal pathogen and provide further insights into the genotypes associated with features that can contribute to its persistence in the environment. The information will be of value for future environmental protection from heavy toxic metals.

  10. Electronic Subsystem Analysis (ESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    or ’ PNP type)* Figure 4.1 is a schematic of a NPN bipolar transistor fabricated’ in bulk silicon. The device consists. of an emitter, a base and a...List of Figures Title MOS Transistor Structure Figure 3.1 CMOS Transistor Structure Figure 3.2 General Processing Unit Figure 3.3...MNOS Transistor Structure Figure 3.4 Monolithic Integrated Circuit Transistor Structure Figure 4.1 1 Standard Materials Isolation Process Figure 4.2

  11. Leamos esa gran novela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rojas Herazo

    1967-04-01

    Full Text Available Es bueno leer el diccionario. No consultarlo sino leerlo. Como se lee una novela. El diccionario es la novela del idioma, el gran cuento de las palabras. - Allí está con su pasión, con su color y su sabor propios- la biografía de cada vocablo.

  12. Cross-Scale: Multi-Scale Coupling in Space Plasma, Assessment Study Report

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Steve; Fujimoto, Masaki; Hellinger, Petr; Kessel, Mona; Le, Guan; Liu, William; Louarn, Philippe; Mann, Ian; Nakamura, Rumi; Owen, Chris; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Vaivads, Andris; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the support and interest of the international space plasma community to examine simultaneous physical plasma scales and their interactions, the Cross-Scale Mission concept was submitted and accepted as an ESA Cosmic Vision M-class candidate mission. This report presents an overview of the assessment study phase of the 7 ESA spacecraft Cross-Scale mission. Where appropriate, discussion of the benefit of international collaboration with the SCOPE mission, as well as other interested parties, is included.

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Biosimilar, Reference Product and Other Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) Still Covered by Patent in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer Patients: An Italian Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ingrasciotta (Ylenia); F. Giorgianni (Francesco); I. Marcianò (Ilaria); J. Bolcato (Jenny); R. Pirolo (Roberta); A. Chinellato (Alessandro); V. Ientile (Valentina); D. Santoro (Domenico); A.A. Genazzani (Armando A.); A. Alibrandi (Angela); A. Fontana (Andrea); A.P. Caputi (Achille); G. Trifirò (Gianluca)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Since 2007 biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are available on the Italian market. Very limited post-marketing data exist on the comparative effectiveness of biosimilar and originator ESAs. Aim This population-based study was aimed to compare the effects o

  14. [How to best use ESA in dialyse patients? What are the criterions of choice? What is the role of the age, the nephropathy and the dialysis modality? What are the current recommendations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaud, Bernard; Leray-Moraguès, Hélène; Chenine, Leila; Henriet, Delphine; Formet, Cédric; Crougnaud, Valérie

    2006-09-01

    Correcting the renal anemia in dialysis patient require the optimal management of the erythropoietic stimulating agents (ESA) available on the market. In other words, that means that the prescription of these agents should be performed according to the specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of these agents. Two major classes of ESA are presently available for clinicians: one being considered as short acting substances (epoetine alfa and Epoetine Beta); the other one being considered as long acting substances (darbepoetin alfa). Several other agents are being currently evaluated or waiting for approval. For the short acting ESA, subcutaneous administration has been proved able to reduce weekly needs by 20 to 30% for the same efficacy, while the optimal frequency dosing being once and twice per week. For long acting ESA, the beneficial effect of the subcutaneous administration tend to disappear in hemodialysis patient, while the optimal frequency dosing being once a week to once every two week. These treatment schedules of prescription must be adapted according to the dialysis modality (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis) and the basal needs for ESA. The efficiency of ESA is also conditioned by the dialysis quality and efficiency, the iron repletion state, the blood losses and the presence of resistance factors. The optimal management of anemia in dialysis patient relies on an optimized dosing of ESA, a reduction of blood losses and a suppression of resistance factors to ESA action.

  15. Using a Simple Knowledge Organization System to facilitate Catalogue and Search for the ESA CCI Open Data Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antony; Bennett, Victoria; Donegan, Steve; Juckes, Martin; Kershaw, Philip; Petrie, Ruth; Stephens, Ag; Waterfall, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is a €75m programme that runs from 2009-2016, with a goal to provide stable, long-term, satellite-based essential climate variable (ECV) data products for climate modellers and researchers. As part of the CCI, ESA have funded the Open Data Portal project to establish a central repository to bring together the data from these multiple sources and make it available in a consistent way, in order to maximise its dissemination amongst the international user community. Search capabilities are a critical component to attaining this goal. To this end, the project is providing dataset-level metadata in the form of ISO 19115 records served via a standard OGC CSW interface. In addition, the Open Data Portal is re-using the search system from the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), successfully applied to support CMIP5 (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) and obs4MIPs. This uses a tightly defined controlled vocabulary of metadata terms, the DRS (The Data Reference Syntax) which encompass different aspects of the data. This system hs facilitated the construction of a powerful faceted search interface to enable users to discover data at the individual file level of granularity through ESGF's web portal frontend. The use of a consistent set of model experiments for CMIP5 allowed the definition of a uniform DRS for all model data served from ESGF. For CCI however, there are thirteen ECVs, each of which is derived from multiple sources and different science communities resulting in highly heterogeneous metadata. An analysis has been undertaken of the concepts in use, with the aim to produce a CCI DRS which could be provide a single authoritative source for cataloguing and searching the CCI data for the Open Data Portal. The use of SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) and OWL (Web Ontology Language) to represent the DRS are a natural fit and provide controlled vocabularies as well as a way to represent relationships between

  16. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    ). Other differential expression was observed for genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellum formation and nitrogen metabolism. Except genes related to oxidoreduction system, the same group of genes were found in the simulated microgravity study. Transcriptomic data were combined to LC-MS/MS proteomic data collected from the same R. rubrum samples since parallel profiling of mRNA and protein on a global scale could provide insight into metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. These results indicate that low doses of ionising radiation and changes in gravity on life-support microorganisms have observable effects and deserve specific attention in the perspective of long term space missions. The presented project was financially supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) (PRODEX agreements No C90247 and No 90094). We are grateful to C. Lasseur and C. Pailĺ, both from ESTEC/ESA, e for their constant support and advice.

  17. Lunar Net—a proposal in response to an ESA M3 call in 2010 for a medium sized mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan; Crawford, I. A.; Gowen, Robert Anthony; Ambrosi, R.; Anand, M.; Banerdt, B.; Bannister, N.; Bowles, N.; Braithwaite, C.; Brown, P.; Chela-Flores, J.; Cholinser, T.; Church, P.; Coates, A. J.; Colaprete, T.; Collins, G.; Collinson, G.; Cook, T.; Elphic, R.; Fraser, G.; Gao, Y.; Gibson, E.; Glotch, T.; Grande, M.; Griffiths, A.; Grygorczuk, J.; Gudipati, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heldmann, J.; Hood, L. L.; Jones, A. P.; Joy, K. H.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kramer, G.; Lawrence, D.; Marczewski, W.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Miljkovic, K.; Narendranath, S.; Palomba, E.; Phipps, A.; Pike, W. T.; Pullan, D.; Rask, J.; Richard, D. T.; Seweryn, K.; Sheridan, S.; Sims, M.; Sweeting, M.; Swindle, T.; Talboys, D.; Taylor, L.; Teanby, N.; Tong, V.; Ulamec, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Wilson, L.; Wright, I.

