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Sample records for carassius auratus ictalurus

  1. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  2. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels

  3. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhou [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G. [Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55099 (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels.

  4. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  5. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjin CAI; Zhengjun WU; Nan HE; Zhenxing WANG; Chengming HUANG

    2011-01-01

    Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana) and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. Clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. Auratus recognizes P. Clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus recognize P. Clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. Auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. Clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. Clarkii previously fed with C. Auratus (C. Auratus diet cues) and water from a tub containing unfed P. Clarkii (P. Clarkii cues). In the visual experiment, experienced C. Auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. Auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. Auratus responded to P. Clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. Auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. Auratus appears to recognize P. Clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. Auratus may recognize P. Clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. Clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. Clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. Auratus can recognize P. Clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. Clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. Auratus cannot.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. (Myxozoa) infecting goldfish Carassius auratus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewisch, Eva; Soliman, Hatem; Schmidt, Peter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-29

    A new species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the fins of goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus 1758). The fish had been imported from China by an Austrian retailer. Nodules from the margins of the fins contained pyriform myxospores with a singular polar capsule. In valvular view, the spores measured 12.2 µm in length and 6.4 µm in width. In sutural view, the thickness was 2.9 µm. The polar capsule measured 4.2 × 3.1 µm and contained a polar filament with 8 to 9 coils. Histological sections showed plasmodia of 0.2 to 4.0 mm diameter with the earlier developmental stages of the parasite in the periphery and the mature spores closer to the center. In the transmission electron microscope examination, the different developmental stages could be observed. Morphological data, host specificity, tissue tropism, and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA identify this parasite as a new species of Thelohanellus, which we have named Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov.

  7. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  8. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ~60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. PMID:25175199

  9. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes. PMID:26272290

  10. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xi; Deng; Feng-jiao; 等

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2SeO3 on it were studied at 28℃. From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  11. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi; Liu Yi; Deng Feng-jiac; Qu Song-sheng

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2 SeO3 on it were studied at 28 ℃.From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2 SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  12. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  13. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Montoya M; Fernando Vega V.; Héctor Nolasco S; Luis Espinosa C; Olimpia Carrillo F; Felicitas Olvera U

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxida...

  14. Immunotoxicity of bisphenol A to Carassius auratus lymphocytes and macrophages following in vitro exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Da-qiang; HU Shuang-qing; GU Ying; WEI Li; LIU Shu-shen; ZHANG Ai-qian

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer component of polycarbonate plastics and classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC).The reproductive toxicity of BPA has been extensively studied in mammals; however, relatively little information is available on the immunotoxic responses of fish to BPA. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA on the immune functions of lymphocytes and macrophages in Carassius auratus. The effects of BPA were compared with those of two natural steroid hormones, estradiol and hydrocortisone. Proliferation of the two types of cells in response to PHA was measured using colorimetric MTT assay. Macrophage respiratory burst stimulated by Con A was measured using chemiluminescence assay. Results showed that BPA (0.054-5.4 mg/L),estradiol (0.0002-2.0 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (5-50 mg/L) significantly induced Carassius auratus lymphocyte proliferation while higher doses of hydrocortisone (500-5000 mg/L) appeared to be inhibitory. BPA (0.005-50 mg/L), estradiol (0.005-800 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (0.005-500 mg/L) markedly enhanced macrophage proliferation, whereas higher doses of BPA (500-1000 mg/L)appeared to inhibit cell proliferation. Furthermore, higher dosage of BPA (50 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (50 and 500 mg/L) suppressed the macrophages respiratory burst while estradiol is stimulative all the doses tested (0.05-500 mg/L). In conclusion, BPA could have immunotoxicity to Carassius auratus and functional changes of lymphocyte and macrophage in Carassius auratus may be different between low and high dosages.

  15. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  16. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  17. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ates; Veysel Demir; Ragip Adiguzel; Zikri Arslan

    2013-01-01

    The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfi...

  18. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn.) recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair; Sanjib Moulick; Chanchal Kumar Mukherjee; Mohd Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn.) recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS) has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analys...

  19. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  20. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldifsh (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Tarkhani; Mohammad Reza Imanpoor; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Sayede Amene Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Methods:To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight usingANOVA. Results:Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of this hormone on growth factors ofCarassius auratus.

  1. Crescimento e sobrevivência de larvas de peixe vermelho (Carassius auratus alimentadas com microdietas comerciais Growth and survival of Carassius auratus larvae fed commercial micro diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rema

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho de dois alimentos comerciais para larvas de peixes ornamentais e analisar o efeito que a suplementação em vitaminas e minerais teria sobre a sobrevivência e o crescimento dessas, foi realizado um ensaio de crescimento de 21 dias, com 4800 larvas de peixe vermelho (Carassius auratus, distribuídas por 24 grupos (200 indivíduos por grupo. Cada grupo foi alojado em tanques de 5L de capacidade, ligados a um sistema de recirculação de água. Quatro grupos foram alocados a um controle de jejum, em que os animais não foram alimentados, e os restantes 20 grupos foram utilizados em cinco tratamentos, em quadruplicado. Em cada um dos cinco tratamentos, os peixes ingeriram uma das seguintes dietas: R (referência, C1 (SERA vipan® baby, C2 (SERA® microgran, C1v e C2v (C1 e C2, respectivamente, reforçadas em vitaminas e minerais. As taxas de sobrevivência e crescimento dos peixes do tratamento R foram maiores que as obtidas nos outros tratamentos (PA 21-day growth trial was performed to evaluate two ornamental fish larvae commercial diets and the effect of mineral and vitamin supplementation of the same commercial microdiets on growth and survival of goldfish larvae (Carassius auratus. A total of 4,800 larvae were randomly distributed in 24 groups of 200 individuals. Each group was housed in a 5L tank, connected to a recirculating water system. Four groups were assigned to a fastening control. The animals in these groups did not receive any food. The remaining 20 groups were distributed in five treatments, in quadruplicate. The animals of each treatment were fed one of five experimental diets: R (reference, C1 (SERA vipan® baby, C2 (SERA® microgran, C1v, and C2v (C1 and C2, respectively, reinforced with minerals and vitamins. At the end of the trial, high survival and growth rates were observed in R treatment. There were significant differences in total length and total weight among dietary treatments. Considering the

  2. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  3. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

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    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  4. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tarkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus. Methods: To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight using ANOVA. Results: Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes.

  5. Variation in myelin lipid composition induced by change in environmental temperature of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivonchick, D.P.; Roots, B.I.

    1976-04-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 30/sup 0/C, and the lipid and protein composition of brain and spinal cord myelin was determined. Goldfish myelin contains less galactolipid, but more protein and phospholipid than mammalian and bird myelin. Phosphatidyl choline was the predominant phospholipid in both brain and spinal cord myelin. Fish myelin also showed a greater plasmalogen content with an average ethanolamine plasmalogen/total phosphatidyl ethanolamine ratio of 0.84. Total brain and myelin lipids, with the exception of plasmalogens, showed a resistance to change with thermal acclimation. Differences between brain and spinal cord myelin protein and phospholipids were not observed. It is suggested that temperature acclimation in poikilotherms may be used as a tool in the study of membrane adaptability.

  6. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jia; ZHANG Dongyi; CHU Wuying; LIU Fang; LIU Zhen; ZHOU Ruixue; MENG Tao; ZHANG Jianshe

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 μmol/L resulted in decreased expression of both α- and β-tubulin but γ-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  7. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  8. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

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    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  9. Hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in Carassius auratus liver, exposed to pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Jingfei; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the hydroxy radical generation and oxidative stress in the liver of goldfish Carassius auratus under the effect of pyrene. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) of pyrene for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. Based on the hyperfine splitting constants and shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, the free radical which was generated in fish liver was identified as hydroxyl radical ((*)OH). The (*)OH signal intensity showed a significant increase compared with the control. The changes of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were detected. The reduced glutathione (GSH) level decreased significantly while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level was increased at higher concentration (0.005-0.1 mg/L), resulting in a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly at 0.005-0.1 mg/L pyrene. The results clearly showed that C. auratus was subjected to oxidative stress and damage when exposed to pyrene.

  10. Embryonic development of goldfish (Carassius auratus): A model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Hsin-Yuan; Chang, Mariann; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Abe, Gembu; Ota, Kinya G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Highly divergent morphology among the different goldfish strains (Carassius auratus) may make it a suitable model for investigating how artificial selection has altered developmental mechanisms. Here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin Wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species. Results: We divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indic...

  11. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  12. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  13. Isolation, characterization, and tissue-specific expression of GABA A receptor α1 subunit gene of Carassius auratus gibelio after avermectin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yini; Sun, Qi; Hu, Kun; Ruan, Jiming; Yang, Xianle

    2016-02-01

    Carassius auratus gibelio has been widely cultivated in fish farms in China, with avermectin (AVM) being used to prevent parasite infection. Recently, AVM was found to pass through the Carassius auratus gibelio blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although AVM acts mainly through a GABA receptor and specifically the α1 subunit gene, the most common isoform of the GABA A receptor, which is widely expressed in brain neurons and has been studied in other fish, Carassius auratus gibelio GABA A receptor α1 subunit gene cloning, and whether AVM passes through the BBB to induce Carassius auratus gibelio GABA A receptor α1 subunit gene expression have not been studied. The aim of this study was to clone, sequence, and phylogenetically analyze the GABA A receptor α1 subunit gene and to investigate the correlation of its expression with neurotoxicity in brain, liver, and kidney after AVM treatment by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The α1 subunit gene was 1550 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1380 bp encoding a predicted protein with 459 amino acid residues. The gene contained 128 bp of 5' terminal untranslated region (URT) and 72 bp of 3' terminal UTR. The α1 subunit structural features conformed to the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels family, which includes a signal peptide, an extracellular domain at the N-terminal, and four transmembrane domains. The established phylogenetic tree indicated that the α1 subunits of Carassius auratus gibelio and Danio rerio were the most closely related to each other. The α1 subunit was found to be highly expressed in brain and ovary, and the α1 mRNA transcription level increased significantly in brain. Moreover, the higher the concentration of AVM was, the higher the GABA A receptor expression was, indicating that AVM can induce significant neurotoxicity to Carassius auratus gibelio. Therefore, the α1 subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated with the neurotoxicity of AVM in

  14. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  15. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  16. Bioconcentration and metabolism of ketoconazole and effects on multi-biomarkers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Yan, Zhenhua; Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Peifang

    2016-05-01

    The tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the antifungal medication ketoconazole were investigated in fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to a series of nominal concentrations (0.2, 2 and 20 μg/L) for 14 days. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy (UPLC/MS/MS) analysis was used to determine the bioconcentration of ketoconazole and its metabolites in fish. The highest tissue concentration of ketoconazole was observed in the liver with the bioconcentration factor of 257.2, which is lower than the estimated BCF value. The ability of crucian carp to metabolize ketoconazole was confirmed and the results pointed out the existence of seven metabolites likely formed via oxidation of imidazole ring and the metabolic alteration of the piperazine rings. In addition, acetylcholinesterase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase changed significantly after 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure (P < 0.05), which indicated that the accumulation and metabolism of ketoconazole in fish tissues may account for the biological effects. PMID:26901470

  17. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  18. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  19. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  20. Residual Rate and Escape Route Preference of Juvenile Carassius auratus grandoculis Reared in Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehata, Masayoshi; Ohtsuka, Taisuke; Mizuno, Toshiaki; Kanao, Shigefumi

    Gathering paddy-reared juvenile fish (0-year fish) at the paddy's drain outlet at the time of the mid-summer drainage often results in many unharvested fish being left behind. To devise ways of reducing this wastage as much as possible, we performed two experiments during the irrigation season in modernized, consolidated paddy fields as follows. Experiment I: an investigation into the numbers of juvenile Carassius auratus grandoculis that succeeded in leaving a paddy field through the drain outlet. Experiment II: an investigation into their preferred route of escape from the paddy, either via the drain outlet or the water inlet, when both were available. In Experiment I, more than 39.1% of the number of fish that escaped from the paddy were still left behind in the paddy more than three days after the mid-summer drainage had begun. In Experiment II, most of the juveniles, i.e., 99.8% of the fish that escaped from the paddy, left from the water inlet. These results suggest that greater efficiency in reducing the numbers of unharvested juvenile fish in paddy culture may be achieved by first capturing fish at the drain outlet with the irrigation water shut off, and then partially refilling the paddy while using traps or other gear to catch the remaining fish that are attracted towards the water inlet.

  1. Cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, P. J.; Presson, J. C.; Popper, A. N.

    1996-01-01

    Cell proliferation and hair cell addition have not been studied in the ears of otophysan fish, a group of species who have specialized hearing capabilities. In this study we used the mitotic S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells in the ear of one otophysan species, Carassius auratus (the goldfish). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h or 5 days postinjection with BrdU and processed for immunocytochemistry. The results of the study show that cell proliferation occurs in all of the otic endorgans and results in the addition of new hair cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout all epithelia, including the primary auditory endorgan (saccule), where hair cell phenotypes vary considerably along the rostrocaudal axis. This study lays the groundwork for our transmission electron microscopy study of proliferative cells in the goldfish ear (Presson et al., Hearing Research 100 (1996) 10-20) as well as future studies of hair cell development in this species. The ability to predict, based on epithelial location, the future phenotype of developing hair cells in the saccule of the goldfish make that endorgan a particularly powerful model system for the investigation of early hair cell differentiation.

  2. The environmental regulation of maturation in goldfish, Carassius auratus: effects of various LED light spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-02-01

    While there have been a number of studies on the effects of photoperiod and duration of light and dark exposure, much less information is available on the importance of light intensity. This study investigated the effects of exposure of goldfish, Carassius auratus exposed to white fluorescent bulbs, and red (peak at 630nm), and green (530nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at approximately 0.9W/m(2) (12-h light:12-h dark) for four months on a number of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of native GnRH molecules (gonadotropin-releasing hormones; salmon GnRH, sGnRH; and chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II), gonadotropin hormones (GTHα; follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH-β; luteinizing hormone, LH-β2), kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) mRNA levels. Furthermore, we measured LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in plasma and we performed gonad histological observations. GnRHs, Kiss1, GPR54 and GTH mRNA and plasma LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in the in vivo and in vitro groups exposed to green LEDs were significantly higher than the other groups. Histological analysis revealed the presence of oocytes in the yolk stage in fish exposed to green light. These results suggest that green wavelengths regulate the HPG axis and enhance sexual maturation in goldfish. PMID:24239668

  3. Infection of Myxobolus turpisrotundus sp. n. in allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), with revision of Myxobolus rotundus (s. l.) Nemeczek reported from C. auratus auratus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Y; Wang, J G; Li, A H; Gong, X N

    2010-08-01

    Infection of a Myxobolus species, previously identified as Myxobolus rotundus, was detected in 182 of 7892 (2.31%) allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, in a closed pond culture system in China. Morphological and molecular data showed that this myxosporean is a different species from M. rotundus parasitizing Abramis brama in Europe and is thus designated as a new species, Myxobolus turpisrotundus. M. rotundus (s.l.) ex C. auratusauratus is a synonym of M. turpisrotundus. Plasmodia of M. turpisrotundus develop in the subepidermal tissues of the body surface resulting in an unaesthetic appearance and causing severe economic losses. Prevalence of infection with the myxosporean plasmodia varied seasonally, increasing in winter and decreasing in spring. Prevalence was positively correlated to host size, but no host sex-specificity was found. No infection was observed in other fish species (grass carp, bighead carp and yellow catfish) reared in the same pond, suggesting that the parasite has a relatively strict host specificity. Plasmodia grew gradually as the parasite developed, and reached up to a maximum 5.6 mm in diameter. Plasmodia ruptured naturally to release the mature spores and host fish completely recovered with no mortality. Release of spores and regeneration of lesions were not correlated with water temperature. Histology showed that plasmodia developed sub-epidermally, and that the wall of the plasmodia was composed of a multiple complex structure, including layers of fibroblasts, a collagenous membrane, melanophores and a layer of cup-like cells of unknown derivation and function. The cup-like cells are in direct contact with pre-sporogonic stages located in the peripheral parts of the large plasmodia. No severe host inflammatory response was seen. PMID:20487139

  4. Effect of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acids supplementation on sperm quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Zeinab Hanaee Kashani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA supplementation onsperm quality was studied in goldfish (Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758, for one year. Fish fedexperimental diets had no significant differences in sperm concentration, spermatocrit, motility durationand percent motility of each sperm (P>0.05. Fish fed with E100+HUFA had the highest spermconcentration and highest spermatocrit. Motility duration and percent motility of each sperm were notsignificantly different (P>0.05 although the control group had the lowest value.

  5. Capacidad de Vibrio fluvialis (LEE, 1981) para producir infección en pez dorado (Carassius auratus. L)

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    A algunos peces de ornato de la especie Carassius auratus se les inyectó, vía intramuscular, diferentes dosis infectivas de la bacteria Vibrio fluvialis con el fin de probar la capacidad de ésta para producir infección en organismos acuáticos, establecer su correspondiente D50L y determinar si esta bacteria puede infectar los individuos cultivados a través del agua de los estanques de cultivo, o si necesita de un hospedero vivo para trasmitir y producir infección. Se estableció la relación et...

  6. Characterization of Toll-like receptor gene expression in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during Dactylogyrus intermedius infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao; Liu, Lei; Qi, Xiaozhou; Chen, Weichao; Wang, Gaoxue; Ling, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first and best understood innate immune receptors, play a notable role in the innate immune system by sensing pathogenic agents and initiating appropriate immune responses. However, studies about the roles of fish TLRs in response to the infection of the ectoparasitic monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius have been surprisingly vacant. In the present study, cDNA fragments of five members of TLRs family in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were cloned and the expression patterns of nine TLRs in five tissues at different time points during D. intermedius infection were subsequently investigated. We found that the expressions of TLR4, TLR5, TLR20 and TLR22 were significantly elevated after infection at some time points, of which the transcription of TLR5 was progressively increased nearly in all tissues, whereas the mRNA levels of other TLRs (TLR2, 3, 7, 9 and 21) were down-regulated or showed no significant change compared with the control at most time points. Additionally, this paper was also conducted to explore the expression of above TLRs after re-infected with D. intermedius. The results showed a significant upregulation of TLR4, TLR5 and TLR22 in all tested tissues at these two time points, especially the levels of TLR4 and TLR22 expression, were even higher comparing with the first infection. Besides, tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that spleen featured the highest expressions of almost all the TLR-encoding genes among detected tissues. The informations obtained here could be helpful towards understanding the functions of TLRs in response to parasitic infection in goldfish and provide new insights for the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches against D. intermedius infection.

  7. Characterization of Toll-like receptor gene expression in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during Dactylogyrus intermedius infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao; Liu, Lei; Qi, Xiaozhou; Chen, Weichao; Wang, Gaoxue; Ling, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first and best understood innate immune receptors, play a notable role in the innate immune system by sensing pathogenic agents and initiating appropriate immune responses. However, studies about the roles of fish TLRs in response to the infection of the ectoparasitic monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius have been surprisingly vacant. In the present study, cDNA fragments of five members of TLRs family in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were cloned and the expression patterns of nine TLRs in five tissues at different time points during D. intermedius infection were subsequently investigated. We found that the expressions of TLR4, TLR5, TLR20 and TLR22 were significantly elevated after infection at some time points, of which the transcription of TLR5 was progressively increased nearly in all tissues, whereas the mRNA levels of other TLRs (TLR2, 3, 7, 9 and 21) were down-regulated or showed no significant change compared with the control at most time points. Additionally, this paper was also conducted to explore the expression of above TLRs after re-infected with D. intermedius. The results showed a significant upregulation of TLR4, TLR5 and TLR22 in all tested tissues at these two time points, especially the levels of TLR4 and TLR22 expression, were even higher comparing with the first infection. Besides, tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that spleen featured the highest expressions of almost all the TLR-encoding genes among detected tissues. The informations obtained here could be helpful towards understanding the functions of TLRs in response to parasitic infection in goldfish and provide new insights for the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches against D. intermedius infection. PMID:27238769

  8. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68±5.73 μg/g) followed by the liver (0.80±0.16 μg/g) and muscle (0.47±0.16 μg/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28±0.19 μg/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues

  9. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  10. Multibiomarker toxicity characterization of uranium mine drainages to the fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, M L; Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F J M; Nunes, B

    2016-07-01

    The release of acidic effluents, naturally enriched in metals and radionuclides, is the main legacy of uranium mines. Generally, metals dissolved by these acidic effluents can cause significant alterations in exposed organisms, with distinct toxicological outcomes. In this study, 72 individuals of the freshwater fish species Carassius auratus were exposed in situ for different periods (8, 16, 24, and 48 h) to water from a pond (treatment pond (TP)) with a chemically treated effluent and a reference pond (PRP), in the vicinity of the Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Portugal). Comparing the water of the two ponds, the PRP pond was characterized by higher pH and oxygen values and lower conductivity and hardness values. Regarding total metal concentrations, among others, magnesium (56,000 μg/L), sodium (17,400 μg/L), zinc (86 μg/L), manganese (6340 μg/L), and uranium (1380 μg/L) concentrations in the TP pond were above the values obtained for the PRP pond. The values of manganese and uranium exceeded the values of quality criteria established for surface waters for cyprinids and for irrigation purposes. After exposure to pond water, significant differences were recorded for several biomarkers: (i) between ponds for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with higher activities for animals from the PRP and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities that were particularly enhanced in animals from the TP pond; (ii) between ponds and exposure periods for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, since organisms from PRP pond presented always higher values than those from the TP pond, and among these, organisms exposed for the longer period presented a further depression in LDH activity; and (iii) between exposure periods for erythrocyte micronucleus. GSTs and LDH were the most sensitive biomarkers within the timeframe of the in situ assay performed. Despite the alleged efficacy of the chemical treatment (evidenced by a significantly lower pH), some metals persisted in the treated

  11. The liver DNA breaks and repair of the fish (carassius auratus) induced by the sublethal metal mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breaks and repair of the carassius auratus's liver DNA induced by the metal mixture were studied by using the gel electrophoresis technique and 3H-TdR incorporation experiment. The results demonstrated that DNA breaks were detected after treated by zine, lead and metal mixture, and the RNSB order was the metal mixture >Pb>Zn. The DNA repair was found among the zinc treatment, cadmium treatment, lead treatment as well as metal mixture treatment, and the order of the repair ability was the metal mixture >Pb>Zn>Cd. The mixture of the metals increased the damage to the DNA. The results also showed that the result of the DNA breaks was not conformed completely to that of the DNA repair

  12. Histopathological study of the kidney, liver and intestine tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus and angelfish (Pterophyllum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Ahmadmoradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is used for diagnosis of diseases in aquatic animals. This study was conductedto investigate histopathological lesions of kidney, liver and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus andangelfish (Pterophyllum sp. in some aquarium shops during a period between January-April 2010.Several histological alterations were observed in kidney which include glomerulonephritis, cell swelling ofepithelial cells, tubular epithelium necrosis, hyaline droplets and hyaline cast in renal tubules and tubulardilation. Liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and focal areasof necrosis, haemorrhagia and hepatitis. In intestine, atrophy of epithelial cells and enteritis on thelamina propria and submucosal layer were seen. It was concluded that unfavourable environmentalcontamination of aquarium may induced several histopathological alterations in the tissues of goldfishand angelfishes.

  13. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  15. An infection of Gyrodactylus kobayashii Hukuda, 1940 (Monogenea) associated with the mortality of goldfish (Carassius auratus) from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao; Ling, Fei; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-02-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, widely distributed across Eurasia, is one of the earliest fish domesticated for ornamental purposes. A series of diseases break out due to high-density culture of goldfish, causing significant economic losses. Here, we report for the first time an infection of Gyrodactylus kobayashii associated with the high mortality of goldfish from a fish farm in Anziying township of Henan province, China, following their transfer to several aquariums. In the first 2 weeks after goldfish (n = 4200, weight 10.24 ± 1.45 g) transfer to aquariums, a total of 3335 goldfish were lost, representing 79.4 % of the initial stocked biomass. The examination showed that no other pathogens were found in this batch of fishes, except for G. kobayashii. The high burdens of G. kobayashii/fish (264.7, range 100-450) were the primary reason for the high mortality, although this was not the sole cause. In addition, the isolate of G. kobayashii from goldfish (C. auratus) in Henan province of central China was described. The morphological characterization was performed using morphometric measurements and drawings of opisthaptoral hard parts of the parasites. The molecular description was performed based on phylogenetic analysis of a reference DNA sequence spanning 5.8S and ITS-2. Importantly, the present study provides for the first time a full 25 point-to-point morphometric measurements and high-resolution images of attachment organ of G. kobayashii. PMID:25471903

  16. Histopathological study of the kidney, liver and intestine tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and angelfish (Pterophyllum sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebtesam Ahmadmoradi; Annahita Rezaie; Mousavi, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Histopathology is used for diagnosis of diseases in aquatic animals. This study was conductedto investigate histopathological lesions of kidney, liver and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus) andangelfish (Pterophyllum sp.) in some aquarium shops during a period between January-April 2010.Several histological alterations were observed in kidney which include glomerulonephritis, cell swelling ofepithelial cells, tubular epithelium necrosis, hyaline droplets and hyaline cast in renal tubul...

  17. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  18. Assessing the anti-estrogenic activity of sodium pentachlorophenol in primary cultures of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bing; LIU Zheng-tao; XU Zhang-fa

    2006-01-01

    Both pentachlorophenol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) had been studied widely because of their probable anti-estrogenic activity. Sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na), as a industrial product used in many fields, usually contains a trace of TCDD. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-estrogenic effect of PCP-Na in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)hepatocyte cultures using vitellogenin (VTG) as the biomarker. The ID50 of PCP-Na was investigated and then a series of concentrations (0.001-0.5 μg/ml) of PCP-Na were evaluated to estimate the anti-estrogenic activity. Results showed that PCP-Na was cytotoxic for hepatocytes even at very low concentration <1.21 μg/ml, and it could not induce VTG at any concentrations tested.Since it failed to stimulate VTG production, the possibility of its anti-estrogenic effect was tested, and a well-known anti-estrogenic compound-tamoxifen was used as positive control. PCP-Na caused a reduction in VTG synthesis in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes at concentrations >0.1 μg/ml when co-exposure with 1 μg/ml 17β-estradiol (E2), making its anti-estrogenic activity approximately as potent as tamoxifen. Our results indicate that PCP-Na can act as negative modulators of estrogenic function in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes.

  19. 普安银鲫的生物学特性及养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Cultivation Technology of PUAN Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢先中; 冉光鑫; 黄仕洪

    2015-01-01

    普安银鲫(PUAN Carassius auratus)是贵州省特有的天然雌核发育鱼类种质资源;它具有肉质好、生长快、杂食性、抗病力强、营养与药用价值高等特点。该文对普安银鲫形态特征、生活习性、摄食习性、繁殖习性等生物学特征进行了综述。并对普安银鲫养殖过程中池塘准备、放养密度、饲料投喂、水质管理,疾病防治等进行了简单介绍。%PUAN Carassius auratus was indigenous unique natural fish germplasm resources in Guizhou prov⁃ince;it has good meat,fast growth,omnivorous,disease resistance,high nutritional and medicinal value. In this paper,biological characteristics of PUAN Carassius auratus were reviewed,including morphological char⁃acteristics,living habits,feeding habits and breeding habits. Cultivation technology of PUAN Carassius aura⁃tus was introduced briefly,including breeding ponds during the preparation,stocking density,feed,feeding,wa⁃ter quality management and disease prevention.

  20. 11-ketotestosterone induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin secretion in gynogenetic crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Nakanishi, T

    1999-08-01

    To determine if a gynogenetic teleost might have a sexually bipotential brain, we tested whether implantation of 11-ketotestosterone (KT) induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in adult gynogenetic crucian carp, "ginbuna," Carassius auratus langsdorfii. KT-implanted female ginbuna were tested for male spawning behavior by pairing them with a stimulus female in which sexual receptivity and attractivity were induced by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) injection. When KT-implanted female ginbuna were paired with a PG-injected stimulus female ginbuna, all the KT-implanted fish tested showed male spawning behavior in response to the PG-injected females. KT-implanted fish also showed female spawning behavior when they were injected with PG. When the KT-implanted female ginbuna were exposed to waterborne 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (a female sex pheromone that stimulates male-typical GTH secretion in goldfish), all the KT-implanted fish showed an elevation of plasma GTH levels in response to the pheromone. These results demonstrate that gynogenetically evolved ginbuna, like goldfish, is sexually plastic and can be behaviorally and endocrinologically masculinized by androgen treatment without behavioral defeminization. These results support our hypothesis that adult teleosts retain a sexually bipotential brain regardless of reproductive strategy, i.e., hermaphroditism, gonochorism, or gynogenesis. PMID:10417231

  1. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of dichlorvos on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Hua-Dong; Jia, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Fa; Wang, Jun-Song

    2015-11-01

    Dichlorvos (DDVP), one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), has caused serious pollution in environment. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, and biochemical assays were used to investigate toxicities of DDVP on goldfish (Carassius auratus). After 10 days' exposure of DDVP at three dosages of 5.18, 2.59 and 1.73 mg/L, goldfish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathology revealed severe impairment of gills, livers and kidneys, and immunohistochemistry disclosed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive reactive astrocytes in brains. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed that DDVP influenced many metabolites (glutamate, aspartate, acetylcholine, 4-aminobutyrate, glutathione, AMP and lactate in brain; glutathione, glucose, histamine in liver; BCAAs, AMP, aspartate, glutamate, riboflavin in kidney) dose-dependently, involved with imbalance of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and disorders of energy and amino acid metabolism. Several self-protection mechanisms concerning glutamate degradation and glutathione (GSH) redox system were found in DDVP intoxicated goldfish. PMID:26210017

  2. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Wang, Junsong; Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate-glutamine-gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment. PMID:24291083

  3. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Dong; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-02-01

    Butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time. After 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and 0.64 μmol/L, fish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathological inspection revealed severe impairment of gill filaments and obvious cellular edema in livers and kidneys. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in gill and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level in four tissues reflected the disturbance of antioxidative system in the intoxicated goldfish. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and creatinine (CRE) level were increased in butachlor exposure groups, suggesting liver and kidney injuries induced by butachlor. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed metabolic changes that were related to the toxic effects of butachlor including oxidative stress, disorder of energy metabolism and amino acids metabolism, and disturbance of neurotransmitter balance in butachlor exposed goldfish. This integrated metabolomics approach provided a molecular basis underlying the toxicity of butachlor and demonstrated that metabolomics was a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of herbicides and pesticides, applicable for their risk assessment.

  4. STUDIES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF TOPSIN M 70 PU FUNGICIDE ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai Udroiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to see how the metylthiophanate fungicide influences the energetic metabolism and the breathing rhythm at Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch L. 1758. Experimental samples were subjected to under-lethal concentrations of 3.75mg/l, 7.5mg/l, 15mg/l and 30mg/l methyl-thiophanate fungicide from 24 to 336 hours. The physiologic parameter with the highest growth rate was the oxygen consumption, which, at the concentration of 7.5mg/l grew by 40.3% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values, registering the value of 179.52 mg oxygen/l/h compared to 127.95 mg oxygen/l/h. Also, the breathing rhythm grew at the concentration of 7.5 mg/l by 24.76% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values. At the concentration of 30mg/l, both physiologic parameters decreased. So, after 6 hours, the oxygen consumption decrease up to 31.38% from the witness values, registering the value of 51.503mg oxygen/l/h compared to 164.09mg oxygen/l/h, and the breathing rhythm decreased to 84.3% compared to the witness martor.

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF CRYOPROTECTIVE MEDIUM BY MODIFYING IT WITH THE COENZYME OF VITAMIN B12 AND PLASMA OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Syrovatka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To increase the percent of the output of the alive spermatozoids of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with the use of modified cryoprotective media. Methodology. Researches are based on theoretical, experimental and laboratory methods. Implementation of them came true inaccordance with the generally accepted methodologies of cryobiology and selection. Findings. On results undertaken studies negative influence is set on the vital indexes of thawing sperm. At application of standard environment that is made with the use of ethylene glycol middle index to the percent of living unfrozen sperm goes down in 1,8 times, in comparing to native sperm and presents 51,87±4,820. To increase the percentage of live sperm output, after cryopreservation procedures we modified the "basic" kioprotektor coenzyme B12 and gibel carp plasma (Carassius auratus gibelio L.. The vitamin B12 coenzyme was used as a stimulator of vital parameters defrosted sperm. Plasma of blood the gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio L. which was subjected to low temperatures, was used as low-toxic connection that is cryoprotective characteristics. At comparison of different cryoprotectants environments preparation with the use of ethylene glycol, coferment of vitamin of В12 and plasma of blood of the Carassius auratus gibelio L., the best result was shown by an environment modified by the coferment of vitamin of В12. Application of this environment diminishes the percent of living spermatozoa in 1,3 times as compared to native sperm. The percent of living sperm in this variant of experiment presented 66,00±7,111. A cryoprotectants environment appeared ineffective plasma of blood of the European carp entered in the complement of that, the middle index of percent of living spermatozoa in this variant presented 58,67±3,721. Thus found that the use cryoprotective solution modified coenzyme B12 to get the optimal result. Originality. Conducted analysis of influence of

  6. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27064922

  7. Antiparasitic efficacy of piperine against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758): in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Vikash; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Saurav

    2012-11-01

    Argulus are common aquatic ectoparasites that create one of the major threats to aquaculture due to absence of suitable therapy. Piperine, a bioactive component of Piper longum, has medicinal properties and acts as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal, considering eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness. The present study aimed to evaluate antiparasitic effect of piperine against an ectoparasite Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus. Artificial Argulus infection was carried out by cohabitation method, and the fishes were selected for in vivo study when intensity of Argulus infestation was observed to be 15-20 Argulus per fish. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed at different concentration 1.0 (T (1)), 3.0 (T (2)), 5.0 (T (3)), 7.0 (T (4)), and 9.0 mg l(-1) (T (5)) of piperine solution to treat Argulus for 3 and 72 h, respectively. The acute toxicity test for piperine EC 97 % against goldfish was performed for 96 h. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for piperine was found to be 52.64 mg l(-1). In vitro effect of piperine solution led to 100 % mortality of Argulus at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 3 h whereas, under in vivo test, the 100 % antiparasitic efficacy of piperine solution was found at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 48 h. The EC(50) for 48 h was 9.0 mg l(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 5.8. The results revealed that piperine at a concentration of 9.0 mg l(-1) can be used as a potential natural agent for controlling Argulus parasite. PMID:22864920

  8. Etiology and pathology of epidermal papillomas in allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongda; Zhu, Guanglai; Fan, Liping; Zhang, Lianyi

    2009-01-28

    Allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male) is one of the main freshwater aquaculture species in China. In recent years, epidermal papillomas have been observed on the scales, fins and opercula of adult fish in many fish farms in the Chongming county of Shanghai, China. The disease appears in the late autumn of the first year and becomes more severe in winter. It gradually regresses in the late spring or summer of the second year, as water temperature increases. Our study revealed that the disease pathogen was likely to be a herpes-like virus, as indicated by enveloped viral particles in the cytoplasm, empty capsids in the nucleus and a virus-like morphology of the pathogen. The size of the enveloped herpes-like virus was 118.18 +/- 10.53 (SD) nm (n = 22) and its nucleocapsid was 78.64 +/- 7.74 nm (n = 22) in diameter. Histopathological examination of tumours revealed that both epithelial and stromal cells proliferated to form papillomas. The nuclei of epithelial tumour cells were irregular in shape and in size. Most of the mucous cells were located in clusters near the middle of each papilloma. Cytoplasmic organelles were sparse in tumour cells. Numerous granulocytes and lymphocytes infiltrated into the tumour tissue. There were no inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm and nuclei of tumour cells. The lesions only occurred in adult allogynogenetic crucian carp, even though they were cultured together with other fish species. There was marked variation in incidence: in some ponds, only a few fish were affected, while the incidence was up to 90% in other ponds. PMID:19301639

  9. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment

  10. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed between PCBs and biological factors (weight, length, lipid content) for both species. On the other hand, the mean concentration of THg in the muscle of pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens.

  11. Ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigang Xia; Shijian Fu; Zhendong Cao; Jianglan Peng; Jing Peng; Tingting Dai; Lili Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of increasing ecological concern.Swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish.However,the impacts of PFOS on swimming performance remain largely unknown.We investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to PFOS on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus).The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0,0.5,2,8 and 32 mg/L) for 48 hr.The spontaneous swimming activity,fast-start swimming performance,critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and active metabolic rate (AMR) of the goldfish were examined after exposure to PFOS.PFOS exposure resulted in remarkable effects on spontaneous activity.Motion distance was reduced,and the proportion of motionless time increased with increasing concentrations of PFOS.However,no significant alterations in the fast-start performance-related kinematic parameters,such as latency time,maximum linear velocity,maximum linear acceleration or escape distance during the first 120 msec after stimulus,were observed after PFOS exposure.Unexpectedly,although PFOS exposure had marked influences on the swimming oxygen consumption rates and AMR of goldfish,the Ucrit of the goldfish was not significantly affected by PFOS.This may result in a noteworthy increase in the energetic cost of transport.The overall results indicate that,in contrast to spontaneous activity,underlying swimming capabilities are maintained in goldfish after short-term exposure to PFOS,but energy expenditure during the process of swimming is dramatically aggravated.

  12. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  13. A prediction of the global habitat of two invasive fishes (Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus from East Asia using Maxent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi’ao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and goldfish (Carassius auratus, two small omnivorous freshwater fishes, have been introduced into many countries by human activities during recent years. Wide and severe ecological harm has resulted from the pathogens that these fishes carried and from the extremely large populations of these fishes. Based on data from a large number of distribution points systematically identified by our long-term sampling survey and from the FishBase, and on high-resolution environmental data, we used Maxent to obtain the first prediction of the potential global distribution of the two fishes. The results of the study suggest that the topmouth gudgeon and goldfish have an extremely wide potential range in the world and that this is especially the case for the goldfish. In fact, all continents except Antarctica include many potential habitats for the two fishes. Accordingly, these two fishes may spread more widely and create more serious danger to the aquatic ecosystem in the future as human activities continue to expand. Especially, the Mississippi valley in the middle part, and the eastern and southern coasts of the United States of America, region from Seattle to Vancouver of Canada will be the areas of the topmouth gudgeon with highly potential invasive risk. And those areas for goldfish will be the countries of Argentina and Brazil in South America, Guinea and Cameroon in West Africa. Our results also suggest that the use of Maxent with comprehensive distribution data and high resolution environmental data represents a new and valid method for obtaining early warnings serving to prevent the danger of biological invasion.

  14. Effects of Potassium Permanganate on Cough Movement of Carassius auratus%高锰酸钾对鲫鱼咳嗽运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立伟; 谢松; 刘龙; 张锋

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To observe the effects of potassium permanganate on respiratory rate and cough frequency of Carassius auratus ( C. auratus ) in different conditions. [ Method ] According to the simple factor design of experiment, the respiratory rate and cough frequency of C. auratus were observed and recorded. The factors included concentration of potassium permanganate, temperature,time and pH. [ Result] The respiratory rate and cough frequency of C. auratus were increased and then decreased with the increasing concentrations of potassium permanganate,rising of temperature,prolongation of treatment time. The respiratory function of C. auratus was the best in the pH = 7.0 condition. The strong acid and alkali caused the fish lesions and inhibited the respiratory function of C. auratus. [ Conclusion ] The potassium permanganate at different concentrations may impact the cough frequency and respiratory rate of C. auratus.%[目的]观察不同浓度的高锰酸钾对鲫鱼呼吸运动和咳嗽运动的影响.[方法]采用单因子试验设计和直接观察记录法,研究不同浓度的高锰酸钾在不同温度、不同作用时间和不同pH条件下对鲫鱼呼吸运动和咳嗽运动的影响.[结果]鲫鱼的呼吸频率和咳嗽反应频率随着高锰酸钾溶液浓度的升高、温度的升高和处理时间的延长而增大,但刺激务件升高到一定数值后,鲫鱼的呼吸机能受到影响,咳嗽反应频率和呼吸频率又开始变小;中性环境下鲫鱼的呼吸机能处于最佳状态,强酸强碱会使鱼体发生病变,严重抑制呼吸机能.[结论]不同浓度的高锰酸钾在不同条件施用时,均对鲫鱼的呼吸运动和咳嗽运动产生一定的影响.

  15. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  16. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  17. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  18. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  19. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  20. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Tolga

    2011-06-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. It has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. Although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of atrazine and an atrazine-based herbicide (Gesaprim®) on a model fish species Carassius auratus L., 1758, (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/L atrazine and to its commercial formulation for 2, 4 and 6 days. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as positive control. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in erythrocytes of C. auratus, following exposure to commercial formulation of atrazine and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish.

  1. 鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁及其原因初探%Preliminary Investigation on the Changes of cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus Resources in Poyang Lake and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芳; 陈文静; 傅义龙; 周辉明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to protect and exploit reasonably the resources of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake. [ Method ] Based on analyzing the data of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake from 1959 to 2006,the change situations of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake in nearly 50 years were studied. The causes of the changes were preliminarily investigated and some relevant measures were put forward. [ Result ] the individual size and age of sexual maturity had gotten smaller and smaller, although Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus have become the dominant population in Poyang Lake in the past fifty years. The resources showed the severe recession conditions. The causes were mainly due to low water level of Poyang Lake in dry season, water pollution, and over-fishing and illegal fishing gear and methods and other aspects. [ Conclusion ] The range of egg-laying field of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake should be confirmed. And the direct discharge of industrial sewage, municipal sewage and agricultural non-point Pollution in the basin of Poyang Lake should be strictly controlled.%[目的]保护和合理开发利用鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源.[方法]在分析1959-2006年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源数据的基础上,分析近50年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁情况,并初步探讨了该变化的发生原因及相关应对措施.[ 结果]50来鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼虽成为优势种群,但其个体越来越小,性成熟年龄也越来越小,资源呈现出严重衰退状况.其原因主要是由于鄱阳湖枯水期水位过低,水质污染,加上过度捕捞以及非法渔具渔法的滥用等方面引起的.[结论]应明确鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼产卵场的范围,严格控制鄱阳湖流域工业污水、城市污水以及农业面污染源的直接排放.

  2. Genotoxicity of Water Contaminants from the Basin of Lake Sevan, Armenia Evaluated by the Comet Assay in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Tradescantia Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Gabrielyan, Barduch; Minasyan, Seyran; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2016-03-01

    Combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of Lake Sevan in Armenia. Water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. Significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity according to fish and Trad-MCN bioassays have been revealed. Two groups of locations with lower (south-southwest of the village Shorzha and Peninsula of Lake Sevan) and higher (estuaries of Gavaraget and Dzknaget rivers) levels of water genotoxicity were distinguished. Correlation analysis support the hypothesis that the observed genetic alterations in fish and plant may be a manifestation of the effects of water contamination by nitrate ions, Si, Al, Fe, Mn and Cu. Increase of DNA damage in fish also correlated with content of total phosphorus. PMID:26739952

  3. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  4. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  5. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Qin, Li; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state.

  6. 四溴双酚A的鲫鱼血清蛋白生物标志物研究%Biomarkers of Serum Protein to Tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丰超; 杨苏文; 徐范范; 丁志山; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Carassius auratus as test subject, acute toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), potential biomarkers of serum protein and toxicity target organ histopathology were studied.Results showed that 96 h-LC50 of Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA was 3.13 mg/L, and serum proteins of Carassius auratus can be divided into 11 components exposure to different concentrations TBBPA at different times.There were differences within protein components with time and concentration existed.Component 11 with clear bands and the largest amplitude first decreased then increased, and reached the highest value at low concentration on the 16th day, while it reached the highest value on the 2nd day at high concentration.The molecular weight of Component 11 was 24 kDa, may be the solution of polymer of calcitonin factor in coriouscles of stannius of Carassius auratus.The histopathological results indicated that Carassius auratus liver and kidney showed time-dose-dependent of pathological damage synchronously.The protein component 11 which responds sensitively on the concentration and time of TBBPPA inducing as well as easier to be recognized and identified can be used as the potential biomarkers in Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA.%以鲫鱼为供试生物,对四溴双酚A(TBBPA)的急性毒性、血清蛋白潜在生物标志物以及相应的毒性靶器官组织病理进行了研究,结果表明TBBPA对鲫鱼96h的半致死浓度LC50是3.13 mg/L,TBBPA诱导下鲫鱼血清蛋白可区分为11个组分,各组分随时间和浓度的变化规律存在差异.组分11条带清晰,表达量变化幅度最大,在低浓度TBBPA暴露下表达量先降低后升高,第16天达到最高;高浓度时表达量在第2天达到最高.组分11的分子量为24 kDa,可能为鲫鱼斯坦尼小体(CS)中降血钙因子的解聚物.组织病理切片结果显示,鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏均表现出时间-剂量依赖性,且与组分11的诱导差异性表达呈现相应的病理损伤.

  7. Distribution and bioaccumulation of tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus tissues and its pathological effect%四溴双酚A在鲫鱼不同器官中的分布、富集及病理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苏文; 徐范范; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and bioaccumulation of TBBPA in different Carassius auratus tissues exposed to varied TBBPA concentrations were measured and analyzed. The corresponding pathological effects were also assessed. Results indicated that the concentrations of TBBPA increased firstly, then decreased in Carassius auratus liver and kidney at high as well as low dose group. Indicating that both the fish liver and kidney had a strong capacity of bioaccumulation. Nevertheless, the concentrations of TBBPA showed a similarity only at high dose in gill and muscle. The bioaccumulation capacity of the gill and muscle was comparatively lower. Pathological observations revealed that the pathological damage was time-dose-dependent in the liver, kidney and gill. Under the same TBBPA concentration, the gonad damage caused by TBBPA to the male was more serious than that to the female.%研究了将鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)长期暴露于不同浓度的四溴双酚A(TBBPA)后的器官组织分布和浓缩富集系数,同时对不同暴露时间的鲫鱼不同器官病理切片进行了观察.结果显示,各浓度组鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏的TBBPA含量都表现出先升高后下降的趋势,鳃和肌肉中TBBPA含量只有在高浓度时呈现相同的趋势.病理切片显示鲫鱼肝脏、肾脏和鳃等器官组织均表现出时间-剂量依赖性的病理损伤,在相同暴露浓度下,雄鱼的性腺损伤程度高于雌鱼.