    2012-04-01

    Emplacement of four or more kinetic penetrators geographically distributed over the lunar surface can enable a broad range of scientific exploration objectives of high priority and provide significant synergy with planned orbital missions. Whilst past landed missions achieved a great deal, they have not included a far-side lander, or investigation of the lunar interior apart from a very small area on the near side. Though the LCROSS mission detected water from a permanently shadowed polar crater, there remains in-situ confirmation, knowledge of concentration levels, and detailed identification of potential organic chemistry of astrobiology interest. The planned investigations will also address issues relating to the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system and other Solar System planetary bodies. Manned missions would be enhanced with use of water as a potential in-situ resource; knowledge of potential risks from damaging surface Moonquakes, and exploitation of lunar regolith for radiation shielding. LunarNet is an evolution of the 2007 LunarEX proposal to ESA (European Space Agency) which draws on recent significant advances in mission definition and feasibility. In particular, the successful Pendine full-scale impact trials have proved impact survivability for many of the key technology items, and a penetrator system study has greatly improved the definition of descent systems, detailed penetrator designs, and required resources. LunarNet is hereby proposed as an exciting stand-alone mission, though is also well suited in whole or in-part to contribute to the jigsaw of upcoming lunar missions, including that of a significant element to the ILN (International Lunar Network).

  18. Improvements of Storm Surge Modelling in the Gulf of Venice with Satellite Data: The ESA Due Esurge-Venice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, F.; Bajo, M.; Vignudelli, S.; Papa, A.; della Valle, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Donlon, C.; Zecchetto, S.

    2016-08-01

    Among the most detrimental natural phenomena, storm surges heavily endanger the environment, the economy and the everyday life of sea-side countries and coastal zones. Considering that 120.000.000 people live in the Mediterranean area, with additional 200.000.000 presences in Summer for tourism purposes, the correct prediction of storm surges is crucial to avoid fatalities and economic losses. Earth Observation (EO) can play an important role in operational storm surge forecasting, yet it is not widely diffused in the storm surge community. In 2011 the European Space Agency (ESA), through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, financed two projects aimed at encouraging the uptake of EO data in this sector: eSurge and eSurge-Venice (eSV). The former was intended to address the issues of a wider users' community, while the latter was focused on a restricted geographical area: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Venice. Among the objectives of the two projects there were a number of storm surge hindcast experiments using satellite data, to demonstrate the improvements on the surge forecast brought by EO. We report here the results of the hindcast experiments of the eSV project. They were aimed to test the sensitivity of a storm surge model to a forcing wind field modified with scatterometer data in order to reduce the bias between simulated and observed winds. Hindcast experiments were also performed to test the response of the storm surge model to the assimilation, with a dual 4D-Var system, of satellite altimetry observations as model errors of the initial state of the sea surface level. Remarkable improvements on the storm surge forecast have been obtained for what concerns the modified model wind forcing. Encouraging results have been obtained also in the assimilation experiments.

  19. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  20. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009

  1. Evaluation of sensitivity to desertification by a modified ESAs method in two sub-Saharan peri-urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric

    2013-04-01

    Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of

  2. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science

  3. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2012-12-01

    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  4. Generation of Digital Surface Models from satellite photogrammetry: the DSM-OPT service of the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Michéa, David; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The continuously increasing fleet of agile stereo-capable very-high resolution (VHR) optical satellites has facilitated the acquisition of multi-view images of the earth surface. Theoretical revisit times have been reduced to less than one day and the highest spatial resolution which is commercially available amounts now to 30 cm/pixel. Digital Surface Models (DSM) and point clouds computed from such satellite stereo-acquisitions can provide valuable input for studies in geomorphology, tectonics, glaciology, hydrology and urban remote sensing The photogrammetric processing, however, still requires significant expertise, computational resources and costly commercial software. To enable a large Earth Science community (researcher and end-users) to process easily and rapidly VHR multi-view images, the work targets the implementation of a fully automatic satellite-photogrammetry pipeline (i.e DSM-OPT) on the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP). The implemented pipeline is based on the open-source photogrammetry library MicMac [1] and is designed for distributed processing on a cloud-based infrastructure. The service can be employed in pre-defined processing modes (i.e. urban, plain, hilly, and mountainous environments) or in an advanced processing mode (i.e. in which expert-users have the possibility to adapt the processing parameters to their specific applications). Four representative use cases are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the resulting surface models and ortho-images as well as the overall processing time. These use cases consisted of the construction of surface models from series of Pléiades images for four applications: urban analysis (Strasbourg, France), landslide detection in mountainous environments (South French Alps), co-seismic deformation in mountain environments (Central Italy earthquake sequence of 2016) and fault recognition for paleo-tectonic analysis (North-East India). Comparisons of the satellite-derived topography to airborne

  5. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products, with the possibility to build and download the stack data products (L1b-S). The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and the output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of December 2014 the service allows the user to select all available mission data from 2010 to end of 2014, without any geographical restriction on this data. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options.. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  6. Determination of trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water by online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography%在线柱浓缩-超高效液相色谱法测定水体中的痕量甲萘威和呋喃丹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩智; 杨新磊; 叶明立; 汪琼; 蔡小军

    2011-01-01

    An online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography ( UH-PLC ) method was developed to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water. The sample was injected into a UHPLC system directly after filtration with 0.22 μm membrane, and then enriched by online solid phase extraction ( SPE ) column. The analyte was back-flushed into the analytical column Acclaim RSLC C18 ( 100 mm ×2. 1 mm, 2. 2 μm ) by valve switching method. The mobile phases were 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer ( pH 5.0, adjusted by acetic acid ) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode with a flow rate of 0. 8 mL/min, and detected by a diode array detector with the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The good linear ranges of carbaryl and carbofuran were 1.0- 100 μg/L with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 9, and the limits of detection ( S/N = 3 ) were 0. 5 μg/L and 0. 25 μg/L, respectively. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 76. 0% - 120. 0%. The method has been applied to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water samples with satisfactory results.%采用在线柱浓缩-超高效液相色谱联用技术测定水体中痕量甲萘威和呋喃丹.水样过滤后直接进样,采用固相萃取小柱富集待测物,梯度洗脱后,利用阀切换技术将待测物反冲至分析柱Acclaim RSLC C18(100 mm×2.1 mm,2.2 μm)上进行色谱分离,以10 mmol/L 醋酸铵缓冲溶液(pH 5.0,用醋酸调节)和乙腈分别为流动相A和B,梯度洗脱,泵流速为0.8 mL/min,检测波长为280 nm,二极管阵列检测器检测.甲萘威和呋喃丹在1.0~100 μg/L 范围内线性良好(相关系数r2 > 0.9999),检出限(S/N=3)分别为0.5和0.25 μg/L,加标回收率为76.0% ~120.0%.用所建立的方法测定了水中痕量的甲萘威与呋喃丹的含量,结果令人满意.

  7. Production of satellite-derived aerosol climate data records: current status of the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    and the Aerosol_cci team Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (Phase 1: 2010 -2014; Phase 2: 2014-2017) intensive work has been conducted to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors ATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Ångström coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. The cooperation between the project partners, including both the retrieval teams and independent validation teams, has resulted in a strong improvement of most algorithms. In particular the AATSR retrieved AOD is qualitatively similar to that from MODIS, usually taken as the standard, MISR and SeaWiFS. This conclusion has been reached form several different ways of validation of the L2 and L3 products, using AERONET sun photometer data as the common ground-truth for the application of both 'traditional' statistical techniques and a 'scoring' technique using spatial and temporal correlations. Quantitatively, the limited AATSR swath width of 500km results in a smaller amount of data. Nevertheless, the assimilation of AATSR-retrieved AOD, together with MODIS data, contributes to improving the in the ECMWF climate model results. In addition to the multi-spectral AOD, and thus the Ångström Exponent, also a per-pixel uncertainty is provided and validated. By the end of Aerosol_cci Phase 1 the ATSR algorithms have been applied to both ATSR-2 and AATSR resulting in an AOD time series of 17 years. In phase 2 this work is continued with a focus on the further improvement of the ATSR algorithms as well as those for the other instruments and algorithms, mentioned above, which in phase 1 were considered less mature. The first efforts are on the further characterization of the uncertainties and on better understanding of the

  8. ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  9. 固相萃取/超高压液相色谱测定水中痕量呋喃丹、甲萘威及阿特拉津%Determination of Trace Carbofuran, Carbaryl and Atrazine in Environmental Water by Ultrahigh-pressure Liquid Chromatography with Solid Phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 高海鹏; 李婷; 吕怡兵; 滕恩江

    2012-01-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine in environmental water by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography ( UPLC) combined with solid phase extraction(SPE). Through the investigation of the effects of mobile phase, UV detection condition, SPE cartridges, SPE load flow rate and fdter materials, the optimum conditions were obtained. Water sample was loaded on the Bond Elute Plexa SPE cartridges with a flow rate of 5 - 10 mL/min. The analytes were eluted with methylene chloride in SPE cartridges. The eluted solvent was concentrated and redissolved in methanol/water (1 : 1). The analysis conditions were as the follows; UV wavelength of detection; 222 nm, chromatographic column; ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18(2. 1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) , mobile phase; methanol -water (55 : 45) , flow rate; 0.4 mL/min. Under the optimal conditions, three analytes were separated by baseline within 1. 5 min. The correlation coefficients of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine standard curves were more than 0. 999 in the range of 0. 1 - 2. 0 mg/L. The relative standard deviations of nine parallel injections of carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine were 1. 7% , 0. 2% and 0. 7% , respectively, and their method detection limits(S/N -3) were 0. 04, 0. 003 , 0. 004 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries of three compounds at high and low spiked levels were in the range of 74% - 94% . This method has the advantages of saving time, simple operation and sensitivity, and could be applied in the detection of trace carbofuran, carbaryl and atrazine in environmental water.%建立了固相萃取/超高压液相色谱测定水中痕量呋喃丹、甲萘威和阿特拉津的分析方法.通过对色谱流动相和紫外检测条件、固萃小柱和上样速度、滤器材质等进行优化,确定了最佳实验方案.水样以5~10 mL/min的速度上样,采用Bond Elute Plexa固相萃取小柱富集,二氯甲烷洗脱.洗脱液经浓缩和重溶后,过尼龙滤膜,采用超

  10. Application of ESA Teaching Approach in College English Writing Course%ESA教学法在大学英语写作课上的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素萍

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced ESA teaching approach in Harmer's teaching theory, and combined with the practical situa-tion of teaching in China, studied and explored how to apply this approach in English writing course.%本文介绍了Harmer的教学理论ESA教学法,并结合中国教学的实际情况,研究、探讨了此教学法如何运用到英语写作课上。

  11. Preliminary results from the ESA STSE project on SST diurnal variability, its regional extent and implications in atmospheric modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR......, the 1-dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is applied. Preliminary results show that the initial temperature and salinity profiles may give a warmer start-up in the model while the light extinction scheme is a controlling factor for the amplitude and vertical extend of the daily signal....

  12. An assessment of the accuracy of SST retrievals from AATSR onboard ESA's Envisat by validation with in situ radiometer and buoy data and other satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, G. K.; Aatsr Sst Validation Team

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) was launched on Envisat in March 2002. The AATSR instrument is a highly stable self-calibrating radiometer designed to make precise and accurate global Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) measurements. These data, when added to the large data set collected from its predecessors ATSR and ATSR-2, will provide a long-term record of SST measurements (>15 years) that can be used for independent monitoring and detecting of climate change. The formal specifications require that retrieved AATSR SST values achieve an absolute accuracy of better than ± 0.5 K, with ± 0.3 K (one sigma) adopted by the project as the target accuracy. An intensive SST validation programme has been in operation since launch that involves validating retrieved AATSR SST values against a) SST data retrieved from other satellite sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS b) a global network of buoy derived SST measurements and c) SST values determined from in-situ data collected from high-precision radiometers. This presentation will summarise the AATSR SST validation programme and will show that AATSR is currently meeting its objective to determine accurate global SST measurements to within 0.3 K (one sigma).

  13. Una ciudad de los vascones en el yacimiento de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico-Sangüesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Pintado, Javier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the detailed and preliminary study of the archaeological site of Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico/Sangüesa, between today Zaragoza and Navarra provinces specially focusing in its Roman period. The paper exposes a review of the archeological and epigraphical material from the site, proposes an urban condition for it and raises some hypothesis on its identification with one of the cities that ancient sources tribued to Vascones.El presente trabajo aborda el estudio detallado y preliminar del yacimiento arqueológico de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico/Sangüesa, en el límite entre las actuales provincias de Zaragoza y Navarra con especial atención a su etapa romana. Se procede a la revisión del material arqueológico y epigráfico procedente del lugar, se defiende la condición de enclave urbano del yacimiento y se plantea una hipótesis respecto de su identificación con las ciudades que las fuentes antiguas atribuyen a los Vascones.

  14. Staff Time and Motion Assessment for Administration of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents: A Two-Phase Pilot Study in Clinical Oncology Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Reitan, John F.; van Breda, Arletta; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K.; Shreay, Sanatan; Cong, Ze; Legg, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are used for the management of anaemia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies where anaemia is due to the effect of concomitant myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Assessing the impact of different ESA dosing regimens on office staff time and projected labour costs is an important component of understanding the potential for optimization of oncology practice efficiencies. Objectives A two-phase study was conducted to evaluate staff time and la...

  15. Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.W.; Birkeland, C.; Piniak, G.A.; Miller, M.W.; Eakin, C.M.; McElhany, P.; Dunlap, M.J.; Patterson, M.; Brainard, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a species warrants listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act depends on the government's assessment of the species' extinction risk, usually in response to a petition. Deciding whether data are sufficient to make a listing determination is a challe

  16. Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.W.; Birkeland, C.; Piniak, G.A.; Miller, M.W.; Eakin, C.M.; McElhany, P.; Dunlap, M.J.; Patterson, M.; Brainard, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a species warrants listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act depends on the government's assessment of the species' extinction risk, usually in response to a petition. Deciding whether data are sufficient to make a listing determination is a

  17. The psychometric properties of cancer multisymptom assessment instruments: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Aynur; Walsh, Declan; Kirkova, Jordanka