  8. Analysis on the Muscle Nutrition Component of Carassius auratus (A form)%普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉的营养成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 安苗; 范兴刚; 刘贵林; 黄仕洪; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reference for developing animal industry or other basic researches of Carassius auratus. In this paper, the nutritive composition in muscle of C. auratus (A form) was quantitatively analyzed by biochemical method. The results showed that water content was (78. 28 + 0.15)%, crude protein content was (16. 79±0. 30)%, crude fat content was (0. 74 + 0. 02) %, crude ash content was (0. 98 + 0. 05)%. The muscle of C. auratus (A form) consisted of 17 kinds of amino acids, the gross amount was 20. 08% , and the gross amount of essential amino acids was 8. 21%. The ratio of the essential amino acids to the total amino acids was 40. 89%. The ratio of the content of the essential amino acids to that of the non-essential amino acids was 69. 19%. The proportion of the essential amino acids was in accordance with the standards of FAO/WHO. The'contents of EPA and DHA in fatty acids were 0. 48% and 2. 15% respectively. This research indicated that C. auratus(A form) was a kind of cultured fishes, which had high protein, low fat, abundant amino acids, delicious taste and high nutritive value.%为普安银鲫的推广养殖或其他基础研究提供参考依据,应用生化分析方法对普安银鲫A型鱼的肌肉营养成分进行了定量分析.结果表明:普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中水分为(78.28±0.15)%,粗蛋白含量为(16.79±0.30)%,粗脂肪含量为(0.74±0.02)%,粗灰分含量为(0.98±0.05)%.普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中含有17种氨基酸,总量为20.08%,必需氨基酸总量为8.21%,必需氨基酸与总氨基酸比值为40.89%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸比值为69.19%,其必需氨基酸的构成比例符合FAO/WHO标准;脂肪酸中的EPA与DHA含量分别为0.48%和2.15%.普安银鲫A型鱼是一种高蛋白、低脂肪、氨基酸含量丰富、味道鲜美、营养价值高的养殖鱼类.

  9. 镉对红鲫免疫及生殖功能的影响%Effect of Cadmium on Immune and Reproductive Function in Carassius auratus Red Variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 李幸; 吴端生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of cadmium on the immune function and reproductive function in red crucian carp.Methods Twenty - eight Carassius auratus red variety were randomly and averagely divided into 4 groups at different doses of cadmium (0.0 mg/L, 0.2 mog/L, 0.8 mg/L, and 1.6 mg/L).The blood was collected for taking count of the WBC.The spleen and reproductive system were anatomized for counting the organ coefficients.The content of cadmium in the reproductive system was detected by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.Results Cadmium in red crucian carp could lead to a significant increase in the spleen coefficient.The number of white corpuscle in the low - dose group was significantly higher than that in other groups (P<0.05).The number of white blood cell in the middle- dose and high- dose groups was lower than that in the low - dose group, but no statistically significant difference was found between the control group and the middle - dose group or the high - dose group.lt was indicated that cadmium could do harm to spleen.The cadmium could be enriched in reproductive system, which indicated that cadmium might bring about injury in the reproductive system of red crucian carp.Conclusions Cadmium could possess immunotoxicity and reproductive toxicity on Carassius auratus red variety.%目的 研究镉对红鲫的免疫毒性和生殖毒性.方法 取红鲫28尾,随机分四组,分对照组(不加氯化镉)、低剂量组(0.2 mg/L)、中剂量组(0.8 mg/L)和高剂量组(1.6 mg/L),用含不同浓度镉的曝气水饲养红鲫鱼,采血进行白细胞计数;计算脾脏及生殖系统脏器系数,用石墨炉原子吸收法检测生殖系统的镉含量.结果 1.镉能导致红鲫脾脏脏器系数显著增加,低镉组白细胞数明显高于其它剂量组(P<0.05),而中、高镉组白细胞数与低镉组相比有下降趋势,但与对照组比较差异无统计学意义,表明镉对脾脏有一定的损伤作用.2.镉在生殖系统富集,

  10. Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs.

  11. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  12. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P diet showed increased skin mucus immune response (total protein and lysozyme activity) compared other groups (P < 0.0.5); except in case of ALP activity. Molecular studies on appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P < 0.0.5). These results showed immunomodulatory effects of dietary GOS on serum and skin mucus response as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines in goldfish, though this supplement decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance. PMID:27311434

  13. Genetic basis and breeding application of clonal diversity and dual reproduction modes in polyploid Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A unisexual species is generally associated with polyploidy, and reproduced by a unisexual reproduction mode, such as gyno- genesis, hybridogenesis or parthenogenesis. Compared with other unisexual and polyploid species, gibel carp (Carassius au- ratus gibelio) has a higher ploidy level of hexaploid. It has undergone several successive rounds of genome polyploidy, and experienced an additional, more recent genome duplication event. More significantly, the dual reproduction modes, including gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, have been demonstrated to coexist in the polyploid gibel carp. This article reviews the genetic basis concerning polyploidy origin, clonal diversity and dual reproduction modes, and outlines the progress in new va- riety breeding and gene identification involved in the reproduction and early development. The data suggests that gibel carp are under an evolutionary trajectory of diploidization. As a novel evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) biology model, this work highlights future perspectives about the functional divergence of duplicated genes and the sexual origin of vertebrate animals.

  14. 饲料中鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响%Influence of Additive Amount of Fish Oil on Growth and Body Color of Carassius auratus red variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 李明云; 贾福怀

    2015-01-01

    为研究鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响,在喂养红鲫鱼的饲料中分别添加质量分数0%、2.5%、5%、10%的鱼油,投喂49 d,并将其与空白组分别进行对照.结果表明:添加2.5%的鱼油喂养红鲫鱼对红鲫鱼的生长最佳.随着鱼油喂养量的不断增加,红鲫鱼体重和体长的增加率呈一定的下降趋势.以观赏鱼的红度、白度、黄度作为重要的评判标准,5%鱼油添加量更有助于提高红鲫鱼的红度值,降低白度值和黄度值.%In order to investigate the impact of fish oil on growth and body color of Carassius auratus red variety, the diet of Carassius auratus red variety is added with fish oil of different concentration level (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and fed for 49 days. The results show that 2.5%additional fish oil is the best diet for the growth of Carassius auratus red variety. The more the fish oil feeding is given, the more slowly the weight and length of Carassius auratus red variety increase. Body color is an important factor for ornamental fish, which is standardized with the degree of red, white, yellow. It is found that 5%fish oil helps increase the red color index of Carassius auratus red variety, while reduce that of white and yellow.

  15. Effects of Cardiac Glycosides from Nerium indicum on Juvenile Carassius auratus%夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)皂甙对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)幼鱼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 戴灵鹏; 郑祥河; 席启斐; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of cardiac glycosides of N. Indicum on non-target organism, the effects of different concentration of cardiac glycosides(0, 5.89, 20.12 mg·L-1 and 80.76 mg·L-1) on mortality, specific growth rate, glycogen and protein content, SOD activity as well as micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus were investigated during exposure for 14 d and its recovery response after 7 d by using semi-static test method. The results showed that fish did not die when the concentration of cardiac glycosides ≤20.12 mg·L-1 during 14 d exposure periods. However, with 80.76 mg·L-1, 100% of the fish died within 5 d. When cardiac glycosides concentration reach to 20.12 mg·L-1, the specific growth rate, glycogen and protein contents decreased gradually while the SOD activity increased first and then decreased during the whole experiment. After a recovery period of 7 d, the inhibition of specific growth rate and SOD activity were weakened gradually and the glycogen and protein content were no significant difference between control and treatment group. In addition, the result of micronucleus test showed that cardiac glycosides did not significantly affect the micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus. These results suggested that cardiac glycosides was low toxicity and no genotoxicity found, which supports that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. However, higher concentration of cardiac glucosides seriously impaired the normal physiological metabolism, resulting in the growth inhibition of C. Auratus, even caused fish death in the end.%为了评价夹竹桃皂甙对非靶标生物的潜在危害,采用半静态法研究了不同浓度(0、5.89、20.12 mg·L-1和80.76 mg·L4)的夹竹桃皂甙对鲫鱼幼苗的死亡情况、特定生长率、糖原、蛋白质含量、SOD酶活性和微核率的影响.结果表明,当夹竹桃皂甙处理浓度≤20.12 mg·L-1时,处

  16. Molecular cloning and differential expression patterns of the regulatory subunit B’ gene of PP2A in goldfish,Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; David; WanCheng

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A(PP2A) plays very important roles in many different cellular processes,including cell proliferation and differentiation,gene expression,neurotransmission,apoptosis,and aging.PP2A consists of three heterogenic subunits:the scaffold subunit A,the catalytic subunit C,and the regulatory subunit B.While both the scaffold and the catalytic subunits contain only two forms,at least four families of the regulatory subunits,B,B’,B’’,and B’’’ have been identified.These regulatory subunits from different families are encoded by different genes and bear other functions besides directing the specificity of PP2A.To study the functions of the regulatory subunits of PP2A in lower vertebrates,we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit B’δ of PP2A from gold fish,Carassius auratus using 3’-RACE and 5’-RACE cloning strategies.Our results revealed that the full-length B’δ cDNA contains 2415 bp and encodes a protein of 555 amino acids.The B’δ protein displays a very high level of sequence identity with the B’δ regulatory subunit from other species of vertebrates.Regarding its expression pattern,RT-PCR revealed that the highest level of mRNA was detected in brain,a less level detected in liver,spermary,ovary,kidney and gill,and the lowest level detected in the fin.During different developmental stages of gold fish,the highest level of mRNA expression was detected at the stages of two-cell,multiple-cell,blastula and gastrula,and a decreased level of B’δ mRNA was detected in other developmental stages.At the protein level,the highest expression level of B’δ protein was found in spermary,ovary,brain and heart,a less amount found in liver and the lowest level detected in kidney,gill and fin.Developmentally,B’δ protein was strongly expressed at the stages of two-cell,multiple-cell,blastula,gastrula,neurula,and optic vesicle,and then decreased

  17. 鲢、鲤和鲫肝细胞原代培养%PRIMARY HEPATOCYTE CULTURE OF HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX,CYPRINUS CARPIO AND CARASSIUS AURATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效宇; 刘永定; 宋立荣

    2001-01-01

    @@微囊藻毒素(Microcystins)是一类淡水水体中危害很严重的生物毒素(Biotoxin),由微囊藻毒素所引发的环境问题及其对人类健康的危害正日益受到科学家的关注[1]。已知微囊藻毒素作用的靶器官为肝脏,以往的研究多集中在微囊藻毒素对动物肝脏组织的损伤,如口服或腹腔注射毒素,引起肝组织结构破坏、肝出血甚至肝坏死,但用整体实验动物或器官研究微囊藻毒素毒理学较难深入,因此建立毒理学实验模型十分重要。肝脏作为动物体内最重要的解毒器官,是研究微囊藻毒素毒理学的主要对象。一般毒理学实验都采用肝脏原代培养细胞,因为原代培养细胞生理生化及遗传特性稳定,适于研究外界毒物的毒性、毒理及肝细胞对毒物的应答和解毒机理。本实验通过对鲢(Hypophthalmichthy molitrix Carier et Valencienines)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus)和鲫(Carassius auratus Linnaeus)肝脏原代细胞培养,以建立稳定的毒理学实验模型,为微囊藻毒素毒理学研究奠定基础。

  18. Influence of Water Temperature on Respiratory Frequency of Carassius Auratus and Pterophyllum Scalare%水温对金鱼和神仙鱼呼吸频率的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进树

    2011-01-01

    When the rearing water temperature was kept at 28℃ ,25℃ ,22℃, 19℃ ,and 16℃ separately, a linear relationship between the water temperature and the respiratory frequency of Carassius auratus and PterophyUum scalare was all showed,and the regression equation was Y = 2.622X + 43.911( R = 0. 853) ,and Y = 5. 178X - 8.994( R = 0. 827). The influence of the changes of water temperature on the respiratory frequency of Pterophyllum scalare was more obvious than that of Carassius auratus. In addition, the discrepancy of respiratory frequency between Carassius auratus and Ptero- phyllum scalare was not overt (P 〉 0.05) when the water temperature was kept at 28 ℃ and 25 ℃, 25 ℃ and 22 ℃, while the discrepancy of respiratory frequency between both fish was obvious(P 〈 0.05) when the water temperature was kept at 22℃ and 19℃,19℃and 16℃.%在饲养水温为28℃、25℃、22℃、19℃、16℃时,水温对金鱼和神仙鱼的呼吸频率的影响均呈线性关系,其回归方程分别为Y=2.622X+43.911(R=0.853)和Y=5.178X-8.994(R=0.827),水温变化对神仙鱼呼吸频率的影响比金鱼明显。另外,28%与25℃、25℃与22℃时金鱼和神仙鱼的呼吸频率差异不显著(P〉0.05),而水温22℃与19℃、19℃与16℃的比较均差异显著(P〈0.05)。

  19. 金鱼Dmrt2基因表达分析%Expression of Dmrt2 gene in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江山; 陈晓武; 施志仪; 李倩

    2012-01-01

    Dmrt2,dsx and mab-3 related transcription factor 2 are members of a gene family of putative transcription factors which contain a common zinc finger-like DNA binding motif,DM domain.The full-length cDNA of Dmrt2a gene was obtained from total RNA isolated from the liver of goldfish by the technology of RACE(Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends).The complete cDNA of goldfish Dmrt2a is 1 755 bp and its ORF(opening reading frame) includes 1 500 bp which codes 499 amino acid residues.Dmrt2a in goldfish shares high homology with Dmrt2a genes from other fishes via phylogenesis analysis.The sequence homologies between deduced goldfish Dmrt2a peptide and that from zebrafish,takifugu,medaka and tilapia are 85%,61%,58% and 58%,respectively.SYBR Green I Quantitative Real-time PCR analysis was used to assess the expression of Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b at mRNA level.The Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b genes were expressed from early embryo stage to juveniles of 15 days post hatching(dph).Dmrt2a was expressed highly in embryos,reached a peak at 24 hours post fertilization(hpf),and decreased at 36 hpf;Dmrt2b was expressed lowly in embryos and increased obviously after hatching.In adult goldfish,Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b genes were expressed highly in ovary and testis,and had a low expression in intestine,kidney,liver,heart and brain.%采用荧光定量PCR技术检测了Dmrt2基因的两个亚型Dmrt2a和Dmrt2b在金鱼(Carassius auratus)不同发育时期以及不同组织中的表达情况,用RACE技术克隆得到金鱼Dmrt2a cDNA序列的全长为1 755 bp,5'和3'非编码区长分别为188 bp和67 bp,推测的开放阅读框可编码499个氨基酸的多肽。分子系统进化分析表明金鱼Dmrt2a与其它鱼类Dmrt2a基因聚成一支,与斑马鱼(Daniorerio)、红鳍东方鲀(Takifugu rubripes)、青鳉(Oryzias latipes)、罗非鱼(Oreochromis Niloticus)Dmrt2a的同源性分别为85%、61%、58%、58%。荧光定量PCR结果揭示,Dmrt2a在精巢中表达量

  20. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  1. Effects of High Efficiency Cultivation of First Feeds of Carassius auratus by Fermentative Peanut-gluten%发酵花生麸快速培育鲫鱼苗开口饵料的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄安群; 唐国盘; 张淋江

    2015-01-01

    以豆浆培育鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)苗开口饵料为对照,进行了发酵花生麸快速培育鲫鱼苗开口饵料的大塘效果试验.结果表明,用乳酸菌和酵母发酵花生麸培育浮游生物,第二天即出现轮虫高峰,第四天为枝角类高峰,第六天为桡足类高峰,与鲫鱼的开口食性需求基本吻合,表明发酵花生麸快速培育浮游生物有很好的效果,可以用作于鱼苗开口饵料.

  2. Swimming performance and energy metabolism of male and female crucian carps ( Carassius auratus) during their Ⅲ reproduction phase%繁殖Ⅲ期不同性别鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)的运动能力及能量代谢的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晗; 曹振东; 付世建

    2012-01-01

    为了考查繁殖期不同性别鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)的运动能力及生理代谢特征,在20±1℃条件下,分别依次测定l龄且处于繁殖第Ⅲ期不同性别实验鱼的快速启动、临界游泳速度(Ucit)、静止代谢率( MO2rest)、最大运动代谢率(MO2active)及运动过程中的代谢率( MO2).结果表明:鲫鱼雌鱼与雄鱼的临界游泳速度(Ucrit)分别为6.97±0.22、7.29±0.31BL·s-1,差异不显著;雌、雄鱼快速启动中的最大运动速度(Vmax)分别为20.48±0.69、20.40±1.09 BL·s-1,无显著差异,同时它们的最大加速度(amax)、反应时间、120 ms内移动距离同样均无显著差异;雌鱼与雄鱼的MO2rest差异不显著;MO2active与代谢空间(△MO2)分别为341.92±22.59、307.50±22.66 mg O2·kg-1·h-1和257.18±18.51、220.20±18.95 mgO2·kg-1·h-1,前者均显著高于后者(P<0.01).可见,处于繁殖Ⅲ期的鲫鱼雌鱼与雄鱼的Ucrit及快速启动均无显著差异;并且雌鱼有氧运动能力的维持存在功率补偿.%To examine whether the swimming performance and metabolic traits of 1 -year-old male and female crucian carps ( Carassius auratus) during their H reproduction phase have differences , the fast-start movement, critical swimming speed ( UCrit) , rest metabolic rate (MO2resl) , active metabolic rate ( MO2active) , and metabolic rate ( M02) during different swimming speeds were measured at water temperature 20 ± 1 ℃. The Uclil of female and male crucian carps was 6. 97±0. 22 and 7. 29+0. 31 BL · s-1 , and the maximum linear velocity during fast-start movement ( Vmax) was 20. 48±0. 69 and 20. 40±1. 09 BL · s-1, respectively, with no significant differences. The Ucrit, Vmax, maximum linear acceleration during fast-start movement ( amax) , reaction time, migration distance during the first 120 ms of fast-start movement, and MO2rest of female and male crucian carps also had no significant differences. However, the MO2active and metabolic scope of female

  3. 龙池鲫 DNA 含量、倍性分析及其形态学特征研究%Studies on the DNA content, chromosome ploidy and Morphological characters of Carassius auratus in Long Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐钢春; 殷文健; 顾若波; 周国勤; 茆健强

    2015-01-01

    以鸡( Gallus sp.)红细胞DNA含量(2.5 pg/N)为标准对照,利用流式细胞术测定了龙池鲫( Carassius aura-tus in Long Lake )的红细胞核DNA含量,采用T型标技术标记了2倍体与3倍体龙池鲫并研究了2倍体与3倍体龙池鲫的形态特征,为阐明龙池鲫的遗传背景及资源增殖保护提供科学依据。结果显示,实验检测的265尾龙池鲫中,42尾龙池鲫样品红细胞核的相对DNA含量接近76,占15.85%,223尾样品接近110,占群体数的84.15%;二倍体龙池鲫的DNA含量为3.83 pg/N,三倍体龙池鲫的DNA含量为5.38 pg/N。龙池鲫是由二倍体和三倍体两种类型的鱼组成的混合群体;侧线鳞数量可作为二倍体龙池鲫与三倍体龙池鲫的辨别参考指标。 T型标暂养1周后龙池鲫的成活率达到100%,脱牌率为1.13%。%Using cock red cell DNA content as control , DNA contents from Carassius auratus in Long Lake were measured by flow cytometry.Then, the diploid and triploid C.auratus were discreted by T-bar tags technology and the morphological characters were studied .to provide the scientific basis for the genetic background and resource proliferation protection for them.The results showed the DNA contents of 42 C.auratus in Long Lake were close to 76, which accounted for 15.85%(42/265), and the contents for the other 223 fish were close to 110, which account for 84.15% (223/265); the DNA contentsed was 3.83 pg/N for diploid C.auratus in Long Lake and 5.38 pg/N for triploid.It was suggest that C.auratus in Long Lake was a mixed population composed of diploid and triploid fish .It was found that the number of lateral line scales could be served as reference index to distinguish the diploid and triploid C.auratus in Long Lake.The survival rate of T -bar tag-holding was 100%and the tag-shedding rate was 1.13%.

  4. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Pentraxin gene from Carassius auratus%异育银鲫 PTX3基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李森; 何川; 胡瑞雪; 顾泽茂

    2016-01-01

    为研究 Pentraxin 3(PTX3)在鱼类中的作用,克隆得到异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio )PTX 3基因,并对其序列结构特征和表达模式进行分析。异育银鲫 PTX 3序列由3个外显子和2个内含子构成,编码453个氨基酸。异育银鲫 PTX3蛋白的前22 aa 为信号肽,241~453 aa 为 PTX 结构域;在 PTX 结构域有一个非典型的 Pentraxin 信号。同源进化分析发现,异育银鲫 PTX3与其他鱼类聚为一支,且与斑马鱼最为相似(79%);两栖类和哺乳类各自聚为一支。实时荧光定量 PCR 结果显示,PTX 3在异育银鲫的心脏、肝脏、脾脏、头肾、体肾、鳃、脑、肌肉、肠、血液、性腺等11个组织中都有表达。在嗜水气单胞菌攻毒后,肝脏、脾脏、头肾、肠和血液中 PTX 3 mRNA 水平都显著上调。在感染后3 h,脾脏中 PTX 3 mRNA 水平即出现显著上调;感染后6 h,血液中 PTX 3 mRNA 水平即达到了峰值。这些结果表明,PTX3作为急相反应蛋白在鱼类受到病原侵袭中发挥免疫保护作用。%We cloned the DNA and cDNA sequence of the Pentraxin 3 gene (PTX 3)from Carassius auratus ,and examined its expression patterns in various tissues and after Aeromonas hydrophila infec-tion.Bioinformatics analysis showed that the C .auratus PTX 3 gene consists of three exons and two in-trons,encoding 453 amino acids with the signal peptide (1-22 aa)and a pentraxin domain (241-453 aa). Sequences analysis revealed that the C .auratus PTX 3 amino acids sequence is closest to that of ze-brafish (79%).Phylogenetic analysis showed that C .auratus fall in the fish clade.Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the C .auratus PTX 3 is constitutively expressed in the heart,liver,spleen,head kidney,kidney,gills,brain,muscle,intestine,blood,and gonads.The mRNA levels of PTX 3 in the liver, spleen,head-kidney,intestine and blood increased significantly after A .hydrophila infection.At 3 h post-infection,the PTX 3 mRNA levels in

  5. AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism:増幅断片長多型)解析による3倍性ギンブナ(Carassius auratus langsdorfi)に特徴的なゲノムマーカーの探索

    OpenAIRE

    高瀬, 有加里; 藤谷, 英男; 村上, 賢; タカセ, ユカリ; フジタニ, ヒデオ; ムラカミ, マサル; Yukari, TAKASE; Hideo, Fujitani; Masaru, MURAKAMI

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese silver crucian carp (so-called ginbuna, Carassius auratus langsdrofi) has two reproduction systems; one is a sexual reproduction practiced by diploid individuals and the other is gynogenetic reproduction by triploid individuals. In this study, AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis was carried out to isolate and characterize genomic DNA markers for triploid ginbuna, as a step toward revealing the genomic makeup and origin of triploid ginbuna. Two valuable DNA mark...

  6. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  7. Segregation patterns of microsatellite markers indicate triploid Cara-ssius auratus generate aneuploid sperm%微卫星分离模式显示雄性三倍体鲫产生非整倍体精子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程磊; 曹顶臣; 鲁翠云; 李超; 孙效文

    2014-01-01

    三倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)行天然雌核发育,其自然种群中却有较高比例的雄性个体,这些雄性个体的性腺发育正常,能产生有活力的精子。而且其精子的DNA含量约为体细胞的一半,显示三倍体鲫精子发生过程中可能经历了均等的减数分裂。流式细胞术虽然能够较准确地测定细胞群的平均DNA含量,但是却很难检测到单个精子中的个别染色体增减,要明确回答雄性三倍体鲫产生的精子是否为整倍体需要定量地检测单个精子的遗传组成。本研究用微卫星标记检测以雌性鲤(Cyprinus carpio)与雄性三倍体鲫为亲本构建的杂种家系的基因型,结果发现母本鲤的多态位点在子代中呈孟德尔分离,父本三倍体鲫具有三套鲫基因组,其等位基因在子代中呈随机分离。上述研究结果提示:三倍体鲫起源于二倍体鲫的同源加倍,而非二倍体鲫和鲤的种间杂交;三倍体鲫通过染色体的随机分离产生非整倍体的精子,其精子发生过程中没有均等的减数分裂。三倍体鲫行雌核发育生殖,却可能并非起源于种间杂交且群体中的雄性个体可育,因而是单性生殖鱼类中的一个特例。%Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) is an important aquaculture species, in which diploid, triploid and tetraplo-id forms coexist. Diploid crucian carp reproduce sexually, while both triploid and tetraploid crucian carp reproduce via gynogenesis. Because only females passed their genome to the next generation, gynogenetic fishes are usually all fe-male and reproduce clonally. However, there are unusual high proportion of males in natural populations of triploid crucian carp. These males have normally developed testis, which can generate viable sperm. Additionally, DNA content of sperm was about half of that of somatic cell, which indicated that meiosis has occurred during spermatogenesis of triploid crucian carp. The average DNA

  8. CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF KAISO IN GOLDFISH, CARASSIUS AURATUS%鲫Kaiso 基因cDNA 的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海炎; 黄万旭; 罗琛

    2013-01-01

    -tional repressor, plays an important role in timing the expression of methylated genes during early embryogenesis in amphibian and zebrafish. To investigate the reproductive and developmental functions of DNA methylation in goldfish (Carassius auratus), an important cultural fish, we cloned its full-length Kaiso cDNA by reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The spatiotemporal expression pattern of goldfish Kaiso was examined by whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The entire Kaiso cDNA was 3145 bp long, including a 132 bp long 5'-UTR, a 1117 bp long 3'-UTR and a 1896 bp long open read frame, which encoded a protein with 631 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment of Kaisos of Carassius auratus, Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed that the structure of goldfish Kaiso protein also consisted a highly-conserved BTB/POZ domain at the N-terminal and zinc finger domains at the C-terminal. Whole-mount in situ hybridization examination showed that Kaiso was ubiquitously expressed during early embryogenesis but tissue-specifically expressed from bud stage onward. qRT-PCR examination revealed that high abundance maternal Kaiso mRNA existed in the eggs. During embryogenesis, the level of Kaiso mRNA gradually decreased during cleavage and remained low from late blastula stage to early gastrula stage, and then gradually increased from late gastrula stage and reached to the highest level at bud stage. These results suggested that the Kaiso transcripts detected in cleavage stage might be the maternal mRNA and the transcription of zygotic Kaiso might start at late blastula stage. qRT-PCR analysis of different adult tissues revealed that the transcriptional levels of Kaiso in the muscle, retina, heart and brain were much higher than those in the kidney, pancreas and liver. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Kaiso suggested that

  9. Solution structure of the Z-DNA binding domain of PKR-like protein kinase from Carassius auratus and quantitative analyses of the intermediate complex during B-Z transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Ree; Park, Chin-Ju; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Jin-Wan; Kwon, Mun-Young; Lee, Janghyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Choi, Byong-Seok; Lee, Joon-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Z-DNA binding proteins (ZBPs) play important roles in RNA editing, innate immune response and viral infection. Structural and biophysical studies show that ZBPs initially form an intermediate complex with B-DNA for B-Z conversion. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of Z-DNA binding and B-Z transition is still lacking, due to the absence of structural information on the intermediate complex. Here, we report the solution structure of the Zα domain of the ZBP-containing protein kinase from Carassius auratus(caZαPKZ). We quantitatively determined the binding affinity of caZαPKZ for both B-DNA and Z-DNA and characterized its B-Z transition activity, which is modulated by varying the salt concentration. Our results suggest that the intermediate complex formed by caZαPKZ and B-DNA can be used as molecular ruler, to measure the degree to which DNA transitions to the Z isoform.

  10. 苯并(a)芘对鲫鱼肝脏EROD活性的影响%Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on 7-ethoxyre sorufin O-deethylase activity in Carassius auratus liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙竹筠; 周忠良; 李康; 殷浩文; 顾建华

    2005-01-01

    研究了典型多环芳烃类有机污染物苯并(a)芘(BaP)对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)肝脏7-乙氧基-3-异吩(噁)唑酮-脱乙基酶(EROD)活性的影响.结果表明,注射后96 h,10和100mg·kg-1处理组肝脏EROD活性被明显诱导,分别为对照组的2,3(P<0.05)和3.1倍(P<0.01).肝脏EROD活性随着时间延长继续升高,至注射后14 d,1 mg·kg-1处理组鲫鱼肝脏EROD活性为对照的3.0倍(P<0.001),而100 mg·kg-1处理组则高达5.8倍(P<0.001).鲫鱼肝脏EROD活性可作为反映BaP暴露水平的生物标志物.BaP对鲫鱼的最低效应浓度为1 mg·kg-1(鱼体重).

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in goldfish, Carassius auratus: molecular cloning, tissue expression, and mRNA expression responses to periprandial changes and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Haiyan; Yan, Fangfang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the cDNA encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) was cloned from the liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus). The obtained goldfish IGFBP-1 cDNA sequence was 1037 bp in length and had an open reading frame of 789 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 262 amino acid residues. IGFBP-1 transcript was detected in all tested central nervous and peripheral tissues. The relatively higher levels of IGFBP-1 mRNA were observed in the liver, gill, kidney, heart, spleen, fat and testis, while the lower levels were found in all different regions of brain, muscle and intestine. In the skin, IGFBP-1 mRNA expression level was extremely low. The IGFBP-1 mRNA expression level in liver was significantly elevated after feeding. With cadmium exposure for 24 h, IGFBP-1 mRNA expression levels in spleen and liver were significantly increased at different cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 10 ppm. The results in this study provided the data regarding molecular characteristics and expression patterns of IGFBP-1 in goldfish and showed that the expression of IGFBP-1 mRNA might be associated with metabolic status and heavy metal stress and regulated by metabolic factors and cadmium in fish. PMID:26753895

  12. Effects of Dietary Yeast Nucleotides on Growth and Immune Enzyme Activities of Carassius auratus gibelio%酵母核苷酸对异育银鲫生长和免疫酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文志; 罗方妮; 杨成; 陈宝国

    2007-01-01

    在基础饲料中分别添加0(对照组)、86、172、258、344和430 mg/kg的酵母核苷酸,饲喂异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)75 d,研究酵母核苷酸对其生长和免疫酶活性的影响.结果显示:添加344 mg/kg和430 mg/kg的酵母核苷酸组显著促进了异育银鲫的生长和降低了饲料系数,添加172 mg/kg的酵母核苷酸显著提高了异育银鲫血清中溶菌酶活力和碱性磷酸酶活性.考虑生长和免疫酶两方面因素,异育银鲫饲料中酵母核苷酸的适宜添加量为344 mg/kg.

  13. 新疆额尔齐斯河水系银鲫克隆多样性研究%STUDIES ON CLONAL DIVERSITY OF GIBEL CARP, CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO, FROM THE IRTYSH RIVER WATER SYSTEM IN XINJIANG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李风波; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch)由于其独特的遗传背景和繁殖方式而成为研究进化遗传学和选择育种的一个独特的模式生物.到目前为止,我们对新疆额尔齐斯河水系银鲫群体的多样性状况一直知之甚少.为了更好地了解额尔齐斯河水系银鲫群体的克隆多样性状况,本研究中,我们采集了来自新疆额尔齐斯河水系的4个鲫鱼群体.通过流式细胞术分析血细胞样品,结果证实这些鲫鱼均为三倍体银鲫.通过血清转铁蛋白电泳表型分析,我们从这些银鲫群体中鉴定出总共8个不同的克隆.在这些鉴定的克隆中,有4个克隆(克隆A、J、M和S)同于以前鉴定的克隆,而另外的4个克隆是新发现的.克隆A和M分布最广,出现在所调查的4个群体中;克隆J出现在2个不同的群体中;其余的5个克隆中每个克隆均为单个群体所拥有.不同克隆在群体中的这种分布谱式可能反映了银鲫的各个克隆可在不同水体之间迁移以及同一克隆在不同水体中生存能力存在有差异.在取样的银鲫群体中,发现有一个群体的克隆多样性水平明显低于其他3个群体,而这后3个群体的克隆多样性水平是与已报道过的银鲫群体相似的.这一结果可能暗示着修建水利工程和过度捕捞等人类活动的不利影响.本研究所揭示的克隆多样性将有助于进化遗传学和选择育种研究.同时,也反映了保护额尔齐斯河水系银鲫克隆多样性的重要性.%Gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, as a subspecies of Carassius auratus, has a wide geographic distri-bution from northern Europe to Asia. As a new culture target, it has been used widely for aquaculture practice in recent 30 years in China, and its production capacity has increased up to 2 billion kilograms annually. Gibel carp possess several in-teresting characteristics: 1) It is a triploid fish with more than 150 chromosomes, 2) It exists as a bisexual

  14. The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lümanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus%“绿满园”对柑桔红蜘蛛的田间防治效果及对金鱼的毒性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔虎平; 王金亮; 江庆红; 云月利; 王维; 彭宇

    2013-01-01

    测定“绿满园”水剂对柑桔红蜘蛛Panonychus citri的田间防治效果及对非靶标生物金鱼Carassius auratus 的急性毒性.结果表明,64%“绿满园”水剂800倍和1 000倍稀释液在施药后7d和15d对柑桔红蜘蛛的防治效果均极显著地高于对照杀螨剂:15%扫螨净和57%炔螨特,其中以800倍稀释液防治效果最好,15d的防效达97.21%,800倍和1 000倍稀释液的防治效果差异不明显.金鱼的死亡率随“绿满园”浓度的升高和染毒时间的延长逐渐增加.“绿满园”水剂对金鱼的急性毒性小于阿维菌素.%The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lumanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus were carried out. The results showed that, 15 days after spraying, the controlling roles of 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of 64% "Lumanyuan" to P. citri was obviously higher than 15% pyridaben and 57% propargite. 800 fold dilution of "Lumanyuan" had the best controlling role to P. citri and the controlling effect was 97. 21%. There was no significant difference on controlling effects between 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of "Lumanyuan" to P. citri. The mortalities of C. auratus increased with the rise of the concentration and treatment time of "Lumanyuan" and "Lumanyuan" has lower acute toxicity to C. auratus than avermectin.

  15. Activities of Two Lipases and Vitamin C Effects during Embryonic Development in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus%维生素C对普安银鲫胚胎发育中两种脂酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋左玉; 安苗; 姚俊杰; 王金娜; 熊铧龙

    2014-01-01

    The activities of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and general lipid enzyme and vitamin C effects were studied at water tem-perature of 24℃during embryonic development of crucian carp Carassius auratus by biochemical methods. The results showed that there were higher activities of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and general lipid enzyme in embryos were than those in mature eggs. During the embryonic development,the specific activity and total activity were found to be increased with embryonic development, significant increase from mid-gastrula stage, and the maximal activities of two lipase enzyme at prehatching. Vitamin C solution at a dose of 30mg/L led to increase in the activities of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and general lipid enzyme during embryo develop-ment. The findings indicated that lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase genes in zygotes may start to play function at gastrula stage when lipid hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized to release energy for embryonic development. The appropriate dose of vitamin C in water could play an important role in maintaining normal lipid metabolism in body, thus promoting embryonic development of the crucian carp.%在水温24℃下,研究了普安银鲫(Carassius auratus)胚胎发育过程中脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)、肝脂酶(HL)和总脂酶(GE)活性的变化特点及维生素C溶液浸泡对其影响。结果显示:(1)胚胎中LPL、HL和GE的比活力与全活力比成熟卵中高。(2)随胚胎发育,LPL、HL和GE比活力与全活力上升,自原肠中期始,LPL和HL的活性显著升高(P<0.05),出膜前期达最高。(3)30mg/L维生素C溶液浸泡促使普安银鲫胚胎发育过程中LPL、HL和GE比活力与全活力升高。合子中LPL和HL基因可能在原肠期开始表达,合成脂质水解酶分解脂质,为胚胎发育提供能量。在水体中添加适宜水平的维生素C能促进普安银鲫胚胎发育,维持机体内脂质的正常代谢。

  16. 饲料中添加螺旋藻对改良鲫生长和肌肉营养成分的影响%Effects of Spirulina platensis on muscle nutritive components and growth of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少林; 陈平原; 吕子君; 蓝宗坚; 邹记兴

    2015-01-01

    The control group used tilapia feed for based diet, the test group fed with based diet supple-mented with 1%Spirulina platensis is for 100 days, The growth of Carassius auratus and quality of flesh were determined.The results showed that ingestion of 1%S.platensis increased growth gain rates and the flesh quality.Compared with the control group, the growth gain rates of test group was increased 20.15%, and the total delicious amino acid and essential amino acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid, amino acid score was also higher than control group.It was concluded that 1%S.platensis could increase fish growth, and be good for its flesh quality.%以改良鲫( Carassius auratus)为试验对象,以罗非鱼料为基础日粮对照,以在基础日粮中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻为试验处理,进行了100 d的养殖试验.并就螺旋藻对改良鲫的生长性能和鲫鱼肌肉营养成分的影响进行了研究.结果表明,与对照组相比,质量分数1%的螺旋藻处理组鱼平均每天内禀增质量率提高20.15%,鲜味氨基酸和必需氨基酸质量分数、亚麻酸和棕榈酸质量分数、氨基酸各项评分均显著提高.由此认为,饲料中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻对促进改良鲫生长和改善肌肉营养成分有一定的效果.

  17. 异育银鲫幼鱼对饲料中维生素K需求的研究%DIETARY VITAMIN K REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元慧; 朱晓鸣; 韩冬; 杨云霞; 金俊琰; 解绶启

    2013-01-01

    以不同维生素K水平(0.13、2.15、3.25、6.40、12、17.20和23.20 mg/kg饲料)的7种精制饲料喂养初始体重约为(2.17±0.01) g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)10周,每个处理3个重复,研究异育银鲫对维生素K的需求量.结果显示:饲料中维生素K的添加可以明显降低摄食率,饲料中维生素K含量为2.15 mg/kg时,摄食率出现最大值,之后显著下降(P0.05).饲料中维生素K的含量从0.13 mg/kg升至3.25 mg/kg时,饲料效率显著升高(P0.05),在12 mg/kg时达到最大值,并且与特定生长率呈正相关关系(SGR = 0.01 FE + 0.95,R2 = 0.95).血液红细胞数目随着饲料维生素K含量的增加先显著升高(P0.05).血红蛋白含量、血球容积比、血清钙含量与血液中红细胞数目表现出相似的趋势,均在不添加维生素K组出现最低值,但是差异不显著(P>0.05).肝体比、肥满度及鱼体生化组成均不受饲料维生素K水平的影响(P>0.05).分别对饲料效率、红细胞数目进行折线回归得出异育银鲫幼鱼对维生素K的最适需求量为3.73-6.72 mg/kg饲料.%A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine vitamin K requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Purified diets with seven levels (0.13, 2.15, 3.25, 6.40, 12, 17.20 and 23.20 mg/kg diet) of supplemental vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB) were fed to C. gibelio (mean weight 2.17±0.01 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish. The results showed that fish fed with the diet supplemented with 2.15 mg vitamin K/kg had significantly higher feeding rate (FR) than fish fed with diets supplemented with 12 mg vitamin K/kg (PO.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary vitamin K levels and reached the highest value when dietary vitamin K content was 12 mg/kg (P>0.05). Feed efficiency (FE) was the highest in fish fed with diet supplemented with ≥3.25 mg vitamin K/kg, intermediate with 2.15 mg vitamin K

  18. Effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus%Cd和Pb对鲫鱼超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 段辉国; 唐正义

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to present our findings on the effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in the hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus, which is a kind of enzyme that tends to catalyze the destruction of the O2-free radical to form oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As is known, SOD is a kind of chemical compound widely existing in nature to prevent cellular damage by excessive oxygen free radicals generated in the process of metabolism . As a matter of fact, the activity of SOD can be affected by the metal ions, especially, the heavy metal ones, e.g. Cd and Pb. In our research, we have discovered that the concentrative effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD from hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus through our toxicity tests. Statistically speaking, after 24 h, 48 h or 96 h of post-exposure treatments in the presence of Cd2+ (0.5 mg/L, 2.0 mg/L, 6.0mg/L) , Pb2+ (10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L) or both of them, the activity of SOD would have changed . The results have thus shown that within the experimental doae range, the activities of SOD were found to have accelerated by 0.5 mg/L of Cd2+ . However, high concentrations of Cd2+ , Pb2+ and the mixture tend to obviously suppress the activities of SOD. What is more, synergetic effect of the toxicity can be detected in the presence of both Cd2+ and Pb2+ . Such results prove to be useful for the evaluation of the risk of Cd2+ and Pb2+ , in monitoring the environmental pollution .%为了解不同浓度Cd2+、Pb2+及其联合胁迫对超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的影响,以鲫鱼为材料,采用急性毒性试验研究了质量浓度为0.5 mg/L、2.0 mg/L、6.0 mg/L的Cd2+溶液和10 mg/L、20 mg/L、40 mg/L的Pb2+溶液及其混合液作用下,24 h、48 h、96 h后鲫鱼肝胰脏SOD活性的变化.结果表明,0.5 mg/L的Cd2+对鲫鱼肝胰脏的SOD活性有促进作用,其余各浓度组的Cd2+和Pb2+对SOD有抑制作用;Cd2+和Pb2+的联合作用比单独作用对SOD的影响大.

  19. 不同纳米材料作用下菲对鲫鱼的毒性效应%Effect of nanomaterials on ecotoxicity of phenanthrene in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴朝霞; 尹颖; 王世和

    2013-01-01

    研究了纳米材料(多壁碳纳米管和纳米氧化锌)泄漏进入水环境后吸附多环芳烃(菲)对水生生态系统可能造成的影响及其影响机制,以便能及早采取相应的风险管理措施。实验结果表明,多壁碳纳米管( MWCNTs)显著降低了菲( Phe)在鲫鱼肌肉和肝脏中的富集,但增加了其在鱼脑中的富集量;C-Phe组菲在眼部、胚胎和生殖腺中含量均高于 ZnO-Phe组。 MWCNTs、nZnO与菲均诱导鲫鱼脑部和肝脏组织中自由基的生成。%In this study, the impacts of nanomaterials ( including multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanosized ZnO) in the presence of phenanthrene were studied. The reaction mechanisms were also investigated and it was designed to address the potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials. The results show that the concentrations of phenanthrene in the brain of Carassius auratus increased while those in the liver decreased significantly in the presence of MWCNTs. With the coexisting nZnO, the concentration of phenanthrene in the gonad embryo and eye of the fish were higher than the one with the coexisting MWCNTs. In the brain and liver of the fish, free radicals induced by MWCNTs, nZnO and phenanthrene.

  20. Effect of echinacea purpurea extract on growth and anti-oxidant responses in carassius auratus var.pengze%紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫生长和抗氧化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京花; 李志华; 邹记兴

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.pengze)生长和抗氧化反应的影响.选取体重为(7.50±0.15)g的彭泽鲫作为试验动物,在其饲料中分别按0.1%、0.2%、0.4%、0.8%的不同比例添加紫锥菊提取物,经过60 d的饲养,测定其生长及血清中抗氧化酶活力等的变化.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物显著增加彭泽鲫的相对增重率(P<0.05);显著降低鲫鱼血清中的羟自由基(·OH)(P<0.05),降低丙二醛(MDA)含量,提高其血清中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活力,同时降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力.该研究阐明了紫锥菊提取物对鲫鱼生长及抗氧化反应的影响,为紫锥菊在水产养殖中的研究与应用提供基础数据.

  1. 萍乡肉红鲫的性腺发育研究%GONADAL DEVELOPMENT IN NATURAL WILDNESS TRIPLOID MUTANT PINGXIANG RED-TRANSPARENT CRUCIAN CARP, CARASSIUS AURATUS L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芳; 盛军庆; 洪一江; 王军花; 刘田欣; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    萍乡肉红鲫(Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp,Carassius auratus L.)是在江西省萍乡地区分布的天然三倍体鲫突变体经人工选育后获得的遗传性状基本稳定的后代,具有两性生殖和雌核生殖两种生殖方式.研究以F5代萍乡肉红鲫为材料,自孵化后每满1个月开始取性腺,观察了其卵巢1周年性成熟和精巢的发育过程,结果表明萍乡肉红鲫的性腺为1年成熟类型.卵巢发育进程町以分为6个时期,卵母细胞发育相应可分为6个时相.统计了卵巢成熟系数周年变化,体重为95 g左右的雌性萍乡肉红鲫,其成熟卵巢的成熟系数约为(11.73±2.8)%,成熟的卵母细胞内充满卵黄,相对怀卵量为(3018±310)粒/g.萍乡肉红鲫精巢属于小叶型,在精小叶中可观察到不同发育阶段的生殖细胞.由精原细胞分裂而来的仞级精母细胞经分裂增殖,产生次级精母细胞并最终发育成为精子.萍乡肉红鲫的精巢发育程序与普通鲫鱼和鲤鱼相似,卵巢和精巢的发育过程基本同步,孵化后50日龄内性腺分化不明显,到70日龄左右开始出现雌雄分化,3月龄发育为第1期,4-5月龄发育为第2期,6-7月龄发育至第3期,7-10月龄可见第4期卵巢,1年即可成熟产卵,精巢可排出精液.结果表明,该鲫鱼突变体的性腺发育与普通二倍体鲤(鲫)鱼的性腺发育方式类似.%The Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp, Carassius auratus ( L. ) , which was approved for a new kind of breed by the National Fisheries thoroughbred Examining Committee in January 2008, is a wildness natural triplod crucian carp mutant distributed in the area of Pingxiang in Jiangxi Province. It takes bi-sexual and gynogenetic reproduction mode which is similar to the Silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). In response to this particular genetic traits of the species, this study aimed to master its gonadal development process and understand its gonadal development rules

  2. 饲料中组合色素对红草金鱼体色的影响%Effects of combinated dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云生; 陈世金; 李静; 陈龙胜; 卢文轩; 邵祖勇; 何吉祥

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus, a series of feeding experi-ments were conducted from July to October 2014 (90 days). For the first 45 days, larva fish (averaged 18. 5 ± 1. 2 g) were fed with diets supplemented with red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal at different levels (5%, 8%, 11%, 13%, 16%) respectively. For each treatment group, 30 fish were fed at the same feeding level (4%), and 2 of the 30 fish were randomly sampled every 15 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. For each sampled fish, squama and tail fin were collected and mixed. Results from the total carotenoids absorbance analysis of the well mixed organs showed a proper level of red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal, which was 8%, 5%, and 16%, respectively. For the next 45 days, another series of feeding experiments were conducted with the same feeding environment. Treatments of dieta-ry pigment included 8% of red pepper meal, 5% of spirulina, 16% of corn gluten meal, and the combination of them (one third for 8% of red pepper meal, one third for 5% of spirulina, and one third for 16% of corn gluten meal). Each treatment group contained 30 fish, and the sampling method was the same as above experiments. At the end of the experi-ment, the collected organs were scanned under UV light (470 nm). Scanned maps indicated a better staining result of fish fed with combination of pigments than that of the other groups, suggesting that combinated dietary pigments, were more ef-ficiently in improving the body color of red Carassius auratus than the single dietary pigment.%为研究组合色素对红草金鱼( red Carassius auratus)的增色效果, 在基础饲料中分别添加红辣椒粉、 螺旋藻、 玉米蛋白粉3种着色剂, 制成粗蛋白质含量均为33. 6%饲料, 投喂初始均重( 18. 5 ± 1. 2 ) g的红草金鱼. 每种着色剂设5个水平(5%、 8%、 11%、 13%、 16%), 每水平30尾鱼× 3重复,

  3. 浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属污染水平与金属硫蛋白基因表达%Heavy Metal Levels and Metallothionein mRNA Expressions in Wild Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus auratus) from Hun River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳强; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 林进; 陈浩; 赵兴茹

    2012-01-01

    为揭示浑河重金属污染的潜在生态风险,分析测定了浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属的残留水平以及肝和鳃组织中金属硫蛋白基因表达.对鱼体各组织中Cr、Cd、Pb、Cu和Zn含量的分析结果显示,各组织重金属含量的排序为肠>肝>鳃>肌肉,且Zn含量最高(17.49~ 176.01 mg·kg-1,以湿体质量计算),Cd含量最低(N.D.~0.57 mg· kg 1,以湿体质量计算).均值综合污染指数评价结果显示,浑河野生鲫鱼受到重金属的轻微污染,且从上游至下游呈现逐渐升高的趋势,其中,Cr、Pb和Zn对均值综合污染指数贡献较大.利用实时定量PCR方法分析鲫鱼肝组织金属硫蛋白基因表达发现,中、下游鲫鱼肝组织的金属硫蛋白基因表达水平较上游有所升高,且与肌肉组织综合污染指数具有较好相关性(R2=0.71),这表明金属硫蛋白基因可作为监测环境重金属污染的敏感标志物.%the metallothionein gene can be used as a promising biomarker for monitoring the heavy metal contamination. Hun River; heavy metal; crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus); average pollution index; metallothionein

  4. 盾叶薯蓣提取物对鱼类指环虫的杀灭效果%Ethanol extract of plant Dioscorea zingiberensis against dactylogyrid Dactylogyrus intermedius found in goldfish Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高学; 李军; 赵良炜; 周状; 申烨华; 田渭花

    2009-01-01

    The parasiticidal effect of ethanol extracts from a plant Dioscorea zingiberensis on dactylogyrid Dactylogy-rus intermedius found in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was studied to search for parasiticidal substances by standard laboratory procedures compared with the other four drugs mebendazole,abamectin,ivermectin and praziquantel. The bioassay -oriented procedure showed that the active compounds concentrated in the alcoholic extract,with LC_(50), val-ue of 53.47 mg/L(24 h) ,34.05 mg/L(48 h) , and 19. 34 mg/L(96 h). The anthelmintic efficacy of the alcoholic extract was found to be 99.55% with the concentration of 17.0 mg/L (48 h). For mebendazole,99.01% of the dactylogyrid were killed with 3.4 mg/L (48 h) drugs, and 95. 39% killed by praziquantel at a rate of 6.2 mg/L. It is suggested that the ethanol extracts of Dioscorea zingiberensis be a promising and effective Chinese herbal medi-cine to control dactylogyrids.%以寄生在金鱼Carassius auratus鳃部的中型指环虫Dactylogyrus intermedius为指示寄生虫,采用活体感染、活体杀虫的方法,研究了用不同溶剂(石油醚(沸程60~90 ℃)、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、乙醇和水)分别对盾叶薯蓣Dioscorea zingiberensis进行提取,其5种提取物的杀虫活性.结果表明,盾叶薯蓣的杀虫活性部位是乙醇提取物.将乙醇提取物与甲苯咪唑、伊维菌素、阿维菌素和吡喹酮4种原料药的杀虫效果进行比较,结果表明:盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物的最高杀虫浓度为17.0 mg/L,平均最高杀虫率为99.37%;其次是甲苯咪唑和吡喹酮,最高杀虫浓度分别为3.4、6.2 mg/L时,平均最高杀虫率分别为99.01%和95.39%;而伊维菌素、阿维菌素对中型指环虫无明显的杀灭作用.盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物对斑马鱼Brachydanio rerio 的24、48、96 h的半致死浓度(LC_(50))分别为53.47、34.05、19.34 mg/L.

  5. 微囊藻毒素在银鲫肠道中的累积及其病理学影响%Intestinal Accumulation and Pathological Effects of Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 雷和花; 侯杰; 龙萌; 苏玉晶; 吴宁

    2014-01-01

    银鲫(Carassius auratus),杂食性鱼类,是我国淡水主养品种之一.在富营养化湖泊中,它能以有毒微囊藻为主要食物,导致微囊藻毒素(MCs)在其组织中大量累积.为研究MCs在肠道内累积和代谢特征及其对肠道的毒性影响,分别以50和200 μg MC-LReq·kg-1剂量的MCs粗提液(主要含MC-RR和MC-LR)对银鲫进行腹腔注射,并在注射后1、3、12、24、48和168 h后取样.MCs的含量用LC-MS和HPLC进行定性和定量测定,结果发现,高低两剂量组银鲫肠中MCs的含量均在注射后1h达最大值(分别为2.8和181.4 ng·g-1 DW),然后随暴露时间的延长迅速下降.相对于毒素的累积,MCs诱导的银鲫肠组织损伤具滞后性,注射后48 h内,高低两剂量组肠道的病理变化呈时间-剂量依赖性的增长,病理特征表现为肠上皮细胞排列紊乱,甚至出现坏死、溶解和脱落,杯状细胞数目显著增多,微绒毛结构破坏并伴随淋巴细胞浸润.实验结果表明,单次染毒后MCs在鲫肠道中迅速累积后降解,并造成时间-剂量依赖性组织损伤,且低剂量组的损伤是可逆的.

  6. 金鱼嗜水气单胞菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila from Goldfish Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 张培培; 徐晔; 曹洁; 孟学平; 段宏安

    2014-01-01

    自病死金鱼肝脏中分离到一株优势菌,对其进行感染试验、培养特性观察、生化特性鉴定及16S rRNA序列分析。试验结果表明,该分离菌株为嗜水气单胞菌,与已报道的嗜水气单胞菌的16S rRNA序列同源性>99.3%。用纸片扩散法进行药敏试验,试验结果显示,该分离株对四环素类、喹诺酮类、磺胺类、头孢呋新、头孢他啶、头孢吡肟等21种药物敏感,对青霉素G、氨苄西林、阿莫西林、头孢氨苄、林可霉素、麦迪霉素耐药。本次金鱼发病是由嗜水气单胞菌感染引起,可选用强力霉素、麦迪霉素、复方新诺明、磺胺甲基异恶唑、阿奇霉素、恩诺沙星、诺氟沙星等多种药物进行防治。%Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the main pathogen of freshwater fish bacterial septicemia .The bacterium was isolated and identified from dead gold fish and drug sensitive tests were performed in order to provide references for the bacterial disease prevention and control in ornamental fish .A dominant bacteria strain was isolated from hepatopancreas of dead Carassius auratus and identified by artificial infection experiment ,cultural characteristics ,physical and chemical characters ,and 16S rRNA sequence analysis .The results showed that the strain was A .hydrophila .Homology of 16S rRNA of the isolated strain and other several A .hydrophila was more than 99 .3% .Drug sensitive test revealed that the isolated strain was highly sensitive to 21 kinds of drugs , including tetracyclines ,quinolones , sulfonamides , cefuroxime ,ceftazidimeand cefepime ,and resistant to penicillin G ,ampicillin ,amoxicillin ,cefalexin , lincomycin and medemycin . Results in this study showed that many antibiotics (such as doxycycline , midecamycin ,co‐trimoxazole ,sulfamethoxazole ,azithromycin ,enrofloxacin ,and norfloxaci) can be used to control and prevent bacterial disease caused by A .hydrophila in gold fish .

  7. 氟甲喹对异育银鲫细胞色素CYP450主要药酶的影响%Effects of flumequine on cytochrome P450 enzymes in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓; 房文红; 汪开毓; 孙贝贝; 胡琳琳; 周帅; 周俊芳

    2011-01-01

    在分析了氟甲喹腹腔注射后对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)主要药酶活性影响的基础上,从蛋白表达和mRNA转录水平探究了氟甲喹对CYP1A(EROD)的诱导机制.以氟甲喹剂量35 mg/kg一次性腹腔注射异育银鲫24 h后,肝微粒体的7-乙氧基异吩唑酮-O-脱乙基酶(EROD)活性为54.33 pmol/(mg·min).显著高于对照组的34.00pmol/(mg·min)(P<0.01),而红霉索-N-脱甲基酶(ERND)[177.98 pmol/(mg·min)]、氨基比林-N-脱甲基酶(APD)[934.40 pmol/(mg·min)]及7-乙氧基香豆素-O-脱乙基酶(ECOD)[9.84 pmol/(mg·min)]与对照组[分别为140.90pmol/(mg·min)]、850.71 pmol/(mg·min)和8.93 pmol/(mg·min)]相比无显著性差异;除肾组织中ERND活性高于肝脏外,其他CYP亚型药酶活性(APD、EROD和ECOD)均以肝组织中最高.Western-blotting印迹表明,实验组肝脏中CYP1A蛋白含量明显高于对照组,与酶活(EROD)相符合;而肾、肠中没有检测到特异性条带.半定量RT-PCR结果显示,CYPiAmRNA在肝、肾和肠均有表达,但实验组与对照组并无明显差异.体外实验中,不同浓度的氟甲喹与微粒体共孵育,未见EROD活性与浓度、时间的依赖关系.综上推测,氟甲喹对鲫鱼肝CYP1A的诱导是在翻译后水平,可能是加强蛋白的稳定性.本研究旨在为氟甲喹在鱼类中的合理应用提供科学依据.%The effects of flumequine on activities of several microsomal P450 monooxygenases of allogynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were determined and the induction of fluemquine on CYP1A was further explored at the level of protein expression and mRNA transcription. After 24 h following a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 35 mg/kg, the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver of the Crucian carp was 54.33 pmol/(mg.min), which was significantly higher than that of the control carps [34.00 pmol/(mg.min)](P<0.01). It was revealed that flumequine could significantly induce EROD

  8. THE CONTRAST BETWEEN TWO SUSTAINED-RELEASE HORMONES CARRIERS IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS)%鱼类两种缓释催产激素载体临床性能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹相菡; 温海深; 倪蒙; 步艳; 迟美丽; 钱煜; 张冬茜; 丁玉霞

    2013-01-01

    采用组织切片技术和RT-PCR技术研究了海藻酸钠微球和壳聚糖微球作为缓释激素载体在临床上对金鱼基础生物学指标以及CYP19A、GH基因mRNA表达的影响,以检测两种缓释激素载体对鱼类生殖和生长的影响.研究结果表明:缓释材料埋植0、7、14、30、48d后,雌性和雄性金鱼处理组与对照组(埋植0.7%生理盐水组)比较,海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组在基础生物学方面没有出现显著性差异;不同处理组中实验鱼性腺组织切片卵巢和精巢的发育均处于同一时期(按照Мейен分期原则);海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组中,各次采样组的CYP19A基因表达均没有出现明显性差异;海藻酸钠微球埋植组GH基因各次取样时间均未出现显著性差异,雌性金鱼壳聚糖微粒埋植组GH基因的表达在0、7、14、30采样后显著上升(P<0.05),埋植48d差异消失,雄性金鱼壳聚糖埋植组未出现明显差异.综合显示:作为缓释载体,海藻酸钠微球在临床上的性能较壳聚糖微球更为稳定,而壳聚糖微球对雌性金鱼的GH基因mRNA表达的促进作用更为明显.%CYP19A and GH gene expression and basic biological indicators were studied after implantation Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres by RT-RCR technique and tissue section technique in male and female goldfish (Carassius auratus , variation). These indicators were used to detect the effects caused by these two sustained-release hormones carriers in both the reproductive and growth of goldfish. The study result show that there was no significant difference in basic biological indicators between control group and experimental group in the 0, 7, 14, 30, 48 days after implantation both Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres separately. The goand appearance of the fish in different groups are in the same period, and the germ cells were in the same phase

  9. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Crucian Carp (Car-assius auratus) of Luan River%滦河流域鲫鱼体内重金属分布及风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霖; 孙然好; 武大勇

    2015-01-01

    The crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and river sediment samples were collected from the Luan River in this study. The concentration of heavy metals in fish and sediment was measured for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As by ICP-MS. The concentration of heavy metals decreased in the order of Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd. Moreover, the heavy metal concentration differed among different parts of the fish body. Specifically, the concentrations of Cu and Cr were high in liver whereas those of Zn, Pb and Cd were high in gill. As concentration depended on the sample sites. Generally, the heavy metal concentration in downstream was high than that in upstream. The results indicated that the concentration of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the muscle of crucian carp excessed lots of food safety limits, including the national limited quantity of poisonous and harmful contents of the national pollution-free aquatic products (NY 5073—2006), limited quantity of contaminants in foods (GB 2762—2012), and tolerance limit of zinc in foods (GB 13106—1991). The excess value of heavy metal concentration is Cr(3.34)>Pb(2.24)>Cd(1.15). Finally, the con-sumption risk was assessed based on US EPA’ s target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The results indicated that As had the highest health risk whereas Cr showed the least risk. All THQ values of 6 heavy metals were less than 1. However, the fish consumption in downstream might have risks with the evidence of high TTHQ values of com-bined heavy metals in Suhe River (TTHQ=1.263) and Douhe River (TTHQ=1.381). This study indicated that the high risk of As, Pb, and Zn should be paid more attention in the regular fish consumption.%采集滦河流域鲫鱼样本并分析重金属元素(Cu、Zn、Cr、Pb、As、Cd)在其体内的分布特征及食用风险。实验结果表明鲫鱼体内重金属含量由高到低顺序为Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>As>Cd,蓄积器官主要为肝脏和鳃部,Cu和Cr主要蓄积在肝脏,Zn、Pb、Cd主要富集在鳃部,As的蓄积器官随地域

  10. Clning, Identification and Characterization of Interferon System Genes in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)%鱼类干扰素系统基因的克隆鉴定及其特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义兵; 桂建芳

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) system is the first line ofdefense against virus invasion in vertebrate. So far relative little was known concerning IFN system genes other than in mammals.In fish, nearly 40-year evidence available for existence of IFN system mainly lies in the observation that fish and fish cells are much earlier known to produce molecules with IFN-like activity as measured by a cell protection test, and that IFN-inducible gene, Mx homologue,has been identified in a limited number of fish species in the latest years. Previously we reported that UV-inactivated GCHV was able to induce high level of IFN-like molecule for establishment of antiviral state in cyprinid fish cell lines, such as crucian carp (Carassius auratus L. ) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells. In the current study, in order to better understand innate immune mechanisms of fish cells responsive to virus infection, an ideal cell model system for identifying fish antiviral-relevant genes was firstly established, and on the basis of induction and characterization of CAB IFN, a subtractive cDNA library accumulating an enhanced mRNA level of fish antiviral-relevant genes was also constructed. Secondly, a subset of fish IFN system genes and some unidentified ESTs that were found no similarity by BLASTX were retrieved by screening of the library, and expression analysis demonstrated that they were IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well. Thirdly, according to the latest research of mammals, 19 full-length cDNAs of fish IFN system genes were cloned, including crucian carp IFN, IFN signal transduction factor STAT1, IFN regulatory factor IRF7, putative IFN antiviral effectors Mx1, Mx2, PKR, Viperin, IFI56, and some ISGs with function unknown, including IFI58, ISG15-1, ISG15-2, Gigl, Gig2 and so on. Finally, further studies on the characterization of structure, expression, induction and evolution of some important relevant genes reveal that several mechanisms in fish innate immune following virus infection, including

  11. Effect of fish-scale protein hydrolysates-based films on preservation of crucian carp(Carassius auratus)%鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的涂膜剂对鲫的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯风; 罗永康; 冯启超; 姚磊

    2011-01-01

    研究了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的复合涂膜剂对鲫4 ℃贮藏过程中其鲜度指标变化和保鲜效果的影响.实验将去鳞、去内脏并洗净后的鲫分别于4℃的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液和添加了迷迭香的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液中浸泡1.5min,沥干后用保鲜膜包好于4℃条件下贮藏.通过测定鱼体贮藏过程中细菌总数、TBA值、TVB-N值、K值、重量损失、感官评分等鲜度指标的变化规律,评价了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物对鲫在4℃贮藏条件下保鲜作用效果.结果表明,涂有鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的细菌总数、TVB-N值、K值、TBA值、重量损失在10 d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,在4℃条件下能延长鲫贮藏期8d左右;涂有添加了迷迭香提取物的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的TVB-N值、K值、重量损失在4-6d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,但不能有效延长鱼体的贮藏期.鱼鳞蛋白经过胃蛋白酶在一定条件下酶解后,其产物对鱼体具有较好的保鲜效果,是一种良好的鱼体生物保鲜涂膜材料,但不适宜与迷迭香提取物联合使用.%Crucian carpi Carassius auratus)is a main freshwater fish species and has been widely used as a raw material for food productions. The output of crucian carp reached 1 955 500 tons in 2009 in China,but a considerable number of them spoiled because of lacking good preservation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method of preservation of fish. During the last decade, there has been a developing interest in edible or biodegradable films based on biopolymers, which can be used to cover the body of fish to prolong the shelf life of fish products. Fish scale is easier to obtain compared to other materials and is always abandoned. It is economical to make a kind of fish-scale film obtained from fish scales by hydrolysis and the film itself can be antibacterial and antioxidant

  12. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  13. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  14. Correlation Between EROD Activity in Liver and Sex Hormone in Blood Serum of Carassius auratus Under Stress of Polychlorinated Biphenyls%多氯联苯(PCBs)胁迫下鲫鱼肝脏EROD酶活性与血清性激素含量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 瞿建宏; 陈家长; 胡庚东

    2006-01-01

    以鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为试验鱼类,研究其暴露于不同浓度的PCBs(多氯联苯)后鱼肝组织中EROD酶活性和血清性激素含量的动态变化,探讨了2者间的相关性.结果表明,鲫鱼在PCBs中暴露后,其肝脏组织中EROD酶被诱导,酶活性随PCBs浓度增大而增强,呈明显的剂量-效应关系;EROD酶活性随暴露时间延长而上升,10 d后达平衡;鲫鱼血清中睾酮含量随PCBs浓度增大和暴露时间延长呈下降趋势,但雌二醇含量则显著上升,表明PCBs对鱼类具有环境雌激素效应;在一定浓度范围内,EROD酶活性与血清睾酮含量呈负相关,与血清雌二醇含量呈正相关.因此可用鱼肝EROD酶和血清性激素含量的协同变化作为污染生物标志物来评价PCBs的早期污染生态效应.

  15. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  16. The Variation of Digestive Enzyme Activities of Carassius auratus during Early Development and the Effects of Exogenous Vitamin C%普安银鲫早期发育过程中消化酶活性变化及外源维生素C对其的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋左玉; 姚俊杰; 熊铧龙

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the variation of digestive enzyme activities of Carassius au-ratus during early development and the effects of exogenous vitamin C.Mature eggs from Carassius auratus were selected and cross-fertilized using Cyprinus carpio by the method of artificial dried fertilization.The eggs were divided into two groups, and the vitamin C concentration in water for incubation was 0 and 30 mg/L, re-spectively.Samples were collected at mature eggs, fertilized eggs, mid-gastrula, crystal appear, mixed nutri-tion and exogenous nutrition stages to determine the variation of digestive enzyme activities.The results showed as follows:1) vitamin C was contributed to the deposition of protein in Carassius auratus during early devel-opment.2) After cross-fertilization, the activity of amylase was significantly higher than that of mature eggs ( P0.05 ) , but were raised from crystal appear stage to exogenous nutrient stage, the differences were significant (P<0.05).4) The inhabitation in 30 mg/L vitamin C solution significantly increased the activities of trypsin, amylase, lipase and pepsin, but had no obvious effect on cellulase activity.The results indicate that amylase priority decompo-sition carbohydrates in yolk of mature eggs from Cyprinus carpio to provide energy for embryonic development rapidly after cross-fertilization;trypsin, amylase, pepsin and lipase play major roles in decomposition yolk nu-trients, organ formation and the development of larvae;30 mg/L vitamin C solution can significantly increase the activities of trypsin, amylase, pepsin and lipase, and elevate the deposition of protein.%本试验旨在探究普安银鲫早期发育过程中消化酶活性变化及外源维生素C对其的影响。采用普安银鲫的成熟卵,以兴国红鲤( Cyprinus carpio)进行异源人工干法授精,分为2组,孵化水体维生素C浓度分别为0和30 mg/L,分别在成熟卵、受精卵、原肠中期、晶体出现期、混合

  17. 普安银鲫胚胎发育早期的总脂与脂肪酸变化%Changes of Total Lipid and Fatty Acids in Early Embryonic Development Stage of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟洪民; 马珊; 姚俊杰; 安苗; 王艳艳; 梁正其

    2012-01-01

    为了探明普安银鲫在胚胎发育过程中的能量来源、组成变化和利用模式,采用生物化学方法测定普安银鲫的成熟卵和8个胚胎发育时期的总脂与脂肪酸组成变化.结果表明:①普安银鲫胚胎中成熟卵和胚胎不同发育时期的总脂含量随着胚胎的不断发育而降低,成熟卵与受精卵相比,总脂稍有下降,由其干重的18.25%降至17.94%,但差异不显著(P>0.05),成熟卵随受精后胚胎发育的推进,其总脂变化呈逐渐降低趋势,在成熟卵和早期胚胎中的主要脂肪酸为C16∶0,C18∶0,C18∶1n-9和C18∶2n-6;与成熟卵相比,普安银鲫受精卵的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)与高度不饱和脂肪酸(HUFA)下降,单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)升高.②普安银鲫的成熟卵和胚胎在发育过程中共检测到20种脂肪酸,胚胎对不同脂肪酸的利用率因胚胎发育时期的不同而有差异,SFA在囊胚期与出膜前期升高,其他时期均表现为不同程度的降低;MUFA呈波浪式上升趋势;HUFA呈波浪式降低趋势,但原肠胚期到肌肉效应期HUFA不断升高,到出膜前期有所下降.%The composition of total lipids and fatty acids in mature eggs and eight stages of embryonic development of C. auratus were analyzed using biochemical methods to explore the energy source, composition change and use model of C. auratus in the embryonic development process. The results showed that; (i) The total lipid content in mature eggs and different stages of C. auratus decreased with the embryonic development. The total lipid content in mature egg decreased from 18.25 % (dry weight) to 17.94 % in comparison of fertilized o-vum ( P > 0.05 ). The total lipid content decreased gradually with the advancement of embryonic development. The main fatty acids in mature egg and early embryo were C16:0,C18:0,C18 :ln-9 and C18:2n-6. Compared with mature egg, the contents of SFA and HUFA decreased while MUFA increased, (ii) A total of 20 fatty acids were

  18. 鲫鱼、黑斑蛙和家兔视网膜结构的比较组织学研究%Study on the Comparative Histology of Retina for Carassius auratus,Rana nigromaculata and Oryctolagus cuniculus domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘秋生; 谢朝晖; 陈恩祥; 田勋; 陈兰英

    2011-01-01

    为探讨鲫鱼Carassius auratus、黑斑蛙Rana nigromaculata和家兔Oryclagus cuniculus domestica视网膜组织结构与其生活环境的适应关系,测量了3种动物视网膜各层厚度、3个核层的胞核层数及胞核直径,并对数据进行了统计分析.结果表明:鲫鱼、黑斑蛙和家兔视网膜均由4层细胞构成,在光镜下分为10层.鲫鱼视网膜平均厚度为196.57μm,黑斑蛙为186.96 μm,家兔为200.90μm.黑斑蛙和家兔的视网膜内核层的细胞数目比外核层多,鲫鱼的外核层细胞数目大于内核层细胞数目.鲫鱼、黑斑蛙和家兔3种动物视网膜结构的差异,与其从水生到两栖再到陆牛的牛境迁移和捕食方式的变化相适应.

  19. 诃子抗嗜水气单胞菌活性组分分离及其对鲫鱼的毒性试验%Isolation of Active Component from Terminalia chebula Against Ameromonas hydrophila and Acute Toxicity Experiment on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丰; 陈军; 王扬; 朱凝瑜; 孟庆辉

    2011-01-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and pure compound from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The ethyl acetate extract shows a promising antibacterial activity against Ameromonas hydrophila (when the concentrations is set for 4 mg.L^-1, diameter of inhibition zone is 18 mm). Based on these findings, the ethyl acetate extract is fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation which produces an active compound (white crystal) showing potent activity. The active compound exhibit significant activity against Ameromonas hydrophila with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in the process afore are regulated for 2.8 mg.L^-1 and 5.6 mg.L^-1, respectively. The acute toxicities (LCs0) of the active compound for Carassius auratus is found to be 220.7 mg-L^-1, the safety concentration 85.2 mg·L^-1. The structure is not fully explored at this point and the research on it will be further embarked on.%研究以抑菌圈直径大小作为评价指标,利用提取分离技术对诃子进行抗嗜水气单胞茵活性成分分离追踪,并对诃子的抗菌活性单体进行安全评价.结果显示,诃子的抗嗜水气单胞茵的活性部位为乙酸乙酯萃取部位,其浓度为4mg·L^-1时,抑茵圈直径为18mm.活性部位经多次柱层析分离,得到一白色针状晶体.抑菌试验结果显示,最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC)分别为2.8mg-L^-1和5.6mg·L^-1.急性毒性实验结果显示,活性单体对鲫鱼的96h半致死浓度为220.7mg·L^-1,其安全浓度为85.2mg·L^-1,但其化学结构还有待于进一步研究.

  20. 双氟沙星对异育银鲫血脑屏障渗透性及消除规律%BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER PERMEABILITY OF DIF AND ITS ELIMINATION COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL TISSUES IN CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮记明; 胡鲲; 杨先乐; 章海鑫; 王祎; 周爱玲; 赵依妮

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, difloxacin (DIF) which belongs to Fluorine quinolones (FQNS), has become one of the widely used drugs. For aquatic animals, the permeability of DIF getting through blood-brain barrier has not been reported. Using Carassius auratus gibelio as the research object, the blood-brain barrier permeability of DIF and its elimination comparative study between brain and peripheral tissues were conducted with tissue homogenate and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The results showed that, at the 96th hour, the content of DIF in brain tissue homogenate was (10.49±0.35) μg/g following its 96 hour median lethal dose (96h LD50); and the existences of DIF in brain could be detected at the 15 time points (0→960h) after the administration with its clinical recommended dosage (20 mg/kg). The results indicated that the DIF could penetrate through the blood-brain barrier into brain of C. auratus gibe-lio. In addition, the elimination process of DIF in brain after the administration of 20 mg/kg was the gentlest one among the tissues involved in this research. The highest content of DIF in brain was (0.392±0.007)μg/g. The highest value was reached at the 960th hour. The longest T1/2βof DIF in brain was 1157.713h. The brain of C. auratus gibelio could be used as a target tissue for DIF residual analysis. Furthermore, according to the regulation of European Union (2003) about the maximum residue limits (MRL) of DIF on food, the withdrawal time of DIF should be longer than 25d under the ex-periment conditions. The results would provide references for blood-brain barrier researching in fish, and for nerve toxi-city explorations of DIF and its clinical application in aquaculture.%以异育银鲫(Carassais auratus gibebio)为研究对象,采用组织匀浆法和高效液相色谱法,研究了双氟沙星(Difloxacin, DIF)通过异育银鲫血脑屏障情况,并比较分析了大脑和外周组织中DIF消除差异。结果显示,根据DIF 96h

  1. Screening and homology analysis of EST-SSRs makers related to body weight and body width in Carassius auratus%鲫体重和体厚相关的EST-SSRs标记筛选及同源基因分析

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    郭薇; 郑先虎; 匡友谊; 崔晓亮; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    300 EST-SSRs markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 181 progenies from a normal Carassius auratus F2 family, and two growth traits ( body weight and body width) were conducted single marker regression analysis. 38 EST-SSRs markers were found to be closely related to growth traits, 26 of them were significantly associated with growth traits (P<0. 05) , the other 12 markers had a highly significant correlation with growth traits (P<0. 01) ; In these 38 markers, 27 markers were related with body weight, 25 markers were related with body width, and 14 markers were related with both body weight and width. Meanwhile, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. Furthermore, by using BLAST online in NCBI, the homology identity of these 38 EST-SSRs markers was determined. Results showed that, 10 markers had significant similarity with the sequences in GenBank ( E < e-20). JE594 was highly homologous (95%) to the gene encoding membrane-associated ring finger protein of Danio rerio; JE3165 was highly homologous (78% ) to the gene encoding muscleblind-like protein of D. rerio; JE6996 was highly correlated (98% ) with the gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase of D. rerio; JE4984 was highly correlated (84% ) with the gene encoding protein phosphatase 1 of D. rerio. These loci may be used for marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement.%利用300个EST-SSRs标记对普通二倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)自交F2代的181个个体进行基因型检测,并对其体重、体厚两种经济性状进行单标记回归分析.Permutation检验(10 000次)结果显示,38个标记与所检测的经济性状相关,其中26个标记达到显著性相关(P<0.05),12个标记达到极显著性相关(P<0.01).在38个相关标记中,有27个标记与体重相关,25个标记与体厚相关,14个标记与体重、体厚均相关.对同一标记的不同基因型之间进行多重比较,找到了与两种经济性状相关的

  2. 异育银鲫各组织器官中细胞色素P450药酶活性的比较%Comparative Activity of microsomal cytochrome P450 in various tissues and organs in allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娴; 胡琳琳; 房文红; 汪开毓; 胡晓

    2011-01-01

    The activities and tissue distribution of cytochrome P450 drug - metabolizing enzyme were studied in liver, kidney, gill and muscle of allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Microsomal P450 and b5 contents were determined by the method of CO differential spectroscopy in liver,kidney,gill,intestine and muscle microsomes. Both cytochrome P450 and cytocorome b5 contents were found to be the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome. The activities of CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP2E were evaluated by microsomal N - demethylation of aminopyrine ( APD), erythromycin (ERND) and 4 - aniline - hydroxylation (AH) as probe specific reactions. The activities of APD ( 1. 668 ± 0. 104) and ERND (0.941 ± 0. 061 ) nmol/( min · mg)were the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome [ (0.245 ± 0.011 ), and (0. 078 ± 0.019) nmol/( min · mg)]. The maximal AH activity (0. 052 ± 0. 009)nmol/( min · mg) was observed in liver microsome, but not be detected in muscle microsome, indicating that the above -mentioned cytochrome P450 isoenzymes were available in main tissue microsoms in the crucian carp, and the APD, ERND and AH activities were different in different tissues, the maximal activities being observed in liver microsome.%对异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibelio肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠和肌肉等组织器官中细胞色素P450(CYP450)主要药酶活性进行检测,研究其在异育银鲫各组织中的分布.结果显示:以CO还原差示光谱法测得异育银鲫肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠、肌肉微拉体的细胞色素P450及b5含量均以肝胰脏微粒体中最高,其次为肾、鳃、肠微粒体,肌肉中最低.以氨基比林N-脱甲基、红霉素N-脱甲基、苯胺-4-羟化反应分别作为CYP2B、CYP3A和CYP2E的探针反应,测得氨基比林N-脱甲基酶(APD)及红霉素N-脱甲基酶(ERND)活性在上述组织中分布差异性类似,均表现为肝胰脏微粒体中最高,分别为(1.668±0

  3. Changes of the activities of enzymes related to immunity and the content of malondialdehyde during embryonic development of gold-fish Carassius auratus%金鱼胚胎发育过程中免疫相关酶活性及丙二醛含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥会; 王书平; 江红霞; 聂国兴; 李学军

    2011-01-01

    以金鱼(Carassius auratus)胚胎为研究对象,于受精卵发育24 h时开始取样,以后每隔24 h分别取正常发育胚胎作为实验样品.采用生物化学方法分别测定金鱼胚胎发育不同时期溶菌酶和过氧化氢酶活性及丙二醛含量.结果显示,溶菌酶(lysozyme,LSZ)活性在金鱼胚胎发育过程中呈现下降的趋势,受精后96 h胚胎中LSZ活性降至最低点,为(0.450±0.064) U/mg; 96 h和以后的120 h、144 h胚胎LSZ活性均显著低于24 h胚胎LSZ活性(P<0.05).过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)活性在胚胎发育过程中也呈现下降的变化趋势,96 h、120 h和144 h胚胎CAT活性显著低于24 h胚胎CAT活性(P<0.05).而丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量在胚胎发育中呈逐渐增多的趋势,96 h后明显增多,120 h和144 h胚胎MDA含量显著高于24 h胚胎MDA含量(P.<0.05).金鱼胚胎发育过程中LSZ和CAT活性逐渐降低是由于这两种母源性的酶在胚胎发育中逐步消耗,而自身酶合成系统尚未形成所致.CAT活性降低导致活性氧自由基增多和MDA逐渐积累,说明胚胎发育后期细胞内已发生一定的氧化应激反应.%Embryonic development is a critical period that determines the quality of juvenile fish. Our objective was to determine the mechanisms modulating metabolism during embryonic development in goldfish Carassius auratus. A number of key enzymes play an important role during the process of embryonic development, including lysozyme (LSZ) and catalase (CAT), both of which are involved in immunity. Similarly, malondialdehyde (MDA) content reflects the level of lipid peroxidation, which results from the reduction of antioxidant defenses. We collected healthy embryos at several stages following fertilization and measured LSZ and CAT activity and MDA content. LSZ and CAT activity decreased gradually during development of the embryos. LSZ activity was lowest after 96 h, I.e. (0.450±0.064) U/mg. Furthermore, LSZ activity was lower at 96, 120

  4. Effects of Vitamin C on Gene Expression of Transferrin during Early Development of Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio%维生素C对普安银鲫早期发育中转铁蛋白基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊铧龙; 姚俊杰; 蒋左玉; 安苗; 朱忠胜

    2015-01-01

    为探讨普安银鲫早期发育过程中转铁蛋白基因表达特点和维生素C溶液浸泡对其表达量的影响,分别采用RT‐PCR与荧光定量PCR技术研究了维生素C对普安银鲫早期发育中转铁蛋白基因表达的影响。试验结果表明,在成熟卵,受精卵和囊胚晚期中转铁蛋白基因均未表达,发育至原肠中期开始表达,之后呈“升高—降低—升高”的趋势,在心跳期达到最高峰,出膜前期最低;在30 m g/L的维生素C处理组中,胚胎期转铁蛋白基因的表达量低于正常组,而出膜以后则高于正常组。研究表明,转铁蛋白在胚胎期的功能是独立于其结合铁之外的功能,而维生素C的添加降低了转铁蛋白在胚胎期参与免疫等方面的功能,增强了其在仔鱼中运输和转运铁离子的功能。%In order to discuss the gene expression characteristics of transferrin and effects of vitamin C so‐lution on the expression of transferrin genes during early development of crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio .RT‐PCR and fluorescence quantitative PCR techniques were used to detect effect of vitamin C on the expression of transferrin genes and its mRNA expression levels during the early development of crucian carp .The results showed no expression of transferrin in mature eggs ,fertilized eggs and expanded blasto‐cyst stage ,while the expression of transferrin was determined in gastrula stage ,and the mRNA expression level of transferrin showed “up‐down‐up” trend ,and a peak in the heatbeating stage ,and the minimum in the prehatching stage .In the group of vitamin C (30 mg/L) ,the mRNA expression level of transferrin was lower than that in normal group during embryonic stage ,while higher than that in normal group during larval stage .The findings showed that the function of transferrin was independent from the binding iron function during embryonic development ,and appropriate vitamin C led to be

  5. 普安银鲫胚胎发育中抗氧化酶活性及外源维生素C的作用%Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes and Effects of Exogenous Vitamin C during Embryonic Development of Crucian Carp Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊铧龙; 姚俊杰; 安苗; 王金娜; 蒋左玉

    2014-01-01

    T he activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD ) ,catalase (CA T ) and glutathion peroxidase and effects of exogenous vitamin C on these enzymatic activities were studied during embryonic development of crucian carp Carassius auratus at water temperature of 24 ℃ .The results showed that there were activities of SOD[(10 .213 ± 0 .458) U/mg] ,CAT [(8 .701 ± 0 .371) U/mg] and glutathion peroxidase [(55 .485 ± 4 .896) U/mg] ,being derived from maternal antioxidant enzymes .In the control group ,the activities of SOD and glutathion peroxidase were increased gradually from mature eggs to pre-hatching ,while the activ-ity of CAT showed a tend of up-down-up ,the minimum [(6 .175 ± 0 .532) U/mg] in heart beating stage , and then elevated .There were higher activities of SOD ,CAT and glutathion peroxidase from mature egg to pre-hatching in the embryos exposed to vitamin C solution at a rate of 30 mg/L than that in the control group .Maternal antioxidative enzymes was found to play an important role during embryonic development of the crucian carp and appropriate concentration of vitamin C in the water used during the embryonic de-velopment led to improve the antioxidant capacity in the embryos of the crucian carp .%在水温24℃下测定了普安银鲫胚胎发育过程中超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶的活性。试验结果表明,超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶在成熟卵中具有活性,分别为(10.213±0.458) U/mg、(8.701±0.371) U/mg和(55.485±4.896) U/mg ,属母源性抗氧化酶。对照组从成熟卵发育至出膜前期,超氧化物歧化酶和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶活性逐渐升高,而过氧化氢酶的活性呈“升高-降低-升高”的趋势,在心跳期降到最低,为(6.175±0.532) U/m g ,随后其活性开始上升。30 m g/L的维生素C组,普安银鲫胚胎从受精卵至出膜前期,超氧化物歧化

  6. 4种添加剂对异育银鲫生长、消化酶活性及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of four additives on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant ability of allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉祥; 李海洋; 胡王; 潘庭双; 蒋业林; 吴明林

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred allogynogenetic crucian carp with initial weight 31g were divided into five groups and each group with triplicates randomly. The control group was fed with basal diet, the treated-groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 1% Chinese herbal medicines (group I), the compound of 1% Chinese herbal medicines plus 0.1% synbiotics (group II), 0.1% synbiotics (group III) , 2% small peptide (group IV), respec tively. After 60 d feeding, the growth, digestive enzymes activities, and antioxidant ability of the carp were inves tigated, and the results showed as follows. (1) GroupIII and group IV significantly increased WGR(weight gain rate) but decreased FCR(feed conversion rate) (P0.05). (2) Group III and group Ivsignificantly increased the intestinal protease and amylase activities (P0.05); only group II significantly increased the protease activities (P0.05), except the group II significantly increased the activities of SOD(P0.05). In this study, group III increased the growth and antioxidant ability of the carps all together; group I and group II were benificial to the increase of antioxidant ability, and the group IV was priority to the growth of the carp.%以基础饲料为对照,分别在基础饲料中添加1%绿康源(试验Ⅰ组)、1%绿康源+0.1%合生素(试验Ⅱ组)、0.1%合生素(试验Ⅲ组)、2%小肽(试验Ⅳ组),连续投喂300尾初始体重31g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio) 60 d后,测定试验鱼生长,肠消化酶活性及血清、肝胰脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果表明:(1)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组增重率(WGR)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),饲料系数(FCR)显著低于对照组(P<0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).(2)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组的肠蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05),脂肪酶活性与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组中仅后者肠蛋白酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).(3)除试验

  7. Determination of the Cd in the Tissues of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) in the Coal Gangue Polluted Water and Natural Water%煤矸石污染水域和天然水域Cd元素在鲫鱼组织中的沉积规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 张辽; 闫明

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue is the solid waste emissions in the process of coal mining and coal washing, which contains a lot of heavy metal: Cadmium (Cd), pose a serious threat to food security and human health. Study on the rule of the deposition of Cd in the tissues of fish from gangue pollution water of Yongcheng, Shangqiu. which can lay foundation for further study on harm to fish from Cd pollution and on food safety assessment of fish from the coal gangue polluted water. Methods:Cd was determined by using the flame atomic absorption method. Results: (1) The concentration of Cd in the gills, heart, muscle of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) from the coal mining subsidence area, were 1.0630±0.2784μg·g-1, 8.6389±3.2301μg·g-1, 1.1461±0.2046μg·g-1, which were higher than the tissues of crucian carp in natural pollution-free waters. The concentration of Cd in the gills, muscle were significantly higher than the control group (Pheart>muscle>gills. However, there was no significant difference between each tissues. In polluted water, the sedimentary rule of Cd in the crucian carp was: heart>muscle>liver>gills. Heart was much higher than in the other tissues. (3) An adult can be safe to eat the fish meat weekly from the two waters were respectively 823 g, 365 g; if more than these content, there would be a potential health threat. Conclusion: The concentration of Cd in gills, muscle of crucian carp in polluted waters was much higher than not polluted waters, Cd are more likely to deposited in the heart of crucian carp. If the consumption of fish meat from coal gangue pollution water is more than 365 g weekly, there will be a health threat.%煤矸石是采煤和洗煤过程中排放的固体废物,其中含有大量的重金属元素 Cd,煤矸石的无序排放不仅对环境造成了污染,而且也对人体健康和食品安全构成了严重的威胁。研究商丘永城采煤塌陷区煤矸石污染水域Cd在鱼体中的沉积规律,可为进

  8. Применение экстракта чаги (Inonotus obliquus) в период инкубации икры золотой рыбки (Carassius auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    КОБИАШВИЛИ ГУЛИЯ АЛЕКСАНДРОВНА; САВУШКИНА СВЕТЛАНА ИЛЬИНИЧНА

    2016-01-01

    Представлены результаты эффективности применения экстракта чаги (Inonotus obliquus) в процессе мониторинга протекания деструкции и развития колоний сапролегнии в нативной икре золотой рыбки (Carassius auratus). Экстракт чаги оказывает положительное влияние на сохранность нативной икры золотой рыбки при использовании ЭЧ в концентрации 10 и 25 мг/л....

  9. Protein to energy ratios in goldfish (Carassius auratus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristielle Nunes Souto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dietary digestible protein to energy ratio is critical for the success of fish farming. Considering that it provides the proper development of the animals, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for goldfish fingerlings. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg. The growth parameters evaluated were daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, protein productive value (PPV and energy retention ratio (ERR and specific growth rate (SGR. Regardless FI, all the parameters were affected by protein and energy levels and interaction between both factors was observed. The second-order polynomial equation best fitted to the DWG, SGR, FCR, PER and ERR with estimated requirement values of 38.81, 38.85, 41.05, 41.80 and 39.39% DP, respectively, at the 3,200 kcal/kg. A second-order polynomial model was significant only for the ERR data at the 3,600 kcal/kg with an estimated requirement value of 36.45% DP. Generally, fish fed diets containing 3,200 kcal/kg had better growth performance than fish fed 3,600 kcal/kg (P<0.01, indicating a higher feed efficiency. A 3,200 kcal/kg diet seems to be the proper DE level for meeting goldfish requirement for highest weight gain. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of DP levels between 38.0-40.0% in diets for goldfish with 3,200 kcal/kg or a dietary protein to energy ratio between 119-125 mg/kcal DE.

  10. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫的生长、体组成和肌肉脂肪酸的影响%DIETARY LIPID SOURCES FOR GIBEL CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO:GROWTH PERFORMANCE, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND MUSCLE FATTY ACID PROFILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家林; 韩冬; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 解绶启

    2011-01-01

    A 12-week growth trial was conducted with juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) to evaluate their ability by utilize different dietary lipids. Ten diets were supplemented with 8% of either fish oil (FO), coconut oil (CNO), corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), 1 : 1 fish oil-coconut oil (FCNO), 1 : 1 fish oil-corn oil (FCO), 1 '. 1 fish oil-linseed oil (FLO) or 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 fish-coconut-corn-linseed oil mixture (MIX). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 3.53 g, 30 ini.) in a recirculation system at (24±1)℃ .Weight gain were the highest in SO and CNO group, followed RO and the lowest in FO, CO and LO group, when used as a single lipid source. Compared to total replacement of fish oil, coconut oil, corn oil or linseed oil substitute 50% fish oil led to a higher weight gain, respectively. Neither the plasma biochemistry nor the lipid and moisture contents in different tissues of gibel carp showed significant difference between groups (P>0.05). Fatty acid composition of muscle in fish generally reflected the composition of the diet. Fish fed CO and SO had higher 20:4n-6, while relative higher 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was detected in fish fed LO. These results suggested that gibel carp had ability to desaturate and elongate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 to highly unsaturated fatty acid. In conclusion, soybean oil, coconut oil and rapeseed oil were good alternative lipid sources for gibel carp.%配制了十种等氮等能的饲料饲喂3.53 g 的异育银鲫幼鱼12 周,探讨异育银鲫对不同脂肪源的利用效果.十种饲料中分别添加8%的鱼油(FO)、椰子油(CNO)、玉米油(CO)、亚麻油(LO)、大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、1∶1 鱼油-椰子油(FCNO)、1∶1 鱼油-玉米油(FCO)、1∶1 鱼油-亚麻油(FLO)和1∶1∶1∶1 鱼油-椰子油-玉米油-亚麻油混合油(MIX).每组饲料三个平行,每个平行30 尾.实验在循环水养殖系统中进行,水温控制在(24±1)℃.结果

  11. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Phani Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  13. Rapid purification of serum IgM from crucian carp,Carassius auratus by Protein A agarose affinity chromatography%用Protein A亲和层析法快速分离纯化鲫血清IgM方法的建立和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光辉; 王庆; 巩华; 石存斌; 李华; 吴淑勤

    2010-01-01

    采用Protein A亲和层析法对鲫Carassius auratus血清中的IgM进行快速分离纯化,所得产物用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)和免疫印迹(Western blotting)进行分析检测.结果表明:采用Protein A亲和层析法可以很好地分离到高纯度的鲫血清IgM,电泳条带中重链和轻链清晰可辨,重链、轻链的相对分子质量分别为85 000、25 000左右,无明显杂带;利用纯化的鲫血清IgM免疫小鼠,获得了高效价抗IgM抗血清,可以特异性识别鲫血清和黏液中IgM重链.应用间接ELISA方法对浸泡免疫后的鲫血清和皮肤黏液中抗体的动态进行检测,结果显示:鲫皮肤黏液中的抗体滴度在免疫后第6天达到峰值,血清中抗体滴度在免疫后第15天达到峰值,前者高峰期出现较早,但持续时间短,后者高峰期出现较晚,但持续时间较长.本试验中所建立的Protien A亲和层析法为鱼类抗体制备、病原检测及免疫学相关研究提供了一种便捷的方法.