    2015-07-01

    Various instruments are used to assess both individual and multiple cancer symptoms. We evaluated the psychometric properties of cancer multisymptom assessment instruments. An Ovid MEDLINE search was done. All searches were limited to adults and in English. All instruments published from 2005 to 2014 (and with at least one validity test) were included. We excluded those who only reported content validity. Instruments were categorized by the three major types of symptom measurement scales employed as follows: visual analogue (VAS), verbal rating (VRS), and numerical rating (NRS) scales. They were then examined in two areas: (1) psychometric thoroughness (number of tests) and (2) psychometric strength of evidence (validity, reliability, generalizability). We also assigned an empirical global psychometric quality score (which combined the concepts of thoroughness and strength of evidence) to rank the instruments. We analyzed 57 instruments (17 original, 40 modifications). They varied in types of scales used, symptom dimensions measured, and time frames evaluated. Of the 57, 10 used VAS, 28 VRS, and 19 NRS. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), ESAS-Spanish, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI)-Russian, and MDASI-Taiwanese were the most comprehensively tested for validity and reliability. The ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, ASDS-2, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)-SF, POMS, SDS, MDASI (and some translations), and MDASI-Heart Failure all showed good validity and reliability. The MDASI appeared to be the best overall from a psychometric perspective. This was followed by the ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, POMS, SDS, and some MDASI translations. VRS-based instruments were most common. There was a wide range of psychometric rigor in validation. Consequently, meta-analysis was not possible. Most cancer multisymptom assessment instruments need further extensive validation

  18. ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST Circumpolar Remote Sensing Service for Permafrost - Evaluation Case Studies and Intercomparison with Regional Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Birgit; Bartsch, Annett; Elger, Kirsten; Rinke, Annette; Matthes, Heidrun; Zhou, Xu; Klehmet, Katharina; Rockel, Burkhardt; Lantuit, Hugues; Duguay, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost is a subsurface phenomenon. However, monitoring from Earth Observation (EO) platforms can provide spatio-temporal data sets on permafrost-related indicators and quantities used in modelling and monitoring. The ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project (2009-2012) developed a suite of EO satellite-derived products: Land Surface Temperature (LST), Surface Soil Moisture (SSM), Surface Frozen and Thawed State (Freeze/Thaw), Terrain, Land Cover, and Surface Water. The satellite-derived products are weekly and monthly averages of the bio- and geophysical terrestrial parameters and static circum-Arctic maps. The final DUE Permafrost products cover the years 2007 to 2011, some products up to 2013, with a circum-Arctic coverage (north of 50°N). The products were released in 2012, and updated in 2013 and 2014. Further information is available at geo.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost/. The remote sensing service also supports the EU-FP7 funded project PAGE21 - Changing Permafrost in the Arctic and its Global Effects in the 21st Century (www.page21.eu). The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P), initiated by the International Permafrost Association (IPA), is the prime program concerned with monitoring of permafrost. It provides an important database for the evaluation of EO-derived products and climate and permafrost models. GTN-P ground data ranges from air-, ground-, and borehole temperature data to active layer monitoring, soil moisture measurements, and the description of landform and vegetation. The involvement of scientific stakeholders and the IPA, and the ongoing evaluation of the satellite-derived products make the DUE Permafrost products relevant to the scientific community. The Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regionale KlimaAnderungen/Regional Climate Change) is a climate research program where regional observations and process studies are coupled with model simulations (http://www.reklim.de/en/home/). ESA DUE Permafrost User workshops

  19. Advances and challenges of incorporating ecosystem services into impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales; Sánchez, Luis E

    2016-09-15

    An ecosystem services approach (ESA) to assess the environmental and social impacts of projects is a conceptual innovation that contributes to overcome two widely acknowledged deficiencies of impact assessment (IA): integration of knowledge areas and participation of affected communities. This potential was demonstrated through a practical application to a large mining project, showing evidence of advances in relation to current practice and identifying challenges. Data was obtained from the environmental impact study of the reviewed project and its supplements; additional data to fulfill the needs of the ESA were collected using rapid appraisal techniques. Results show that the ESA provides: (i) a more effective scoping; (ii) a contribution to delimitate the study area; (iii) a more detailed identification of impacts; (iv) a determination of significance inclusive of the perspective of affected communities; (v) a design of mitigation focused on human well-being. The challenges of using the ESA fall into two groups: the limitations inherent to the concept and those that can be overcome by furthering research and advancing practical applications. This research added evidence to previous studies showing that incorporating ecosystem services into IA can improve practice.

  20. Satellite-Derived Aerosol Climate Data Records in the ESA Aerosol_Cci Project: From ERS-2, Envisat to Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; North, Peter R. J.; Heckel, Andreas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-12-01

    With the focus of Sentinel-3 on ocean applications and services, important parts of the payload are the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) and the Ocean Land Colour Instrument (OLCI). Apart from Ocean applications, these instruments are also very important for atmospheric observations and in particular for aerosol retrieval. This is the reason why the predecessor instruments AATSR and MERIS have extensively been used in the ESA Climate Change Initiative project Aerosol_cci. In this contribution a brief overview of the current status of the Aerosol_cci project is presented. Full-mission time series of ATSR-2 and AATSR have been processed to provide 17 years of global aerosol information. Selected examples of recent achievements are presented. The experience with ATSR-2, AATSR and MERIS will be used to continue the current time series with SLSTR and OLCI.

  1. Comparison of Antenna Measurement Facilities with the DTU-ESA 12 GHz Validation Standard Antenna within the EU Antenna Centre of Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Pallesen, Janus Engberg; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of many antenna measurement facilities is to provide a specified high accuracy of the measured data. The validation of an antenna measurement facility is the process of proving that such a specified accuracy can be achieved. Since this constitutes a very challenging task......, antenna measurement accuracy has been the subject of much research over many years and a range of useful measures have been introduced. Facility comparisons, together with antenna standards, error budgets, facility accreditations, and measurement procedure standards, constitute an effective measure...... towards facility validations. This paper documents the results of a comparison between 8 European antenna measurement facilities with a specially designed reference antenna, the DTU-ESA 12 GHz Validation Standard Antenna (VAST-12). The electrical and mechanical properties of the VAST-12 antenna...

  2. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  3. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  4. The ESA Cloud_cci project: generation of multi-decadal, consistent, global data sets of cloud properties with uncertainty information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelberg, Stefan; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Schlundt, Cornelia; Sus, Oliver; Hollmann, Rainer; Poulsen, Caroline; ESA Cloud cci Team

    2016-04-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started along with 12 other CCI projects covering atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial "essential climate variables (ECV)". The main goal is the generation of satellite-based climate data records that meet the challenging requirements of the Global Climate Observing System. The objective target within the ESA Cloud_cci project is the generation of long-term coherent cloud property datasets covering 33 years that also provide mathematically consistent uncertainty information following the optimal estimation (OE) retrieval theory. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top level estimates, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. In this presentation we will discuss the benefit of using an optimal estimation retrieval framework, which provides consistence among the retrieved cloud variables and pixel-based uncertainty estimates based on different passive instruments such as AVHRR, MODIS and AATSR. We will summarize the results of the project so far along with ongoing further developments that currently take place. Our results will be compared with other well-established satellite data records, surface observations and cloud climatologies (e.g., PATMOS-X, ISCCP, CLARA-A2, MODIS collection 6, SYNOP). These inter-comparison results will indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the Cloud_cci datasets. Finally, we will present long-term time series of the retrieved cloud variables for AVHRR (1982-2014) that enable global, multi-decadal analyses of clouds.

  5. Pattern of psychotropic drug use among older adults having a depression or an anxiety disorder: results from the longitudinal ESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Bossé, Cindy; Dionne, Pierre-Alexandre; Voyer, Philippe; Brassard, Joëlle

    2011-06-01

    To document the use of psychotropic drugs in Quebec older adult population with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Data from the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés (ESA) study conducted between 2005 and 2008 using a representative sample (n = 1869) of community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older were used to examine the use of psychotropic drugs in the Quebec older adult population. Our results indicate that only 46.9% of the older adults with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety during the 24-month period studied according to the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Quebec (RAMQ) register used antidepressants (AD) for 400 days (12.9 months) on average during this period. Also, 59% of the RAMQ's mental health disorder patients used a mean daily dose of 5 mg of a diazepam equivalent for 338 days (10.9 months) on average during the same period. However, 10.0% of the older adults without any symptoms (ESA) at T1 and at T2 and any RAMQ depression and anxiety diagnosis between T0 and T2 were AD users during the 24-month period studied. They represent 26.2% of the AD users and consumed them for 494 days (15.9 months) on average during the 24-month period studied. Finally, the number of days of AD and benzodiazepine use was not associated with partial or total remission. This result questions the population effectiveness of these drugs in this population.