  14. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  15. Efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, female Ictalurus punctatus X male Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    study was conducted to examine the efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Two 28% protein alternative diets supplemented with l-lysine HCl at the required level based on 62% (previously published value) or 10...

  16. Modified Method of Metaphase Plates Obtaining for Polyploid Fish Genera Carassius and Cobitis Karyotyping (Actinopterygii, Cypriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhtayevych P. P.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ото- браны и апробированы современные методики получения метафазных пластинок соматических клеток рыб, дающих наибольший эффект при исследовании полиплоидных видов. На основании эмпирических данных в отношении представителей родов Carassius и Cobitis рекомендуется ме- тодика с использованием CoCl2 и колхицина. В статье приведено подробное описание модифи- цированной методики и полученные в результате её применения метафазные пластинки Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, 1758 и триплоидной формы Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758.

  17. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  18. Morphometric and molecular characterization of Dactylogyrus vastator and D. intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2016-05-01

    Goldfish is known to be parasitized by at least seven species of Dactylogyrus and considered as one of the most common hosts. Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus intermedius are the dominant species living on the gills of goldfish. However, little information on morphometric characterization is available, which easily causes misidentification. The purpose of this study is to provide comprehensive morphometric and molecular characterization of D. vastator and D. intermedius collected form a fish farm in Henan, China. The characterization was presented based on the high-resolution images and standard molecular markers (18S ribosomal DNA subunit and the internal transcribed spacer region), as well as a total of 10 point-to-point morphometrics characters. In addition, a detailed comparison of morphometric and phylogenetic characterization in D. vastator versus D. intermedius was performed. The results demonstrated that all parameters measured differed significantly between these two species of Dactylogyrus, whereas molecular comparison showed subtle differences between them in nucleotide divergence and genetic distances. These findings suggested that these two species of Dactylogyrus can be distinguished more easily based on morphometric measurements than molecular data for 18S ribosomal DNA + internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1).

  19. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  20. Distribution of neurofilaments in myelinated axons of the optic nerve of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, D F; Diocee, M S; Roots, B I

    1980-11-01

    Neurofilaments were counted in myelinated axons of the optic nerve of goldfish which were acclimated to 5 degrees and 25 degrees C. The number of neurofilaments increases markedly with increasing axonal size; axons of less than 0.1 micrometer 2 in area contain between 25 and 60 neurofilaments, while in the larger axons of area greater than 1.0 micrometer 2 there are approximately 190. The densities of the neurofilaments in the small axons are noticeably higher than in the larger ones (507 and 160, respectively). A variety of fixation procedures i.e. osmium tetroxide (OsO4) in phosphate buffer, glutaraldehyde (4%) in phosphate buffer or in ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and piperazine-N-N'-bis-(2-ethanesulphonic acid) (PIPES) and post-fixed with OsO4 had no effect on the numbers of neurofilaments relative to the size of axon. The anaesthetic MS-222 (tricaine methanesulphonate) likewise had no effect on the numbers of neurofilaments. It is proposed that temperature acclimation alters the axon diameter concomitant with an alteration in the number of neurofilaments to fit the new diameter of the axons. PMID:6253602

  1. Characterization and functional analysis of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Leon; Hodgkinson, Jordan W; Hitchen, Steven J; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report of comprehensive functional analysis of an interleukin-10 in bony fish. Quantitative expression analysis of goldfish IL-10 revealed the greatest mRNA levels in the spleen tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes and granulocytes. The stimulation of cells with recombinant goldfish (rg) TNFα2 significantly reduced IL-10 mRNA levels in granulocytes and monocytes of the goldfish. To functionally assess the goldfish IL-10, we generated a recombinant form of the molecule (rgIL-10). The rgIL-10 substantially reduced the expression of TNFα1, TNFα2, IL-1β1, IL-10, CXCL-8, and NADPH oxidase component, p47(phox) in monocytes activated with heat-killed Aeromonas salmonicida and reduced the expression of IFNγ in A. salmonicida-activated splenocytes. Pre-treatment of monocytes with rgIL-10 resulted in substantial reduction of the ROI response of the A. salmonicida or rgIFNγ-primed monocytes. The rgIL-10 bound to goldfish monocytes and induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Stat3. The rgIL-10 also induced rapid and robust increase in the mRNA levels of the goldfish monocyte SOCS-3. Our results indicate that the function of IL-10 is highly conserved through evolution. PMID:21111485

  2. Nitric oxide synthase in the peripheral nervous system of the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, G; Hattwig, K; Mayer, B

    1996-04-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase was located in various organs of the goldfish by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Positive cells were detected throughout the digestive tract. A particularly dense plexus of nitric-oxide-synthase-containing fibers was present at the opening of the pneumatic duct into the esophagus and at the intestinal sphincter separating the esophagus and the intestinal bulb. The nitroxergic innervation was mainly confined to the muscularis. The muscular layer of the swim bladder and of the pneumatic duct was densely equipped with stained neurons and fibers. In the heart, the majority of small neurons located at the sinu-atrial junction was found to be positive for nitric oxide synthase. The muscularis of the urinary duct was supplied by fibers originating from many intramural ganglia harboring intensely stained neurons. These results suggest that nitric oxide represents a widespread transmitter in the peripheral nervous system of teleost species. PMID:8601299

  3. Mescaline: its effects on learning rate and dopamine metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, E A; Couper, G S; Huprikar, S V; Mellow, A M; Moody, R R

    1976-11-15

    The pharmacological action of mescaline on goldfish was studied with the Bitterman-Agranoff shock-avoidance test. In short term experiments with high mescaline doses an increase in learning rates was observed. Similar results were obtained with apomorphine and L-dopa. However, when the fish were exposed to smaller mescaline doses (or to fluphenazine) for 3 days, their ability to avoid electric shock was reduced. Apparently, mescaline induced a release of dopamine which stimulated central dopaminergic systems. Subsequently, MAO destroys the liberated dopamine. Thus, the ensuing dopamine deficit appears to be responsible for the marked changes in behavior in the chronic experiment.

  4. Isolation and cytochemical characterization of melanomacrophages and melanomacrophage clusters from goldfish (Carassius auratus, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Magor, Brad G

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented or "melano-" macrophages are prominent in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of poikilotherms. Though they have been extensively studied in situ only recently has a means to isolate them from other cell types been established. We provide the first in vitro characterization of isolated melanomacrophage cytochemistry and survival in culture. Unlike non-pigmented tissue macrophages melanomacrophages do not adhere to polystyrene surfaces making them easy to separate from tissue macrophages. In vitro goldfish melanomacrophages are distinguishable from tissue macrophages and neutrophils by being Sudan Black B positive (unlike tissue macrophages) and non-specific esterase positive (unlike neutrophils). Like tissue macrophages they also express acid phosphatase and CSF-1R. As sorted cells melanomacrophages only survive a few days in culture. However in coarsely disaggregated spleen and kidney tissues melanomacrophages survive for at least 3 weeks. Furthermore after 5 days culture disaggregating tissue clumps revealed encapsulated melanomacrophage clusters that remained intact for at least another week. The encapsulated clusters were resilient enough to allow for their isolation for further imaging and isolation of RNA. In some cases the clusters had either melanomacrophages or non-fluorescent cells protruding and in the latter case these could initiate outgrowths onto the plates with subsequent collapse of the cluster. These approaches for the isolation of melanomacrophages and melanomacrophage clusters should allow further study into specific cell and cluster functions. PMID:25453581

  5. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  6. Normal and abnormal retinal projections following the crush of one optic nerve in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A D

    1981-06-10

    Optic nerve regeneration was examined with [3H]proline radioautography in fish that had one nerve crushed. Fibers had not yet grown beyond the crush site at 2 days post-crush (PC) and were at the optic chiasm by 4-5 days PC. By 6 days PC the fibers had reinnervated the rostral pole of the contralateral tectum, the lateral geniculate nucleus and area pretectalis dorsalis and ventralis. Area preopticus, nucleus opticus dorsolateralis and nucleus opticus commissurae posterior were partially reinnervated by 8 days PC. At this time numerous abnormal targets were labeled, including nucleus rotundus, nucleus isthmi, cerebellum, pituitary gland and ipsilateral optic tectum. Optic fibers also entered the posterior, intertectal and horizontal commissures, as well as tractus rotundus, the tectocerebellar, tectobulbar and mesencephalocerebellar tracts. In addition, fibers with the contralateral optic tectum were not restricted to their usual laminae. They were distributed from the superficial edge of the tectum to the ventricle. At 32 days PC only the normal retinal projections were evident, and all of the anomalous projections had disappeared. The anomalous projections may have either retracted or degenerated or become undetectable with radioautography. PMID:7263949

  7. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  8. Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol on thermoregulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R N; Crawshaw, L I; Wallace, H L

    2000-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol (EtOH) on selected temperature (T(sel)) and activity in goldfish were evaluated. Blood and brain EtOH concentrations ([EtOH]) and brain oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) were quantified at crucial ambient oxygen pressures. Below a threshold value near 31 Torr, T(sel) decreased as a function of environmental PO(2). T(sel) of 15 degrees C-acclimated fish was approximately 10 degrees C at the onset of anoxia and changed little over 2 h. Activity showed a similar response pattern. Brain [EtOH] was significantly elevated above control levels after 1 h anoxia. In normoxic water, T(sel) remained different in previously anoxic and normoxic control fish for approximately 20 min. Blood [EtOH] of previously anoxic fish remained significantly elevated ([EtOH] >4.0 micromol/g blood), and activity was significantly depressed at 20 min. Brain PO(2) reached normal levels in <3 min. We conclude that [EtOH] (brain or blood) and brain PO(2) are not proximal causes of either behavioral anapyrexia (hypothermia) or inactivity in goldfish exposed to oxygen-depleted environments.

  9. Prevalence of Two Monogenean Parasites on Different Length Groups of Crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linneus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dactylogyrus anchoratus Dujardin, 1857 and Gyrodactylus katharineri Malmberg, 1964 were identified on crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., 1758 in the present study, which was carried out between February 1999 and January 2000. A total of 117 fish specimens were examined. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels for G. katharineri was 37.61%, respectivly 27.75�2.203 and for D. anchoratus was 24.78%, 4.69�1.730 per fish, respectively. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels were higher during spring and sumer, for the both parasites. No statistically significant preference for either sex of the fish was determined. In this study, we examined a total of 117 fish, out of which 44 (38% were infested by 1221 G. katharineri, and 29 (25% infested by a total of 136 D. anchoratus.

  10. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  11. Identification and Characterization of Full-Length cDNAs in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Blue Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Liu, Hong; Liu, Shikai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Ke, Caihuan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. Methodology and Principal Findings Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding f...

  12. Dactylogyrus intermedius parasitism enhances Flavobacterium columnare invasion and alters immune-related gene expression in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Dong-liang; Chi, Cheng; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-xue

    2015-09-17

    The monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius and the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare are 2 common pathogens in aquaculture. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of prior parasitism by D. intermedius on the susceptibility of goldfish to F. columnare and to explore the potential immune mechanisms related to the parasite infection. A F. columnare challenge trial was conducted between D. intermedius-parasitized and non-parasitized goldfish. The F. columnare load in gill, kidney, spleen and liver were compared. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β2, TNF-α1, TGF-β, iNOS-a, C3 and Lyz) in gill and kidney of D. intermedius-only infected and uninfected control fish were evaluated. D. intermedius-parasitized goldfish exhibited higher mortality and significantly higher loads (3051 to 537,379 genome equivalents [GEs] mg(-1)) of F. columnare, which were 1.13 to 50.82-fold higher than non-parasitized fish (389 to 17,829 GEs mg(-1)). Furthermore, the immune genes IL-1β2, TNF-α1, iNOS-a and Lyz were up-regulated while the TGF-β and C3 were down-regulated in the gill and kidney of parasite-infected fish compared to the non-parasitized controls. The down-regulation TGF-β and C3 was especially noteworthy, as this might indicate the suppression of the host immune functions due to the parasitism by D. intermedius. Taken together, these data demonstrate that parasite infection can enhance bacterial invasion and presents a hypothesis, based on gene expression data, that modulation of host immune response could play a role.

  13. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清江; 叶玉珍; 董新红

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  14. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m(2)). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H2O2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H2O2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. PMID:27181352

  15. Trypanosoma carassii hsp70 increases expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in macrophages of the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladiran, Ayoola; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2009-10-01

    We report on the cloning and characterization of Trypanosoma carassii 70 KDa heat shock protein (hsp70). T. carassii hsp70 was secreted/excreted into culture medium in vitro and was recognized by sera from infected fish. Recombinant hsp70 (rhsp70) activated goldfish macrophages and stimulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon gamma (IFNgamma), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, (IL)-12 and chemokines CCL-1 and CXCL-8 (IL-8). T. carassii hsp70-induced cytokine expression was abrogated by pronase treatment of macrophages confirming the existence of receptor(s) on goldfish macrophage surface that recognize parasite molecule. Parasite hsp70 also up-regulated the expression inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoforms A and B and induced a strong nitric oxide response of goldfish macrophages. PMID:19527750

  16. Seasonal changes and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) effects on innate immune genes expression in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Yu, Fan; Xiao, Jun; Gan, Xi; Zhang, Ming

    2014-06-01

    We profiled the expression of a group of proinflammatory immune genes, comprising TNFα-1, TNFα-2, IFN-γ, IL1β-1, IL1β-2, CCL-1, and CXCL-8 in liver, head kidney, gills, and spleen of goldfish, during the reproductive cycle and in response to injection of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Most genes showed higher expression during the breeding season in both sexes. However, activation of immune responses was much stronger in female goldfish. Injection with hCG, an analog of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is involved in numerous reproductive functions, markedly changed gene expression in most studied organs, in both male and female goldfish. Again, female goldfish were found to be more responsive than male goldfish. The strongest activation of these genes was seen 7 days post-injection; the effect was dose dependent with a lower dose being in general more effective. For several of the genes, the gills were the most responsive tissue and, in male goldfish, gills were often the only responsive tissue, suggesting an important immunological role for gills during breeding. The data suggest that increasing expression levels are regulated by LH arising during the breeding season, with greater sensitivity in female goldfish than in male goldfish. These data support an interaction between the innate immune system and the reproductive axis. PMID:24709628

  17. Effect of different concentrations of permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants on the hatching rate of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fardin Shaluei; Mohamad Reza Imanpoor; Ali Shabani; Mohamad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the toxicity of various cryoprotective agents(CPAs) to goldfish embryos. Methods: Heart-beat embryos were immersed in: five permeable CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol (MeOH), 1,2- propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (Gly), ethylene glycol (EG), and two non-permeable CPAs: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sucrose in concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% for 5, 15, or 30 min. The viability of the embryos after the treatments was estimated from hatching rates. Results: The results showed that the toxicity to goldfish embryos of the five permeable CPAs were in the following sequence: PG 0.05). In this experiment none of the concentrations tested for sucrose reduced the hatching rate, but embryos exposed to PVP did not tolerate concentration 20%, at 30 min exposure. Conclusion: These finding will be advantageous for designing optimized Cryo-media for cryopreservation of goldfish embryos.

  18. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno;

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived ni...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  19. Prevalence of Argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio)] in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khovand, H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. This parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. It caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Besides the damage and stress caused by Argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can result from infestation with this ecto-parasite. From 300 samples, only 20 (6.67 %) samples were infested with this parasite and 280 (93.33 %) not infested. In the present study, Argulus foliaceus was reported on goldfish and Koi which this was first recorded in Kerman, southeast of Iran. According to the presented study, it is clear that A. foliaceus can act as a potential risk factor for natural ecosystems and native fish population of Iran and other countries, that should be mentioned to prevent the burst of new parasitic fauna to Iran and different countries as well as stop direct economic losses caused by mortality derived from infestation with this ecto-parasite. PMID:26688652

  20. Differential involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone actions in gonadotrophs and somatotrophs of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Joshua G; Stafford, James L; Yu, Yi; Chang, John P

    2011-08-01

    In goldfish, two endogenous gonadotrophin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) [salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II] control maturational gonadotrophin-II [lutenising hormone (LH)] and growth hormone (GH) secretion via Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular signalling pathways. We investigated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in GnRH-evoked LH and GH release and associated intracellular Ca(2+) increases ([Ca(2+)](i) ) in goldfish gonadotrophs and somatotrophs. Immunoreactive PI3K p85α, the predominant regulatory subunit for class IA PI3Ks, was detected in goldfish pituitary tissue extracts and both endogenous GnRH isoforms increased phosphorylation of PI3K p85α in excised pituitary fragments. sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-elicited LH release responses from primary cultures of pituitary cells and [Ca(2+)](i) increases in identified gonadotrophs were significantly reduced in the presence of PI3K inhibitors wortmannin (100 nm) and LY294002 (10 μm). Unexpectedly, wortmannin and LY294002 inhibited GnRH-evoked GH release but only attenuated the [Ca(2+)](i) response in identified somatotrophs to cGnRH-II, and not sGnRH. On the other hand, Ca(2+) ionophore-evoked LH and GH secretion remained unaltered in the presence of the PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that general decreases in the releasable hormone pool or sensitivity to [Ca(2+)](i) changes did not underlie the ability of wortmannin and LY294002 to reduce the actions of GnRH. These results provide the first evidence for the presence and involvement of PI3K in GnRH-induced LH and GH release in any primary pituitary cell system. In gonadotrophs, the inhibitory action of PI3K on both sGnRH and cGnRH-II involves the attenuation of their evoked [Ca(2+)](i); in contrast, GnRH isoform-specific effects occur in somatotrophs. PMID:21649760

  1. Inhibitory effect of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone II on food intake in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kouhei; Nakamura, Kouta; Shimakura, Sei-Ichi; Miura, Tohru; Kageyama, Haruaki; Uchiyama, Minoru; Shioda, Seiji; Ando, Hironori

    2008-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, which possesses some structural variants. A molecular form known as chicken GnRH II ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)] GnRH, cGnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior and food intake in an insectivore, the musk shrew. However, the influence of cGnRH II on feeding behavior has not yet been studied in model animals such as rodents and teleost fish. In this study, therefore, we investigated the role of cGnRH II in the regulation of feeding behavior in the goldfish, and examined its involvement in food intake after intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration. ICV-injected cGnRH II at graded doses, from 0.1 to 10 pmol/g body weight (BW), induced a decrease of food consumption in a dose-dependent manner during 60 min after treatment. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of cGnRH II at doses of 1 and 10 pmol/g BW during the 60-min post-treatment observation period. ICV injection of salmon GnRH ([Trp(7) Leu(8)] GnRH, sGnRH) at doses of 0.1-10 pmol/g BW did not affect food intake. The anorexigenic action of cGnRH II was completely blocked by treatment with the GnRH type I receptor antagonist, Antide. However, the anorexigenic action of cGnRH II was not inhibited by treatment with the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 1/2 receptor antagonist, *-helical CRH((9-41)), and the melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist, HS024. These results suggest that, in the goldfish, cGnRH II, but not sGnRH, acts as an anorexigenic factor, as is the case in the musk shrew, and that the anorexigenic action of cGnRH II is independent of CRH- and melanocortin-signaling pathways. PMID:18342861

  2. The analysis of the acute phase response during the course of Trypanosoma carassii infection in the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Nikolina; Hagen, Mariel O; Xie, Jiasong; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-11-01

    The expression of genes encoding the acute phase proteins (APP) during the course of Trypanasoma carassii infection in the goldfish was determined using quantitative PCR. Significant changes in the mRNA levels of ceruloplasmin (Cp), C-reactive protein (CRP), transferrin (Tf), hemopexin (Hx) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were observed in the kidney, liver and spleen at various days post infection (dpi). Of the five acute phase protein genes examined, CRP and SAA exhibited the highest expression in the tissues during the acute infection. Cp and Tf were up-regulated throughout the acute course of infection in the liver. During the chronic phase of the infection, APP expression in the liver was similar to that in the non-infected control fish. At 7 dpi, Cp, Tf and Hx were down-regulated in the spleen, and Cp and Tf kidney, but their mRNA levels gradually returned to those of control non-infected fish. In contrast, during the chronic phase of the infection, there was an up-regulation of Cp, Hx and Tf in the spleen, and Tf and SAA in the kidney. The goldfish CRP was cloned and functionally characterized. CRP was differentially expressed in normal goldfish immune cells, with highest expression in monocytes and lowest expression in mature macrophages. A recombinant goldfish CRP (rgfCRP) was generated using prokaryotic expression. rgfCRP enhanced complement-mediated killing of trypanosomes in vitro, and the lysis increased after addition of immune serum. rgfCRP did not affect the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by monocytes and macrophages, respectively. PMID:26116443

  3. Light-dark cycle and feeding time differentially entrains the gut molecular clock of the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisembaum, Laura G; Velarde, Elena; Tinoco, Ana B; Azpeleta, Clara; de Pedro, Nuria; Alonso-Gómez, Angel L; Delgado, María J; Isorna, Esther

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how photocycle and feeding-time cues regulate the daily expression of Per1a, Per2a, Per3, and Cry3 in the goldfish hindgut. For this purpose, we studied the daily rhythmicity of these genes in fish maintained under different lighting conditions and under different feeding regimes (scheduled or not). We also studied whether the timing of just one meal is able to reset the hindgut molecular clock. In a first experiment, randomly fed fish were divided into four groups and kept under different light conditions for 30 d: 12 h light and 12 h dark (12L:12D), an inverted photoperiod (12D:12L), constant darkness (24D), and constant light (24L). In a second study, fish maintained under 24L were divided into four groups fed at different time points for 35 d: (1) fish scheduled-fed once a day (at 10:00 h); (2) fish fed with a 12-h shifted schedule (at 22:00 h), (3) fish fed at 10:00 h throughout the experiment, except the last day when fed at 22:00 h; and (4) a randomly fed group of fish. Fish were sacrificed every 6 h throughout a 24-h cycle. In both experiments, gPer1a, gPer2a, gPer3, and gCry3 transcripts were quantified using Real Time-qPCR in the hindgut. Results show the clock genes gPer1a, gPer2a, and gCry3 are synchronized by both zeitgebers, the photocycle and feeding regime, in goldfish hindgut. Moreover, such clock genes anticipate light-on and food delivery, when these cues appear in a cyclic manner. In the absence of both zeitgebers, gCry3 and gPer2a rhythmicity disappeared. In contrast, the gPer1 rhythm was maintained under 24L and random feeding conditions, but not always, suggesting that food when randomly supplied is able to reset the clock depending on other factors, such as the energetic and metabolic conditions of the fish. The expression of gPer2a was not activated during the light phase of the cycle, suggesting the hindgut of goldfish is a non-direct photosensitive organ. In contrast to the other three genes, gPer3 expression in the goldfish hindgut seemed to be dependent on the timing of the last food delivery, even in the presence of a photocycle. This gene was the only one that maintained daily rhythms under both constant lighting conditions (24D and 24L), although with lower amplitude than when a photocycle was present. This indicates that, although the acrophase (peak time) of the gPer3 expression rhythm seems to be driven by feeding time, there is an interaction of both zeitgebers, food and light, to regulate its expression. In conclusion, present data indicate: (1) the hindgut of goldfish can be synchronized in vivo by both the photocycle and feeding time; (2) food is a potent signal that entrains this peripheral oscillator; and (3) both environmental cues seems to target different elements of the molecular clock.

  4. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  5. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  6. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  7. PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODELING OF THREE WATERBORNE CHLOROETHANES IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for fish was used to describe the uptake and disposition of three chlorinated ethanes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). atfish were simultaneously exposed to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), pentachloroethane (PCE), and hexachlo...

  8. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  9. Comparative Oxygen Tolerance of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus and Channel Catfish I. punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) have several advantages over channel catfish (I. punctatus) as commercial culture fish. They are more resistant to ESC, PGD, and CCVD, major diseases of channel catfish. They are very easy to seine, with a near-total harvest possible with one seine haul, and may ex...

  10. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  11. Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp. ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.

  12. Final Critical Habitat for the Beautiful Shiner (Cyprinella formosa), the Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei), and the Yaqui chub (Gila purpurea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Beautiful Shiner (Cyprinella formosa), the Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei),...

  13. Evaluation of a cohabitation challenge model in immunization trials for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcein marking and cohabitation challenge have not been investigated in fish parasite research. This study evaluated a cohabitation challenge method in immunization trials against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using calcein, a fluorescent dye, to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafi...

  14. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, E.; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in...

  15. Description of the tadpole of Scinax auratus (Wied-Neuwied) (Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C. R. Alves; Márcia dos Reis Gomes; Sergio P. de Carvalho e Silva

    2004-01-01

    Scinax auratus occurs in the Atlantic Rain Forest of northeastern Brazil. It is found inside the forest on outcrop rocks and in open areas along the forest border. The tadpoles are found in temporary ponds. Herein we describe the tadpole of S. auratus and compare it with those of other related species of the genus Scinax. The diagnostic characteristics of the tadpole of S. auratus include aspects of the general colour and forms of the body, tail, third posterior tooth row, and jaw sheaths.Sci...

  16. Tissue Distribution and Depuration of the Extracted Hepatotoxic Cyanotoxin Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) Intraperitoneally Injected at a Sublethal Dose

    OpenAIRE

    Hehua Lei; Ping Xie; Jun Chen; Gaodao Liang; Ting Yu; Yan Jiang

    2008-01-01

    An acute toxicity experiment was conducted by intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose of extracted microcystins (MCs), 50 μg MC-LR (where L = leucine and R = arginine) equivalent/kg body weight (BW), to examine tissue distribution and depuration of MCs in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Liver to body weight ratio increased at 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection compared with that at 0 h (p < 0.05). MC concentrations in various tissues and aquaria water were analyzed at 1, 3, 12, 24,...

  17. Vitellogenin mRNA Expression in Wild Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus auratus)from Hun River%浑河流域野生鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋双双; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 赵艳民; 李子成; 陈浩; 赵兴茹; 刘代成

    2013-01-01

    为揭示浑河流域水环境内分泌干扰物对水生态的潜在风险,利用兼并引物扩增获得鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原(Vtg)和核糖体蛋白L-7(RPL-7)基因部分碱基序列(分别为825和450 bp),建立以RPL-7为内参基因、定量鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的实时定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)方法,并将该方法用于定量浑河野生鲫鱼肝组织Vtg基因表达分析.结果显示:与上游对照点(S1)相比,7月下游各点(S4~S8)雄鱼、S4和S6点雌鱼肝组织的Vtg mRNA表达水平皆显著升高(P <0.05);11月在雄鱼中未检出Vtg mRNA的有效表达,雌鱼也仅在S2和S3点的表达水平升高(P<0.05).研究表明,浑河流域野生鲫鱼尤其是在7月明显受到了环境雌激素类物质的影响.另外,qRT-PCR方法能够灵敏检测出鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的时空差异.

  18. Distribution and expression analysis of transcription factors in tissues and progenitor cell populations of the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) in response to growth factors and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenback, Barbara A; Karpman, Matthew; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2011-05-01

    We report on the mRNA levels of a panel of transcription factors in the kidney and spleen tissues, and in the cell populations from the blood, the spleen, and in the sorted kidney progenitor cells. The mRNA levels of cebpα, cjun, cmyb, egr1, gata1, gata2, gata3, lmo2, mafb, pax5, pu.1 and runx1 were assessed in healthy goldfish as well as in fish challenged with two different pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida A449 or Trypanosoma carassii. Spleen tissue from healthy goldfish showed higher expression of myeloid (cjun), erythroid (gata1) and lymphoid (gata3, pax5) transcription factors, and lower expression of the myeloid transcription factor cebpα when compared to that of kidney. Splenocytes and PBLs had significantly higher mRNA levels of the transcription factors involved in myeloid (pu.1, mafb, cjun, egr1, cebpa), erythroid (gata1, lmo2), and lymphoid pathways (gata3 and pax5) compared to sorted kidney R1 progenitor cells, while R1 progenitor cells had higher mRNA levels of early progenitor transcription factors (runx1 and cmyb). Furthermore, the R1 progenitor cells had higher mRNA levels of the transcription factors involved in early progenitor cells (egr1, gata2) and the lymphoid lineage progenitors (gata3, pax5) compared to those in kidney. The mRNA levels of the transcription factors (gata2, mafb, cjun, gata1, lmo2, gata3, and pax5) in R1 progenitor cells changed during cultivation; they were elevated in day 2 R1 cells and down-regulated by day 6 of cultivation, when compared to those of day 0 R1 cells. Treatment of day 2 R1 progenitor cells with rgCSF-1 resulted in an up-regulation of transcription factors important for myeloid cell development (cjun and egr1). Similarly, rgkitla up-regulated the expressions of myeloid (mafb, egr1 and cebpa) transcription factors. Changes in the expression of transcription factors in the R1 progenitor cells were related to the observed developmental processes of myeloid progenitor cells during cultivation or treatment with recombinant growth factors in vitro. We also observed differential expressions of the transcription factors in R1 progenitor cells following exposure of the goldfish to either prokaryotic (heat-killed A. salmonicida A449) or eukaryotic (T. carassii) pathogens. PMID:21474183

  19. Tracing the accumulation and effects of mercury uptake in the previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio by autometallography and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to apply the AMG technique for localization of mercury at the light and electron microscopic level in the ovary of crucian carp after exposure to mercuric chloride and to find out if this heavy metal induces expression of caspase-3. Depending on the stage of ovarian follicle development, two patterns of mercury accumulation have been found in previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp. The first mercury accumulation pattern has been fou...

  20. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene on modulating vitellogenin expression in primary culture of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yong; C. K. C. Wong; XU Ying; M. H. Wong

    2004-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is the precursor of yolk protein. Its expression and secretion are estrogen-regulated and are crucial for oocyte maturation. An in vitro xenoestrogen screening model was established by measuring Vtg induction in cultured primary hepatocytes from crucian carp. Vtg production was detected by biotin-avidin sandwich ELISA method while Vtg and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA induction were measured by semi- quantitative PCR-primer dropping technique. Vtg and Vtg mRNA were dose-dependently induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.2-200 ng/mL) in hepatocytes of crucian carp. Co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with either 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD, 0.1-4 pg/mL) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 5-1000 ng/mL) resulted in a reduction of Vtg production and an increment of CYP1A1 mRNA expression both in a dose dependent manner, indicating the anti-estro-genic effects of the compounds. However, at lower tested concentrations, TCDD (0.1, 0.2 pg/mL), B[a]P (5 ng/mL) seemed to have a potentiating effect on Vtg expression and secretion, although by their own these compounds had no observable estrogenic effect on Vtg induction. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulators, 1 nmol/L-1 μmol/L), and β-naphtho-flavone (β-NF, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor inducing compounds, 2.5-1000 ng/mL) also were employed to study the possible interactions in DES-induced Vtg expression. In co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with β-NF or tamoxifen, the decrease in Vtg production did parallel induction of CYP1A1 for β-NF, but tamoxifen inhibited Vtg induction did not parallel induced CYP1A1 expression in all test concentrations. On the contrary, it was found that in co-treatment of the TCDD-induced hepatocytes with DES, TCDD induced CYP1A1 mRNA production was inhibited by DES also. These results implicated a possible cross talk between estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways in the hepatocytes.

  1. [Collation of data on the ploidy levels and mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic lineages in the silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio from Far Eastern and Central Asian populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalikova, O V; Eliseĭkina, M G; Kovalev, M Iu; Brykov, V A

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of the diploid and triploid forms and the correspondence between ploidy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic lineages of the silver crucian carp have been studied in Far Eastern water bodies and the Syr Darya River. Both diploid and triploid forms have been found in large river systems (the Amur, Suifun, Tumangan, and Syr Darya river basins). Only the diploid form has been detected in lakes of Bol'shoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan), Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka River basin (the Kamchatka Peninsula). It has been confirmed that there are two mtDNA phylogroups in the silver crucian carp in the area studied. Both mtDNA phylogenetic lineages are present in the Suifun and Tumangan river basins. Only one mtDNA phylogroup (characteristic of the gynogenetic form) has been detected in two samples from the Amur River and in the Syr Darya population. The other mtDNA phylogroup is predominant in insular populations and in Kamchatka. The gynogenetic form carries only mtDNA phylogroup I, whereas both phylogroups have been found in diploid bisexual fish. The existence of only two mtDNA phylogroups substantially differing from each other indicates that the gynogenetic form has emerged from the diploid form only once and evolved independently for a long time after that. The absence of haplotypes transitional between the two mtDNA phylogroups suggests that the secondary contact between the gynogenetic and bisexual forms in continental populations occurred within recent historical time. The obtained data confirm that genetic (though asymmetric) exchange between the two forms is possible, which explains the high morphological and, probably, genetic similarity between them.

  2. Effects of praziquantel and sanguinarine on expression of immune genes and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila in goldfish (Carassius auratus) infected with Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Ling, Fei; Chi, Cheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-10-01

    Praziquantel and sanguinarine have been demonstrated positive therapeutic effects on monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius; however, few studies have considered the post impacts of these antiparasitic chemicals on host after repelling the parasites. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (CCL-1, CXCL-8, IL-1β-1, IL-1β-2, TNFα-1, TNFα-2 and TGF-β) in gill, kidney and spleen and bacterial loads of Aeromonas hydrophila in gill, kidney, spleen and liver following bath administration of these antiparasitic chemicals were evaluated. The results showed that praziquantel and sanguinarine up-regulated to varying degrees of CXCL-8, IL-1β-1, IL-1β-2, TNFα-1 and TNFα-2 in gill, kidney and spleen. They both decreased the CCL-1 expression in gill while increased it in kidney and spleen. However, in all the tested tissues, the expression of TGF-β decreased in praziquantel treated goldfish whereas that increased in sanguinarine treated goldfish. The A. hydrophila challenge test showed that the praziquantel treatment enhanced the susceptibility to A. hydrophila while sanguinarine treatment decreased the susceptibility, as compared with the non-treated group. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of praziquantel and sanguinarine modulates the immune related genes in goldfish and these may, to some extent, affect their ability to resist bacterial pathogens. PMID:23954698

  3. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) induces pro-inflammatory gene expression and enhances antimicrobial responses of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Leon; Hanington, Patrick C; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2009-03-01

    We report on the regulation of pro-inflammatory functions of goldfish macrophages and induction of gene expression by recombinant goldfish CSF-1 (rgCSF-1). Recombinant goldfish TNFalpha-2 (rg TNFalpha-2), rgIFNgamma but not rgTGFbeta induced time-dependent increase of CSF-1 expression in macrophages. Treatment of goldfish macrophages with rgCSF-1 increased expression of several immune genes including CXCL-8 (=IL-8), CCL-1, TNFalpha-1, TNFalpha-2, IL-1beta-1, IL-1beta-2, IL-12-p35, IL-12-p40, IFN, IL-10 and iNOS A and B. The rgCSF-1 treatment did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of TGFbeta and NRAMP in macrophages up to 48h post treatment. However, at 72h post treatment, the expression of TGFbeta increased whereas that of NRAMP decreased. The treatment of macrophages with rgCSF-1 enhanced their respiratory burst and nitric oxide responses that were abrogated after addition of soluble CSF-1 receptor (sCSF-1R) to cell cultures. Macrophages exhibited a concentration-dependent chemotactic response toward rgCSF-1 as well as an increase in phagocytic activity that was abrogated after addition of sCSF-1R to cell cultures. Our results indicate that in addition to being an important growth factor of goldfish macrophages, rgCSF-1 also plays a central role in the regulation of their pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:19130890

  4. Effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Hematological Indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Ditch Constructed Wetland unit (DCW was integrated into an outdoor RAS with four fishponds. This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of the rearing fish. During a 165-days culture period, the DCW effectively reduced the influent concentrations of nutrients and can keep a good water quality at acceptable concentrations for growth of the fish. Growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian carp were closely related to water quality of their living environment. The RAS had improved the growth performance and quality of Allogynogenetic crucian carp.

  5. Effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Hematological Indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-li Li; Gu Li; Shi-yang Zhang; Ling Tao

    2013-01-01

    A Ditch Constructed Wetland unit (DCW) was integrated into an outdoor RAS with four fishponds. This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) on growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of the rearing fish. During a 165-days culture period, the DCW effectively reduced the influent concentrations of nutrients and can keep a good water quality at acceptab...

  6. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-11-21

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure.

  7. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA-CYPERMETHRIN ON GLUTAMIC- PYRUVIC TRANSAMINASE (GPT) AND GLUTAMIC-OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE (GOT) ACTIVITIES FROM CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) SERUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are considered as possible sub-stitutesfor some organophosphate carbamates or organochlo-rine insecticides,and have been used extensivelyfor morethantwo decades[1].Pyrethroids are preferred over otherinsecticides because of their easy degradation into non-toxic or less toxic metabolites under natural conditions.Consequently,there has recently beena dramatic increaseinthe use of pyrethroid pesticides to control insect pests.However,synthetic pyrethroids were also reported to bemore toxi...

  9. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLatchy Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit. The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p

  10. Interactions between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and orexin in the regulation of feeding and reproduction in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Leah J; Xu, Meiyu; Volkoff, Hélène

    2008-08-01

    Links between energy homeostasis and reproduction have been demonstrated in vertebrates. As a general rule, abundant food resources favor reproduction whereas low food availability induces an inhibition of reproductive processes. In both mammals and fish, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and orexin (OX) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that play critical roles in the regulation of sexual behavior and appetite, respectively. In order to assess possible interactions between orexin and GnRH in the control of feeding and reproduction in goldfish, we examined the effects of chicken GnRH (cGnRH-II) intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection on feeding behavior and OX brain mRNA expression as well as the effects of orexin ICV injections on spawning behavior and cGnRH-II brain mRNA expression. Treatment with cGnRH-II at doses that stimulate spawning (0.5 ng/g or 1 ng/g) resulted in a decrease in both food intake and hypothalamic orexin mRNA expression. Treatment with orexin A at doses that stimulate feeding (10 ng/g) induced an inhibition of spawning behavior and a decrease in cGnRH-II expression in the hypothalamus and optic tectum-thalamus. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic actions of cGnRH-II in goldfish might be in part mediated by OX and that orexin inhibits reproductive behavior in part via the inhibition of the GnRH system. Our data suggest the existence of a coordinated control of feeding and reproduction by the orexin and GnRH systems in goldfish. PMID:18544455

  11. BOB.1 of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Not a transcriptional coactivator?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Wilson, Melanie R.; Miller, Norman W.; Cunningham, Charles; Warr, Gregory W.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)is driven by the Eμ3′ enhancer, whose core region contains two octamer motifs and a μE5 site. Orthologues of the Oct1 and Oct2 transcription factors have been cloned in the channel catfish and shown to bind to the octamer motifs within the core enhancer. While catfish Oct2 is an activator of transcription, catfish Oct1 failed to drive transcription and may act as a negative regulator of IGH tr...

  12. Impacts of Bolbophorus damnificus digenea: Bolbophoridae on production characteristics of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, raised in experimental ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolbophorus damnificus was recognized as a threat to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, production in Louisiana and Mississippi in 1997 and 1999, respectively. Severe to moderate outbreaks (=34% prevalence) are correlated to heavy losses, but impact of mild outbreaks with low prevalence (<33%) wa...

  13. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  14. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (taurine content. In add...

  15. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  16. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs. We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae; a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing, with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high. Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days. The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  17. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years. PMID:26544185

  18. Laboratory trials of five rodenticides for the control of Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A A; Gill, J E

    1984-10-01

    The efficacy of five rodenticides for use in bait against the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse) was investigated in the laboratory. The species proved to be resistant to warfarin (up to 0.5%) and difenacoum (0.005%), but brodifacoum (0.005%) gave complete mortality after three days' feeding. Calciferol (0.1%), though toxic, was significantly unpalatable. Zinc phosphide (5.0%) presented in a choice test for two days against unpoisoned feed gave 100% mortality, and appears to be the most suitable of these compounds for the control of M. auratus in the field. PMID:6334113

  19. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  20. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  1. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  2. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  3. Real-time PCR validation of visually identified snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P J; Wakefield, C B; Fairclough, D V; Jackson, G; Travers, M J; Snow, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a total of 212 eggs were visually identified as snapper Chrysophrys auratus. Real-time PCR confirmed visual identification in 69% of cases but corroboration varied widely among plankton samples. The use of molecular tools to support visual identification prior to adopting daily egg production stock assessment methods should be considered.

  4. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) c

  5. Explosive development of pectoral muscle fibres in large juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, S; Fine, M L

    2015-11-01

    As part of an effort on scaling of pectoral spines and muscles, the basis for growth was examined in six pectoral muscles in juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, the largest catfish in North America. Fibre number increases slowly in fish from 13.0 to 26.4 cm in total length, doubles by 27.0 cm and remains stable in larger individuals. Simultaneously, mean fibre diameter decreases by half, caused by the addition of new small fibres, before increasing non-linearly in larger fish. The orders of magnitude disparity between the size at hatching and the size of large adults may have selected for rapid muscle fibre addition at a threshold size.

  6. Análise da técnica de criopreservação de sêmen do peixe japonês Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1766 para a formação de um banco de germoplasma - Cryopreservation technical analysis of Japonese ornamental fish semen Carassius auratus (linnaeus, 1766, aimed at the formation of a germoplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda da Silva Souza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available SummaryFish semen freezing with liquid nitrogen it’s a valuable technique topreserve genetic material which can be used to genetic improvementprograms of economic interest species, besides; it allows the materialstorage for a long-term period. However, each specie requires a specific protocol.ResumoO congelamento de sêmen de peixes em nitrogênio líquido trata-se deuma técnica muito valiosa para a preservação de material genético quepode ser utilizado para programas de melhoramento genético de espéciesde interesse econômico, além de permitir o armazenamento dessematerial por longos períodos.

  7. Characterization of an Oct1 orthologue in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: A negative regulator of immunoglobulin gene transcription?

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Norman W; Wilson Melanie R; Kruiswijk Corine P; Ross David A; Hikima Jun-ichi; Lennard Mara L; Warr Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The enhancer (Eμ3') of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been well characterized. The functional core region consists of two variant Oct transcription factor binding octamer motifs and one E-protein binding μE5 site. An orthologue to the Oct2 transcription factor has previously been cloned in catfish and is a functionally active transcription factor. This study was undertaken to clone and characterize the Oct1 trans...

  8. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    OpenAIRE

    Erlong Wang; Jun Wang; Bo Long; Kaiyu Wang; Yang He; Qian Yang; Defang Chen; Yi Geng; Xiaoli Huang; Ping Ouyang; Weimin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine e...

  9. Tissue distribution and depuration of the extracted hepatotoxic cyanotoxin microcystins in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) intraperitoneally injected at a sublethal dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hehua; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Liang, Gaodao; Yu, Ting; Jiang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    An acute toxicity experiment was conducted by intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose of extracted microcystins (MCs), 50 microg MC-LR (where L = leucine and R = arginine) equivalent/kg body weight (BW), to examine tissue distribution and depuration of MCs in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Liver to body weight ratio increased at 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection compared with that at 0 h (p liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The highest concentration of MCs (MC-RR + MC-LR) was found in blood, 2-270 ng/g dry weight (DW), followed by heart (3-100 ng/g DW) and kidney (13-88 ng/g DW). MC levels were relatively low in liver, gonad, intestine, spleen, and brain. MC contents in gills, gallbladder, and muscle were below the limit of detection. Significant negative correlation was present between MC-RR concentration in blood and that in kidney, confirming that blood was important in the transportation of MC-RR to kidney for excretion. Rapid accumulation and slow degradation of MCs were observed in gonad, liver, intestine, spleen, and brain. Only 0.07% of injected MCs were detected in liver. The recovery of MCs in liver of crucian carp seemed to be dose dependent. PMID:18677427

  10. Tissue Distribution and Depuration of the Extracted Hepatotoxic Cyanotoxin Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius Intraperitoneally Injected at a Sublethal Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Lei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity experiment was conducted by intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose of extracted microcystins (MCs, 50 μg MC-LR (where L = leucine and R = arginine equivalent/kg body weight (BW, to examine tissue distribution and depuration of MCs in crucian carp (Carassius carassius. Liver to body weight ratio increased at 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection compared with that at 0 h (p < 0.05. MC concentrations in various tissues and aquaria water were analyzed at 1, 3, 12, 24, 48, and 168 h postinjection using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The highest concentration of MCs (MC-RR + MC-LR was found in blood, 2–270 ng/g dry weight (DW, followed by heart (3–100 ng/g DW and kidney (13–88 ng/g DW. MC levels were relatively low in liver, gonad, intestine, spleen, and brain. MC contents in gills, gallbladder, and muscle were below the limit of detection. Significant negative correlation was present between MC-RR concentration in blood and that in kidney, confirming that blood was important in the transportation of MC-RR to kidney for excretion. Rapid accumulation and slow degradation of MCs were observed in gonad, liver, intestine, spleen, and brain. Only 0.07% of injected MCs were detected in liver. The recovery of MCs in liver of crucian carp seemed to be dose dependent.

  11. Determinação do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus utilizando endoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Souza Mendonça De Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação precoce do sexo em peixes é um procedimento importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que facilitem o manejo no plantel de reprodutores. A endoscopia pode ser utilizada para essa identificação, embora em peixes seu uso ainda seja restrito. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar o uso do endoscópio rígido via poro urogenital para determinação do sexo do catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus. O equipamento utilizado foi um endoscópio Multipurpose Rigid™ 30º com 2,7 mm de diâmetro e 18 cm de comprimento. Foram examinados 60 peixes com peso variando entre 86 e 1.032 gramas nos quais foi introduzido o endoscópio via poro genital e, logo em seguida, eutanaziados para confirmação do sexo. Amostras de tecido gonadal foram coletadas para avaliação histológica do estádio de maturação e confirmação do sexo. Os resultados mostraram que dos 60 peixes examinados, 57 tiveram confirmação positiva do sexo via endoscopia, o que corresponde a 95% da amostra. A utilização da endoscopia para determinação do sexo em I. punctatus via poro genital é viável.

  12. Metabolic responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to phenol and post-exposure recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fernanda D; Rossi, Priscila A; Figueiredo, Juliana S L; Venturini, Francine P; Cortella, Lucas R X; Moraes, Gilberto

    2016-05-31

    Metabolic adjustments were studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to 1.5 mg L-1 of phe nol (10% LC50) for four days and recovered for seven days. Lower triacylglycerol (TGA) stores and increased muscle fat free acids (FFA) suggest fat catabolism in muscle. Remarkable liver FFA decrease (-31%) suggests liver fat catabolism as well. Increased muscular ammonia levels and ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase) and decreased plasma aminoacids suggest higher muscular amino acid uptake. Constant levels of glucose and increased liver glycogen stores, associated with lower amino acids in plasma, indicate gluconeogenesis from amino acids. This is supported by higher hepatic ALAT and ASAT. Higher hepatic LDH followed by lower plasma lactate may indicate that plasma lactate was also used as gluconeogenic substrate. Biochemical alterations were exacerbated during the post-exposure recovery period. Reduction in muscle and plasma protein content indicate proteolysis. A higher rate of liver fat catabolism was resulted from a remarkable decrease in hepatic TGA (-58%). Catabolic preference for lipids was observed in order to supply such elevated energy demand. This study is the first insight about the metabolic profile of I. punctatus to cope with phenol plus its ability to recover, bringing attention to the biological consequences of environmental contamination. PMID:27254449

  13. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Liu

    Full Text Available Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease. As columnaris gains entry through the gills and skin of fish, we examined here changes in transcriptional regulation induced in these surface mucosal tissues due to short-term (7 day fasting. RNA-seq expression analysis revealed a total of 1,545 genes perturbed by fasting. Fasting significantly altered expression of critical innate immune factors in a manner consistent with lower immune fitness as well as dysregulating key genes involved in energy metabolism and cell cycling/proliferation. Downregulation of innate immune actors such as iNOS2b, Lysozyme C, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 is predicted to impact the delicate recognition/tolerance balance for commensal and pathogenic bacteria on the skin and gill. The highlighted expression profiles reveal potential mechanistic similarities between gut and surface mucosa and underscore the complex interrelationships between nutrition, mucosal integrity, and immunity in teleost fish.

  14. Metabolic responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus exposed to phenol and post-exposure recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda D. Moraes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic adjustments were studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to 1.5 mg L-1 of phe nol (10% LC50 for four days and recovered for seven days. Lower triacylglycerol (TGA stores and increased muscle fat free acids (FFA suggest fat catabolism in muscle. Remarkable liver FFA decrease (-31% suggests liver fat catabolism as well. Increased muscular ammonia levels and ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase and decreased plasma aminoacids suggest higher muscular amino acid uptake. Constant levels of glucose and increased liver glycogen stores, associated with lower amino acids in plasma, indicate gluconeogenesis from amino acids. This is supported by higher hepatic ALAT and ASAT. Higher hepatic LDH followed by lower plasma lactate may indicate that plasma lactate was also used as gluconeogenic substrate. Biochemical alterations were exacerbated during the post-exposure recovery period. Reduction in muscle and plasma protein content indicate proteolysis. A higher rate of liver fat catabolism was resulted from a remarkable decrease in hepatic TGA (-58%. Catabolic preference for lipids was observed in order to supply such elevated energy demand. This study is the first insight about the metabolic profile of I. punctatus to cope with phenol plus its ability to recover, bringing attention to the biological consequences of environmental contamination.

  15. Construction and characterization of a BAC library from a gynogenetic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

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    Wilson Melanie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was constructed by cloning HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA from a gynogenetic channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, into the vector pBeloBAC11. Approximately 53 500 clones were arrayed in 384-well plates and stored at -80°C (CCBL1, while clones from a smaller insert size fraction were stored at -80°C without arraying (CCBL2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 100 clones after NotI digestion revealed an average insert size of 165 kb for CCBL1 and 113 kb for CCBL2. Further characterization of CCBL1 demonstrated that 10% of the clones did not contain an insert. CCBL1 provides a 7.2-fold coverage of the channel catfish haploid genome. PCR-based screening demonstrated that 68 out of 74 unique loci were present in the library. This represents a 92% chance to find a unique sequence. These libraries will be useful for physical mapping of the channel catfish genome, and identification of genes controlling major traits in this economically important species.

  16. Comparison of the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides by semipermeable membrane devices and caged fish (Carassius carassius) in Taihu Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, S.; Wang, Z.; Huckins, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by crucian carp (Carassius carassius) was studied in Taihu Lake, a shallow, freshwater lake in China. Crucian carp and SPMDs were deployed side by side for 32 d. The first-order uptake rate constants of individual PAHs and OCPs for the two matrices were calculated and compared to relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the matrices to dissolved water concentrations. On a wet-weight basis, total concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp fillets averaged 49.5 and 13.6 ng/g, respectively, after the 32-d exposure, whereas concentrations in whole SPMDs averaged 716.9 and 62.3 ng/g, respectively. The uptake rate constants of PAHs and OCPs by SPMDs averaged seven- and fivefold higher, respectively, than those for crucian carp; however, the patterns of uptake rate constants derived from test chemical concentrations in the crucian carp and SPMDs were similar. Although equilibrium was not reached for some PAHs and OCPs during the 32-d exposure period, a reasonably good correlation between the concentration factors (CFs) and octanol/water partition coefficient (K ow) values of PAHs and OCPs in SPMDs (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) was observed when potential sorption to dissolved organic carbon was taken into account. Similar efforts to correlate the CFs and Kow values of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) were less successful, likely because of PAH metabolism by finfish. Overall, the present results suggest that SPMDs may serve as a surrogate for contaminant monitoring with fish in freshwater lake environments. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  17. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

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    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  18. Simulation modeling to explore the effects of length-based harvest regulations for Ictalurus fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Management of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus and Channel Catfish I. punctatus for trophy production has recently become more common. Typically, trophy management is attempted with length-based regulations that allow for the moderate harvest of small fish but restrict the harvest of larger fish. However, the specific regulations used vary considerably across populations, and no modeling efforts have evaluated their effectiveness. We used simulation modeling to compare total yield, trophy biomass (Btrophy), and sustainability (spawning potential ratio [SPR] > 0.30) of Blue Catfish and Channel Catfish populations under three scenarios: (1) current regulation (typically a length-based trophy regulation), (2) the best-performing minimum length regulation (MLRbest), and (3) the best-performing length-based trophy catfish regulation (LTRbest; “best performing” was defined as the regulation that maximized yield, Btrophy, and sustainability). The Btrophy produced did not differ among the three scenarios. For each fishery, the MLRbest and LTRbest produced greater yield (>22% more) than the current regulation and maintained sustainability at higher finite exploitation rates (>0.30) than the current regulation. The MLRbest and LTRbest produced similar yields and SPRs for Channel Catfish and similar yields for Blue Catfish; however, the MLRbest for Blue Catfish produced more resilient fisheries (higher SPR) than the LTRbest. Overall, the variation in yield, Btrophy, and SPR among populations was greater than the variation among regulations applied to any given population, suggesting that population-specific regulations may be preferable to regulations applied to geographic regions. We conclude that LTRs are useful for improving catfish yield and maintaining sustainability without overly restricting harvest but are not effective at increasing the Btrophy of catfish.

  19. Naturally occurring orocutaneous papillomas and carcinomas of brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F M; Wolfe, M J; Spitsbergen, J M

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-four brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) with spontaneous orocutaneous neoplasms (papillomas and carcinomas) were studied grossly and by light microscopy. Of these 94 fish, 71 were selected from 505 fish examined macroscopically during field surveys and 23 were selected from those submitted for diagnostic study. Fish with neoplasms came from 17 locations throughout New York State: Buffalo River, Canaan Lake, Cazenovia Lake, Delta Lake, Fort Pond, Greenwood Lake, Hudson River, Lake George, Lake Tiorati, Lincoln Hall Pond. Lincoln Pond, Oneida Lake, Onondaga Lake, Rutland Pond, Salmon River, Silver Stream Reservoir and Swan Lake. The prevalence varied from 0 to 100%. Multiple neoplasms were more common (84/94, 89%) than solitary ones (10/94, 11%). In order of decreasing frequency, neoplasms arose on the head, especially the ventral aspect, the lower dental plate, the upper dental plate, the trunk, the barbels, the fins, the tongue, and the tail. Of the 38/94 brown bullheads (40%) with tumors in both upper and lower lips and dental plates, 24/38 (63%) had the tumors in opposition. Macroscopically, soft, pink or yellowish papillary masses protruded above the normal epithelial surfaces. Histologically, cutaneous and oral neoplasms originated from the morphologically similar Malpighian epithelial cells of the surface epithelia and from the outer cells of the enamel organ. Based on histopathologic criteria, cutaneous and oral neoplasms were considered the same disease in different anatomic locations. No apparent difference in biologic behavior was noted between cutaneous and oral neoplasms. The lesions apparently progressed from benign papilloma to locally invasive carcinoma (28/94, 30%). Neoplastic emboli were seen in one case, and no metastases were detected. There was no statistically significant difference between the susceptibility of males (20/57, 35%) and females (6/26, 23%) to carcinomas. An apparent correlation was noted between a higher frequency of

  20. Bioconcentration and endocrine disruption effects of diazepam in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, C L; Overturf, M D; Huggett, D B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the detection of pharmaceuticals in surface waters has increased worldwide. Pharmaceuticals are typically found in the environment at concentrations well below therapeutic levels in humans; however, their mechanisms of action may be largely unknown in non-target organisms, such as teleost species. Thus, chronic exposure to these types of compounds warrants further investigation. The goal of this study was to examine the potential for diazepam, a model benzodiazepine drug, to bioconcentrate in tissues of channel catfish and to examine its ability to interact with the endocrine system through modulation of steroid hormones and/or steroidogenic genes. To investigate the bioconcentration potential of diazepam, channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days, followed by clean water for another seven days, using an abbreviated OECD 305 Fish Bioconcentration Test study design. This concentration of diazepam is well below environmentally relevant concentrations of diazepam (ng/L). To evaluate steroidogenic effects, fish were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days only. Steroid hormone concentrations were analyzed for various tissues, as well as expression of selected steroidogenic genes. Calculated bioconcentration factors for diazepam were well below regulatory threshold values in all tissues analyzed. No changes in steroid hormone concentration were detected in any tissue analyzed; however, the steroidogenic gene cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) was significantly down-regulated at day 5 and 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was significantly down-regulated at day 7 in the gonad. These results indicate that although diazepam does not significantly bioconcentrate, low-level chronic exposure to diazepam may have the potential to interact with endocrine function by altering gene expression. PMID:26875913

  1. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  2. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  3. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used to culture channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  4. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used for the culture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  5. Distribution and elimination of [14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride from tissues of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gofus, J.E.; Delaney, L.J.; Bunnell, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and loss of radioactivity from tissues were determined in 60 juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following oral dosing with the candidate fish therapeutant Sarafin® ([14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride) at 10 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. Twelve groups of 5 fish each were sampled at selected times ranging from 3 to 240 h after the last dose was administered, The concentration and content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in liver, gallbladder, kidney, skin, and skinless fillet by sample oxidation and liquid scintillation counting; content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in stomach and anterior and posterior intestines, Skinless fillet tissues were also analyzed for sarafloxacin and for potential metabolites by gradient-elution high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with in-line radiometric and fluorescence detection, Loss of radioactivity from the whole body conformed to a bimodal elimination pattern with a rapid initial phase (t1/2=11 h) and a slower secondary phase (t1/2=222 h). Tissue and contents of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach and anterior and posterior intestines) were a principal depot of activity during the first four sample times (3, 6, 12, and 24 h); the combined head, skeleton, and fins (i.e. residual carcass) were the principal depot of activity in samples taken after 24 h. Of those tissues sampled 3 h after the last dose, relative sarafloxacin concentration was greatest in the liver (4.06 μg equivalents/g) and least in the residual carcass (1.13 μg equivalents/g), Intermediate concentrations were found in the kidney (2.04 μg equivalents/g), skinless fillet (1.71 μg equivalents/ g), and the skin (1.51 μg equivalents/g). Concentrations of sarafloxacin-equivalent residues in edible skinless fillet were consistently among the lowest of all tissues examined. The highest mean concentration of parent-equivalent material in the fillet tissue was found 12 h after

  6. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  7. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, Mélisa; Guitard, Julie; Reebs, Stéphan G.

    2010-01-01

    Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both) were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters. PMID:20613965

  8. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  9. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Peregrin

    Full Text Available In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34% were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory. Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish; gastric herniation (46%; ruptured swim bladder (73%; organ displacement (48%; and kidney (3%, liver (73% and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%; with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish. The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  10. On the record of pug-headedness in snapper, Pagrus auratus (Forster, 1801 (Perciformes, Sparidae from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith JAWAD

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pug-headedness in the snapper Pagrus auratus is reported for the first time from New Zealand, based on a specimen (aged 2+ collected from Whangarei Harbour. Severe damage to the underlying bones of the mouth and snout regions was noted. The mouth of the specimen was virtually closed. Several factors were attributed to the cause of these anomalies among which are genetic and epigenetic causes.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish (Carassius auratus) immunoglobulin: application to the quantification of immunoglobulin and antibody-secreting cells by ELISPOT and seric immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwicki, A K; Vergnet, C; Charlemagne, J; Dunier, M

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against heavy and light chains of goldfish immunoglobulin (Ig) were characterized by a Western blot technique. A complete cross-reactivity was observed between carp and goldfish Ig. These mAbs were used for the quantification of carp Ig and anti-Yersinia ruckeri antibodies by ELISA. An ELISPOT assay was also developed in carp to quantify Ig-secreting cells (ISC) and antibody-secreting cells (ASC). The number of ASC was maximum on day 18 post-vaccination and decreased to the basal level on day 28. The antibody levels in sera were maximum on day 18 and slowly decreased until day 28. PMID:7951348

  12. Study on the quality changes of Carassius Auratus during storage between refrigeration and partial freezing%鲫鱼在冷藏和微冻贮藏下品质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越华; 俞所银; 任青; 包建强

    2013-01-01

    Sensory assessment,pH,2-th iobarbituric acid value (TBA),volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N),K value and aerobic plate count were used as the assessment standards for the sake of studying the quality change of Crucian which were stored by the way of refrigeration (4℃) and partial freezing (-3℃).Results showed that the sensory assessment had reached the upper limit after 8d and 24d stored at 4℃ and-3℃ respectively.The TBA value stored at 4℃ on the 14th day was 1.29mg/100g,however it was 1.58mg/100g at-3℃ on the 30th day.The TVB-N value stored for 8days at 4℃ was 18.76mg/100g,meanwhile,it reached 18.52mg/100g when stored at-3℃ at 24th day.At 4℃ stored for 8d and-3℃ stored for 24d,the K value were 56.7% and 53.2% separately.The aerobic plate count of Crucian stored for 12d at 4℃ was 7.02lg cfu/g,at-3℃ on the 30th day it reached 5.78lg cfu/g.Talking all indicators of changes,the shelf life were 8d and 24d respectively at 4℃ and-3℃ condition.Compared with refrigeration,the partial freezing conditions would increase the shelf life obviously.%以感官品质、pH、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)、总挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)和鲜度指标K值、细菌总数为指标,研究鲫鱼在冷藏(4℃)和微冻(-3℃)贮藏中品质的变化规律.结果表明,鲫鱼在4℃和-3℃贮藏条件下,分别在第8d和第24d达到感官品质接受上限.4℃条件下第14d TBA值为1.29mg/100g,-3℃贮藏条件下第30d TBA值为1.58mg/100g.4℃条件下贮藏8d TVB-N值为18.76mg/100g,-3℃贮藏24d TVB-N值为18.52mg/100g.4℃贮藏8d和-3℃贮藏24d的鲫鱼K值分别为56.7%和53.2%.4℃贮藏12d细菌总数为7.02lg cfu/g,3℃贮藏30d为5.78lg cfu/g.综合各指标变化,4℃和-3℃条件下鲫鱼的货架期分别为8d和24d,与冷藏相比,微冻能明显的延长鲫鱼的货架期.

  13. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  14. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  15. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  16. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  17. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  18. Expression, Purification and Antibacterial Activity of NK-Lysin Mature Peptides from the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurui Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are small peptides and play important roles in host innate immune response against microbial invasion. Aquatic animals secrete different kinds of antimicrobial peptides which have antimicrobial activity towards microorganisms. NK-lysins, mature peptides produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, are comprised of 74–78 amino acid residues, demonstrating broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasites. In this study, three distinct NK-lysin mature peptide (mNKLs, transcripts (76 amino acid residues cloned from the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus head kidney were ligated into plasmid vector pET-32a(+ to express the mNKLs fusion protein. The fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3 under optimized conditions. After purification by affinity column chromatography, the fusion protein was successfully cleaved by enterokinase and released the peptide mNKLs. Tricine-SDS-PAGE results showed that mNKLs (approximately 8.6 kDa were successfully expressed. The purified peptide mNKLs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

  19. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft and hard water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, J; Gatlin, D M

    1993-12-01

    1. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft ( 100 mg/l as CaCO3) water were determined by feeding purified egg-white diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% calcium from CaCO3 for 8 weeks. 2. Catfish fry fed the basal diet (0.03% Ca) in hard and soft water had lower whole-body ash and whole-body calcium concentrations but higher weight gain and survival than those fed calcium-supplemented diets. 3. Fry in soft water generally had lower whole-body ash, whole-body calcium, and survival, as well as a higher incidence of spinal deformities than fry in hard water. 4. Feeding higher levels of calcium to fry reared in soft water did not increase whole-body calcium levels or decrease spinal deformities to the levels observed for fry reared in hard water and fed supplemental calcium. 5. These data indicate that calcium derived solely from dietary or environmental sources was not sufficient for optimum health of channel catfish fry.

  20. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P 5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P 6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically. PMID:27333086

  1. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  2. Several Growth Characteristics of an Invasive Cyprinid Fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait BULUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length-weight relationships, growth, and condition factors of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 were determined using specimens collected from Seyitler Reservoir between July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 149 gibel carp were observed and examined. The age composition of the samples ranged between I and VII years of age. It has been determined than 82.55% of the obtained samples are comprised of females, 16.11% is comprised of males and 1.34% is comprised of immature. The population is dominated by females able to reproduce gynogenetically. The mean fork lengths and mean weights of the population were 14.8-32.5 cm and 43.1-807.3 g respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as W = 0.0696 L2.132, r=0.838 for females, for males W = 0.2942 L2.6417 r=0.784 and W = 0.0274 L2.9382, r=0.813 for all samples. The mean Fulton Condition Factor was calculated as 2.342 for females, 2.064 for males and 2.276 for all samples. Age-length and age-weight relations were determined according to von Bertalanffy growth equation formula. Growth parameters of the population were Lt = 48.09 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29], and Wt=2323.62 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29]2.9382. The growth performance index value (Ø´ was computed as 5.37 for all specimens.

  3. Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To investigate if endocrine conditions during pregnancy contribute to this gestational leptin profile, serums collected during different reproductive stages were added to the adipocyte culture medium. Results showed that sera collected from all reproductive stages have significant stimulating effect on the secretion of leptin as compared with the control (P 0.05). However, sera from mid and late pregnancy significantly stimulate leptin secretion as compared with the cycling sera (P < 0.01). Serum collected on day 15 of pregnancy have the strongest stimulating effect on leptin secretion compared with sera collected on day 8 (P < 0.0001) and day 12 (P < 0.001) of the pregnancy. But after the extraction of steroid hormones, sera collected during different reproductive stages have the same effect on leptin secretion in vitro. Further study showed that dexamethason, progesterone and insulin stimulated while estradiol suppressed leptin secretion in vitro. Our results suggested that steroid hormones (or other steroid factors) have significant regulating effect on the leptin secretion during pregnancy and they may be the most important contributors of the gestational leptin profile in the golden hamster.

  4. Assessment of snapper (Pagrus auratus) natural IgM binding to bromelain treated sheep erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Richard N; Bruce Lyons, A; Nowak, Barbara F; Hayball, John D

    2005-01-01

    Normal snapper (Pagrus auratus Bloch and Schneider) serum was examined for natural IgM that binds to protease (bromelain) treated sheep erythrocytes (BrSRBC) in a model assay system that has been used to appraise natural IgM of various mammals. Normal snapper serum lysed BrSRBC while haemolysis was abrogated by heat inactivation of serum and in divalent cation-deficient conditions, indicative of classical complement mediated lysis. In addition, heat inactivated normal snapper serum agglutinated BrSRBC while phosphatidylcholine (PtC) liposomes partially inhibited both haemolysis and agglutination. Inhibition of haemolysis and agglutination may have been mediated by an interaction between immunoglobulin (Ig) and PtC as protein A purified snapper Ig bound to PtC liposomes. However it is not known if this binding was PtC specific nor if the binding was initiated by either the Fab and/or Fc domains of snapper Ig. BrSRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) were detected in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood of normal snapper. The greatest proportion of BrSRBC PFC per B cell was within the peritoneal cavity followed by the spleen, peripheral blood and head kidney. Together, these data suggest that normal snapper serum may contain natural Ig that binds BrSRBC, activating the classical complement cascade.

  5. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  6. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  7. Parámetros hemáticos en tres especies de peces (Ictalurus punctatus, Morone saxatilis y Micropterus salmoides) en condiciones de desnutrición

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Alvarez Mendoza; Elsa María Tamez Cantú; Jesús Montemayor Leal

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de la desnutrición sobre los parámetros hemáticos en tres especies de peces de agua dulce, Ictalurus punctatus, Morone saxatilis y Micropterus salmoides. Los parámetros hemáticos analizados fueron: Microhematocrito (Ht), Hemoglobina (Hb), Proteína Total del Plasma (PTP), y Recuento diferencial de leucocitos. Además se analizó el comportamiento del polígono de frecuencia de la longitud mayor de los eritrocitos. Se consideraron dos niveles de desnutrición: moderada (15 dí...

  8. Ultra-structural and histochemical analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus liver treated with fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The histopathological effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1 injected intraperitoneally (IP, was evaluated in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Fishes were divided into four Groups. Groups II, III and IV were treated IP with FB1 injections of 1; 5 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, during 21 days. At the 7th, 14th and 21st day, fishes were sacrificed. The livers were hystologicaly analysed by the light and transmission electronic microscopy. Livers from the 7th day showed organelles alterations, particularly in the granular endoplasmatic reticle, mitochondria, nucleus and nucleolus mediated by FB1 doses. The occurrence of processes involved in the necrosis and apoptosis was detected. At the highest FB1 dose,the livers presented an intense response with an accentuate tissue disorganization, absence of cell limits and intense cytoplasm vacuolization. The image analysis showed the occurrence of necrosis in some areas, characterized by fully broken or swollen cells. The apoptosis was observed as the cytoplasm contraction and the chromatin formed masses concentrated in the edge of the nucleus. There was strong evidence that the numerous hepatocytes in the liver from the fishes under the toxic dose of FBs were selectively removed by the apoptosis process.Os efeitos histopatológicos da fumonisina B1 (FB1 foram avaliados quando a toxina foi aplicada intraperitoneal (IP em bagre (Ictalurus punctatus. Os peixes foram divididos em 4 Grupos, sendo que os Grupos II, III e IV foram tratados com FB1 em injeções IP nas concentrações de 1; 5 e 10 mg/kg p.c./dia, respectivamente, durante 21 dias. No 7º, 14ºe 21º dia de tratamento, amostras de peixe de cada Grupo foram sacrificadas. Os figados foram analisados histopatologicamente por microscopia de luz e de transmissão eletrônica. Desde o dia 7 de coleta, os fígados apresentaram alterações em diversas organelas, principalmente no retículo endoplasmático, citoplasma, núcleo e nucléolo mediadas pelas doses de FB

  9. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Jirón T.; Niurka Batista S.; Daniel Arencibia A.; Luis Rosario F.; Juan Infante B.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa), evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad...

  10. Transcriptome Display During Testicular Differentiation of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) as Revealed by RNA-Seq Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zihao; Jiang, Chen; Chen, Ailu; Fu, Qiang; Su, Baofeng; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-07-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been recognized as a dominant freshwater aquaculture species in the United States. It is also a suitable model for studying the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation because of its sexual plasticity and exhibition of both genetic and environmental sex determination. The testicular differentiation in male channel catfish normally starts between 90 and 102 days postfertilization (dpf), while the ovarian differentiation starts early from 19 dpf. As such, efforts to better understand the postponed testicular development at the molecular level are needed. Toward that end, we conducted transcriptomic comparison of gene expression of male and female gonads at 90, 100, and 110 dpf using high-throughput RNA-Seq. Transcriptomic profiles of male gonads on 90 and 100 dpf exhibited high similarities except for a small number of significantly up-regulated genes that were involved in development of germ cell-supporting somatic cells, while drastic changes were observed during 100-110 dpf, with a group of highly up-regulated genes that were involved in germ cells development, including nanog and pou5f1 Transcriptomic comparison between testes and ovaries identified male-preferential genes, such as gsdf, cxcl12, as well as other cytokines mediated the development of the gonad into a testis. Co-expression analysis revealed highly correlated genes and potential pathways underlying germ cell differentiation and spermatogonia stem cell development. The candidate genes and pathways identified in this study set the foundation for further studies on sex determination and differentiation in catfish as well as other teleosts. PMID:27307075

  11. Anatomical Observation on Skeletal System of Ictalurus punctatus%斑点叉尾鮰骨骼系统解剖观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永军; 白东清; 张家全; 陈成勋; 李东芳; 邢克智

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal system components of Ictalurus punctatus were studied by means of boiling and the skeletal morphology was observed. By analyzing and dealing with the photoes of the integrated skeletal system and single skeletal system, it is summarized some corresponding skeletal characters. The results show that the skeletal system of Ictalurus punctatus was composed of 269 bones, including 40 bones in the district of neurocranium, 79 bones in the district of pharyngeal cranium, 52 bones in appendicular skeleton and 98 bones in the think, respectively. And there are hard spines.%采用常规煮沸剥离方法分析斑点叉尾鮰(Ictaluruspunctatus)骨骼系统的组成,得到了斑点叉尾鮰的完整骨骼标本和单个骨骼标本。对标本进行摄影、分析、处理,并总结出相应的骨骼特征。结果表明:斑点叉尾鮰骨骼系统由269块骨骼组成,其中脑颅区40块、咽颅区79块、附肢骨骼52块、躯干部98块,有鳍棘。

  12. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy. PMID:25518818

  13. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species. PMID:25803443

  14. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  15. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Malcolm

    Full Text Available Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ, partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ, and areas outside (Outside the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP, Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002. Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58% that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL. HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  16. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  17. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  18. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs. PMID:26061036

  19. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp.

  20. Histopathological changes caused by the metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) in the gut of the gibel carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, K

    2005-01-01

    Metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) were found in the gut of some gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) specimens from a Hungarian water reservoir. Location of metacestodes in the freshly opened gut was marked with disseminated, red-coloured, pinhead-sized nodules in the anterior part of the intestine. In histological sections, metacestodes were found in a hole inside the propria layer of the intestinal folds. The worms were in direct contact with the host tissue without being encapsulated as a result of host reaction. In some specimens with extruded rostellum the rostellar hooks were bored into the host tissue and suckers grabbed pieces of the surrounding connective tissue. Around the worms, congested capillaries and formation of macrophages were seen in the lysed connective tissue.

  1. Sulfonation of 17β-estradiol and inhibition of sulfotransferase activity by polychlorobiphenylols and celecoxib in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfonation of 17β-estradiol (E2) by human liver and recombinant sulfotransferases is influenced by environmental contaminants such as hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), which are potent inhibitors, and the therapeutic drug, celecoxib, which affects positional sulfonation of E2. In some locations, the aquatic environment is contaminated by PCBs, OH-PCBs and widely used therapeutic drugs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sulfonation kinetics of E2 in liver cytosol from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); to examine the effect of OH-PCBs on E2 sulfonation; and to determine if celecoxib altered the position of E2 sulfonation, as it does with human liver cytosol. E2 was converted to both 3- and 17-sulfates by catfish liver cytosol. At E2 concentrations below 1μM, formation of E2-3-sulfate (E2-3-S) predominated, but substrate inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. Rates of E2-3-S formation at different E2 concentrations were fit to a substrate inhibition model, with K'm and V'max values of 0.40+/-0.10μM and 91.0+/-4.7pmol/min/mg protein, respectively and Ki of 1.08+/-0.09μM. The formation of E2-17-S fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the concentration range 25nM to 2.5μM, with Km and Vmax values of 1.07+/-0.23μM and 25.7+/-4.43pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The efficiency (Vmax/Km) of formation of E2-3-S was 9.8-fold higher than that of E2-17-S. Several OH-PCBs inhibited E2 3-sulfonation, measured at an E2 concentration of 1nM. Of those tested, the most potent inhibitor was 4'-OH-CB79, with two chlorine atoms flanking the OH group (IC50: 94nM). The inhibition of estrogen sulfonation by OH-PCBs may disrupt the endocrine system and thus contribute to the known toxic effects of these compounds. Celecoxib did not stimulate E2-17-S formation, as is the case with human liver cytosol, but did inhibit the formation of E2-3-S (IC50: 44μM) and to a lesser extent, E2-17-S (IC50: >160μM), suggesting the

  2. Biochemical enrichment and biophysical characterization of a taste receptor for L-arginine from the catfish, Ictalurus puntatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spielman Andrew I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is invested with a high density of cutaneous taste receptors, particularly on the barbel appendages. Many of these receptors are sensitive to selected amino acids, one of these being a receptor for L-arginine (L-Arg. Previous neurophysiological and biophysical studies suggested that this taste receptor is coupled directly to a cation channel and behaves as a ligand-gated ion channel receptor (LGICR. Earlier studies demonstrated that two lectins, Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I and Phaseolus vulgaris Erythroagglutinin (PHA-E, inhibited the binding of L-Arg to its presumed receptor sites, and that PHA-E inhibited the L-Arg-stimulated ion conductance of barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Results Both PHA-E and RCA-I almost exclusively labeled an 82–84 kDa protein band of an SDS-PAGE of solubilized barbel taste epithelial membranes. Further, both rhodamine-conjugated RCA-I and polyclonal antibodies raised to the 82–84 kDa electroeluted peptides labeled the apical region of catfish taste buds. Because of the specificity shown by RCA-I, lectin affinity was chosen as the first of a three-step procedure designed to enrich the presumed LGICR for L-Arg. Purified and CHAPS-solubilized taste epithelial membrane proteins were subjected successively to (1, lectin (RCA-I affinity; (2, gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300HR; and (3, ion exchange chromatography. All fractions from each chromatography step were evaluated for L-Arg-induced ion channel activity by reconstituting each fraction into a lipid bilayer. Active fractions demonstrated L-Arg-induced channel activity that was inhibited by D-arginine (D-Arg with kinetics nearly identical to those reported earlier for L-Arg-stimulated ion channels of native barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. After the final enrichment step, SDS-PAGE of the active ion channel protein fraction revealed a single band at 82–84 k

  3. Espectro trófico del bagre Ictalurus punctatus (Silurifomes: Ictaluridae), en la presa Lázaro Cárdenas, Indé, Durango, México Trophic spectrum of the catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae), in the Lázaro Cárdenas reservoir, Indé, Durango, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martínez; José Luis Estrada Rodríguez; Fernando Alonzo Rojo; Carmen Leticia Mar Tovar; Frances Gelwick

    2011-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de 240 estómagos de Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818), colectados de 2006 a 2007, con el objetivo de determinar su espectro trófico, su variación por talla y época climática. Los contenidos estomacales se analizaron en laboratorio y los organismos se determinaron hasta nivel de orden. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los órdenes más frecuentes fueron Perciformes y Atheriniformes que corresponden a peces forraje, así c...

  4. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  5. GROWTH AND POPULATION STRUCTURE VARIATIONS IN CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS A URATUS) BETWEEN A MACROPHYTIC LAKE AND AN ALGAL LAKE AT THE MIDDLE PART OF YANGTZE RIVER BASIN%长江中游典型草型湖泊与藻型湖泊鲫种群结构和生长比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程琳; 叶少文; 李钟杰

    2012-01-01

    Human activities have profoundly affected the environment and population structures of fishes in Yangtze lakes.In order to evaluate the effects of environmental degradation on fish population structure,a comparative study on population characteristics of crucian carp Carassius auratus between a eutrophic urban lake (Yuehu Lake) and a macrophytic suburban lake (Niushan Lake),both in Wuhan,was carried out during March to May 2006.Fishes were collected and compared from the two different lakes,and the water quality was measured at the same time.Results showed that:(1) pH,conductivity,TN-N,TP-P and Ch1.a of Yuehu Lake were higher than those of Niushan Lake.The numbers of total fish species and carnivorous fish species in the Yuehu Lake were fewer than those in the Niushan Lake.(2) The relative biomass of crucian carp in Yuehu Lake were higher than that in Niushan Lake,as per the multimesh gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) in Yuehu lake was higher.(3) Length distributions of crucian carp in both Niushan and Yuehu Lakes showed typical distributions when tested by kolmogorov-Smirnov,with a length range 63-271 mm (peak at 150 mm) and 72-191 mm (peak at 120 mm),respectively.(4) The crucian carp in Niushan Lake had a more complex age structure with six age groups,while Yuehu Lake had only three,with age 1 representing the largest proportion of 89%.(5) The relationship between weight (W) and total length (L) has been represented by the equation W=aLb,where W=1* 10-5L3.06 (R2=0.9893) in the Niushan Lake and W=6×10-6L3.22 (R2=0.9649) in the Yuehu Lake.Analysis of covariance demonstrated that the length-weight relationship of crucian carp are significantly different between the two lakes (P<0.01).Meanwhile,the crucian carp in Yuehu Lake showed a growth advantage compared to those in Niushan Lake for fish condition factors of males and females from all of the three length groups in Yuehu Lake were all significantly greater than those in Niushan Lake.(6) As lengths of

  6. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a novel immune-type receptor from Ictalurus punctatus and phasing by selenium anomalous dispersion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly diversified novel immune-type receptor from catfish, NITR10, was crystallized to reveal novel mechanisms of immune recognition. X-ray diffraction data from crystals of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR10 from the catfish Ictalurus punctatus) were collected to 1.65 Å resolution and reduced to the primitive hexagonal lattice. Native and selenomethionine derivatives of NITR10 crystallized under different conditions yielded P3121 crystals. SeMet NITR10 was phased to a correlation coefficient of 0.77 by SAD methods and experimental electron-density maps were calculated to 1.65 Å. Five NITR10 molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient

  7. Parámetros hemáticos en tres especies de peces (Ictalurus punctatus, Morone saxatilis y Micropterus salmoides en condiciones de desnutrición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Alvarez Mendoza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la desnutrición sobre los parámetros hemáticos en tres especies de peces de agua dulce, Ictalurus punctatus, Morone saxatilis y Micropterus salmoides. Los parámetros hemáticos analizados fueron: Microhematocrito (Ht, Hemoglobina (Hb, Proteína Total del Plasma (PTP, y Recuento diferencial de leucocitos. Además se analizó el comportamiento del polígono de frecuencia de la longitud mayor de los eritrocitos. Se consideraron dos niveles de desnutrición: moderada (15 días y severa (100 días. Para el Ht y el Recuento diferencial de leucocitos se realizó por el método estándar

  8. Sulfonation of 17{beta}-estradiol and inhibition of sulfotransferase activity by polychlorobiphenylols and celecoxib in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liquan [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); James, Margaret O. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)]. E-mail: mojames@ufl.edu

    2007-03-10

    The sulfonation of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) by human liver and recombinant sulfotransferases is influenced by environmental contaminants such as hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), which are potent inhibitors, and the therapeutic drug, celecoxib, which affects positional sulfonation of E2. In some locations, the aquatic environment is contaminated by PCBs, OH-PCBs and widely used therapeutic drugs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sulfonation kinetics of E2 in liver cytosol from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); to examine the effect of OH-PCBs on E2 sulfonation; and to determine if celecoxib altered the position of E2 sulfonation, as it does with human liver cytosol. E2 was converted to both 3- and 17-sulfates by catfish liver cytosol. At E2 concentrations below 1{mu}M, formation of E2-3-sulfate (E2-3-S) predominated, but substrate inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. Rates of E2-3-S formation at different E2 concentrations were fit to a substrate inhibition model, with K{sup '}{sub m} and V{sup '}{sub max} values of 0.40+/-0.10{mu}M and 91.0+/-4.7pmol/min/mg protein, respectively and K{sub i} of 1.08+/-0.09{mu}M. The formation of E2-17-S fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the concentration range 25nM to 2.5{mu}M, with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 1.07+/-0.23{mu}M and 25.7+/-4.43pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of formation of E2-3-S was 9.8-fold higher than that of E2-17-S. Several OH-PCBs inhibited E2 3-sulfonation, measured at an E2 concentration of 1nM. Of those tested, the most potent inhibitor was 4'-OH-CB79, with two chlorine atoms flanking the OH group (IC{sub 50}: 94nM). The inhibition of estrogen sulfonation by OH-PCBs may disrupt the endocrine system and thus contribute to the known toxic effects of these compounds. Celecoxib did not stimulate E2-17-S formation, as is the case with human liver cytosol, but did inhibit the

  9. 虹鳟性激素与免疫活动的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬

    1999-01-01

    Gonadal maturation is accompanied with adrenocortical bypertrophy in salmonid fish. Sex hormones may also modulate the function of the immune system in fish. In goldfish, Carassius auratus , plasma IgM levels had relations to gonadal maturation. The administra-

  10. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  11. Study on accumulation of 137Cs in aquatic organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengDing-Hua; CheungT

    1998-01-01

    The organisms were cultivated for 7d in well water contaminated with 137Cs,The experimental results show that the accumulation level of tissues of carassius auratus had the order of gill>viscera>epidermis(including scales)>bone(including head and tail)>flesh.The concentration capability of them had the order of shrimp>carassius auratus>ophiocephalus argus,The concentration factors(CF) of shrimp was 12.6 times of that of ophiocephalus argus.

  12. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p component C3 were significantly up-regulated in the immunized group. The challenge test demonstrated that the immunized group had a relative survival rate of 71.4%. These results indicate that the inactivated CyHV-2 vaccine induced both non-specific and specific anti-viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp. PMID:26772479

  13. Induction of two major isoforms of metallothionein in crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) by air-pumping stress, dexamethasone, and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of metallothionein (MT) by physical and chemical stress was assessed using the fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri Temminck et Schlegel). The fish exposed to violent air-pumping stress for 6 days revealed time-dependent induction of MT-like metal-binding proteins in both their livers and kidneys. Their hepatic contents after exposure to stress were elevated to twice the basal level with 24 h, resulting in more than a 3-fold increase at 144 h, whereas their renal contents gradually increased after 24 h and reached the same level as that in the liver around 96 h. Two major inducible proteins were purified from livers of fish exposed to stress and were shown to be MT based upon their chromatographic behavior, UV absorption spectra and their molecular weights. Consequently, they were termed ccMT-1 and ccMT-2, according to their elution sequence upon anion-exchange chromatography. Both proteins mainly bound zinc in their endogenous forms and showed different immunogenicity to rat and rabbit MTs. Dexamethasone, a potent inducer for MT synthesis in mammals, induced the production of both isoforms in crucian carp, whereas cadmium and zinc ions prominently induced the synthesis of ccMT-2. These results indicate that crucian carp have the ability to produce MTs in response to various kinds of environmental stress and that violent air-pumping stress in crucian carp may induce MT synthesis, in part, via the release of endogenous factor(s), such as glucocorticoids. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  15. Low O2 avoidance is associated with physiological perturbation but not exhaustion in the snapper (Pagrus auratus: Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Herbert, Neill A

    2012-08-01

    It is already known that the New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Sparidae) does not avoid hypoxia until reaching an oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) of 3.1±1.2 kPa at 18 °C. Avoidance at this level of PO(2) and temperature is below the critical oxygen partial pressure of the species (P(crit)=5.8±0.6 kPa, 43.5±4.5 mmHg) and is therefore expected to result in major physiological stress. Results from the current study showed that avoidance was associated with numerous physiological perturbations, including a significant endocrine response, haematological changes, osmoregulatory disturbance and metabolic adjustments in the heart, liver and muscle. Snapper clearly experienced physiological stress at the point of avoidance but they were not however in a state of physiological exhaustion since some fuel reserves were still available. In addition to avoidance, snapper also showed a subtle reduction in swimming speed - this energy-saving response may have helped snapper minimise the physiological challenge of low O(2) residence. It is therefore concluded that snapper can reside in water below their P(crit) threshold for brief periods of time and, without any evidence of physiological exhaustion at the point of avoidance, fish should recover quickly once normoxia is selected. Lastly, with signs of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac tissue at the point of avoidance, we tentatively suggest that snapper may leave hypoxia to protect heart function.

  16. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  17. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A

    2011-09-01

    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (Pspeed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  18. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk. PMID:26910233

  19. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, Maria A; Lawrence, Emma; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Haywood, Michael D E; Babcock, Russell C

    2015-01-01

    Baited Underwater Video (BUV) systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing) were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  20. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Terres

    Full Text Available Baited Underwater Video (BUV systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  1. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  2. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  3. Editing of the Luteinizing Hormone Gene to Sterilize Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Using a Modified Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology with Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Yun; Su, Baofeng; Cheng, Qi; Ye, Zhi; Perera, Dayan A; Fobes, Michael; Shang, Mei; Dunham, Rex A

    2016-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the most important freshwater aquaculture species in the USA. Genetically enhanced fish that are sterile could both profit the catfish industry and reduce potential environmental and ecological risks. As the first step to generate sterile channel catfish, three sets of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids targeting the luteinizing hormone (LH) gene were designed and electroporated into one-cell embryos, different concentrations were introduced, and the Cel-I assay was conducted to detect mutations. Channel catfish carrying the mutated LH gene were sterile, as confirmed by DNA sequencing and mating experiments. The overall mutation rate was 19.7 % for 66 channel catfish, and the best treatment was ZFN set 1 at the concentration 25 μg/ml. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of gene editing of fish via plasmid introduction instead of mRNA microinjection. The introduction of the ZFN plasmids may have reduced mosaicism, as mutated individuals were gene edited in every tissue evaluated. Apparently, the plasmids were eventually degraded without integration, as they were not detectable in mutated individuals using PCR. Carp pituitary extract failed to induce spawning and restoration of fertility, indicating the need for developing other hormone therapies to achieve reversal of sterility upon demand. This is the first sterilization achieved using ZFN technology in an aquaculture species and the first successful gene editing of channel catfish. Our results will help understand the roles of the LH gene, purposeful sterilization of teleost fishes, and is a step towards control of domestic, hybrid, exotic, invasive, and transgenic fishes. PMID:26846523

  4. Identification and analysis of genome-wide SNPs provide insight into signatures of selection and domestication in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyang Sun

    Full Text Available Domestication and selection for important performance traits can impact the genome, which is most often reflected by reduced heterozygosity in and surrounding genes related to traits affected by selection. In this study, analysis of the genomic impact caused by domestication and artificial selection was conducted by investigating the signatures of selection using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. A total of 8.4 million candidate SNPs were identified by using next generation sequencing. On average, the channel catfish genome harbors one SNP per 116 bp. Approximately 6.6 million, 5.3 million, 4.9 million, 7.1 million and 6.7 million SNPs were detected in the Marion, Thompson, USDA103, Hatchery strain, and wild population, respectively. The allele frequencies of 407,861 SNPs differed significantly between the domestic and wild populations. With these SNPs, 23 genomic regions with putative selective sweeps were identified that included 11 genes. Although the function for the majority of the genes remain unknown in catfish, several genes with known function related to aquaculture performance traits were included in the regions with selective sweeps. These included hypoxia-inducible factor 1β. HIFιβ.. and the transporter gene ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5. HIF1β. is important for response to hypoxia and tolerance to low oxygen levels is a critical aquaculture trait. The large numbers of SNPs identified from this study are valuable for the development of high-density SNP arrays for genetic and genomic studies of performance traits in catfish.