  6. Towards monitoring of geohazards with ESA's Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data: nationwide feasibility mapping over Great Britain calibrated using ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT PSI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Bateson, Luke; Dashwood, Claire; Jordan, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Following the success of its predecessors ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT, ESA's Sentinel-1 constellation will provide routine, free of charge and globally-available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations of the Earth's surface starting in 2013, with 12day repeat cycle and up to 5m spatial resolution. The upcoming availability of this unprecedented and long-term radar-based observation capacity is stimulating new scientific and operational perspectives within the geohazards and land monitoring community, who initiated and is being working on target preparatory studies to exploit this attractive and rich reservoir of SAR data for, among others, interferometric applications. The Earth and Planetary Observation and Monitoring, and the Shallow Geohazards and Risks Teams of the British Geological Survey (BGS) are routinely assessing new technologies for geohazard mapping, and carrying out innovative research to improve the understanding of landslide processes and their dynamics. Building upon the successful achievements of recent applications of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) to geohazards mapping and monitoring in Europe, and with the aim of enhancing further the research on radar EO for landslide management in Britain, since the beginning of 2012 the BGS has been carrying out a research project funded by internal NERC grants aimed at evaluating the potential of these techniques to better understand landslide processes over Great Britain. We mapped the PSI feasibility over the entire landmass, based on the combination of topographic and landuse effects which were modelled by using medium to high resolution DEMs, land cover information from the EEA CORINE Land Cover map 2006, and six PSI datasets over London, Stoke-on-Trent, Bristol/Bath, and the Northumberland-Durham region, made available to BGS through the projects ESA-GMES Terrafirma and EC-FP7 PanGeo. The feasibility maps for the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ascending and descending modes showed that topography is not

  7. Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part 1: Retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raspollini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding instrument on the Envisat (Environmental satellite satellite has provided vertical profiles of the atmospheric composition on a global scale for almost ten years. The MIPAS mission is divided in two phases: the full resolution phase, from 2002 to 2004, and the optimized resolution phase, from 2005 to 2012, which is characterized by a finer vertical and horizontal sampling attained through a reduction of the spectral resolution. While the description and characterization of the products of the ESA processor for the full resolution phase has been already described in previous papers, in this paper we focus on the performances of the latest version of the ESA (European Space Agency processor, named ML2PP V6 (MIPAS Level 2 Prototype Processor, which has been used for reprocessing the entire mission. The ESA processor had to perform the operational near real time analysis of the observations and its products needed to be available for data assimilation. Therefore, it has been designed for fast, continuous and automated analysis of observations made in quite different atmospheric conditions and for a minimum use of external constraints in order to avoid biases in the products. The dense vertical sampling of the measurements adopted in the second phase of the MIPAS mission resulted in sampling intervals finer than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. Together with the choice of a retrieval grid aligned with the vertical sampling of the measurements, this made ill-conditioned the retrieval problem of the MIPAS operational processor. This problem has been handled with minimal changes to the original retrieval approach but with significant improvements nonetheless. The Levenberg–Marquardt method, already present in the retrieval scheme for its capability to provide fast convergence for nonlinear problems, is now also exploited for the reduction of the ill-conditioning of

  8. Automatic mechanical fault assessment of small wind energy systems in microgrids using electric signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    A microgrid is a cluster of power generation, consumption and storage systems capable of operating either independently or as part of a macrogrid. The mechanical condition of the power production units, such as the small wind turbines, is considered of crucial importance especially in the case...... of islanded operation. In this paper, the fault assessment is achieved efficiently and consistently via electric signature analysis (ESA). In ESA the fault related frequency components are manifested as sidebands of the existing current and voltage time harmonics. The energy content between the fundamental, 5...... element model where dynamic eccentricity and bearing outer race defect are simulated under varying fault severity and electric loading conditions....

  9. HiRISE/NEOCE: an ESA M5 formation flying proposed mission combining high resolution and coronagraphy for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Von Fay-Siebenburgen (Erdélyi), Robert

    2016-07-01

    The global understanding of the solar environment through the magnetic field emergence and dissipation, and its influence on Earth, is at the centre of the four major thematics addressed by HiRISE/NEOCE (High Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy Explorer/New Externally Occulted Coronagraph Experiment). They are interlinked and also complementary: the internal structure of the Sun determines the surface activity and dynamics that trigger magnetic field structuring which evolution, variation and dissipation will, in turn, explain the coronal heating onset and the major energy releases that feed the influence of the Sun on Earth. The 4 major themes of HiRISE/NEOCE are: - fine structure of the chromosphere-corona interface by 2D spectroscopy in FUV at very high resolution; - coronal heating roots in inner corona by ultimate externally-occulted coronagraphy; - resolved and global helioseismology thanks to continuity and stability of observing at L1 Lagrange point; - solar variability and space climate with a global comprehensive view of UV variability as well. Recent missions have shown the definite role of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled by the emerging magnetic field, guided by the coronal magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. This is implemented in HiRISE/NEOCE, to be proposed for ESA M5 ideally placed at the L1 Lagrangian point, providing FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and velocities up to the solar upper chromosphere, transition zone and inner corona with, in particular, 2D very high resolution multi

  10. Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessments based on reviews and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppelt, R.; Fath, B.; Burkhard, B.; Fisher, J.L.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Lautenbach, S.; Pert, P.; Hotes, S.; Spangenberg, J.; Verburg, P.H.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments (ESA) hold the promise of supporting the quantification and valuation of human appropriation of nature and its goods and services. The concept has taken flight with the number of studies published on the topic increasing rapidly. This development, and the variation of d

  11. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Liakos, Alexios; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panayotis; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Marousis, Athanassios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Noutsopoulos, Andreas; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Els, Sebastian; Koschny, Detlef; Lock, Tim; Navarro, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects via lunar monitoring. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years, starting in the Summer 2016, in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The project involves: (i) a complete refurbishment of the 40 year old 1.2m Kryoneri telescope of the National Observatory of Athens, (ii) development of a Lunar imager for the prime focus with two fast-frame sCMOS cameras, and (iii) procurement of servers for data processing and storage. Furthermore, we have developed a software system that controls the telescope and the cameras, processes the images and automatically detects lunar flashes. NELIOTA provides a web-based user interface, where the impact events, after their verification and characterization, will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The novelty of this project is the dedication of a large, 1.2m telescope for lunar monitoring, which is expected to characterize the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  12. Nuevas aportaciones a la epigrafía de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico-Sangüesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier ANDREU PINTADO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available : El presente artículo informa de dos autopsias epigráficas realizadas sobre dos inscripciones –una inédita y la segunda conocida de antiguo– procedentes del yacimiento arqueológico de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico-Sangüesa, en el sector nororiental del territorio de los antiguos Vascones. Se presentan, además, nuevos materiales arqueológicos que permiten trazar algunas pautas sobre la historia del proceso de monumentalización de esta ciuitas aún ignota: especialmente una completa osteotheca funeraria de piedra con urna de vidrio que, sin duda, constituye un unicum en la arqueología funeraria del Nordeste peninsular. El trabajo se completa, además, con un estudio paleoantropológico de los restos óseos recuperados en el interior de la citada urna y uno geológico sobre dos piezas marmóreas (campán verde y mármol turco de Docimium que, procedentes del yacimiento, se custodian en una colección particular.