  5. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2016-08-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9) with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus) and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi). C57BL/6j mice (n = 4) were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally assess susceptibility in the ostensibly competent host M. glareolus. Lesions were only detected in 2 of 47 M. glareolus (4.3%) at 8 and 10 wpi and although both contained protoscolices (1675 at 8 wpi and 88 at 12 wpi) the low percentage of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001) and growth (p ≤ 0.0001). No lesions were found in all 11 M. auratus. PMID:27330986

  6. Espectro trófico del bagre Ictalurus punctatus (Silurifomes: Ictaluridae, en la presa Lázaro Cárdenas, Indé, Durango, México Trophic spectrum of the catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae, in the Lázaro Cárdenas reservoir, Indé, Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martínez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de 240 estómagos de Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818, colectados de 2006 a 2007, con el objetivo de determinar su espectro trófico, su variación por talla y época climática. Los contenidos estomacales se analizaron en laboratorio y los organismos se determinaron hasta nivel de orden. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los órdenes más frecuentes fueron Perciformes y Atheriniformes que corresponden a peces forraje, así como algas verdes del orden Charales. Además, se encontraron otros siete órdenes de invertebrados: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera y Scorpionida, además de dos órdenes de plantas: Poales y Fabales. El orden Perciforme constituyó casi la mitad del total del peso del contenido estomacal, seguido por los órdenes Atheriniforme y Charales. En las estaciones de verano e invierno se presentó el mayor número de estómagos vacíos, mientras que en primavera se encontró el mayor número de estómagos llenos. La cantidad de alimento ingerida en la estación de invierno fue significativamente menor que en las demás estaciones. El principal alimento en primavera, verano y otoño, fueron los peces, mientras que en invierno hubo mayor preferencia por las algas.Having the objective of determining their trophic spectrum and their variations within a year, the contents of 240 stomachs of Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 were analyzed from 2006 to 2007. The items of the stomach contents were determined to the order level. The data was analyzed by different quantitative and qualitative methods. The most frequent orders were Perciforms and Atheriniforms corresponding to forage fish, along with green algae of the Charales order. Also, seven orders of invertebrates were found: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Scorpionida, and two orders of plants: Poales and Fabales. The Perciform

  7. Chemometric approach to evaluate element distribution in muscle, liver and fish bone of roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) from Swarzędzkie Lake (Poland) using ICP-MS and FIAS-CVAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzińska, Maria; Komorowicz, Izabela; Hanć, Anetta; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    The content of elements in fish tissues and organs from Swarzędzkie Lake was investigated in order to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption by animals as well as humans. Samples of muscle, liver and fish bone of three fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were collected from seine catches undertaken as part of the biomanipulation of Swarzędzkie Lake. Element concentration (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the exception of Hg where the flow injection analysis system cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CVAAS) was applied. The study indicated a large variation in the occurrence of the investigated elements in different parts of the fish body. The highest content of Al and Zn was stated in all fish organs for each fish species. The majority of the applied statistical and chemometric methods (e.g., PCA, CA) refer to roach since we had a large number of data for this species. The obtained results were assessed in terms of their accuracy and precision using certified reference material of Fish Muscle ERM BB422. PMID:27439756

  8. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal; Alcino Lázaro da Silva; Luiz Mauro Andrade da Fonseca; Dilermando Fazito de Rezende

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen ) e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30) Hamsters: dez (n=10) animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20) animais considerados adultos com idade superior à...

  9. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  10. Investigação do transplante heterólogo de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Investigation of keloid heterologous graft into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração do transplante heterólogo de quelóide no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consiste de 18 hamsters machos, não isogênicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de quelóide foram obtidos de cicatrizes queloideanas da região mamária de paciente adulta parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de quelóide, totalizando 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica é realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante a comparação de fotografias padronizadas. À microscopia, considera-se a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo do fragmento enxertado como critério de integração do mesmo. Outros eventos, como secreção de queratina, presença de infiltrados celulares e aspecto do epitélio e das fibras colágenas do quelóide, também são observados. RESULTADOS: A macroscopia revela intensa vascularização na bolsa até 12 dias de enxertia, e a presença constante de pigmentação castanho-escura nos fragmentos de quelóide enxertados. Na microscopia constata-se a integração dos fragmentos de quelóide pela presença de capilares sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo. Observa-se, também, a presença de intenso infiltrado celular do tipo inflamatório até 12 dias, a permanência do epitélio do quelóide até 21 dias, e o aparecimento de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias. CONCLUSÃO: A bolsa jugal do hamster representa, a priori, modelo experimental para investigação do quelóide.PURPOSE: To describe the integration of keloid heterograft into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus sub-epithelium. METHODS: The sample is formed by 18 male hamsters, not isogenetic ones, aged between 10 and 14 weeks. Keloid

  11. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9......) with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus) and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi). C57BL/6j mice (n = 4) were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi...... of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001) and growth (p ≤ 0.0001). No lesions were found in all 11...

  12. Schistosoma japonicum-infected hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) used as a model in experimental chemotherapy with praziquantel, artemether, and OZ compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Mei, Jing-yan; Jiao, Pei-ying

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to better understand the antischistosomal properties of artemether, praziquantel, and ozonide (OZ) compounds (synthetic trioxolanes, secondary ozonides) in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model. A total of 230 male hamsters infected each with 100 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were used in the study. Groups of five to ten hamsters were treated orally with artemether, praziquantel, and OZ78 or OZ277 7-35 days post-infection at single doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg. Untreated but infected hamsters in each batch of test served as the control. All treated hamsters were sacrificed 4 weeks post-treatment for collection of residual worms using perfusion technique. Nonparametric method (Mann-Whitney test) was used to analyze the data. In groups of five hamsters treated with artemether 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post-infection at single doses of 150 and 200 mg/kg, the difference of mean worm burden between each treated group and control group was statistically significant (P0.05). Further test with various single doses of 50-200 mg/kg confirmed the similar susceptibility of 7-day-old juvenile and 35-day-old adult schistosomes to artemether. After administration of praziquantel 100 mg/kg to groups of five hamsters 7, 21, and 35 days post-infection, higher worm burden reduction of 95.5% was seen in the group with 35-day-old adult schistosomes while in the groups with 7- and 21-day-old juvenile schistosomes, poor efficacy was seen with mean worm burden reductions of 36.6% and 35.6%. In the same batch of hamster treated with praziquantel 200 mg/kg, the moderate effect of the drug against 7- and 21-day-old worms was seen, but their mean worm burden was significantly higher than that of the group with adult schistosomes. In comparison of artemether and praziquantel against various stages of schistosomes, the results further demonstrated that artemether possessed similar effect against juvenile and adult schistosomes in hamsters, while praziquantel

  13. 感染异育银鲫补体组分C3·C4表达研究%Study on the Expression of Complement Components C3 and C4 in Infectious Carassius auratus gibelio(Bloch)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 郭丽; 陈舒泛; 丁怀宇

    2008-01-01

    [目的]了解补体组分在感染性鱼类疾病中的作用,为鱼类疾病的诊断和治疗提供参考.[方法]采用不同浓度(2×106、4×106CFU/ml)的嗜水气单胞菌感染异育银鲫,利用半定量RT-PCR技术检测感染不同时间后肝脏中补体组分C3和C4的表达量.[结果]感染后4、5 h时,异育银鲫肝脏中C3的表达量均显著高于对照组.在感染后4 h时,不同浓度组之间C3的表达量无显著差异.而在感染后5 h时,感染浓度1组(注射2×106CFu/ml嗜水气单胞菌)中C3的表达量显著高于感染浓度2组(注射4×106CFU/ml嗜水气单胞菌).异育银鲫肝脏中C4的表达水平远低于C3.在感染后5 h时,感染浓度1组C4的表达量显著高于对照组,其余处理组与对照组均无显著差异.[结论]补体组分C3在鱼类免疫防御系统中具有非常重要的意义.

  14. 高效氯氰菊酯对欧洲鲫鱼血清谷丙转氨酶和谷草转氨酶活性的影响%EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA-CYPERMETHRIN ON GLUTAMICPYRUVIC TRANSAMINASE (GPT) AND GLUTAMIC-OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE (GOT) ACTIVITIES FROM CRUCIAN CARP ( CARASSIUS AURATUS) SERUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan; XIONG Li; TANG Hong-Feng; SHENG Xiu-Mei; LOU An; LI Jin

    2006-01-01

    Beta-cypermethrin is one of the synthetic pyrethroid, which is widely used to control insect pests and is found to be more effective than organphosphates and carbamates. However, it is also reported to be more toxic than organphosphates and carbamates. It has been suggested that synthetic pyrethroids are readily absorbed by the gills of fish even at very low concentrations.Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) exist in the cells of every tissue, particularly in the liver. If the liver is damaged, the enzymes are discharged from the cells into the serum. It increases the GPT and GOT metabolic activities quickly. It is, therefore, proposed that the effects of toxicants on serum GPT and GOT could be used as indexes in toxicological assessments. In this experiment, the effectiveness of beta-cypermethrin on the acute toxicity and on serum GPT and GOT concentration of crucian carp was studied. The LC50 of beta-cypermethrin for crucian carp was 11.4μg/L. The crucian carp serum was treated against beta-cypermethrin levels of 0.114μg/L, 0.57μg/L and 1.14μg/L for exposure times of 0d, 5d,10d, 15d and 20d, at all concentrations. The results show that when the beta-cypermethrin concentration increases and the exposure time is prolonged, the GPT and GOT activities of serum increased also. The results proved that beta-cypermethrin could cause great damage to crucian carp and its biochemical functions.

  15. Cloning, sequencing and tissue expression of the cytochrome P450 3A136 in crucian carp( Carassius auratus gibelio)%异育银鲫P450家族CYP3A136基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱磊; 胡晓; 房文红; 胡琳琳; 李新苍; 李国烈; 写腊月

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s(CYPs)are important xenobiotic metabolizing proteins. Their gene feature and protein function have been well understood in mammals, while their potent drug metabolic activity in freshwater fish aroused aquatic biologists' attention. Many DNA sequences of CYP3 As have been discovered in teleosts such as killifish, rainbow trout and minnow. However, little has been referred to important freshwater economic fish in China. This study focused on CYP3A' s cDNA sequence of crucian carp and predicted its protein structure and function preliminarily. In this study, degenerate primers for CYP3A of crucian carp were designed on the basis of conserved regions of known CYP3A sequences from five teleosts. Using crucian carp cDNA as a template, the partial fragments of crucian carp CYP3A cDNA were amplified. An antisense primer for 5'-RACE and a sense primer for 3'-RACE were designed to obtain the full-length CYP3A cDNA sequence by 5' and 3'-RACE. The full-length of CYP3A cDNA for crucian carp is 1 769 bp with open reading frame( ORF) of 1 545 bp encoding 514 amino acids. The calculated MW was of 58.624 ku and a theoretical p/ of 6. 30. The Cytochrome P450 Nomenclature Committee has named this cDNA CYP3A136. The deduced amino acid sequence of crucian carp' s CYP3A136 showed high similarity with those of rare gudgeon, grass carp and fathead minnow. It contained the conserved heme-binding motif of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases(FXXGXXXCXG). Furthermore, we examined the gene expression levels of CYP3A136 in tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The results demonstrated that the highest levels of CYP3A136 mRNA were seen in liver and intestine, followed by kidney and gill, and lower level were seen in other tissues.%根据5种硬骨鱼已知CYP3A序列保守区设计兼并引物,以异育银鲫cDNA为模板扩增得到CYP3A基因片段,根据得到片段序列设计特异引物并利用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(RACE)获得全长cDNA.得到异育银鲫CYP3A基因全长为l 769 bp,开放阅读框为1545个核苷酸,编码514个氨基酸.其预测蛋白质分子量为58.624 ku,理论等电点为6.30.将异育银鲫CYP3A序列理论编码氨基酸序列提交细胞色素P450命名委员会(Cytochrome P450 NomenclatureCommittee)并由其命名为CYP3A136.氨基酸序列分析显示,其与稀有绚鲫、草鱼、鲦同源性较高,并且具有高度保守的血红素结合区域FXXGXXXCXG.异育银鲫CYP3A基因的半定量RTPCR显示,在肝和肠组织中转录水平最高,在肾和鳃中次之,其余组织较低.

  16. 配合饲料中不同动物蛋白源对异育银鲫生产性能的影响%Effects of different animal protein sources in formulated feed on growth performance of gibel carp(Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维仁; 宦海琳; 白群安; 杨丽娟; 王如淦; 张卫忠

    2008-01-01

    将进口鱼粉、肉粉和肠衣蛋白粉3种蛋白源作为动物蛋白饲料应用于异育银鲫的生长试验,56 d饲养结果表明:配合饲料蛋白质水平为33%左右时,肠衣蛋白粉组增重率最高,为162.7%;肉粉组最差,仅为110.3%.肠衣蛋白粉组和进口鱼粉组增重率相差很小,差异不显著(P>0.05);肉粉组鱼体生长表现很差,增重率极显著低于进口鱼粉组和肠衣蛋白粉组(P<0.01).从饲料系数来看,最低为肠衣蛋白粉组(3.15 ∶1),其次为进口鱼粉对照组(3.18 ∶1),最高为肉粉组(4.04 ∶1).可见异育银鲫对肠衣蛋白粉的消化利用率与进口鱼粉相近,而肉粉的饲料报酬率很低;肠衣蛋白粉可代替进口鱼粉饲养异育银鲫,是一种经济优质的水产动物蛋白饲料.

  17. EFFECT OF FAECAL COLLECTION INTERVAL AND DIETARY MEAT AND BONE MEAL LEVELS ON DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉含量对异育银鲫(Carassiusauratus gibelio) 消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 雷武; 韩冬; 杨云霞

    2008-01-01

    本研究探讨了通过收集器不同粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉(MBM)含量对异育银鲫干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的表观消化率 (ADC) 影响.不同梯度(0, 20, 40, 60, 80 ,100%)的肉骨粉替代鱼粉(FM) 蛋白配制成六种等氮 (粗蛋白: 410 g/kg) 等能 (总能: 18 kJ/g) 的饲料,通过11周的饲养实验,实验开始后2周开始收集粪便,收集时间分别是:排粪后 1 min, 投喂后4h和16h. 结果表明,干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率明显随粪便收集时间增加而升高(p0.05). 干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率随饲料中肉骨粉含量的增加呈线性或近线性下降.因此,在消化率测定中应该尽快收集排出的粪便以保证消化率的真实性.消化率是影响肉骨粉利用一个因素.%The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of faecal collection interval (using a settling column) and the levels of dietary meat and bone meals (MBM) on the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) for dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus in gibel carp. Six iso-nitrogenous (crude protein: 410 g/kg) and iso-energetic (gross energy: 18 kJ/g) diets were used in which fish meal (FM) protein was gradually replaced by MBM at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. These diet combinations were fed to juvenile gibel carp for 11 weeks. The faecal samples were collected two weeks after the beginning of the experiment using a settlement column starting 1 min after excretion started, or 4h and 16h after feeding. The results showed that the ADCs of dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus increased significantly as the time from excretion to faecal collections increased while not being significant for the high MBM inclusion diets. ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, energy and phosphorus decreased linearly or almost linearly with the increase in dietary MBM levels. These findings suggest that faeces should be collected soon after they had settled under the conditions of this study for digestibility determination while rapid leaching is apparently responsible for this false reading of digestibility with increasing sampling interval. It is also apparent that the digestibility is one of the problems affecting the use of MBM in juvenile gibel carp.

  18. EFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL PROTEIN BY SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白对异育银鲫生长、代谢及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 雷武; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 韩冬

    2009-01-01

    本实验评价了饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白后对异育银鲫的生长、饲料利用、氮代谢和鱼体免疫力等的影响.实验设计4种等氮等能的饲料,每种3个重复,分别以豆粕替代饲料中鱼粉蛋白的0(对照,D1)、20%(D2)、80%(D3)和100%(D4).实验在半循环水养殖系统持续16周.鱼的初重约2.32g,实验期间水温23-30℃.结果表明,随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高,摄食率显著升高(p<0.05).特定生长率、饲料转化效率、蛋白沉积率和能量沉积率显著降低(p<0.05);蛋白表观消化率显著升高,干物质和能量表观消化率则显著降低(p<0.05);总氮摄入量、表观氮摄入量、粪氮排出量、非粪氮排泄量、总氮沉积率均随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高呈显著降低的趋势(p<0.05),生产每千克鱼的氮排放量则随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高显著升高(p<0.05);血清葡萄糖和甘油三酯的含量显著升高,而胆固醇的含量显著降低(p<0.05);血清的溶菌酶显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶逐渐升高(p<0.05).%A 16-weeks growth was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. Four isonitrogenous and isoealoric diets were formulated. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with the initial weight at about 2. 32 g. Soybean meal was used to replace 0 (Control, D1), 20% (D2), 80% (D3) and 100% (D4) of dietary fishmeal protein. The fish was reared in a semi-recirculating system. During the experiment, water temperature was 23--30℃, photoperiod was 12D: 12L with the light period from 08 : 00 to 20 : 00, dissolved oxygen was above 5 mg/L, ammonia-N (NH4+ -N plus NH3-N) was less than 0. 5 mg/L, pH was about 6. 4. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily (9:00 and 15:00). At the beginning of the experiment, healthy fish (initial body weight about 2. 32 g) were batch weighed after 24h feed deprivation and randomly distributed into the 12 tanks (40 fish per tank). The tanks were randomly assigned the four diets. Fifty fish were taken from the remaining fish and frozen for initial fish body chemical analysis. During the experiment, an excess amount of feed was fed to fish and uneaten feed were collected after 1h in each feeding, dried at 60℃ and reweighed. Leaching rate of uneaten feed in tanks was estimated by placing weighed feeds into a tank without fish for 1 h and then recovering, drying and reweighing. The average leaching rate was used to calibrate the amount of uneaten feed. Faeces were collected after uneaten feed collection at the start of the experiment and through all the experiment period after 7d. To minimize nutrient leaching in faeces, only fresh and intact faeces were collected. Faeces were dried at 70℃ for digestibility determination. At the end of the trial, the fish were starved for 1 d and batch weighed. Fish were killed by a blow on the head and blood samples were collected (24h after last feeding) from the caudal vein of six fish from each tank at the end of the feeding trial by using heparinized syringes. Blood was centrifuged at 3500 r/min for 15 min, plasma-separated and stored at - 80 ℃. The remaining fish in each tank were taken for final fish body composition analysis. The results showed that feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency (FCE), protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE) decreased significantly (p < 0. 05). Apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCp) significantly increased (p < 0. 05), but ADC of dry matter and energy decreased (p < 0.05). Total nitrogen intake (TNI), apparent nitrogen intake (ANI), faecal nitrogen output (FNO), non-faecal nitrogen excretion (NFE) and nitrogen retention (NE) significantly decreased with the increasing dietary soybean meal (p < 0. 05), but nitrogen load (NL) significantly increased (p < 0. 05). Levels of plasma glucose, triacylglycerol and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary soybean meal (p < 0. 05), but plasma cholesterol concentration and lysozyme activities decreased (p <0. 05). In conclusion, the results from this study showed adverse effects of inclusion of the soybean meal in diets on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. The palatability was not negatively affected when soybean meal was included in the diets. Unbalanced amino acid composition of soybean meal diets seem to be the main reason to influence growth performance and nitrogen load of gibel carp.

  19. Effects of exogenous cortisol on TSH-β subunit mRNA level and serum thyroid hormone levels of Carassius auratus gibelio%外源性皮质醇对异育银鲫TSH-β mRNA表达和血清甲状腺激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲宪成; 杨艳红; 刘颖; 周正峰; 崔严慧

    2007-01-01

    运用Sybr Green Ⅰ荧光定量RT-PCR方法和放射免疫方法(RIA)分析了外源性皮质醇(cortisol)对异育银鲫促甲状腺激素β亚基(TSH-β)mRNA表达和血清甲状腺激素水平的影响.实验设计为10周,实验组每两周注射一次0.2 mg/kg体重的cortisol(用57%酒精溶解),对照组注射同剂量的57%酒精.实验期间没有投喂饲料.在本实验条件下,研究结果显示:注射3次外源性cortisol后,异育银鲫TSH-β mRNA表达量与对照组相比略有下降;注射5次后,与对照组相比显著降低(P<0.05).另一方面,RIA结果显示:注射3次外源性cortisol后,实验组与对照组相比,血清甲状腺激素T3和T4含量虽略有升高,但无显著差异;而注射5次后显著升高(P<0.05).以上结果提示:外源性cortisol能够影响异育银鲫脑下垂体-甲状腺轴.

  20. 金鱼PP2A调节亚基PR55γ基因的克隆及表达分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF THE GENE ENCODING THE PR55/Bγ OF PP-2A IN GOLDFISH.CARASSIUS AURATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珺琼; 谢斯思; 陈培超; 邹立军; 刘文彬; 肖亚梅; 刘少军; 刘筠; 李万程

    2011-01-01

    蛋白磷酸酶2A是一种重要的丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白磷酸酶,对于调控多细胞的生命活动起重要作用.以金鱼大脑为材料,运用RT-PCR技术克隆得到PP2A调节亚基B55家族中PR55γ基因编码区部分序列.结果显示PR55γ基因eDNA长1218 bp,编码的多肽共含405个氨基酸.序列分析表明,该基因编码的蛋白与已知其他物种对应的PR55γ蛋白质均有着很高的同源性.用RT-PCR的方法检测了PR55γ基因在金鱼不同组织和胚胎发育不同时期的mRNA表达水平.结果表明,PR55γ基因表达呈现明显的组织和胚胎发育阶段差异性.在成体组织中,仅在大脑和鳍中有表达.在胚胎发育过程中,PR55γ从神经胚开始出现,整体呈现上升趋势,在出膜期达到最高水平.据此推测,PR55γ基因可能在金鱼胚胎发育中具有多种重要作用.%The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is an important posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that modulates the functional status of more than thirty percent of total cellular proteins.In the present study, we reported the molecular cloning of a partial cDNA coding for the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A from the brain of goldfish through 5' RACE PCR strategy.The partial PR55γ cDNA contained 1218 nucleotides which encoded a deduced partial protein of 405 amino acids.Sequence homology analysis showed that the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A displayed a high level of amino acid identity with the counterpart from other species including human and rat, indicating the conservation of PR55/Bγ.RT-PCR analysis revealed that PR55/Bγ mRNA was specifically expressed in the brain and fin of goldfish.Our demonstration that PR55/Bγwas expressed in the fish fin was a novel finding for the first time.This result suggested that the PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit in fish likely played an important role in swimming, balancing and sensitivity to the water environment.Moreover, during the development of goldfish, PR55/Bγ mRNA was initially detected at neurula stage, suggesting that the PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit was likely implicated in control of the brain development differentiation in fish.Furthermore, we found that PR55/Bγ became gradually increased from the optic vesicle stage and reached a peak level at the muscle movement stage, and thereafter, PR55/Bγ mRNA maintained at this level with slight fluctuation from heart beat to hatching larvae.These results indicated that PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit was actively regulating the development processes of these different stages.The consistent developmental expression patterns of PR55/Bγ (Fig.2) and the catalytic subunits (PP-2Ac)[28]also supported that PR55/Bγ may regulate fish development in holoenzyme, which was different from that of certain regulatory subunits of PP-2A[20-22].Thus, our present study demonstrated that the specific PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as regulatory subunit may play an important role in regulating fish development.In addition, PP-2A containing PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit may play important roles of homeostasis in brain and fin.

  1. Determination of shelf life of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades in different sauces stored at 4 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Taşkaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated.  The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil.  Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage,  sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed  acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.

  2. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  3. Happy hamsters? Enrichment induces positive judgement bias for mildly (but not truly) ambiguous cues to reward and punishment in Mesocricetus auratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Emily J.; Koyama, Nicola F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of animal cognition and emotion have resulted in the ‘judgement bias’ model of animal welfare. Judgement biases describe the way in which changes in affective state are characterized by changes in information processing. In humans, anxiety and depression are characterized by increased expectation of negative events and negative interpretation of ambiguous information. Positive wellbeing is associated with enhanced expectation of positive outcomes and more positive interpretation of ambiguous information. Mood-congruent judgement biases for ambiguous information have been demonstrated in a range of animal species, with large variation in the way tests are administered and in the robustness of analyses. We highlight and address some issues using a laboratory species not previously tested: the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Hamsters were tested using a spatial judgement go/no-go task in enriched and unenriched housing. We included a number of controls and additional behavioural tests and applied a robust analytical approach using linear mixed effects models. Hamsters approached the ambiguous cues significantly more often when enriched than unenriched. There was no effect of enrichment on responses to the middle cue. We discuss these findings in light of mechanisms underlying processing cues to reward, punishment and true ambiguity, and the implications for the welfare of laboratory hamsters. PMID:26587255

  4. Demethylation of the pesticide methoxychlor in liver and intestine from untreated, methoxychlor-treated, and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): evidence for roles of CYP1 and CYP3A family isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchal, Leah D; Kleinow, Kevin M; Stegeman, John J; James, Margaret O

    2006-06-01

    Exposure to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is associated with endocrine disruption in several species through biotransformation to mono-desmethyl-MXC (OH-MXC) and bis-desmethyl-MXC (HPTE), which interact with estrogen receptors. The biotransformation of [14C]methoxychlor was examined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), a freshwater species found in the southern United States. Hepatic microsomes formed OH-MXC and HPTE, assessed by comigration with authentic standards. The Km for OH-MXC formation by control liver microsomes was 3.8 +/- 1.3 microM (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), and Vmax was 131 +/- 53 pmol/min/mg protein. These values were similar to those of catfish pretreated with 2 mg/kg methoxychlor i.p. for 6 days (Km 3.3 +/- 0.8 microM and Vmax 99 +/- 17 pmol/min/mg) but less (p Methoxychlor pretreatment significantly reduced intestinal metabolite formation from 32 +/- 4 to 15 +/- 6 pmol/min/mg (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), whereas 3-MC treatment significantly increased OH-MXC production to 72 +/- 22 pmol/min/mg. Ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and alpha-naphthoflavone all decreased the production of OH-MXC in liver microsomes, whereas alpha-naphthoflavone stimulated HPTE formation, suggesting that CYP1 and CYP3 family isozymes demethylated methoxychlor. The results suggest that the formation of estrogenic metabolites from methoxychlor would be more rapid in catfish coexposed to CYP1 inducers.

  5. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. PMID

  6. Low-O₂ acclimation shifts the hypoxia avoidance behaviour of snapper (Pagrus auratus) with only subtle changes in aerobic and anaerobic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Iftikar, Fathima I; Baker, Daniel W; Hickey, Anthony J R; Herbert, Neill A

    2013-02-01

    It was hypothesised that chronic hypoxia acclimation (preconditioning) would alter the behavioural low-O(2) avoidance strategy of fish as a result of both aerobic and anaerobic physiological adaptations. Avoidance and physiological responses of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) were therefore investigated following a 6 week period of moderate hypoxia exposure (10.2-12.1 kPa P(O(2)), 21 ± 1 °C) and compared with those of normoxic controls (P(O(2))=20-21 kPa, 21 ± 1 °C). The critical oxygen pressure (P(crit)) limit of both groups was unchanged at ~7 kPa, as were standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates. However, hypoxia-acclimated fish showed increased tolerances to hypoxia in behavioural choice chambers by avoiding lower P(O(2)) levels (3.3 ± 0.7 vs 5.3 ± 1.1 kPa) without displaying greater perturbations of lactate or glucose. This behavioural change was associated with unexpected physiological adjustments. For example, a decrease in blood O(2) carrying capacity was observed after hypoxia acclimation. Also unexpected was an increase in whole-blood P(50) following acclimation to low O(2), perhaps facilitating Hb-O(2) off-loading to tissues. In addition, cardiac mitochondria measured in situ using permeabilised fibres showed improved O(2) uptake efficiencies. The proportion of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, at least relative to the aerobic marker enzyme citrate synthase, also increased in heart and skeletal red muscle, indicating enhanced anaerobic potential, or in situ lactate metabolism, in these tissues. Overall, these data suggest that a prioritization of O(2) delivery and O(2) utilisation over O(2) uptake during long-term hypoxia may convey a significant survival benefit to snapper in terms of behavioural low-O(2) tolerance.

  7. Barium variation in Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) otoliths: A potential indicator of migration between an embayment and ocean waters in south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Paul A.; Jenkins, Gregory P.; Coutin, Patrick

    2006-07-01

    Chronological variation in otolith chemistry can be used to reconstruct migration histories of fish. The use of otolith chemistry to study migration, however, requires knowledge of relationships between the chemical properties of the water and elemental incorporation into otoliths, and how water chemistry varies in space and time. We explored the potential for otolith chemistry of snapper, Pagrus auratus, to provide information on movement history between a large semi-enclosed bay, Port Phillip, and coastal waters in south-eastern Australia. Comparisons of water chemistry across two years demonstrated that ambient barium (Ba) levels in Port Phillip Bay were approximately double those in coastal waters (11 μg L -1 versus 6 μg L -1). Ba levels in otolith margins of wild juvenile snapper were highly positively correlated with ambient levels across 17 sampling locations, and levels in otolith margins of adult snapper collected from Port Phillip Bay were approximately double those of snapper collected in coastal waters. Mean partition coefficients for Ba ( DBa) were similar for juvenile (0.43) and adult (0.46) otoliths, suggesting that otolith Ba incorporation relative to ambient levels was similar across life-stages. Low Ba variation across otoliths from adult snapper maintained in tanks for three years indicated that annual temperature and/or growth cycles did not strongly influence otolith Ba variation. We concluded that chronological Ba variation in snapper otoliths would be a reliable proxy for life-history exposure to variable ambient Ba. We used water chemistry data and Ba levels across otoliths of ocean resident snapper to estimate otolith Ba levels indicative of residence in Port Phillip Bay (>10 μg g -1) or coastal waters (confident interpretation of migration history from otolith Ba chronologies will most likely require matching time series of ambient Ba in the water bodies of interest.

  8. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft Bolsa jugal no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus como modelo experimental de investigação de enxertos heterólogos de pele humana e quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of grafted fragments of human skin and keloid was seen in late periods (84 days since the microscopic assessment showed the presence of blood vases within the conjunctive tissue of grafted fragments. It was also possible to see among the grafted fragments the epithelium, the appearing of early cellular infiltrated, epithelial secretion of keratin, the presence of melanocytes, and delayed changes on the aspect of collagen fibers of conjunctive tissue. Pooled results allow to define hamster cheek pouch sub-epithelium as an experimental model to investigating heterologous graft physiology of human total skin and keloid with epithelium.Descrever a integração dos enxertos de pele total humana e quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, cujo subepitélio é, naturalmente, um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico". Foram transplantados fragmentos, de pele humana normal e de quelóide, obtidos da região mamária de pacientes pardas, no subepitélio da bolsa jugal in situ. O procedimento operatório, e de preparo das bolsas enxertadas para exame microscópico em vários períodos de transplante, foi padronizado. Verificou-se a integração dos fragmentos enxertados de pele humana e de quelóide em períodos tardios (84 dias, uma vez que a avaliação microscópica revelou a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo dos fragmentos enxertados. Foi também possível observar, nos fragmentos enxertados, o epitélio, o aparecimento de infiltrado

  9. Comparación química y funcional de tres dietas comerciales y una experimental, a través de la tasa de crecimiento de bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus) y su efecto en la calidad del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Pérez, Karina Yurittsy

    2013-01-01

    Dietas de alta calidad nutricional, bajo impacto ambiental y económicamente rentables, son una necesidad apremiante para alcanzar mayor eficiencia alimenticia, tasa máxima de crecimiento de los peces y reducir los recambios en el ciclo de engorda. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento y los efectos de la proteína dietaría sobre la degradación de la calidad del agua, a través de la acumulación de nutrientes no asimilados en el agua de cultivo del bagre (Ictalurus punctatus).

  10. Effects of dietary stilbene glucoside on growth and body color of Ictalurus punctatus%饲料中添加二苯乙烯苷对斑点叉尾(鱼回)生长和体色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒; 贺国龙; 刘立鹤; 王辅臣; 张侃; 舒友松

    2012-01-01

    A 42 d feeding-trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of stilbene glucoside (tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside, THSG) on the growth and body color performance of Ictalurus punctatus. Five isonitrigenous diets were formulated to contain 36. 6% protein and 7. 3% lipid. THSG was added at four inclusion levels of 0. 33% , 0. 67% , 1. 33% and 2. 67% (diets A-D). The control diet didn' t contain THSG ( diet Ctr). Weight gain ( WG) , Survival and feed conversion ratio( FCR) were not significantly affected when the THSG added except FCR, which presented statistical significance in diet D; In diets A-D, tyrosinase activity in blood and skin, melanin content and distribution in the skin were higher than the diet Ctr, and tyrosinase activity in skin of diet A and diet B is 10. 4 ug/cm2 and 10. 6 ug/cm2 respectively , melanin distribution is 8. 16% and 9. 38% respectively, which were significantly higher than that of 7. 86 ug/cm2 and 5. 01% in control(P < 0. 05 ). These results indicate that adding THSG to Channel catfish feed has obvious influence on body color and without adverse effect on growth performance. Based on the results of WG, FCR, survival, tyrosinase activity in blood and skin, melanin content and distribution, it was feasible to improve the body color by dietary stilbene glucoside.%在饲料中分别添加0、0.33%、0.67%、1.33%和2.67%的二苯乙烯苷(THSG)制成5种等氮等能试验饲料饲喂(15 ±0.5)g斑点叉尾(鱼回)(Ictalurus punctatus)42 d,研究THSG对其生长和体色的影响.结果表明.饲料中添加THSG对斑点叉尾(鱼回)增重率和存活率均无显著影响,仅在添加量为2.67%时,试验组的饵料系数显著高于对照组(P<0.05);然而,随着添加量的增加,(鱼回)皮肤和血液酪氨酸酶活力、皮肤黑色素含量和黑色素分布量均有提高,其中0.33%和0.67%组皮肤中酪氨酸酶活力分别为10.4 U和10.7 U,显著高于对照组的7.86 U;黑色素分布量分别为8.16%和9

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15055-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 |pid:none) Carassius auratus cytochrome P450 ... 152 3e-35 AB290010_1( AB290010 |pid:none) Balaenoptera...s cytochrome P450, family... 148 4e-34 AB290008_1( AB290008 |pid:none) Balaenoptera acutorostrata CYP2C78...

  12. Demonstrating That Habitat Structure Facilitates Coexistence of Prey & Predator: A Laboratory Investigation Using Goldfish & Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Timothy W.; Embrey, Tracey R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory investigation to demonstrate that habitat structure promotes increased organism abundance and species diversity by reducing predator effects on prey abundance. Investigates the effects of goldfish (Carassius auratus) predators on Gammarus sp. (an amphipod) and Daphnia magna (a cladoceran) prey in the absence and presence of a…

  13. Study on the Acute and Subacute Toxicities of Chlorophenols on Carassias auratus%氯酚类化合物对金鱼的急性和亚急性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂晶磊; 刘锋; 周春玉; 刘征涛

    2001-01-01

    研究了2-氯酚、2,6-二氯酚,2,3,4-三氯酚、2,3,5,6-四氯酚、五氯酚5种氯酚类化合物对鲤科金鱼(Carassias auratus)的急性毒性和这5种化合物在1/2 LC50,1/4 LC50,1/6 LC50浓度下对金鱼肝脏中Na+-K+-ATP酶的影响变化。结果显示:①氯酚类化合物随氯原子数目在苯环上的增加,其急性毒性增加;②亚急性毒性指标Na+-K+-ATP酶对氯酚类化合物比较敏感,是一种较好的生物指示物。并讨论了氯酚类化合物对Na+-K+-ATP酶活性产生影响的机制。%The acute and subacute toxicities of five chlorophenols,i.e.2-chlorophenol,2,6-dichlorophenol,2,3,4-trichlorophenol,2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol on the Carassias auratus were studied in vivo.The subacute toxicity endpoints were Carassias auratus liver's Na+-K+-ATPase activity under 1/2 LC50,1/4 LC50,1/6 LC50 of five chlorophenols.The results showed that:①The acute toxicity LC50 of chlorophenols increased with the number of chlorine atom on the benzene ring.②Na+-K+-ATPase activity is sensitive to the chlorophenols,thus being a good biomarker for the chlorophenols pollution.The mechanism of the phenomena related to Na+-K+-ATPase activity decrease in fish liver was discussed.

  14. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  15. 一株斑点叉尾鲴致病菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of a pathogenic bacteria strain in channel catish ( Ictalurus punctatus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任燕; 巩华; 陶家发; 梁慧丽; 刘礼辉; 石存斌; 吴淑勤

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod shaped bacterium( designated as strain GD091027) was isolated from the liver of diseased channel catish (Ictalurus punctatus). Artificial infection proved that GD091027 was the pathogen of the disease.When artificial infection dose reached 1.0 × 107 CFU/fish, the challenged channel catish presented 100% mortality and the LD50 to channel catish was 6. 2 × 104 CFU/g. The isolated GD091027 was preliminarily identified as Edwardsiella tarda with the characteristics of gram-negative bacilli, motility at 25 ℃ or 35 ℃, growth in 3% salt water, Oxidase-negative;non-fermentation of glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-Mannitol, L-arabinose; non-utilization of Simmons citrate and malonic acid, lysine decarboxylase-positive, ornithine decarboxylase-positive, produce of H2S and lndole, methyl-red-negative.A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolated GD091027 with other relative bacteria species in the RDP and GenBank databases. In the phylogenetic tree, the isolate and some E. tarda strains converged and constituted a branch, which confirm the identication of the isolated GD091027 as E. tarda. The drug sensitivity results showed the isolate GD091027 was highly sensitive to 16 kinds of antibiotics, such as ampieilin, gentamicin, tobramycin; while resistant to rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, and penicillin. According to the morphological,physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis, the isolate( GD091027 ) was identified as E. tarda.%从斑点叉尾鲴(Ictalurus punctatus)肝脏分离到的一株细菌GD091027,对该菌进行人工感染试验、生理生化特性测定和16S rRNA序列测定并构建系统发育树,同时进行了抗菌药物敏感性试验.结果显示:当人工感染剂量大于1.0×107 CFU/尾时,能引起斑点叉尾鲴100%发病死亡,对斑点叉尾鲴的LD50为6.2×104 CFU/g.分离株GD091027为革兰氏阴性短杆菌,氧化酶阴性,在25℃、35

  16. Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp (Carassius cuvieri)%人工诱导雌核发育日本白鲫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远东; 张纯; 刘少军; 陶敏; 曾琛; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4 200 mJ/cm2 and 3 600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively.At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4±3.3)% vs. (33.8±1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7±0.3)% vs.(0.5±0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4℃ for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8±2.1)% and (29.4 ±3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7±3.4)% and (23.6±4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J × B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J × B crosses may be usefulin aquaculture.%分别用遗传失活的散鳞镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)、团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)精子诱导日本白鲫(Carassiuscuvieri)进行雌核发育.未经冷休克处理,用UV照射过

  17. Integração do enxerto heterólogo de pele humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Integration of human skin heterologous graft into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch sub-epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração de enxertos de pele total humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu de 18 hamsters machos, exogâmicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de pele humana normal foram obtidos de pele excedente de mastoplastia redutora de paciente parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de pele, perfazendo um total de 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica foi realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante fotografias padronizadas. Na avaliação microscópica foi adotado como critério de integração a presença de vasos sangüíneos na derme dos enxertos. Observou-se também a presença de queratina, melanócitos, infiltrado celular e aspecto do tecido conjuntivo. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação macroscópica foi observada uma reação vascular em torno dos fragmentos até 12 dias do implante, e a presença de pigmentação castanho-escura a partir de 42 dias. À microscopia, integraram-se 80,64% dos fragmentos enxertados, inclusive no grupo de 168 dias. Observou-se infiltrado celular inflamatório até 12 dias, a presença de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias e uma hialinização do tecido conjuntivo após 84 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Fragmentos de pele humana integram-se no tecido celular subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster, mantêm-se vascularizados por 168 dias, e conservam o epitélio íntegro até 21 dias. O subepitélio da bolsa representa modelo experimental de investigação da fisiologia de pele humana ex vivo.PURPOSE: To describe the integration of total human skin into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample was formed by 18 male hamsters, outbred, aging between 10 and 14 weeks. Fragments of

  18. 三种复方中草药对斑点叉尾鮰部分生化指标的影响%Effects of Three Compound Chinese Herbal Medicines on Some Biochemical Parameters in Ictalurus punctatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永军; 乔之怡; 胡玉花; 陈成勋; 白东清; 丁莉莉; 刘志伟; 邢克智

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the effects of compound Chinese herbal medicine "Yuhuan", "Gantaile" and "Sanhuangfen" on biochemical parameters in Ictalurus punctatus, an oral administration trial was performed. The medicines mentioned above were added to a commercial feed at 5 g/kg separately, and were administrated to the tested fish. The fish was sampled after a continuous 7-day feeding. The biochemical parameters in blood and tissues were assayed. The results show that all the medicines enhanced SOD/MDA and CAT/MDA ratio in serum and spleen. So the antioxidant capacity in serum and spleen was enhanced. All the medicines reduced the antioxidant capacity in head kidney by means of reducing SOD/MDA and CAT/MDA ratio. The "Gantaile" and "Yuhuan" enhanced the antioxidant capacity in gill, while "Sanhuangfen" and "Yuhuan" enhanced the antioxidant capacity in muscle. All the medicines reduced AST and ALT activities in hepato-pancreas. The LZM activity was significantly cut down in hepato-pancreas by "Gantaile" and in head kidney by "Yuhuan", while "Sanhuangfen" boosted LZM activity in muscle significantly. All the medicines enhanced blood leucocytes phagocytosis and reduced AST and ALT activities in hepato-pancreas.%为研究复方中草药“鱼欢”、“肝泰乐”、“三黄粉”对斑点叉尾鮰生化指标的影响,将以上3种中草药按5g/kg饵料的比例加到饵料中,连续喂食斑点叉尾鮰7d后取样,测定血液和组织中的生化指标。结果表明:3种复方中草药均能提高血清和脾脏的SOD/MDA和cAz孙佃A比值,提高血清和脾脏的抗氧化能力;3种复方中草药均能降低头肾的SOD/MDA和CAT/MDA比值,降低其抗氧化能力。“肝泰乐”和“鱼欢”能提高鮰的抗氧化能力,“三黄粉”和“鱼欢”能提高肌肉的抗氧化能力。3种复方中草药能降低肝胰脏中AST和ALT的活力。“肝泰乐”显著降低肝胰脏的LZM活力,“鱼欢”显著降低头肾的LZM活力

  19. Seven Chinese Herbal Medicines Affect Physiological and Biochemical Indices in Ictalurus punctatus%7种中草药对斑点叉尾鮰生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆奎; 陈成勋; 郭永军; 白东清; 乔之怡; 刘志伟; 丁莉莉; 邢克智

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to provide theoretical basis for the reasonable application of seven kinds of Chinese herbal medicines in aquaculture industry. [ Method] Taking lctalurus purutatus as the study object, the impacts of seven Chinese herbal medicines (CHM),Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC (BC),Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EU),radix Dryopteris crassirhizoma (rDC) ,radix Paeoniae lactiflora (rPL), Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fiseh (GU) ,Polygonum cuspidutum Sieb et Zucc (PC),and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) on the physiological and biochemical indices were tested. [ Result ] CHM could enhance the antioxidative capacity in serum and spleen while depress the antioxidative capacity in hepatopancreas. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in head kidney were enhanced significantly by BC. The SOD and CAT activities in muscle were enhanced significantly by EU ,rDC,PC and GJ. Serum lysozyme (LZM) activity was depressed significantly by rDC. The IZM activity in hepatopancreas and head kidney was enhanced significantly by BC. The PC depressed LZM activity in head kidney significantly.The LZM activity in gill was enhanced significantly by GU and GJ. The LZM activity in muscle was enhanced by rDC,EU and PC. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in hepatopancreas was depressed by rDC,GU and PC. The AST was enhanced by rPL significantly. The aianine aminotransferase (ALT) in hepatopancreas was depressed by rDC,EU ,GJ and GU. Leucocytes phagocytosis was enhanced significantly by BC,GU and GJ. [ Conclusion] Seven kinds of herbal medicines had different degrees of influences on the physiological and biochemical indices in Ictaluruspunctatus.%[目的]为7种中草药在水产养殖业中的合理使用提供理论依据.[方法]以斑点又尾鮰(Ictalurus punctatus)为研究时象,考察了射干、杜仲、贯众、白芍、甘草、虎杖和栀子7种中草药对生理生化指标的影响.[结果]中草药能提高血清和脾脏抗氧化能力,降低

  20. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  1. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two...... different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order...

  2. 日本白鲫IGF-1基因全长cDNA克隆及组织表达分析%The Cloning of IGF-1 cDNA and Tissue Distribution in Japanese Crucian Carp (Carassius cuvieri)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 钟欢; 刘少军; 周毅

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, we cloned the partial cDNA of IGF-1 in Japanese crucian carp by using a pair of degenerate primers based on the conservative sequence of obtained sequences from more species. The full length cDNA was then obtained by SMART RACE, which contained an ORF of 486 bp that encoded a protein of 161 amino acid residues containing signal peptide, B, C, A, D and E domains and six cysteine residues. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that IGF-l of fishes is conservative in evolution. The study on tissue distribution indicated IGF-l of Japanese crucian carp had remarkably similar expression patterns in adult body tissues. The highest level of the expression occurred in liver. The highef level of the expression appeared in pituitary, heart, kidney and muscle, while the lower level of the expression occurred in brain, spleen, testis and ovary.%通过已获得的多个物种IGF-1基因的cDNA序列,设计合成简并引物,用日本白鲫的肝脏总RNA反转录获得的cDNA做模板,克隆获得了IGF-1中间序列.在此基础上,通过SMART RACE,获得了IGF-1全长cDNA序列.经过序列对比分析,所得到的序列是日本白鲫(Carassius cuvieri) IGF-1 cDNA全长,其中开放阅读框为486 bp,编码含161个氨基酸的蛋白质,该蛋白质含有保守的信号肽、B、C、A、D和E结构域和6个半胱氨酸残基.同时,系统进化分析表明,在进化过程中IGF-1基因在鱼类中保持着高度保守的进化特征.IGF-1在日本白鲫中广泛表达于多个组织,尤其在肝脏中表达量最高.在垂体、心脏、肾脏和肌肉中有较高的表达.而在脑、脾脏、精巢和卵巢中的表达量较低.

  3. Eğirdir Gölü'nde Gümüşi Havuz Balığı, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 Avcılığında Kullanılan Monofilament Fanyalı Ağların Seçiciliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram KORKMAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been investigated that the characteristics of the selectivity of monofilament trammel nets having 50, 55, 60 mm bar length. This study was carried out on prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch,1782 caught in Lake Eğirdir. An indirect method developed by Holt (1963 was used for determining the selectivity parameters. Common selection factor as SF=4.753 and common standard deviation as SD=2.347 were calculated for monofilament trammel nets. Common selection factor used of the optimum catch lengths of prussian carp in 50, 55 and 60 mm bar length were 23.77; 26.14 and 28.52 cm respectively. The optimum catch lengths were compared with lenghts at first maturity of prussian carp in Lake Eğirdir. Trammel nets of this study do not cause the overfishing on the prussian carp stock

  4. Análisis in vitro de la actividad antibacteriana Oedogonium capillare contra bacterias patógenas de peces

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Guadalupe Figueroa; Jorge Romero Jarero; Roxana López Simeón

    2006-01-01

    The present study proved in vitro the capability of an extract of Oedogonium capillare, a fresh water green algae, to be an effective antibacterial agent against 23 different bacterial species of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae families, that are pathogens in humans and important in aquaculture. All the different wild strains were isolated from Carassius auratus fi sh cultivated in fi sh farms in the state of Morelos, Mexico. After being purifi ed the str...

  5. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species.

  6. Oscillatory change of SR-protein kinase activities during oocyte maturation meiosis in fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲安; 曹丹; 桂建芳

    2000-01-01

    The SR-protein kinase activity was analyzed and the cytological changes were observed during oocyte maturation in bisexual transparent color crucian carp ( Carassius auratus color variety). The results revealed that the SR-protein kinase activity was sensitive to the artificially induced spawning hormones, and the change of oscillatory activity was similar to that of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) kinase that regulates meiotic cell cycle in fish.

  7. A contribution to the deterministic modelling of circadian rhythms in cell proliferation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, M; Álvarez Cabal, Ramón; Hacar Benítez, Miguel Ángel; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a deterministic continuous model of proliferative cell activity. The classical series of connected compartments is revisited along with a simple mathematical treatment of two hypotheses: constant transit times and harmonic Ts. Several examples are presented to support these ideas, both taken from previous literature and recent experiences with the fish Carassius auratus, developed at the Junta de Energía Nuclear, Madrid, Spain.

  8. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  9. 胡子鲇脑型芳香化酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达%Molecular cloning and expression of Cyp19a1b cDNA in Clarias fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 李广丽; 朱春华; 吴天利; 邓思平

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding Cypl9alb was derived from Clarius fuscus using RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA was 2 347 bp with a 219 bp 51JTR, a 596 bp 3UTR (excluding poly (A)), and a 1 503 bp ORF, which encoded 500 amino acids and had a predicted mol wt of 56.388 kD. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the C. fuscus Cypl9alb shared 95.6% sequence identity with clarias gariepinus and >75% identity with Silurus merid-ionalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Danio rerio, Ictalurus punctatus, Cyprtnus carpio, Carassius auratus, Gobio-cypris rarus, and Epinephelus akaara. In contrast, there was low sequence identity (<62%) with Cypl9ala for these species. Therefore, the gene was classified into the Cypl9alb subfamily. This is consistent with the classification based on traditional morphology and biochemistry. Cypl9alb mRNA was expressed primarily in the fore-brain, hypothalamus, and pituitary, and to a lesser extent in the liver, testis and ovary. We observed differences in the level of expression in brain between males and females (P<0.05). Cypl9alb was expressed prior to sex differentiation in C. Juscus, but there was no difference in the level of expression between prior and post to sex differentiation (12-30 d after hatching). Our results suggest that Cypl9alb is not directly involved in mediating sex differentiation in C. fuscus, but may play an indirect role by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.%采用RT-PCR和RACE法,克隆了胡子鲇(Clarias fuscus)脑型芳香化酶基因Cyp19a1b,应用荧光实时定量PCR检测其在前脑、下丘脑、脑垂体、肝、精巢和卵巢6种组织,以及性腺分化前后(出膜后12~30d)全鱼中的mRNA表达.结果表明,Cyp19a1b cDNA全长2 347 bp,5’端非编码区219 bp,3’端[不包括poly(A)]596 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1 503 bp,编码500个氨基酸,推测其编码蛋白质分子量为56.388 kD.序列分析及分子系统进化树结果表明,胡子鲇Cyp19a1b氨基酸序列与非洲鲇(Clarias gariepinus)Cyp19

  10. Female crucian carp, Carassius carassius, lose predator avoidance behavior when getting ready to mate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, S.; Höglund, Erik; Mayer, I.;

    2008-01-01

    -dependent; for instance, many animals show increased risk-taking during courtship behavior by paying less attention to potential predators. We investigated whether the fright reaction, a stereotypical avoidance response to olfactory cues from injured conspecifics, may be affected by reproductive status in a teleost fish......In predator-prey interactions, the prey often have to compromise fitness-related behaviors such as feeding, courting, and territorial defense in order to avoid predators. In these trade-off situations, some behaviors have priority over others. These priorities are not rigid, and may be context...... sexual behavior. As the fright reaction in crucian carp consists of behavior incompatible with spawning behavior, we hypothesize that this short-term suppression of the alarm response has evolved so that spawning can occur uninterrupted....

  11. Effects of different commercial feeds on growth,body color and live tissue structure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)%不同商品饲料对生长、体色及肝脏组织结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立鹤; 黄绮雯; 胡先勤; 胡奇伟; 何广文; 谭斌; 李彪

    2009-01-01

    本试验评估了(鲴) (Ictalurus punctatus)主产区4种商品(鲴) 颗粒饲料(分别记为S1、S2、S3和S4,其中S4为膨化饲料,其他均为颗粒饲料)和自行设计的颗粒饲料(记为S5)对 (鲴) 试验阶段生长性能、体色变异、肝胰脏组织结构及 (鲴) 形态指标的影响.7周的饲喂试验结果显示:饲料蛋白含量为38%的S4膨化饲料可明显的提高养殖鱼的体重,平均增重率为262.6%,但存活率较低,仅为72.3%;而喂养S5饲料组 (鲴) 的增重率为168.89%,且存活率为92.4%,高于其他饲料组.养殖结束后,不同试验组(鲴) 的肥满度、脏体比有所差异,但均未达到显著性水平(P>0.05).投喂S2饲料组养殖鱼体体色发白比较明显,体色异常比例高达91%;S4饲料组养殖后体色发白也比较明显,体色异常比例为72.3%;对 (鲴) 背部黑色素扫描研究进一步证实饲喂S2饲料和S4饲料的黑色素细胞发生了变化,黑色素细胞边缘变得模糊,而自配S5饲料的黑色素细胞树突状分支较多;饲喂S4饲料组的 (鲴) 背部斑点比例为12.15%,而S2饲料组的背部斑点比例为26.38%,自配S5饲料组的背部斑点比例为35.69%,S4饲料组的斑点比例明显较低.

  12. Effects of stocking density on growth, physiology and immune parameters of Carassius cuvieri reared in greenhouse recirculating aquaculture system with constructed wetlands as filters%养殖密度对温室湿地循环水系统中鲫生长、生理及免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗凡; 时旭; 程果锋; 王小冬; 刘兴国; 顾兆俊

    2014-01-01

    研究了基于两级人工湿地的温室循环水系统中,养殖密度对鲫( Carassius cuvieri)生长、脏器系数、血清生理免疫指标及对嗜水气单胞菌( Aeromonas hydrophila)抵抗力的影响。试验设2 kg·m-3、4 kg·m-3、8 kg·m-3和16 kg·m-3共4种密度组,每组2个平行,养殖68 d。结果显示:1)各养殖密度下鲫生长及脏器系数不存在显著差异;2)与2 kg·m-3组鲫相比,16 kg·m-3组鲫血清丙二醛( MDA)质量摩尔浓度显著升高,溶菌酶( LSZ)、酸性磷酸酶( ACP)和碱性磷酸酶( AKP)活性显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性和总蛋白质量浓度虽有不同程度升高,但差异不显著;3)高密度组鲫对嗜水气单胞菌的抵抗力较低密度组弱。以上结果表明,如果以生长为考量指标,温室湿地循环水系统中鲫养殖密度可达16 kg·m-3,但如此高的密度会对鲫免疫力造成负面影响。%To investigate the effects of stocking density on the growth,organ coefficient,physiology-immune parameters in serum and the resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila of Carassius cuvieri reared in an indoor recirculating aquaculture system with 2-stage con-structed wetlands as filters,we cultured C. cuvieri for 68 d at various stocking densities of 2 kg·m-3 ,4 kg·m-3 ,8 kg·m-3 and 16 kg ·m-3( each density had two parallel groups). The results show that:1 )no significant difference was found among the four density-groups on growth and organ coefficients of C. cuvieri ;2)compared with 2 kg·m-3 density group,the concentration of malondialde-hyde( MDA)in serum of 16 kg·m-3 density group significantly increased,while the activities of serum lysozyme( LSZ),acid phos-phatase( ACP)and alkaline phosphatase( AKP)significantly decreased. The activity of superoxide dismutase( SOD)and concentra-tion of total protein were not significantly different although there was a certain degree of elevation;3 )the resistance

  13. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, CD63 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD63, also known as lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP-3), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immuno-physiological functions. In this communication, we cloned, sequenced and characterized the channel catfish, CD63 transcr...

  14. Consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos por peces ornamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Franco Archundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre alternativas de alimento para especies acuáticas con alto potencial económico, es uno de los principales temas de estudio en la acuicultura. En la presente investigación se evaluó el consumo de pre-adultos de mosquito por cuatro especies ícticas ornamentales: Carassius auratus, Pterophyllum scalare, Danio rerio y Xiphophorus helleri. El diseño experimental consistió en cuatro tratamientos, con tres réplicas. Cada ensayo se realizó de manera independiente entre especies. En cada acuario (1 l se colocaron dos peces juveniles, con peso húmedo y longitud total (promedio ± desviación estándar conocidos. Se suministraron en un tratamiento 100 larvas y en otro 100 pupas de mosquito. La tasa diaria de consumo de larvas y pupas se registró a un intervalo de tres horas durante un ciclo de 24 horas por especie. El peso húmedo de pre-adultos de mosquito difirió 5.20% y el seco 37.69%; en ambos casos, superior en las pupas (p < 0.001. Los peces fueron más activos durante la fase luminosa, 09:00-18:00 h, evidenciado por una mayor tasa de consumo de larvas y pupas de mosquito. Carassius auratus presentó el mayor consumo de larvas/pez/24 horas 131.33 ± 4.16 y de pupas/pez/24 horas 86.16 ± 3.20. Lo anterior difirió significativamente con respecto a P. scalare, D. rerio y X. helleri (p < 0.001. Finalmente, Carassius auratus presentó la mayor capacidad de consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos.

  15. 植酸酶对斑点叉尾鮰生长性能、营养物质表观消化率及氮、磷排泄的影响%Influence of Phytase on Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients, Excretion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雨虹; 刘行彪; 黄可; 付熊; 吴晗冰

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of phytase on growth performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients, excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and to determine the optimum additive amount of phytase. A total of 540 juvenile channel catfish with an average body weight of (1. 74 ±0. 02) g were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate. The fish in control group were fed a basal diet, and the fish in experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 300, 500, 1 000, 1 500 and 2 000 U/kg phytase, respectively. After a 90-day growth experiment, a total of 75 channel catfish [ average body weight of (16. 70 ±0.85) g ] in each group were randomly distributed into 3 replicates and 25 fish in each replicate, for measuring the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion. The nitrogen and phosphorus excretion experiment lasted for 72 h. The results of growth experiment showed as follows: compared with the control group, the weight gain rate, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and apparent digestibility of nutrients in the groups with the diets supplemented with 500 to 2 000 U/kg phytase were significantly improved (P 0. 05). The results of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion experiment showed as follows: the excretion of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal phosphorus per kilogram of weight gain were decreased with the dietary phytase level increasing, and the above indices in the groups with the diets supplemented with 1 000 to 2 000 U/kg phytase were significantly lower compared with the control group (P <0. 05). Based on these findings, this study concludes that supplementation of 1 500 U/kg phytase in diets can improve the growth performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients in channel catfish, and decrease the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion into aquaculture water.%本试验旨在研究植酸酶对斑点叉尾鮰生长性能、营养物质

  16. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu. PMID:21106134

  17. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and health hazard assessment for three fish species from Nansi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ren, Yangang; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in fish is a global public health concern, because the consumption of contaminated fish accounts for the primary exposure of humans to toxic metals. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in Crucian carp (Carassius auratus),Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), and Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) from Nansi Lake of China were evaluated, and compared with the corresponding historical values in 2001 when the government started to govern water environment effectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal was highest in P.fulvidraco, followed by C.auratus and H.nobilis. The concentrations of Pb, As, Cd were much lower than the historical values, but Hg concentration was higher, suggesting that heavy metal pollution problem in fish from Nansi Lake still exists. Health hazard assessment showed no health risk from exposure to Pb, As, Cd, and Hg by consuming fish from this lake. PMID:25636438

  18. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaisen, Furhan T; Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  19. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard;

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  20. Salida de campo a Ribera del Cubo (o Torre Duero, en Torrecilla de Abadesa, Valladolid) el 21 y 22 de junio de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Ribera del Cubo (seguramente, sinónimo de Torre Duero, que se halla en la localidad de Torrecilla de Abadesa, Valladolid) los días 21 y 22 de junio de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre insectos de la familia Acrididae (orden Orthoptera), los siguientes peces: Barbus sp. (Barbo) y Carassius auratus (Pez rojo), el anfibio Pelophylax esculentus (Rana verde europea, llamada Rana sculenta o R.esculenta ridibunda por el autor), los siguientes reptiles: Lagartos y lag...

  1. Gap Junction Contributions to the Goldfish Electroretinogram at the Photopic Illumination Level

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Doh-Yeon; Jung, Chang-Sub

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) is generated by full-field light stimulation is still a challenge in visual neuroscience. To understand more about the origin of the b-wave, we studied the contributions of gap junctions to the ERG b-wave. Many types of retinal neurons are connected to similar and different neighboring neurons through gap junctions. The photopic (cone-dominated) ERG, stimulated by a small light beam, was recorded from goldfish (Carassius auratus) usi...

  2. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium-210 in water and 210Pb and 210Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210Po was higher than for 210Pb, and the accumulation of 210Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg−1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg−1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 105, >2.5 × 104 and >1.4 × 104, respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and δ15N could indicate biomagnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210Po, the concentration of 210Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  3. Effects of PAHs on Biotransformation Enzymatic Activities in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-hua; CHEN Wei; LI Ying; ZHU Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Biotransformation and detoxification responses to the exposure to five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated in crucian(Carassius auratus). Juvenile crucian were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of each compound at dosages of 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 8.0(or 10.0) mg/kg and sacrificed 15 d later to determine 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase(EROD) and glutathione S-transferases(GST) activities in gill S9 fractions. EROD activity is significantly increased by benzo(b)fiuoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene at all the doses. High dosages of PAHs induced GST activity and the inducing ability of them increased in the following order: fluorene<fluoranthene<indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene<benzo(g,h,i)perylene<benzo(b)fluoranthene. In all the cases, dose dependence appeared to exist. The gill EROD and GST in Carassius auratus are useful biomarkers to estimate sub-acute toxicity of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and PAHs-like compounds.

  4. Life without oxygen: gene regulatory responses of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius heart subjected to chronic anoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre-Olav Stensløkken

    Full Text Available Crucian carp are unusual among vertebrates in surviving extended periods in the complete absence of molecular oxygen. During this time cardiac output is maintained though these mechanisms are not well understood. Using a high-density cDNA microarray, we have defined the genome-wide gene expression responses of cardiac tissue after exposing the fish at two temperatures (8 and 13 °C to one and seven days of anoxia, followed by seven days after restoration to normoxia. At 8 °C, using a false discovery rate of 5%, neither anoxia nor re-oxygenation elicited appreciable changes in gene expression. By contrast, at 13 °C, 777 unique genes responded strongly. Up-regulated genes included those involved in protein turnover, the pentose phosphate pathway and cell morphogenesis while down-regulated gene categories included RNA splicing and transcription. Most genes were affected between one and seven days of anoxia, indicating gene regulation over the medium term but with few early response genes. Re-oxygenation for 7 days was sufficient to completely reverse these responses. Glycolysis displayed more complex responses with anoxia up-regulated transcripts for the key regulatory enzymes, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, but with down-regulation of most of the non-regulatory genes. This complex pattern of responses in genomic transcription patterns indicates divergent cardiac responses to anoxia, with the transcriptionally driven reprogramming of cardiac function seen at 13 °C being largely completed at 8 °C.

  5. Temperature regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in a poikilothermic vertebrate, crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Eeva; Tranberg, Hanna K; Sollid, Jørund; Nilsson, Göran E; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2006-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of hypoxia-induced gene responses. To find out whether HIF-1 function is involved in gene expression changes associated with temperature acclimation as well as in hypoxia adaptation in poikilotherms, we studied HIF-1 DNA binding activity and HIF-1alpha expression in normoxia and during hypoxia (0.7 mg l(-1) O2) in crucian carp at temperatures of 26, 18 and 8 degrees C. Temperature had a marked influence on HIF-1 in normoxia. Although HIF-1alpha mRNA levels remained unaltered, cold acclimation (8 degrees C) increased HIF-1alpha protein amounts in the liver, gills and heart and HIF-1 DNA binding activity in the heart, gills and kidney of crucian carp by two- to threefold compared to warm acclimated fish (26 degrees C). In the heart and kidney HIF-1 activity was already significantly increased in the 18 degrees C acclimated fish. Temperature also affected hypoxic regulation of HIF-1. Although hypoxia initially increased amounts of HIF-1alpha protein in all studied tissues at every temperature, except for liver at 18 degrees C, HIF-1 activity increased only in the heart of 8 degrees C acclimated and in the gills of 18 degrees C acclimated fish. At 8 degrees C HIF-1alpha mRNA levels increased transiently in the gills after 6 h of hypoxia and in the kidney after 48 h of hypoxia. In the gills at 26 degrees C HIF-1alpha mRNA levels increased after 6 h of hypoxia and remained above normoxic levels for up to 48 h of hypoxia. These results show that HIF-1 is involved in controlling gene responses to both oxygen and temperature in crucian carp. No overall transcriptional control mechanism has been described for low temperature acclimation in poikilotherms, but the present results suggest that HIF-1 could have a role in such regulation. Moreover, this study highlights interaction of the two prime factors defining metabolism, temperature and oxygen, in the transcriptional control of metabolic homeostasis in animals. PMID:16513925

  6. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.;

    2013-01-01

    anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized...

  7. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF receptor 1 antagonist, on fright reaction and endocrine stress response in crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, Stine; Höglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind;

    2008-01-01

    and stress reactions in non-mammalian vertebrates are largely unknown. Crucian carp displays the olfactory-mediated fright reaction, a stereotypic behavioral response to waterborne cues from damaged skin of conspecifics. This reaction shows several similarities to basic components of avoidance behavior...... values, as compared to vehicle treatment. This suppression of the behavioral fright reaction and the stress induced rise in plasma cortisol in crucian carp suggests that the functions of the CRFR1 are conserved by evolution....

  8. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  9. Diversity in noise-induced temporary hearing loss in otophysine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoser, Sonja; Ladich, Friedrich

    2003-04-01

    The effects of intense white noise (158 dB re 1 μPa for 12 and 24 h) on the hearing abilities of two otophysine fish species-the nonvocal goldfish Carassius auratus and the vocalizing catfish Pimelodus pictus-were investigated in relation to noise exposure duration. Hearing sensitivity was determined utilizing the auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording technique. Measurements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 4.0 kHz were conducted prior and directly after noise exposure as well as after 3, 7, and 14 days of recovery. Both species showed a significant loss of sensitivity (up to 26 dB in C. auratus and 32 dB in P. pictus) immediately after noise exposure, with the greatest hearing loss in the range of their most sensitive frequencies. Hearing loss differed between both species, and was more pronounced in the catfish. Exposure duration had no influence on hearing loss. Hearing thresholds of C. auratus recovered within three days, whereas those of P. pictus only returned to their initial values within 14 days after exposure in all but one frequency. The results indicate that hearing specialists are affected differently by noise exposure and that acoustic communication might be restricted in noisy habitats.

  10. Integrated Biomarker Responses of Effluents from Municipal Sewage Treatment Works in Goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G. H.; Xia, J.; Zhang, H. Z.; Wang, C.

    2010-11-01

    The organic toxicants were extracted from the effluents from municipal sewage treatment works (STWs) in Nanjing (Chengbei, Suojincun and Jiangxinzhou STWs) by using solid phase extraction. AChE, GST, EROD, GPx and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were determmed after exposure of the extracted components. The extracts of water samples from the three STWs induced AChE, GST, EROD and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. The responses of enzymatic activities were mostly significant for those exposures of intermediate polar components, weakly polar components and/or nonpolar hexane extracts. Integrated biomarker response (IBR) index were calculated and used to evaluate an integrated impact of organic toxicants from different sampling sites. The order of negative biological effects of the three STWs was Jiangxinzhou>Chengbei>Suojincun.

  11. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the freshwater fish, crucian, from the Han river and the Kum river, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, G.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Moon, J.Y.; Lee, S.I.; Kim, H.; Song, H. [Pusan National Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Even though polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were prohibited from producing and using for a long time, it is still identified in the every environmental media including biota. Since PCBs are lipophilic and persistent, they concentrate readily in the tissue and accumulate exponentially as they move through the food chain. Crucian (Carassius auratus) is most widely living freshwater fish in Korea. So crucian was selected as a representative freshwater fish in this study to determine the accumulation level and distribution characteristics of PCBs. In this study, we attempted to investigate the accumulation profile of individual PCB congeners in the muscle of freshwater fish crucian from the two major rivers, the Han River and Kum River, in Korea.

  12. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (CPs) in anthropogenic activities, 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), among other CPs, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. PMID:26897408

  13. Studies on the Developmental Potentiality of Cultured Cell Nuclei of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxi Chen, Yonglan Yi, Minrong Chen, Xingqi Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of the serial nuclear transplantation technique, the authors obtained a nuclear transplant fish from subcultured cell originated from the blastula cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus. This nuclear transplant fish survived for three years, but its sexual glands were undifferentiated. The authors have also obtained a sexually mature adult fish from short-term cultured kidney cell nucleus of an adult crucian carp. Results of the experiment implied that the subcultured cell nuclei of fish blastula cells and the specialized somatic cell nuclei of adult fish still retained their developmental totipotency, and thus, it indicated that there is a possibility of fish somatic cell breeding through the use of nuclear transplantation.

  14. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Moaeen-Ud-Din; Li Guo Yang

    2009-04-01

    Somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, Gallus gallus, Monodelphis domestica, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis lupus familiaris, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Pan troglodytes and Macaca mulatto to identify somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in each species. To date, we have identified a minimum of two genes of somatostatin and five somatostatin receptor genes in mammalian species with variable forms. We established a clear evolutionary history of the somatostatin system and traced the origin of the somatostatin system to 395 million years ago (MYA), identifying critical steps in their evolution.

  15. 不同中草药对两种淡水鱼类诱食作用的研究%STUDY ON ATTRACTION OF DIFFERENT CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES FOR TWO FRESH WATER FISHES SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩妍妍; 王维娜; 王安利; 张亚娟; 王军霞

    2003-01-01

    根据中草药药理设计制成六种复合试剂,以鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)、史氏鲟(Acipenser schrencki)为对象进行诱食活性试验,用one-way ANOVA检验统计分析.结果表明6种中草药复合试剂对两种鱼类的诱食效果并不完全相同,复合试剂对鲫鱼都有极显著的诱食效果,仅有两种复合试剂对史氏鲟有显著的诱食作用.为鱼用中草药诱食促长剂的进一步开发研究提供了资料.

  16. 银鲫精巢特异的Ly-6/uPAR相关蛋白的分子克隆及其特征分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TESTIS-SPECIFIC Ly-6/uPAR RELATED PROTEIN IN GIBEL CARP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 刘珍; 周莉; 李志; 桂建芳

    2015-01-01

    The members of Ly-6/uPAR superfamily distribute widely in many metazoans. All proteins from this family have at least one conserved Ly-6/uPAR (LU) domain which is composed of about 70 to 100 amino acids, and contain 8 to 10 cysteine residues with a defined disulfide-bonding pattern. The members of Ly-6 family are classified into two subfamilies, namely GPI-anchored membrane proteins and secreted proteins, according to whether they possess the glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored signal sequence in the C-terminus. In this study, we cloned and characterized a new member of Ly-6 superfamilyingibel carp(Carassius auratus gibelio). The full-length sequence of this gene con-sisted of 570 base pairs that encoded 99 amino acids and had only one LU domain. Our analysis using on-line bioinfor-matic software showed that this protein might have one signal peptide but no GPI-anchor signal sequence, thus could be a type of secreted protein. We conducted RT-PCR to detect its expression in different tissues and found that this protein was specifically expressed in testis. According to its characteristics, we named the geneCarassius auratus gibelio testis- specific Ly-6/uPAR related protein (CagTslurp).In situhybridization revealed the expression ofCagTslurpin sper-matogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids, but not in somatic cells. These results in-dicated that theCagTslurp gene might play a role in spermatogenesis of gibel carp.%Ly-6/uPAR基因超家族(Ly-6 SF)成员广泛地存在于后生动物中,开展该家族相关功能基因研究具有重要的意义.研究从银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)中鉴定到一个该家族新成员, cDNA全长为570 bp,其中开放阅读框长度为300 bp,编码99个氨基酸,生物软件预测该蛋白含有一个LU结构域,不含GPI锚信号序列, N端含有信号肽,表明其可能为Ly-6基因超家族中分泌型蛋白.组织表达分析显示,该基因只在银鲫精巢中特异表达,

  17. Estado de las poblaciones de anfibios en un parque urbano de Pamplona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosá, A., Arias, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones aisladas de tres anfibios (Triturus marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelophylax perezi han sido muestreadas entre 2005 y 2007, en primavera y finales de verano, en un canal y tres estanques de un parque urbano céntrico de la ciudad de Pamplona. Los 8 adultos censados en 2005 de T. marmoratus han podido desaparecer en los años siguientes, a causa de unas obras urbanas realizadas junto al parque. La estima de la población de A. obstetricans se acerca al millar de adultos. Su periodo reproductor se extiende hasta septiembre, y una parte de la población larvaria inverna sin metamorfosear. El ajardinamiento de la zona, la contaminación del agua y la presencia de depredadores y competidores introducidos, como Procambarus clarkii y Carassius auratus, ponen en peligro la supervivencia de los anfibios.

  18. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016 [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  19. 观赏鱼的国际贸易概况%General Situation of International Trade of Ornamental Fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思行

    2001-01-01

    @@ 我国是世界上最早饲养观赏鱼的国家,据传,西周时期(B.C.800年)就开始从野生鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)中选择变异种群--金鱼饲养观赏.欧洲大约于18世纪才掀起饲养观赏鱼的热潮.如今,在水族箱内饲养观赏鱼(aquarium fish)已遍及全球,消费人口达数千万,饲养品种约1100多种,而且大量变种和新种不断推出,已成为文化休闲的一种时尚.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08006-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available norvegicus protein kinase, ... 190 1e-46 ( P07527 ) RecName: Full=Mitosis inhibitor protein kinase wee1; .....pid:none) Nicotiana tabacum mRNA for putativ... 159 3e-37 EU973733_1( EU973733 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 407698 wee1...51481 |pid:none) Bos taurus WEE1 homolog (S. pombe)... 149 3e-34 AF358869_1( AF358869 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis wee1...09525_3( AC009525 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I ... 148 6e-34 D30743_1( D30743 |pid:none) Mus musculus mRNA for wee1... kinase, com... 148 6e-34 AB051198_1( AB051198 |pid:none) Carassius auratus wee1

  1. Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50 was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish.

  2. Plutonium-237: comparative uptake in chelated and non-chelated form by channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelation can either enhance or reduce the uptake of ingested plutonium relative to PuOH (monomer) in channel catfish. Reduced uptake of 237Pu-fulvate is due either to the molecular weight of the complex or its stability in metabolic systems. Increased uptake of 237Pu-citrate is attributable to instability of the complex in metabolic systems. (author)

  3. Nutritional impacts on gene expression in the surface mucosa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation is a common occurrence in both wild and farmed fish species, due to reproductive processes, seasonal variations in temperature, or in response to a disease outbreak. Fasting can have dramatic physiological and biological onsequences for fish, including impacts on mucosal ...

  4. Excretion of 131I by freshwater catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish in waters to which wastes from nuclear power stations are discharged accumulate radionuclides for a short time during batch discharges and then eliminate them during the longer intervals between discharges. Hence, the elimination rates of radionuclides are of importance in computing radiation doses to humans who eat fish caught in these waters. The excretion rates of 131I in two freshwater fish species were studied. Findings show that 131I is excreted quite rapidly by both species. 131I loss from fish muscle during deep frying was also measured and found to be 20 +- 4%. It is concluded that the practice of simply applying a concentration factor to convert the concentration in water to that in fish, without considering excretion, grossly overestimates the dose to the consumer, and that further studies should be made to identify other nuclides that behave similarly. (author)

  5. CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, LEUKOCYTES SECRETE IMMUNOREACTIVE ADRENAL CORTICOTROPIN HORMONE (ACTH). (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Molecular responses of ceruloplasmin to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection and iron overload in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruloplasmin is a serum ferroxidase that carries more than 90% of the copper in plasma and has documented roles in iron homeostasis as well as antioxidative functions. In our previous studies, it has been shown that the ceruloplasmin gene is strongly up-regulated in catfish during challenge with Ed...

  7. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin (GRLN), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuropeptides involved in the regulation of appetite and feeding in vertebrates. We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma GHRL and mRNAs encoding GRL...

  8. Whole genome comparative analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with four model fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanliang; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Hong; Sun, Fanyue; Bao, Lisui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to study evolution of genomes. It allows transfer of genome information from the well-studied model species to non-model species. Catfish is an economically important aquaculture species in United States. A large amount of genome resources have been developed from catfish including genetic linkage maps, physical maps, BAC end sequences (BES), integrated linkage and physical maps using BES-derived markers, physical map contig-specific sequences...

  9. Kinetics of intracardially injected plutonium-237 citrate in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium-237 distribution and translocation in channel catfish following intracardial injection are basically similar to patterns in mammals after intravenous administration. Bone and liver are the dominant contributors to the body burden. The fractional body burdens in bone, liver and kidney 17 days after injection were 31, 24 and 9% of the injected dose, respectively. High kidney burdens relative to mammals are expected since the kidney functions as the major site of hemopoeisis in teleosts. The observation of high concentrations in some ovaries, coupled with apparent polymorphism in plutonium-binding plasma proteins, suggests that some aspects of plutonium transport in blood plasma, of lower vertebrates may differ significantly from the mammals. Excretion over the 17-day period was <= 10%. The absence of significant excretion indicates that a short half-life component of elimination following gut clearance in earlier gavage studies is due to plutonium labelling of the gut. (author)

  10. Bioaccumulation factor for 32P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for 32P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity (32P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The 32P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of 32P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to 32P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of 32P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for 32P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish

  11. IMMUNOTOXICITY IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TRIBUTYLTIN. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Specific serum antibody responses in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) provide limited protection against Streptococcus ictaluri challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive immunization has been shown to provide a spectrum of protection against certain piscine pathogens, and studies were conducted to determine the role of specific antibodies in immunity to Streptococcus ictaluri. Adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were injected i.p. with tryptic soy br...

  13. Single intravenous and oral dose pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma distribution and elimination of florfenicol in channel catfish were investigated after a single dose (10mg/kg) of intravenous i.v.) or oral administration in freshwater at a mean water temperature of 25.4°C. Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography...

  14. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  15. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, chemokine receptor CXCR4 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript....

  16. Pre-spawning parental stress affects channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus reproduction and subsequent progeny performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine fish handling procedures associated with seining, selecting, transportation, crowding, weighing, and stripping have shown to cause negative physiological responses to hatchery performance. In teleosts, cortisol is the main corticosteroid released during stress, and hence, plasma cortisol co...

  17. Breeding strategy of US farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus affects progeny production and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    catfish propagation for decades has been dependent on random mating of male and female channel catfish in ponds. It is simple and has been fairly successful in fulfilling the needs of the US farm-raised catfish industry. However, natural pond spawning is unreliable, unpredictable, and incurs 30 t...

  18. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  19. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma ghrelin (GHRL) and mRNAs encoding GRLN, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in channel catfish. Fish were either offered feed (Fed) or fasted (Unfed). Feeding incr...

  20. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  1. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  2. Molecular Cloning and Sequence of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. This enzyme digests the invariant chain molecules so that antigenic peptides are able to load on the class II-associated invariant chain peptide of MHC. The complexes can subsequently be presented to the CD4 cell surface. In ...

  3. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  4. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  5. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  6. The Analysis and Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution of the Main Aquatic Products in Xinyang%信阳市主要水产品重金属污染现状分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坤杰

    2016-01-01

    测定了信阳市主要水产品Pb、Hg、Cd、As和Cr的含量,并根据单因子污染指数评价法对信阳市主要水产品的品质进行质量安全评价。结果表明,8种信阳市主要水产品的所有样品中均检出Pb和Cr,但均未检出Cd和Hg。在鲤鱼、鲫鱼、克氏原螯虾、鳙鱼和白鲢中检出As,检出率分别为60%、40%、40%、60%和40%。单因子污染指数评价法表明,8种信阳市主要水产品均受到不同程度的Pb污染,鲫鱼、白鲢和鳙鱼受到了轻度的As污染。%This paper has measured the concentration of heavy metal( Hg、Cd、Pb、As、Cr) in the main aquatic products in Xinyang and used the single factor pollution index to assess the quality and safety of the main aquatic products in Xinyang. The results showed that all samples of the main aquatic products in Xinyang were detected by Pb and Cr, but no Cd and Hg. As was detected in Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Procambarus clarkia, Aristechthys nobilis and Hypophtyalmichthys molitrix, the detection rate respectively was 60%、40%、40%、60% and 40%. The Assessment by the single factor pollution index showed that all the main aquatic products in Xinyang were moderatly or badly polluted by Pb. Carassius auratus, Hypophtyalmichthys molitrix and Aristechthys nobilis were mildly polluted by As.

  7. Investigations in associated protozoa-bacterial infections of cyprinids from a fish farm situated on the Jijia river in N-E of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laz?r

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2011 in cyprinid farms located in Iasi on the Jijia river, several infections with bacterial strains and macroscopical external cysts on the skin were diagnosedwhich developed as a result of the stress induced by biotic and abiotic factors. On the examination of the cyst contents the presence of numerous spores was observed, mostly of the Dermocystidium sp genusThe samples were taken from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio and crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio species from the fish farm as well as from the Jijia River. 35 fish were examined, all of them showing cysts, fragmentation of their dorsal fin and congestion of the gills. Histological examination of the skin showed a field of multiple dermal cysts with round light eosinophilic formations (14-16µm containing a central refractable body similar to that reported for Dermocystidium sp. Gills samples were taken from the affected areas for the SEM examination with the purpose of evaluating not only aspects of normal morphology, but also aspects of some modifications of the affected areas as well as the presence of the etiologically incriminated bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens. The isolates were identified through phenotypic methods. All the strains that showed mobility and oxidase-positivity were tested using API 20 NE strip. Consequently, they were taxonomically grouped into the species Pseudomonas fluorescens. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used for the first time in the characterization of the bacterial lesions produced by Pseudomonas strains on Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio gills. The diagnosis of septicemia with conditional pathogen species of Pseudomonas fluorescens was correlated with the results of the physico-chemical investigations of water and the data concerning the breeding conditions of the investigated livestock.

  8. Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2012-12-21

    Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. PMID:22819587

  9. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  10. Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful. PMID:25992255

  11. Linking eggs and adults of Argulus spp. using mitochondrial DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroz Khan, K; Sanker, G; Prasanna Kumar, C

    2014-12-10

    Abstract We have created barcode library for common Argulus spp. infecting Carassius auratus, which could also be used to identify premature forms of Argulus spp. even by non-professionals. Infected C. auratus was examined and purchased from ornamental fish-trading centers and the adult life stage of Argulus spp. was identified and DNA barcoded. The eggs of Argulus spp. were collected using bottle implants. The collected eggs are barcoded and precisely identified by matching with the adult sequences. Four species of adult Argulus spp. were identified, namely Argulus japonicus, Argulus indicus, Argulus siamensis, and Argulus foliaceus. Precise identification of egg samples was done by two different analyses, namely (i) BLAST analysis and (ii) phylogenetic clustering of adults and eggs. All egg samples including the control were precisely identified by BLAST analysis and the results are consistent with phylogenetic clustering of adult and egg's DNA barcodes. In order to establish the DNA barcode technology for the identification of all Argulus spp and its premature forms, the development of full-fledged barcode library that includes all species of this genus is very important for the benefit of ornamental fish industries. PMID:25492543

  12. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  13. Biomagnification of DDT and its metabolites in four fish species of a tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Ermias; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Salbu, Brit; Gebremariam, Zinabu; Dadebo, Elias; Skipperud, Lindis; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations and biomagnifications of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were examined in four fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and Carassius auratus) from Lake Ziway, Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Paired stomach content analysis, and stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ(15)N, ‰) and carbon (δ(13)C, ‰) were used to study the trophic position of the fish species in the lake. 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDD were the main DDTs identified in the fish samples, with 4,4'-DDE as the most predominant metabolite, with mean concentration ranging from 1.4 to 17.8 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). The concentrations of DDTs found in fish from Lake Ziway were, in general lower than those found in most studies carried out in other African Lakes. However, the presence of DDT in all tissue samples collected from all fish species in the lake indicates the magnitude of the incidence. Moreover, the observed mean 4,4'-DDE to 4,4'-DDT ratio below 1 in C. auratus from Lake Ziway may suggest a recent exposure of these species to DDT, indicating that a contamination source is still present. 4,4'-DDE was found to biomagnify in the fish species of the lake, and increases with trophic level, however, the biomagnification rate was generally lower than what has been reported from other areas. Significantly higher concentrations of 4,4'-DDE were found in the top consumer fish in Lake Ziway, C. gariepinus than in O. niloticus (t=2.6, P<0.01), T. zillii (t=2.5, P<0.02) and C. auratus (t=2.2, P<0.03).

  14. Isolation of a novel aquaglyceroporin from a marine teleost (Sparus auratus): function and tissue distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Estevao, M.D.; Fuentes, J.; Cardoso, J.C.; Fabra, M.; Passos, A.L.; Detmers, F.J.M.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cerda, J.; Power, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aquaporins (formerly called the major intrinsic protein family) are transmembrane channel proteins. The family includes the CHIP group, which are functionally characterised as water channels and the GLP group, which are specialised for glycerol transport. The present study reports the identifica

  15. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  16. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the memory of social defeat in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C L; Norvelle, A; Larkin, T; Huhman, K L

    2015-06-01

    Conditioned defeat (CD) is a behavioral response that occurs in Syrian hamsters after they experience social defeat. Subsequently, defeated hamsters no longer produce territorial aggression but instead exhibit heightened levels of avoidance and submission, even when confronted with a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is hypothesized to act as a signal of salience for both rewarding and aversive stimuli to promote memory formation and appropriate behavioral responses to significant events. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the acquisition and expression of behavioral responses to social defeat. In Experiment 1, bilateral infusion of the non-specific D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis(z)flupenthixol (3.75 μg/150 nl saline) into the nucleus accumbens 5 min prior to defeat training significantly reduced submissive and defensive behavior expressed 24h later in response to a non-aggressive intruder. In Experiment 2, infusion of 3.75 μg cis-(Z)-flupenthixol 5 min before conditioned defeat testing with a non-aggressive intruder significantly increased aggressive behavior in drug-infused subjects. In Experiment 3, we found that the effect of cis-(Z)-flupenthixol on aggression was specific to defeated animals as infusion of drug into the nucleus accumbens of non-defeated animals did not significantly alter their behavior in response to a non-aggressive intruder. These data demonstrate that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates both acquisition and expression of social stress-induced behavioral changes and suggest that the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in the suppression of aggression that is observed after social defeat. PMID:25721736

  17. Pre-spawning carotenoid fortified diets improve reproductive traits of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and subsequent progeny performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Availability of consistent number of ovulatory competent channel catfish females is a pre-requisite for efficient production of channel catfish ' x blue catfish, I.furcatus ') hybrid in hatcheries. Raising hybrid catfish in production ponds enables the catfish farmer to harness improved growth rate...

  18. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) constructed by using an interspecific hybrid resource family.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Karsi, Attila; Li, Ping; Cao, Dongfeng; Dunham, R

    2003-01-01

    Catfish is the major aquaculture species in the United States. The hybrid catfish produced by crossing channel catfish females with blue catfish males exhibit a number of desirable production traits, but their mass production has been difficult. To introduce desirable genes from blue catfish into channel catfish through introgression, a genetic linkage map is helpful. In this project, a genetic linkage map was constructed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A total of 607 AFL...

  19. Characterization and mucosal responses of interleukin 17 family ligand and receptor genes in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin (IL) 17 family cytokines are important mediators of mucosal immune responses, tightly regulated by signals from the complex milieu of pathogenic and commensal microbes, epithelial cells and innate and adaptive leukocytes found at tissue barriers. In mammals, IL17 ligand expression has be...

  20. Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

  1. Mucosubstance histochemistry in control and acid-stressed epidermis of brown bullhead catfish, Ictalurus nebulosus (LeSueur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycoprotein components of epidermal mucous cells in control (pH 6.8) and acid-stressed (pH 5.8, 4.8, 4.0) brown bullhead catfish were studied by histochemical and autoradiographic methods. Following exposure to acid, increased numbers of epidermal mucous cells were noted in all tissue sites studied, particularly dorsal and ventral skin. Mucous cells of control fish and acid-stressed (pH 5.8) fish contained a mixture of neutral and acidic mucosubstances, the latter including both sialomucins and sulfomucins, with sialomucins predominating. An apparent shift toward increased sulfomucin production was observed in skin from fish exposed to pH 4.8 and 4.0. In addition, autoradiographic studies using 35S showed increased labeling of mucous cells in acid-exposed (pH 4.0) epidermis, offering further support for a shift toward sulfomucin production in acid-stressed fish. Absence of appreciable sulfomucin production in younger fish (less than 1 year old) suggested that this shift may be partly age-dependent. The functional significance of increased sulfomucin production in acid-stressed epidermal mucous cells is uncertain but may be related to maintenance of ionic equilibrium

  2. SNP discovery and validation in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish, Ictalurusfurcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally blue catfish x channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodsto...

  3. Comprehensive survey and genomic characterization of toll-like receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: identification of novel fish TLRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive survey of channel catfish Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) was undertaken following a genomic PCR approach based on degenerate primers. Twenty different TLRs were identified in channel catfish. Channel catfish TLR sequences were characterized by phylogenetic analysis based on their conserv...

  4. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  5. Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Chloramine-T (Cl-T) has been used safely and effectively to control bacterial gill disease in salmonids at a maximum exposure regimen of up to four consecutive, once-daily exposures administered for 60??min at 20??mg/L. However, data to document safe treatment concentrations of Cl-T are lacking for freshwater-reared fish other than salmonids. We report the histopathology resultant from the administration of 12 consecutive, once-daily, 180-min static immersion baths of 0, 20, 50, or 80??mg Cl-T/L to walleye (20????C) and channel catfish (27????C). Twelve fish of each species were euthanized immediately before the first exposure (initial controls) and then after the twelfth exposure and 7 and 14??days after the twelfth exposure. Only initial controls and fish euthanized immediately after the twelfth exposure were processed for histological review because of the general lack of exposure-related lesions in exposed fish. The only exposure-related histological changes were in the spleen where significantly greater erythrocyte swelling and necrosis was observed in channel catfish exposed at 80??mg/L relative to exposure at 0??mg/L; similar histological changes were insignificant for walleye, though there appeared to be a shift in the general category of histological change with degenerative changes (necrosis, etc.) observed following exposure at 50 or 80??mg/L compared to the inflammatory and hemodynamic changes (congestion, leukocyte infiltrate, etc.) observed in walleye exposed at 0 or 20??mg/L. The only significant change in peripheral blood cytology was that walleye fingerlings exposed at 80??mg/L had significantly fewer mature red blood cells and significantly more immature red blood cells per oil-immersion field than controls. The histopathological changes observed following exposure to Cl-T under an exaggerated exposure regimen suggest that walleye or channel catfish therapeutically exposed to Cl-T will not have treatment-related histological changes.

  6. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  7. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  8. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies. PMID:26573518

  9. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

  10. Deriving freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium for the protection of aquatic life in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium(NaSCN) were studied on the basis of the features of the aquaticbiota in China, and with Reference to U.S.EPA's guidelines. Acutetests were performed on twelve different domestic species todetermine 48h-EC50/96h-EC50 (or 96h-LC50) values for NaSCN. 21dsurvival-reproduction test with Daphnia magna, 60d fry-juvenilepart life stage test with Carassius auratus gibelio and 96h growthinhibition test with Lemna minor were also conducted to estimatelower chronic limit/upper chronic limit values. In the acute tests,D.magna was the most sensitive species to NaSCN followed by Tilapiamossambia, Cyprinus carpio and C.auratus gibelio in turn. The finalacute value of NaSCN was 2.699 mg/L. In the chronic tests,reproduction of daphnids were significantly reduced by NaSCN at 1.0mg/L. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 5.96 to 19.1. A finalchronic value of 0.2530 mg/L was obtained and a final plant valuewas 1346 mg/L. A criterion maximum concentration (1.349 mg/L) anda criterion continuous concentration (0.2530 mg/L) were derivedrespectively. The results of this study may provide useful data toderive national WQC for NaSCN as well as the procedures of derivingWQC of other chemicals for the protection of aquatic biota in China.