  13. The front-end electronics of the Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX) on the ESA Solar Orbiter satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, O.; Bednarzik, M.; Commichau, V.; Graczyk, R.; Gröbelbauer, H. P.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Przepiórka, A.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.; Viertel, G.

    2012-12-01

    Solar Orbiter is an ESA mission to study the heliosphere in proximity to the Sun, scheduled for launch in January 2017. It carries a suite of ten instruments for comprehensive remote-sensing and in-situ measurements. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX), one of the remote sensing instruments, images X-rays between 4 and 150keV using an Fourier technique. The angular resolution is 7 arcsec and the spectral resolution 1keV full-width-half-maximum at 6keV. X-ray detection uses pixelized Cadmium Telluride crystals provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The crystals are bonded to read-out hybrids developed by CEA Saclay, called Caliste-SO, incorporating a low-noise, low-power analog front-end ASIC IDeF-X HD. The crystals are cooled to -20°C to obtain very low leakage currents of less than 60pA per pixel, the prerequisite for obtaining the required spectral resolution. This article briefly describes the mission goals and then details the front-end electronics design and main challenges, resulting in part from the allocation limit in mass of 7kg and in power of 4W. Emphasis is placed on the design influence of the cooling requirement within the warm environment of a mission approaching the Sun to within the orbit of Mercury. The design for the long-term in-flight energy calibration is also explained.

  14. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanos, A Z; Boumis, P; Bellas-Velidis, I; Maroussis, A; Dapergolas, A; Fytsilis, A; Charmandaris, V; Tsiganis, K; Tsinganos, K

    2015-01-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar m...

  15. Determination of the microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly, testing and launch facilities: First results of the ESA project MiDiv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Fritze, D.; Verbarg, S.; Nellen, J.; Horneck, G.; Stackebrandt, E.; Kminek, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the near future, an increasing number of in situ life detection and sample return missions to planets and other solar system bodies will be launched. The demand to control spacecraft-carried microbial contamination becomes obvious. COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) has defined guidelines and bioburden limits for different types of missions and target bodies. The first step in the implementation of these planetary protection guidelines encompasses a qualitative and quantitative inventory of the bioburden of spacecraft assembly facilities. With information about the composition of these microbial communities the development and/or optimization of adequate cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures for spacecraft preparation before launch will be possible. In the ESA project MiDiv, we started to investigate the diversity of cultivable microorganisms found on spacecraft and spacecraft assembly halls using the satellites SMART-1 and ROSETTA as test objects. The analyses to date include cultivation of microorganisms by varying pH, temperature, oxygen, and pasteurization. A culture collection of bacterial isolates and a database of 16S RNA gene sequences have been established. The results of our preliminary work, including the numbers of colony forming units, differentiated as aerobes and facultative anaerobes as well as their phylogenetic classification, give a first overview of the breadth of physiological potential of the identified microorganisms and their capability to withstand various cleaning and sterilizing procedures currently used for the planetary protection.

  16. ESA CryoVEx 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Einarsson, Indriði; Forsberg, René

    ) and vertical photography to acquire data over sea‐ and land ice along CryoSat‐2 ground tracks. The airborne campaign was coordinated by DTU Space using the Norlandair Twin Otter (TF‐POF). 2) Sea ice thickness data obtained with an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) induction sounder conducted by Alfred Wegener...... CryoSat underflights covering distances from 81‐523 km. Of these, eight tracks were measured over sea ice north of CFS Alert, north of Station Nord and north of Svalbard to acquire data in areas representing different sea ice types and settings. Parts of the flights north of CFS Alert were coordinated...

  17. Arctic performance management / Esa Jauhola

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jauhola, Esa

    2005-01-01

    Põhja-Venemaa Barentsi regiooni ettevõtluskeskkonna spetsiifilistest karakteristikutest, ettevõtlusorientatsiooni mõjutavatest sise- ja välisteguritest, strateegilisest planeerimisest ja kvaliteedijuhtimisest seitsmes kohalikus ettevõttes november 2002 kuni veebruar 2005 läbiviidud uuringu põhjal. Skeem

  18. Arctic performance management / Esa Jauhola

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jauhola, Esa

    2005-01-01

    Põhja-Venemaa Barentsi regiooni ettevõtluskeskkonna spetsiifilistest karakteristikutest, ettevõtlusorientatsiooni mõjutavatest sise- ja välisteguritest, strateegilisest planeerimisest ja kvaliteedijuhtimisest seitsmes kohalikus ettevõttes november 2002 kuni veebruar 2005 läbiviidud uuringu põhjal. Skeem

  19. ESA CryoVEx 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Einarsson, Indriði

    data obtained with an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) induction sounder conducted by Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) with fixed‐wing airplane (Polar‐5, Basler BT‐67). DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing...

  20. Envisat Ocean Altimetry Performance Assessment and Cross-calibration

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Nearly three years of Envisat altimetric observations over ocean are available in Geophysical Data Record (GDR) products. The quality assessment of these data is routinely performed at the CLS Space Oceanography Division in the frame of the CNES Segment Sol Altimétrie et Orbitographie (SSALTO) and ESA French Processing and Archiving Center (F-PAC) activities. This paper presents the main results in terms of Envisat data quality: verification of data availability and validity, monitoring of th...

  1. Modelling and calibration of the mutual impedance experiments - Application to ESA's Rosetta Mission and preparation of BepiColombo and JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, Nicolas; Henri, Pierre; Wattieaux, Gaëtan; Randriamboarison, Orélien; Rauch, Jean-Louis

    2017-04-01

    The RPC-MIP experiment onboard the ESA's ROSETTA orbiter have monitored the plasma activity around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Summer 2014 to the end of September 2016. In order to finalize the calibration of more than 2 years of mutual impedance spectra in the ionized environment of comet 67P/CG and to prepare the calibration of mutual impedance experiments onboard futures exploratory planetary missions (PWI/AM2P on-board BepiColombo and RPWI/MIME on-board JUICE), a modelisation of the electric potential generated by a pulsating charge is needed, that possibly takes into account the fact that space plasmas are out of local thermodynamic equilibrium, and therefore non-Maxwellian. The physical model of interest is the linearized Vlasov-Poisson coupled equations. In previous works, these coupled equations are Fourier transformed both in time and space and treated in the cold are Maxwellian plasma. This work extends these previous approaches and relaxes the constraint on the cold or Maxwellian character of electron velocity distribution function, in order to account for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium. We consider both (i) a two-electron temperature plasma and (ii) electrons described by a Kappa distribution function. The electric potential is computed using a numerical integration over all wavenumbers. The main numerical difficulty is to take into account singularities of the dielectric function in the vicinity of the resonant modes. A method of grid refinement is therefore used. To tackle the large number of parameters to be explored (namely (i) density ratio, temperature ratio or (ii) kappa value), a parallel computation is implemented. Mutual impedance simulations are compared to RPC-MIP measurements in the ionized environment of comet 67P/CG.

  2. O pacto fraterno e a aliança nacional : análise dos romances Esaú e Jacó (Machado de Assis) e Dois irmãos (Milton Hatoum)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Mariana Rocha Santos

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a discussão da representação literária do pacto fraterno e a forma como este se configura enquanto simbologia da aliança nacional. Tomando como ponto de partida o enredo bíblico de Esaú e Jacó, irmãos gêmeos que se digladiam no contexto familiar, pretende-se analisar de que forma os romances Esaú e Jacó, de Machado de Assis e Dois Irmãos, escrito por Milton Hatoum se apropriam desse motivo para comentar os conflitos nacionais, em épocas distintas da histó...

  3. Evaluation of the Utility of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (revised) Scale on a Tertiary Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddard-Huber, Elizabeth; Jayaraman, Jyothi; White, Laura; Yeomans, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS-r) Scale on a tertiary palliative care unit. There were 92 admitted patients who participated in the study; the scale was administered to those able to participate on day 1 (n = 35, 38 percent), on day 4 (n = 20, 21 percent), and weekly. Patient comfort level with the ESAS-r tool was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) on day 4. Nurses' and physicians' perceptions of clinical assessment pre- and postimplementation of the scale were surveyed using a 5-point Likert scale. Of the participating physicians, 75 percent (n = 3) found that the ESAS-r Scale did not enhance clinical assessment; the proportion of nurses with that response was 37.5 percent (n = 6). Among these care providers, 50 percent of the physicians (n = 2) and 62 percent of the nurses (n = 10) thought that the scale was burdensome to patients; but 60 percent of the patients who were able to complete the comfort-level survey (n = 12) indicated that they did not find the scale burdensome. Patient acuity, team expertise, perceived burden to patients, and time commitment all influenced staff's recommendation not to implement the ESAS-r tool on the palliative care unit.

  4. News and Views: IYA Twitters too; Goodbye WFPC2; ESA and NASA join up for Mars; Ammonia map shows hot spots; A Centre for science; Twitter to see the ISS; IYA2009 on Flickr

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    At the end of June, the European and US space agencies agreed to work together to set up a framework for exploration of Mars. Both bodies have been under pressure; international collaboration is seen as the best way forward. The ESA MetOp satellite has provided the data for researchers to produce the first global map of ammonia emissions. The map shows high production over areas of intensive agriculture, as well as sources not previously known.

  5. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-103) - Install Fish Screens to Protect ESA Listed Steelhead and Bull Trout in the Walla Walla Basin – Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Shannon C. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-06-11

    Proposed Action: Install Fish Screens to Protect ESA Listed Steelhead and Bull Trout in the Walla Walla Basin – Phase II Minor Diversion Screen Installations. BPA is proposing to provide cost share for a program that will protect ESA-listed salmonid species in the Walla Walla River Basin through the installation of state and federally approved fish screen on over 300 water diversions in the Walla Walla River Basin. This program will involve a wide variety of projects including the installation of screens for both pump and gravity fed surface water diversions. This project will be implemented in conjunction with the Walla Walla County Conservation District, Columbia County Conservation District, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Walla Walla Community College, Washington Department of Ecology, and local irrigators. ESA-listed steelhead and bull trout are presently at risk in the Walla Walla Basin as a result of a combination of factors that primarily involve insufficient flow, extensive habitat degradation, and mortality from surface water diversions. Unscreened or improperly screened diversions can damage fish scaling and induce stress, both of which can be lethal. They are also known to cause migration delays and increased predation; impinge fish against screen surfaces; or, in cases where screen mesh size is too large, allow juvenile fish to be drawn directly into functioning irrigation systems resulting in direct mortality. The goal of this project is to eliminate imminent mortality risks to ESA-listed fish arising from inadequate irrigation diversions in the Walla Walla Basin by upgrading screens to current state and federal juvenile fish screen standards.

  6. Using ground data of the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) for the evaluation of ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost remote sensing derived products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, K.; Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, Ch.; Duguay, C.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A.; Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Lantuit, H.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost is one of the essential climate variables addressed by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GCOS). Remote sensing data provide area-wide monitoring of e.g. surface temperatures or soil surface status (frozen or thawed state) in the Arctic and Subarctic, where ground data collection is difficult and restricted to local measurements at few monitoring sites. The task of the ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project is to build-up an Earth observation service for northern high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the international permafrost research community (www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost). The satellite-derived DUE Permafrost products are Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, Surface Frozen and Thawed State, Digital Elevation Model (locally as remote sensing product and circumpolar as non-remote sensing product) and Subsidence, and Land Cover. Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, and Surface Frozen and Thawed State will be provided for the circumpolar permafrost area north of 55° N with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution were developed for five case study regions in different permafrost zones of the tundra and taiga (Laptev Sea [RU], Central Yakutia [RU], Western Siberia [RU], Alaska N-S transect, [US] Mackenzie River and Valley [CA]). This study shows the evaluation of two DUE Permafrost regional products, Land Surface Temperature and Surface Frozen and Thawed State, using freely available ground truth data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) and monitoring data from the Russian-German Samoylov research station in the Lena River Delta (Central Siberia, RU). The GTN-P permafrost monitoring sites with their position in different permafrost zones are highly qualified for the validation of DUE Permafrost remote sensing products. Air and surface temperatures with high-temporal resolution from eleven GTN-P sites in Alaska

  7. Haemoatopoietic Alterations induced by Carbaryl in Clarias batrachus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    LC50 of Sevin for Clarias batrachus after 96hr exposure was found to be ... hematological indices of air breathing freshwater fish. Clarias batrachus ( Linn). Pesticide toxicity to fish has ... consequence, the feeding behavior of individuals may.

  8. Kinetics of Carbaryl Hydrolysis: An Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Darryl

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics is an important part of undergraduate environmental chemistry curricula and relevant laboratory exercises are helpful in assisting students to grasp concepts. Such exercises are also useful in general chemistry courses because students can see relevance to real-world issues. The laboratory exercise described here involves determination of…

  9. 40 CFR 180.169 - Carbaryl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Parts per million Expiration/revocation date Alfalfa, forage 50 None Alfalfa, hay 75 None Almond, hulls 50 None Apple, wet pomace 15 None Asparagus 15 None Banana 5.0 None Beet, sugar, roots 0.5 None Beet... potato, roots 0.2 None Trefoil, forage 15 None Trefoil, hay 25 None Vegetable, brassica, leafy, group...

  10. Kinetics of Carbaryl Hydrolysis: An Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Darryl

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics is an important part of undergraduate environmental chemistry curricula and relevant laboratory exercises are helpful in assisting students to grasp concepts. Such exercises are also useful in general chemistry courses because students can see relevance to real-world issues. The laboratory exercise described here involves determination of…

  11. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  12. ESA DUE Permafrost: Evaluation of remote sensing derived products using ground data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, K. K.; Heim, B.; Lantuit, H.; Boike, J.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, C.; Duguay, C. R.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The task of the ESA DUE Permafrost project is to build up an Earth observation service for high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the permafrost research community. The DUE Permafrost products derived from remote sensing are land surface temperature (LST), surface soil moisture (SSM), surface frozen and thawed state (freeze/ thaw), terrain, land cover, and surface waters. Weekly and monthly averages for most of the DUE Permafrost products will be made available for the years 2007-2010. The DUE Permafrost products are provided for the circumpolar permafrost area (north of 55°N) with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution (300-1000 m/ pixel) were developed for five case study regions. These regions are: (1) the Laptev Sea and Eastern Siberian Sea Region (RU, continuous very cold permafrost/ tundra), (2) the Yakutsk Region (RU, continuous cold permafrost/ taiga), (3) the Western Siberian transect including Yamal Peninsula and Ob Region (RU, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra), (4) the Alaska Highway Transect (US, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra), and (5) the Mackenzie Delta and Valley Transect (CA, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra). The challenge of the programme is to adapt remote sensing products that are well established and tested in agricultural low and mid-latitudinal areas for highly heterogeneous taiga/ tundra permafrost landscapes in arctic regions. Ground data is essential for the evaluation of DUE Permafrost products and is provided by user groups and global networks. A major part of the DUE Permafrost core user group is contributing to GTN-P, the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost. Its main programmes, the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) have been thoroughly overhauled during the last International Polar Year (2007-2008). Their spatial coverage has been extended to provide a true circumpolar