  11. 高原湖泊鱼类生长特性与形态差异研究%STUDIES ON THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES OF FISH IN PLATEAU LAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费骥慧; 邵晓阳

    2012-01-01

    根据2009年8—11月洱海流域采集的2991尾鱼类样本,研究了其生长特性与形态差异。结果表明,洱海流域大部分鱼类表现为匀速生长或近匀速生长,但有两种鱼类(中华青鳉、大理裂腹鱼)呈现强异速生长。肥满度以吃食性鱼类最高(鲫、鲤、团头鲂),滤食性鱼类次之(鲢、鳙)。对主要优势种——麦穗鱼、鲫的形态分析表明,洱海麦穗鱼、鲫种群与西湖、茈碧湖、海西海三个湖泊的麦穗鱼、鲫种群在形态上均无显著差异。西湖、茈碧湖、海西海三个湖泊的麦穗鱼种群之间以及鲫种群之间均存在种群间差异(C.D〈1.28),其中茈碧湖、海西海两个湖泊的鲫种群在眼径/头长性状上的差异达到亚种水平(C.D=1.5)。%We studied the growth characteristics and morphological variation based on the 2991 fish specimens sam- pied in Erhai Lake basin from August to November in the year of 2009. The result indicated that most fish showed even-pace growth or nearly even-pace growth, among which two kinds of fish (Oryzias latipes sinensis, Schizothorax taliensis) showed the rapid growth. Non-filter feeding fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpia and Megalobrama ambly- cephala) had the highest condition factor, and filter-feeding fish (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis) took second place. Eight morphological characteristics (TL/BL, BD/BL, BW/BL, HL/BL, HD/HL, HW/HL, ML/HL, ED/HL) of four Pseudorasbora parva populations and four C. auratus populations were analyzed respectively. There was no signifi- cant difference between P. parva sampled in Erhai Lake and the others, so was C. auratus. But there were inter-population differences among three P. parva populations, which sampled in West Lake, Cibi Lake and Haixihai Lake respectively. So was C. auratus, and the difference coefficient of ED/HL between C. auratus sampled in Cibi Lake and Haixihai Lake

  12. A separation-free amperometric immunosensor for vitellogenin based on screen-printed carbon arrays modified with a conductive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darain, Farzana; Park, Doeg Su; Park, Jang-Su; Chang, Seung-Cheol; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2005-03-15

    A disposable amperometric immunosensor was studied for the rapid detection of carp (Carassius auratus) Vitellogenin (Vtg). The sensor was fabricated based on screen-printed carbon arrays (SPCAs) containing eight carbon working and an integrated carbon counter electrodes. To construct the sensor, a conducting polymer (poly-terthiophene carboxylic acid) was electropolymerized on the surface of working electrodes and the polymer-coated SPCAs was characterized by SEM. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a monoclonal antibody (anti-Vtg) specific to carp Vtg were covalently attached onto the polymer modified SPCAs. The immobilization of HRP and anti-Vtg onto the polymer-coated SPCAs was examined using cyclic voltammetry and quartz crystal microbalance studies. In order to detect the amount of Vtg, glucose oxidase (GOx)-labelled Vtg bound to the sensor surface under competition with the Vtg analyte was quantified amperometrically using glucose as a substrate. The performance of the eight sensors in arrays was evaluated by obtaining the calibration plots for Vtg. The sensor arrays exhibit a linear range of the Vtg concentration from 0.25 to 7.8 ng/ml and the detection limit was determined to be 0.09 ng/ml. Furthermore, the performance of the immunosensor for the determination of Vtg was evaluated by a standard addition method performed in fish serum samples. PMID:15681194

  13. Microbial diversity and potential pathogens in ornamental fish aquarium water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine F Smith

    Full Text Available Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.. The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%, Bacteroidetes (18% and Planctomycetes (6%, with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species.

  14. Comparative studies on in vitro sperm decondensation and pronucleus formation in egg extracts between gynogenetic and bisexual fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JIAN LI; JIAN FANG GUI

    2003-01-01

    A cell-free system based upon the egg extracts from gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)or bisexual red common carp (Cyprinus carpio red variety) was developed to investigate developmentalbehaviors of the demembranated sperm nuclei. Both red common carp and gibel carp sperm nuclei coulddecondense fully and form pronuclei in the red common carp egg extracts. Gibel carp sperm nuclei couldalso decondense fully and form pronuclei in the gibel carp egg extracts, but red common carp sperm nucleicould not decondense sufficiently in the same extracts. The significant differences of morphological changeswere further confirmed by ultrastructural observation of transmission electron microscopy. The data furtheroffer cytological evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetically reproducing gibel carp. Inaddition, the sperm nuclei in vitro decondensation is dependent on the pH in the extracts, and the decon-densed efficiency is optimal at pH 7. However, no DNA replication was observed in the two kinds of eggextracts during the incubation period of the sperm nuclei. It is suggested that the egg extracts preparedfrom the gynogenetic gibel carp should be a valid in vitro system for studying molecular mechanism ongynogenesis and reproduction mode diversity in fish.

  15. Pathology survey on a captive-bred colony of the Mexican Goodeid, nearly extinct in the wild, Zoogoneticus tequila (Webb & Miller 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuatti, Alessio; Della Salda, Leonardo; Romanucci, Mariarita

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican Goodeid, Zoogoneticus tequila, is considered nearly extinct in the wild and it is maintained in captivity by the nonprofit international "Goodeid Working Group." The unique Italian colony has produced about 180 fish so far. The observable diseases were registered and some fish were submitted, immediately after spontaneous death, to necroscopic and histopathologic exams. Encountered diseases included the following: 7 cases of scoliosis (2 males and 5 females); 2 fish with a similar congenital deviation of ocular axis; 1 adult male with left corneal opacity, presumably of traumatic origin; 1 female fish with a large subocular fluid-filled sac, histologically referable to a lymphatic cyst, similarly to the eye sacs of a Goldfish variety (Carassius auratus) called bubble eye; and 1 female fish with recurrent abdominal distension consequent to distal bowel dilation and thinning, associated with complete mucosal atrophy, and comparable to intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndromes described in humans and various animal species. The absence of infectious or parasitic diseases, as well as the low incidence of diseases potentially related to environmental alterations or nutritional disorders such as spinal deformities, suggests the adequacy of breeding management techniques of Z. tequila for its conservation and reintroduction in to the original habitat in the near future.

  16. Analysis of matrix proteins of otolith in upside-down catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Okamoto, N.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    We have previously suggested that the calcium density of the otolith in upside-down swimming Synodontis nigriventris is lower than that in upside-up swimming Synodontis multipunctatus Biol Space Sci 2002 In this study we examined EDTA-soluble matrix proteins of otolith in the utricle of the catfish S nigriventris S multipunctatus and upside-up swimming Synodontis brichadi and goldfish Carassius auratus We detected two main bands about 55 kD and 80 kD with SDS-PAGE in the 3 species of the catfish In cntrast goldfish had the about 55 kD band alone The band of about 80 kD was consisted of two sub-bands a lighter and a heavier band A lighter band was observed in S brichadi and a heavier band was observed in S nigriventris S multipunctatus had the both bands Furthermore mass spectrometric analysis showed there were some proteins of molecular weight under 14 kD The molecular weights of the proteins were different among the fishes These results suggest that many different kinds of matrix protein may cause different degree of calcification in otolith formation

  17. 鱼类肝脏酯酶的同工酶构成及其对磷酸三苯酯和马拉氧磷的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少南; 樊德方

    1999-01-01

    用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法分离了麦穗鱼(pseudorasbora parva),金鱼(Carassius auratus),尼罗罗非鱼(Tilapja nilotica),食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis),虹鳟(Salmo gairdneri)等五种鱼的肝脏酯酶的同工酶,以乙酸α-萘酯为底物测定了它们的活性,在麦穗鱼,金鱼,尼罗罗非鱼体内发现两条酶带,在食蚊鱼和虹鳟体内发现一条酶带,离体抑制率实验表明,五种鱼肝脏内均含有对磷酸三苯酶敏感的酶带,而对马拉氧磷敏感的酶带只存在于麦穗鱼,金鱼,尼罗罗非鱼体内,酯酶同工酶分布型的意义及与马拉硫磷选择毒性的关系在本文中进行了讨论。

  18. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections.

  19. Identification, cDNA Cloning, and Characterization of Luteinizing Hormone Beta Subunit (lhb) Gene in Catla catla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive hormones play a significant role in the gonadal development and gametogenesis process of animals. In the present study luteinizing hormone beta, (lhb) subunit gene was cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. The lhb full-length of cDNA sequence is 629 bp which consists of 43bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) 447bp, ORF(open reading frame) and 139 bp of 3'-UTR respectively. The coding region of lhb gene encoded a peptide of 148 amino acids. The coding sequence of lhb gene consist of a single N-linked glycosylation site (NET) and 12 cysteine knot residues. Phylogenetic analysis of C. catla Lhβ deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with Carassius auratus followed by Gobiocypris rarus. 3D structure Lhβ protein comprises of five β-sheets and six coils/loops. The qPCR results revealed lhb mRNA is mainly expressed in the pituitary, ovary while moderate expression was observed in brain and testis. To best our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification, molecular characterization and structural information regarding luteinizing hormone in Indian major carp. PMID:26980432

  20. Trematode Centrocestus formosanus infection and distribution in ornamental fishes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, César; Fajardo, Raúl; Enríquez, Ricardo

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode Centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in Morelos, central Mexico. The parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. Goldfish Carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species; 20 of 30 farms were positive for this parasite, the fish showing severe clinical signs and having a high mortality rate. For the first time in the region, koi (a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio), zebrafish Danio rerio, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus (also known as the threespot gourami) were positive; meanwhile, Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus, which had previously been reported positive in other studies in this region, was found to be negative. The parasite was observed in fish from 27 of the 48 farms studied. Ten of 15 municipalities had farms that were positive for the parasite. These results suggest that the distribution of C. formosanus is closely related to the use of water that had been contaminated with the parasite and to the presence of a snail, the red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata.

  1. Transference kinetics of 60Co in an aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiyue; CAI Zhiqing; GONG Fanghong; SHI Jianjun; WANG Shouxiang

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of transportation,accumulation,disappearance and distribution of 60Co in a simulated aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem was studied by isotope-tracer technique.In the aquatic system,60Co was transported and transformed via depositing,coupling with ions and adsorption.The absorption resulted in the redistribution and accumulation of 60Co in each compartment of the system.Specific activities of 60Co in water started sharply and gently decreased.The sediment accumulated a large amount of 60Co by adsorption and ion exchange.The homwort (Ceralophyllum demersum) could also adsorb a large amount of 60Co in a short time,because of its large specific surface area.Fish (Carassius auratus) and snail (Bellamya purificata) had a poor capacity of adsorbing 60Co.The distribution of 60Co in the fish was mainly in the viscera,and the amount of 60Co in the snail flesh was greater than that in the shell.The amount of 60Co in individual compartment in the system was changed with time.The highest specific activity of 60Co in the bean of the terrestrial system remained in the root nodule.

  2. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  3. Detection of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in healthy cyprinid seed stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Won, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Jin-Woo; Jee, Bo-Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Hong, Suhee

    2014-11-13

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) disease is a lethal disease in common carp, an important food fish in Asian countries, the seed of which is used in restocking programs for freshwater fishery management. We inspected apparently healthy seed stock of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and Siberian crucian carp Carassius auratus for the presence of KHV using PCR-based diagnostic tests as a part of a stock enhancement program from 2009 to 2010 in Korea. Consequently, KHV was detected from 24 of 232 inspections with yearly detection percentages of 5.2% in 2009 and 15.5% in 2010 using PCR primer sets for TK or SphI-5 as recommended by the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Results indicate that the SphI-5 primer set was slightly more sensitive than the TK primer set, as shown by a higher detection rate. To determine the genotype of the KHV strains detected in this study, ORF40-specific PCR amplification was conducted, and the PCR products from 6 samples showed 100% nucleotide sequence identity with a Japanese strain (GenBank accession number AP008984) but not with US (DG657948) and Israeli strains (DG177346). This report conclusively demonstrated the presence of KHV in externally healthy seed of common carp and Siberian crucian carp, indicating a possible risk that subclinically infected seed stock can be released with a potential threat to wild populations.

  4. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  5. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  6. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  7. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of selected phenols with non-monotonic dose-response curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO ChangAn; ZHANG AiQian; LIN Yuan; YIN DaQiang; WANG LianSheng

    2009-01-01

    Particular non-monotonic dose-response curves of many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) suggest the existence of diverse toxicity mechanisms at different dose levels. As a result, the biologi-cal activities of EDCs cannot be simply exhibited by unique EC/LD<,50. values, and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for non-monotonic dose-response relationship be-comes an unknown field in the environmental science. In this paper, nine phenols with inverted U-shaped dose-response curves in lymphocyte proliferation test of Carassius auratus were selected. The binding interactions between the phenols and several typical EDCs-related receptors were then explored in a molecular simulation study. The estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bacterial O2 sensing FixL protein (FixL), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were the target receptors in the study. Linear regression QSAR models for the low and high exposure levels of the compounds were developed separately. The results indicated that the lymphocyte proliferation in the low-dose range might involve ER-mediated process, while the proliferation inhibition in the high dose range was dominated by the acute toxicity of phenols due to receptor occupancy and cell damage.

  8. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurane Winandy

    Full Text Available The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  9. Expansion of the Known Host Range of the Microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Justin L; Watral, Virginia; Stidworthy, Mark F; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia, is the most common infectious organism found in laboratory zebrafish colonies. Many currently used zebrafish lines originally came from pet store fish, and the initial description of P. neurophilia came from zebrafish obtained from a retail pet store. However, as P. neurophilia has not been described from wild-caught zebrafish, whether P. neurophilia is a natural pathogen of zebrafish is an open question. The pooling of fish of different species in the aquarium fish trade is common and a generalist parasite could be transmitted to novel hosts in this scenario. We determined that P. neurophilia can infect seven species of fishes from five families by cohabitation with infected zebrafish: Betta splendens, Xiphophorus maculatus, Devario aequipinnatus, Pimephales promelas, Oryzias latipes, Carassius auratus and Paracheirodon innesi. Infections in these fishes were histologically similar to those of zebrafish. We include a case report of a laboratory population of fathead minnows with naturally acquired P. neurophilia infections. With such a broad host range, including several fish families, other laboratory fishes should be screened routinely for this and other microsporidian parasites. PMID:27182659

  10. Environmental Factors Structuring Fish Communities in Floodplain Lakes of the Undisturbed System of the Biebrza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Glińska-Lewczuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance of functional fish groups in 10 floodplain lakes in the Biebrza River, northeastern Poland. Fish were sampled by electrofishing, and 15 physico-chemical parameters were recorded at three sampling sites at each lake in the period of 2011–2013. A total of 18,399 specimens, belonging to 23 species and six families, were captured. The relationships between environmental factors and fish communities were explored with the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Sampling sites were grouped based on fish communities using a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Along a lateral connectivity gradient from lotic to lentic habitats (parapotamic–plesiopotamic–paleopotamic, the proportions of rheophilic species were determined as 10:5:1, whereas the proportion of limnophilic species was determined as 1:2:5. The predominant species were the roach (Rutilus rutilus, and pike (Esox lucius in parapotamic lakes, rudd (Scardinius erythropthalmus and pike in plesiopotamic lakes, and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineates and Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio in paleopotamic lakes. The findings indicated that the composition and abundance of fish communities are determined by lake isolation gradient, physico-chemical parameters and water stage. Although intact riverine ecosystems may promote fish biodiversity, our findings suggest that lateral connectivity between the main channel and floodplain lakes is of utmost importance. Thus, the conservation of fish biodiversity requires the preservation of this connectivity.

  11. 韩国华津浦湖的鱼类区系%FISH FAUNA OF THE HWAJINPO LAKE, KOREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUNKIL Choi; OSAMU Mitamura; YASUSHI Seike; KAORU Fujinaga

    2006-01-01

    The Fish fauna of the Hwajinpo Lake, one of the lagoons on the east coast of Korea, was investigated during six days between November,2003 and May,2004. Fifteen species belonging to eight families and six orders were collected. Among the 15 species recorded, brackish water and/or marine fishes were represented by six species, while three additional species were identified as migratory fish, and six species were purely freshwater fish. During the six months, all of the survey period with six sampling dates, nine species belonging to six families were collected at Station 1, with Chaenogobius urotaenia presenting the highest biomass (39 % ). Twelve species belonging to six families were collected at Station 2, with Carassiu cuvieri showing the highest biomass (20 % ). Five species belonged to three families at Station 3, with Hemiculter eigenmanni showing the highest biomass (69 % ). The dominant and subdominant species were C. cuvieri ( 16% ), Carassius auratus and Tribolodon hakonensis ( 14% ), respectively. Also, diversity indices were 0.95 ( Station 3) and 2.08 ( Station 2), while the dominant indices were 38.40 ( Station 2) and 87.18 ( Station 3 ). The evenness indices were calculated with 0.59 ( Station 3 ) and 0.84 ( Station 2).

  12. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  13. Screen for stage-specific expression genes between tail bud stage and heartbeat beginning stage in embryogenesis of gynogenetic silver crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A systemic study was initiated to identify stage-specific expression genes in fish embryogenesis by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. In this study, we presented a preliminary result on screen for stage-specific expression genes between tail bud stage (TBS) and heartbeat beginning stage (HBS) in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Two SSH plasmid libraries specific for TBS embryos and HBS embryos were constructed, and stage-specific expression genes were screened between the two stages. 1963 TBS positive clones and 2466 HBS positive clones were sampled to PCR amplification, and 1373 TBS and 1809 HBS PCR positive clones were selected to carry out dot blots. 169TBS dot blot positive clones and 272 HBS dot blot positive clones were sequenced. Searching GenBank by using these nucleotide sequences indicated that most of the TBS dot blot positive clones could not be found homologous sequences in the database, while known genes were mainly detected from HBS dot blot positive clones. Of the 79 known genes, 20 were enzymes or kinases involved in important metabolism of embryonic development. Moreover, specific expressions of partial genes were further confirmed by virtual northern blots. This study is the first step for making a large attempt to study temporal and spatial control f gene expression in the gynogenetic fish embryogenesis.

  14. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation. PMID:27172876

  15. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments, seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB, beta-2 microglobulin (B2M, embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, alpha tubulin (TUBA, ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species.

  16. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  17. Environmental estrogenic compounds and the induction of hepatic vitellogenin synthesis using cultured goldfish hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Z.; Kraak, G.J. Van Der; Squires, E.J. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the estrogenic activity of some environmental contaminants including the {beta}-sitosterol, nonylphenol (major components of pulp mill effluent) and 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM, a lampricide widely used in the Great Lakes), using the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) as a model species. The in vivo exposure studies have demonstrated that all three compounds tested possess various degrees of estrogenic activity as measured by increased plasma vitellogenin (VTG) production in both the male and female fish. To understand how these compounds induce hepatic VTG synthesis and determine their potency of VTG induction, an in vitro hepatocyte culture system of goldfish was established and the induction of VTG synthesis by these compounds in the cultured hepatocytes was studied. The concentration of VTG in the plasma and in the cell culture medium was determined with a enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that {beta}-sitosterol has the highest estrogenic activity of VTG induction.

  18. Neurogenic and neuroendocrine effects of goldfish pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Rees, Christopher Benjamin; Bryan, Mara Beth; Li, Weiming

    2008-12-31

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) use reproductive hormones as endocrine signals to synchronize sexual behavior with gamete maturation and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to mediate spawning interactions between conspecifics. We examined the differential effects of two hormonal pheromones, prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P) on neurogenesis, neurotransmission, and neuronal activities, and on plasma androstenedione (AD) levels. Exposure to waterborne PGF(2alpha) induced a multitude of changes in male goldfish brain. Histological examination indicated an increase in the number of dividing cells in male diencephalon (p GnRH) in the male telencephalon and cerebellum (p chicken-II GnRH) in the female cerebellum (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA). PGF(2alpha) and 17,20beta-P thereby seemed to act through distinct pathways to elicit different responses in the neuroendocrine system. This is the first finding that links a specific pheromone molecule (PGF(2alpha)) to neurogenesis in a vertebrate animal. PMID:19118184

  19. Pathology Survey on a Captive-Bred Colony of the Mexican Goodeid, Nearly Extinct in the Wild, Zoogoneticus tequila (Webb & Miller 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Arbuatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Goodeid, Zoogoneticus tequila, is considered nearly extinct in the wild and it is maintained in captivity by the nonprofit international “Goodeid Working Group.” The unique Italian colony has produced about 180 fish so far. The observable diseases were registered and some fish were submitted, immediately after spontaneous death, to necroscopic and histopathologic exams. Encountered diseases included the following: 7 cases of scoliosis (2 males and 5 females; 2 fish with a similar congenital deviation of ocular axis; 1 adult male with left corneal opacity, presumably of traumatic origin; 1 female fish with a large subocular fluid-filled sac, histologically referable to a lymphatic cyst, similarly to the eye sacs of a Goldfish variety (Carassius auratus called bubble eye; and 1 female fish with recurrent abdominal distension consequent to distal bowel dilation and thinning, associated with complete mucosal atrophy, and comparable to intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndromes described in humans and various animal species. The absence of infectious or parasitic diseases, as well as the low incidence of diseases potentially related to environmental alterations or nutritional disorders such as spinal deformities, suggests the adequacy of breeding management techniques of Z. tequila for its conservation and reintroduction in to the original habitat in the near future.

  20. Effect of pH on the accumulation kinetics of pentachlorophenol in goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at various pH values were investigated to explore how pH-dependent accumulation might influence PCP toxicity. Goldfish (Carassius auratus ) were exposed to 5 mu g PCP/L in a static system buffered with 7.5 mM bicine or N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (BES) at pH 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0. The amount of PCP in the fish, concentration of PCP in water, and the total amount of metabolites in the system were measured after exposure of fish from 1 to 96 hr. The distribution of PCP within the fish was altered by changes in the external pH. The pH-associated changes in distribution may have altered access of PCP to sites of metabolism, thereby altering the metabolic clearance. The pH-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of PCP resulted in a decrease in its bioconcentration factor with an increase in pH and account both for the decreased capacity of the fish to accumulated PCP and for its reduced LC50.

  1. Microbial degradation of the lamprey larvicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol in sediment-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Lloyd L.

    1973-01-01

    The selective lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), maintained in the water at concentrations of 1 to 6 I?g/ml for several hours, kills larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in tributaries of the Great Lakes. Because the fate of TFM in the environment is a matter of concern, the interactions of this chemical with river and lake sediments were studied in laboratory experiments. In mixtures of TFM, water, and sediment held in aquariums, the TFM decreased progressively and nearly or completely disappeared in 1 to 4 weeks; concentrations of the fluoride ion increased; and the systems became nontoxic for sea lamprey larvae and goldfish (Carassius auratus). If the reduction in TFM ceased before all of the chemical had disappeared, the process resumed when nutrient broth was added. Loss of TFM from the systems was prevented by the addition of an antiseptic (phenol) and by heat sterilization. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms isolated from stream and lake sediments degraded TFM in nutrient broths. I conclude that TFM is degraded by microorganisms that live in sediment-water systems.

  2. The effects of pulp mill effluent on the sex steroid binding protein in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C catostomus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce-Hobby, A C; McMaster, M E; Hewitt, L M; Van Der Kraak, G

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pulp mill effluent on the properties of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP) in the plasma of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C. catostomus). SBPs which specifically bind estradiol and testosterone with high affinity (k(D) approximately 3 nM) and low capacity (B(max) approximately 73-81 nM) were identified in both species. Subsequent studies determined if the properties of the SBP in white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) at Terrace Bay, ON, and in longnose sucker exposed to BKME at Grande Prairie, AB. differed from appropriate reference fish. There were no effects of BKME exposure on the binding affinity (k(D)) of the SBP in either species, but there was a significant increase in the binding capacity (B(max)) of longnose sucker SBP exposed to BKME. The livers of nai;ve white sucker exposed to effluent at Terrace Bay or a bleached sulfite/groundwood mill in Edmundston, NB, rapidly accumulated compounds of differing hydrophobicity that bound to both the white sucker and goldfish (Carassius auratus) SBP. Conversely, there was reduced accumulation of SBP ligands in the bile of effluent-exposed fish. We have demonstrated that constituents present within pulp mill effluent bind to both the white sucker and goldfish SBP, and that native species residing downstream of pulp mill effluents may experience modifications in the properties of their SBP. PMID:12600684

  3. Assessing the estrogenic potency in a Portuguese wastewater treatment plant using an integrated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mário S.Diniz; Rita Maurício; Mira Petrovic; Maria J.López De Alda; Leonor Amaral; Isabel Peres; Damiá Barceló; Fernando Santana

    2010-01-01

    The estrogenic potency of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using chemical and biological analyses,which showed that after the station treatment processes some of the selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) were still present in the treated effluent (e.g.,bisphenol A,alkylphenols,estrone).Thus,the most common endocrine EDCs were identified and quantified and the overall estrogenicity of the treated effluent assessed by integrating the results.Male goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used as biological indicators in a 28-day experiment.Viteliogenin (Vtg),gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices,steroids (17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) and histopathology were biomarkers used in fish to evaluate WWTP treated effluent estrogenicity,in combination with instrumental analyses.The results showed a significant increase (P<0.01) in plasma and liver Vtg,which were significantly correlated (r = 0.66;P<0.01).The gonadosmatic index was significantly (P<0.01) reduced in exposed fish.The steroid analyses revealed significant elevations in 17β-estradiol and depressed 11-ketotestosterone concentrations.The histological examinations show changes in exposed fish gonads,such as regressed testes and in some cases (43% to 75%) the development of ovo-testis in fish exposed to 50% and 100% treated effluent.

  4. Enzyme activity and morphological change in the spleens of crucian carp in the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y F; Yang, J Y; Lin, J Y

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms in the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were collected from Yongcheng natural fishpond (experimental group) and Tianmu Lake (control group), and the spleens were isolated for analysis. Subsequently, histological changes, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. The result showed that there were more vacuoles, widened blood sinus cavities, increased partial dot necrosis, and a larger number of brown-yellow nodules in splenic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin in the experimental group than in the control group. Additionally, it was not easy to distinguish red pulp from white pulp in the experimental group. The antioxidant enzyme activity in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P tailing and DNA chain breaks in the experimental group, and further analysis demonstrated that the tail length and tail moment were significantly increased compared to those in the control group (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the spleen antioxidant defense system was severely damaged in crucian carp from the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area. PMID:27173263

  5. THE CHANGES OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PRUSSIAN CARP UNDER THE ACTION OF THE FOLPAN 80 WDG AND THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF THIOUREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zgurschi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations of Folpan 80 WDG (30x10-5g Folpan 80 WDG /l water, 6x10-4g Folpan 80WDG /l water and 1‰ thiourea on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency on prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch 1782. The subacute and acute toxicity of Folpan 80 WDG fungicide and thiourea was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. Folpan 80 WDG produced, in all organized experimental variants a decrease in respiratory frequency and consumption of oxygen in the case of prussian carp, the more powerful the higher the concentration of the toxic was. Prussian carp anemia could be due to hypoxia that was induced by injuring the gills, as the red-pink colour of the gills became red-white, and at high concentrations the gills completely lost their red colour, while abundant secretions of mucus and even mucosal detachment with abundant bleeding could be observed. The antitoxic action of thiourea manifests itself by the fact that Folpan 80WDG are blocked by SH- groupings isothiourea, the mixture between Folpan 80WDG and thiourea produced no significant changes on the parameters physiological.

  6. Assessing the Impact of EDTA Chelating Effect on some Macro- and Microminerals in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chelators are used in chemical analysis, in medical aplications, as water softeners, as decontamination agents on radioactive surfaces and they are ingredients in many commercial products such as shampoos and food preservatives. Such a synthetic chelator is EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is considered one of the tools that promises to control the heavy metal pollution in aquaculture. EDTA attaches itself to heavy metals and carries the metals from the fish body. EDTA can also slow free-radical activity produced by heavy metals in the body. Because its ability to sequester metal ions, we tried to estimate the potential risks of a chronic exposure to EDTA on tissue mobilization of some metals which have an essential role in realization of different cell functions in Prussian carp specimens. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn. Mn and Cu, were the mineral elements we have targeted in this study. It was found that these minerals have a trend of their tissues distribution and concentration in the body of the control specimens (higher or lower related to other similar works and EDTA presence in water led to a significant decreasing of their level in all tissues analyzed in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio)

    OpenAIRE

    Marioara Nicula; Gabi Dumitrescu; Nicolae Pacala; Lavinia Stef; Camelia Tulcan; Monica Dragomirescu; Ioan Bencsik; Silvia Patruica; Dorel Dronca; Liliana Petculescu Ciochina; Eliza Simiz; Ioan Pet; Adela Marcu; Ioan Caraba

    2016-01-01

    Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment), E1 (10 ppm Cd i...

  8. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  9. Effect of unfavorable conditions on the maturation and ovulation of Carassius curatus gibelio bloch in Vivo and in Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saat, T.V.

    1986-07-01

    Under unfavorable conditions (prolonged holding of females in water at the spawning temperature, sudden cooling of females, holding of follicles in the incubation medium before the experiment), the follicles of the goldfish lose their capacity for reaction by maturation to the gonadotropic pituitary hormones earlier that the ooctyes lose their capacity for maturation under the action of exogenous 17..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone. Since the action of gonadotropink is mediated by follicular cells it can be assumed that the latter are more sensitive to unfavorable conditions than is the oocyte itself. Oocyte ovulation is more sensitive to infavorable conditions that is their maturation.

  10. Analysis of Phospholipids in Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus) Muscle by Offline HPLC-MALDI-TOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the analysis of phospholipids(PLs), especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), has been increasing due to the importance of them in biochemistry as well as in industry. A method was reported based on the offline combination of MALDI-TOF MS and normal-phase HPLC for analyzing PLs extracted from crucian carp. Total PLs of crucian carp were extracted and then separated by HPLC before the collected subfractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The mass spectra obtained show peaks of H+, Na+ and K+ adducts of PC molecules. It is shown that the prior separation of PLs by HPLC is highly necessary to remove the signal suppressing and to avoid the possible overlapping. With this method, 9 possible PC molecules in crucian carp and the corresponding fatty acid compositions were given from the well-resolved mass spectra.

  11. Infección experimental del hámster (Mesocricetus auratus con metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Huiza F

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Un hámster hembra adulta infectada oralmente con 11 metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus murió a los 10 días de ser infectado. A la autopsia del animal, se observaron y recuperaron 5 ejemplares juveniles de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus aún móviles: 2 en tejido pulmonar, 2 en cavidad toráxica y 1 en tejido graso del peritoneo abdominal.

  12. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Ariyoshi, H. (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)); Matsuzawa, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer)

    1981-07-01

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of ..beta..-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters.

  13. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of β-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters. (author)

  14. Efficacy of UV-irradiated larval vaccine of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Looss, 1911) in golden hamsters (Merocricetus auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vaccination trial in golden hamsters with UV-irradiated infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum was attempted. One oral vaccination of hamsters with 100 infective larvae irradiated by means of UV-tube (390 nm) at different time intervals induced the development of resistance. As the time exposure of irradiation was increased, there was a corresponding decrease in the subsequent worm establishment. A high level of protection afforded by larvae irradiated for 15 min UV-exposure was recorded giving 99.0% and 95.0% worm reduction against the challenge doses of 100 and 1000 normal larvae respectively. There was no marked difference in worm establishment in hamsters vaccinated either orally or subcutaneously, followed by oral challenge. In the vaccinated hamsters, the manifestations of resistance at 15 min UV-exposure were shown by marked reduction in worm establishment and highly reduced epg in pellets with significantly higher blood haemoglobin levels compared with those given normal larvae as vaccine and challenge controls. (author)

  15. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J;

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems tha...... and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production.......Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems...... these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled...

  16. Freilanduntersuchungen zur Ökologie und zum Verhalten von Trachypithecus auratus kohlbruggei (Haubenlanguren) im West-Bali-Nationalpark, Indonesien

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Martina

    2003-01-01

    Languren gehören zu den asiatischen Schlankaffen, die zusammen mit den afrikanischen Stummelaffen die Unterfamilie Colobinae, neben den Cercopithecinae die zweite rezente Gruppe der Cercopithecoidea, bilden. Während heute über viele Vertreter der Cercopithecinae zahlreiche Langzeitstudien zu verschiedenen Jahreszeiten und in unterschiedlichen Habitaten vorliegen, ist über die Biologie der Colobinae noch vergleichsweise wenig bekannt. Die Kenntnisse zur Lebensweise vieler Schlank- und Stummela...

  17. Structural and Functional Studies of the Protamine 2-Zinc Complex from Syrian Gold Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus) Spermatids and Sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Cheryl E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-08-30

    The research described in this dissertation consists of four major areas: (1) sequence analysis of protamine 2 from Muroid rodents to identify potential zinc-binding domain(s) of protamine 2; (2) structural studies of the protamine 2-zinc complex from Syrian Gold hamster sperm and spermatids to elucidate the role of zinc during spermiogenesis; (3) structural studies of an unique protamine 2-zinc complex from chinchilla sperm; and (4) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of soluble complexes of hairpin oligonucleotides with synthetic arginine-rich peptides or protamine 1 isolated from bull sperm. First, zinc was quantitated in spermatids and sperm by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to determine whether zinc is present in the early stages of spermiogenesis. The PIXE results revealed the zinc content varies proportionately with the amount of protamine 2 in both spermatid and sperm nuclei. An exception was chinchilla sperm containing twice the amount of protamine 2 than zinc. Further analyses by PIXE and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of zinc bound to protamines isolated from hamster sperm confirmed the majority of the zinc is bound to protamine and identified the zinc ligands of protamine 2 in hamster spermatids and sperm in vivo. These studies established that zinc is bound to the protamine 2 precursor in hamster spermatids and the coordination of zinc by protamine 2 changes during spermiogenesis. Finally, the sequence analysis combined with the XAS results suggest that the zinc-binding domain in protamine 2 resides in the amino-terminus. Similar analyses of chinchilla sperm by XAS were performed to clarify the unusual PIXE results and revealed that chinchilla has an atypical protamine 2-zinc structure. Two protamine 2 molecules coordinate one zinc atom, forming homodimers that facilitate the binding of protamine 2 to DNA and provide an organizational scheme that would accommodate the observed species-specific protamine stoichiometry in mammalian sperm. Based on these results, we propose the binding of zinc to protamine 2 molecules stabilizes a dimerization domain in other mammalian sperm. Future experiments will use the knowledge we gained of the interactions between protamine 1 and DNA from the NMR studies to obtain structural data for the DNA-protamine 2-zinc complex.

  18. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fernández-Vargas

    Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and preventing habituation to the caller.

  19. Infección experimental del hámster (Mesocricetus auratus) con metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Huiza F.; Carlos Sevilla A; Yrma Espinoza B.

    2001-01-01

    Un hámster hembra adulta infectada oralmente con 11 metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus) murió a los 10 días de ser infectado. A la autopsia del animal, se observaron y recuperaron 5 ejemplares juveniles de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus) aún móviles: 2 en tejido pulmonar, 2 en cavidad toráxica y 1 en tejido graso del peritoneo abdominal.

  20. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of exposure to a 950MHz electromagnetic field (EMF emitted from cellular phones on serum testosterone and cortisol hormones rate of adult male Syrian Hamster were evaluated. Seventy two male Hamster in 3 groups include: group 1 or control group, group 2 or expose for 10 days and under 950 MHz EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone for 1 h daily group 3 or expose for 50 days and under 950 MHz EMF for 1 h daily. In final, blood samples collected for determine of the testosterone and cortisol concentration in the serum. Results showed that in long term exposure EMF (group 3 testosterone and cortisol levels were increased (p<0.01, but both of cortisol and testosterone hormones in short term EMF exposure (group 2 did not significantly change. In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12921-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6055.... 54 3e-06 FM178280_1( FM178280 |pid:none) Carassius carassius partial mRNA f... 54 3e-06 BX842620_8(...eudomallei 668 ch... 40 0.076 FM178281_1( FM178281 |pid:none) Carassius carassius partial mRNA f... 40 0.076...ne 299326 SNF4 mRNA, c... 39 0.17 FM178279_1( FM178279 |pid:none) Carassius carassius partial mRNA f... 39 0

  2. Differential expression and characterization analysis of a new gene with WD domains in fish oogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; Jianjun(

    2001-01-01

    trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Cytokine, 1998. 10:555-563.[12]Shibata, N.. Yoshikuni, M., Nagahama, Y., Vitellogenin incorporation into oocytes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss,in vitro: effects of hormones on denuded oocytes, Dev. Growth Diff., 1993, 35: 115-121.[13]Dong. J., Albertini, D. F., Nishimori, K. et al., Growth differentiation factor-9 is required during early ovarian folliculogenesis, Nature, 1996, 383: 531-535.[14]Yang, Z. A., Li, Q. H., Wang, Y. F. et al., Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp, Cell Res., 1999, 9:145-154.[15]Yang. S. T., Gui, J. F., A comparison of sperm proteins between males from gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp,Acta Zoologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2001, 47: 79-84.[16]Gui, J. F., A unique study system: gynogenetic fish Carassias auratus gibelio, Science Foundation in China, 1996, 4: 44-46.[17]Gui. J. F., Retrospects and prospects of studies on the mechanism of natural gynogenesis in silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibellio), Bulletin of Natural National Foundation of China (in Chinese), 1997, 11:11-16.[18]Zhou. L., Wang. Y., Gui, J. F., Analysis of genetic heterogeneity among five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch based on detection of RAPD molecular markers, Cytogenet. Cell Genet., 2000, 88:133-129.[19]Zhou, L., Wang, Y., Gui, J. F., Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays, J. Mol. Evol., 2000, 51: 498-506.[20]Datta, P. K., Chytil, A., Gorska, A. E. et al., Identification of STRAP: a novel WD domain protein in transforming growth factor- β signaling. J. Biol. Chem.. 1998, 237:34671-34674.[21]Fan, L. C.. Yang, S. T., Gui, J. F., Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between

  3. TRIBUTYLTIN (TBT) MODULATES 3,3'4,4',5-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB-126)-INDUCED HEPATIC CYP1A ACTIVITY IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  5. Crescimento e sobrevivência do catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus sp e jundiá (Rhamdia sp no outono-inverno do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luciano Sena de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O catfish é um peixe de couro, com hábito alimentar onívoro, nativo dos Estados Unidos, tendo despertado interesse dos produtores e indústrias da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, devido à qualidade da carne, crescimento e facilidade de manejo. O jundiá também é um peixe de couro com hábito alimentar onívoro, apresentando bom desenvolvimento e fácil reprodução, sendo necessário avaliar seu potencial em sistemas de produção intensiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho e sobrevivência do catfish, jundiá cinza e albino. O experimento foi realizado na estação de piscicultura do Chasqueiro, localizada no município de Arroio Grande - RS, no período de abril a agosto de 2001, tendo a duração de 135 dias. Utilizaram-se 120 juvenis de catfish (91,8?25,8g, 120 de jundiá albino (83,7?20,9g e 120 de jundiá cinza (80,4?12,5g, distribuídos em 3 tanques de terra retangulares, com 180m², divididos longitudinalmente em três parcelas, formando um total de 9 divisões de 60m² cada. Os peixes foram colocados em uma densidade de 0,6 peixe/m² da área, e alimentados com ração comercial extrusada (PB 36% na ordem de 3% da biomassa ao dia. Durante o período experimental avaliou-se o ganho de peso, o crescimento e a sobrevivência dos animais. A temperatura da água variou entre 11 e 290C, com média de 18,5degreesC. Os resultados indicaram um ganho de peso no período de 40,4; 74,1 e 109,1g e sobrevivências de 14, 32 e 63% para o catfish, jundiá albino e cinza, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o jundiá cinza apresentou o melhor desempenho produtivo no período analisado.

  6. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) tetraspanin membrane protein family: Identification, characterization, and expression analysis of CD63 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD63, known as lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP-3), is a member of the tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immuno-physiological functions. In this communication, we report the identification, characterization, and expression analysis...

  7. Influence of dietary Coexposure to benzo(a)pyrene on the biotransformation and distribution of 14C-methoxychlor in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagode, Beatrice A; James, Margaret O; Kleinow, Kevin M

    2009-04-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide whose mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), respectively, are estrogenic and antiandrogenic. Studies in vitro showed that treatment of channel catfish with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increased phase I and phase II metabolism of MXC. To determine the in vivo significance, groups of four channel catfish were treated by gavage for 6 days with 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC alone or 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC and 2 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). On day 7, blood and tissue samples were taken for analysis. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was 10-fold higher in the BaP-treated catfish, indicating CYP1A induction. More MXC-derived radioactivity remained in control (42.8 +/- 4.1%) than BaP-induced catfish (28.5 +/- 3.2%), mean percent total dose +/- SE. Bile, muscle and fat contained approximately 90% of the radioactivity remaining in control and induced catfish. Extraction and chromatographic analysis showed that liver contained MXC, OH-MXC, HPTE, and glucuronide but not sulfate conjugates of OH-MXC and HPTE. Liver mitochondria contained more MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE than other subcellular fractions. Bile contained glucuronides of OH-MXC and HPTE, and hydrolysis of bile gave HPTE and both enantiomers of OH-MXC. The muscle, visceral fat, brain and gonads contained MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE in varying proportions, but no conjugates. This study showed that catfish coexposed to BaP and MXC retained less MXC and metabolites in tissues than those exposed to MXC alone, suggesting that induction enhanced the elimination of MXC, and further showed that potentially toxic metabolites of MXC were present in the edible tissues.

  8. INFLUENCE OF NAPHTHOFLAVONE AND METHOYXCHLOR PRETREATMENT ON THE BIOTRANSFORMATION AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY OF METHOXYCHLOR IN CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) (R823450)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, T.M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  10. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C Motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The fu...

  11. Effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding protein mRNA concentrations in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in channel catfish were examined. Fed control fish (Fed) were compared to fish that had been fasted for 30 days followed by 15 days of additional feeding (Restricted). Sequence alignment and similarity to orthologous protei...

  12. Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors α and β and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of physiological functions. Although environmental contaminants (xenoestrogens) which interfere with estrogen signaling are of increasing concern, there is only limited information about their ability to interact with estrogen-binding proteins (SHBG) or receptors (ER). Recombinant ER?? and ?? were obtained after transient transfection of COS-7 cells with channel catfish ER cDNA. Plasma from adult female channel catfish was the source of SHBG. Tritiated estradiol ( 3H-E2) was used in standard radioligand-binding assays to characterize the binding properties of channel catfish SHBG (ccfSHBG) and to estimate the inhibition constants for various estrogenic compounds. Binding of 3H-E2 to ccfSHBG was saturable and of high affinity with a Kd (??SE) of 1.9??0.14nM and a Bmax of 14.3??2.4pmol/mg protein (n=3 assays). Additionally, ccfSHBG displayed binding specificity for androgens and estrogens. Endosulfan, 4-nonylphenol, and 4-octylphenol displaced 3H-E2 binding to ccfSHBG albeit only at very high concentrations, whereas dieldrin and atrazine showed little displacement activity even at the highest concentrations used. The synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol had higher affinity than E2 for ccfSHBG. This finding differs from results with human and rainbow trout SHBG. The alkylphenolic compounds (4-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) displayed some ability to displace 3H-E2 binding from ER?? and ?? at high concentrations, but dieldrin and atrazine had little binding activity for both ER subtypes and endosulfan for ER??. The xenobiotics tested generally showed equivalent or greater affinity for ER?? than ER??, whereas natural estrogens had much greater affinity for ER?? than ER??. These observations suggest that results of studies using fish tissue ER extracts must be interpreted with caution, since both ER subtypes may be present, and that the binding of xenoestrogens to SHBG must be taken into account for proper assessment of endocrine disruption caused by environmental contaminants.

  13. Production and associated economics of fingerling to stocker to growout modular phases for farming channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in commercial size ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate fingerling to stocker (phase 2) and stocker to growout (phase 3) of three phases of a modular production system for channel catfish in commercial-scale ponds. Fingerlings (mean = 14.3 kg/1000, 11.9 cm) were stocked into each of six earthen ponds (1.62 ha) at ...

  14. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  15. An annotated distributional checklist of exotic freshwater fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico Lista comentada sobre la distribución de peces dulceacuícolas exóticos de la península de Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We documented the distributional status of 27 exotic fish species in the inland waters of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, based on voucher specimens collected from 122 sites between 1977 and 2010, and on published records. The species reported here are representatives of genera from the Atlantic drainages of North America (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella, and Micropterus, Middle America (Poecilia, Gambusia, and Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus and Carassius, and Africa (Tilapia and Oreochromis. The family containing the highest number of species is Centrarchidae (7 species followed by Ictaluridae and Poeciliidae (6 species each. Four species were determined to be invasive due to their wide distribution and fast dispersal through the Peninsula (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, Lepomis cyanellus, and Tilapia sp. cf. zillii. We analyze the impacts of exotic species on the native populations of 3 species with problems of conservation: Cyprinodon macularius (endangered, Fundulus lima (endangered, and Gasterosteus aculeatus (vulnerable. Alien fishes have been introduced for a variety of reasons in Mexico: ornament, sport, aquaculture, biological control, and by accident. In some cases fish introductions were carried out for more than one reason.El estatus de la distribución de peces exóticos es documentado para 27 especies en las aguas continentales de la península de Baja California, México, basado en registros de ejemplares recolectados en 122 localidades durante el período de 1977 a 2010, así como registros referidos en la literatura. Las especies aquí reportadas son representativas de géneros que proceden de la vertiente Atlántica de Norteamérica (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella y Micropterus, Mesoamérica (Poecilia, Gambusia y Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus y Carassius y África (Tilapia y Oreochromis. La familia con mayor n

  16. Bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in four fish species from Lake Taihu, China: assessment of risks to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junmei; Luo, Wei; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2014-07-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are the toxic products of harmful algal blooms and they accumulate in fish. The accumulation of MCs in fish living in different trophic levels from different parts of Lake Taihu was determined. This information was then used to evaluate the risks posed by the MCs in fish to human health. The concentrations of three MCs, MC-LR, MC-YR and MC-RR, were quantified in the following four fish species: silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of MCs in the muscle, the kidney, the intestinal wall and the heart were significantly different among the four fishes except in the liver. C. carpio contained the highest mean concentration of MCs in the muscle (31.7 ± 12.1 ng/g, dry mass (dm)), whereas C. auratus had the highest mean concentrations of MCs in the liver (45.4 ± 44.5 ng/g, dm), kidney (114 ± 51.1 ng/g, dm), intestinal wall (2.04 × 10(3)± 4.43 × 10(3)ng/g, dm) and heart (59.5 ± 26.