  13. Intranasal Immunization with CT Adjuvant and ESA Protects Mice against Toxoplasma gondii Infection%霍乱毒素佐剂联合弓形虫ESA鼻内免疫小鼠抗弓形虫感染作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润花; 孟晓丽; 殷国荣; 刘红丽; 王海龙

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察霍乱毒素(cholera toxin,CT)佐剂和弓形虫排泄-分泌抗原(ESA)鼻内免疫小鼠诱导的抗弓形虫感染作用.方法 6周龄BALB/c小鼠60只,随机分为3组,每组20只.分别用PBS 20 μl、ESA 20μg或CT 1.0 μg+ESA 20 μg每只滴鼻免疫2次,间隔2周.末次免疫后14 d,用4×104个弓形虫速殖子每只灌胃攻击所有小鼠,观察小鼠健康及死亡情况.速殖子攻击后30 d,计数肝、脑组织内弓形虫速殖子.结果 CT作为佐剂联合弓形虫ESA滴鼻免疫小鼠的健康状况明显好于PBS组和ESA组,存活率(95%)也显著高于PBS组(55%).与PBS组相比,CT+ESA组肝和脑组织内速殖子数分别减少了80.19%(P<0.001)和78.24%(P<0.005).CT作为佐剂联合ESA滴鼻免疫小鼠诱导了高水平的黏膜免疫应答和系统免疫应答.结论 CT作为佐剂联合弓形虫ESA滴鼻免疫小鼠诱导的免疫应答可有效抵抗弓形虫速殖子攻击.

  14. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spou...

  15. In-situ databases and comparison of ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) products with precursor data, towards an integrated approach for ocean colour validation and climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotas, Vanda; Valente, André; Couto, André B.; Grant, Mike; Chuprin, Andrei; Jackson, Thomas; Groom, Steve; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    2014-05-01

    Ocean colour (OC) is an Oceanic Essential Climate Variable, which is used by climate modellers and researchers. The European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative project, is the ESA response for the need of climate-quality satellite data, with the goal of providing stable, long-term, satellite-based ECV data products. The ESA Ocean Colour CCI focuses on the production of Ocean Colour ECV uses remote sensing reflectances to derive inherent optical properties and chlorophyll a concentration from ESA's MERIS (2002-2012) and NASA's SeaWiFS (1997 - 2010) and MODIS (2002-2012) sensor archives. This work presents an integrated approach by setting up a global database of in situ measurements and by inter-comparing OC-CCI products with pre-cursor datasets. The availability of in situ databases is fundamental for the validation of satellite derived ocean colour products. A global distribution in situ database was assembled, from several pre-existing datasets, with data spanning between 1997 and 2012. It includes in-situ measurements of remote sensing reflectances, concentration of chlorophyll-a, inherent optical properties and diffuse attenuation coefficient. The database is composed from observations of the following datasets: NOMAD, SeaBASS, MERMAID, AERONET-OC, BOUSSOLE and HOTS. The result was a merged dataset tuned for the validation of satellite-derived ocean colour products. This was an attempt to gather, homogenize and merge, a large high-quality bio-optical marine in situ data, as using all datasets in a single validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. An inter-comparison analysis between OC-CCI chlorophyll-a product and satellite pre-cursor datasets was done with single missions and merged single mission products. Single mission datasets considered were SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and MERIS; merged mission datasets were obtained from the GlobColour (GC) as well as the Making Earth Science

  16. KOMBINASI LATIHAN EKSENTRIK M.GASTROCNEMIUS DAN LATIHAN PLYOMETRIC LEBIH BAIK DARI PADA LATIHAN EKSENTRIK M.QUADRICEPS DAN LATIHAN PLYOMETRIC TERHADAP PENINGKATAN AGILITY PADA MAHASISWA DI UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranti Yolanda Anggita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase agility for students is determined by muscular strength, speed, and flexibility. The ability of muscles to contract quickly will increase the speed of muscle in motion. Increase in speed, strength and flexibility of muscles due to stretch muscle-tendinous unit. The mechanism become the basis for moving in the shortest possible time. Agility on student issues has not received much attention, the attention of the agility found better in many athletes. This research is an experimental study to analysis at the difference between the intervention of with gastrocmineus muscle eccentric exercises and plyometric exercises with eccentric exercise quadriceps muscle and plyometric to increase agility on students at the University of Esa Unggul. A total of 40 students aged 18-21 years old who meet the criteria inclusion were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups. The old treatment group I was given quadriceps muscle eccentric and plyometric treatment group II eccentric exercise gastrocmineus muscle and plyometric exercises. Both exercise was done 3 times was given per week for 6 weeks. Agility is measured by Right-Boomerang Run Test. The results of the hypothesis testing using t-test related and different mean values obtained agility treatment group I (16,43±0.89secon and a second treatment group (16,01± 1,04seconwith p?0.05. Conclusion of the study is a combination of eccentric exercise m.gastrocnemius with plyometric exercise no better than the m.quadriceps eceentric exercises with plyometric exercises to increase agility on student at Esa Unggul University.

  17. [Interior] Configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of the transfer habitat module (THM) and the surface habitat on Mars (SHM)/ESA's AURORA human mission to Mars (HMM) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the findings for [Interior] configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of a first human spacecraft to Mars. In 2003 the space architecture office LIQUIFER was invited by the European Space Agency's (ESA) AURORA Program committee to consult the scientists and engineers from the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) and other European industrial communities with developing the first human mission to Mars, which will take place in 2030, regarding the architectural issues of crewed habitats. The task was to develop an interior configuration for a transfer vehicle (TV) to Mars, especially a transfer habitation module (THM) and a surface habitat module (SHM) on Mars. The total travel time Earth—Mars and back for a crew of six amounts to approximately 900 days. After a 200-day-flight three crewmembers will land on Mars in the Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) and will live and work in the SHM for 30 days. For 500 days before the 200-day journey back the spacecraft continues to circle the Martian orbit for further exploration. The entire mission program is based on our present knowledge of technology. The project was compiled during a constant feedback-design process and trans-disciplinary collaboration sessions in the ESA-ESTEC concurrent design facility. Long-term human space flight sets new spatial conditions and requirements to the design concept. The guidelines were developed from relevant numbers and facts of recognized standards, interviews with astronauts/cosmonauts and from analyses about habitability, sociology, psychology and configuration concepts of earlier space stations in combination with the topics of the individual's perception and relation of space. Result of this study is the development of a prototype concept for the THM and SHM with detailed information and complete plans of the interior configuration, including mass calculations. In addition the study contains a detailed explanation of the development of

  18. Assessing the Assessment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, James

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical use of assessment centers as staff development and promotional tools and their current use in personnel selection. The elements that constitute a true assessment center are outlined, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages for employers and applicants focuses on positions in library administration. (10…

  19. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  20. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  1. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency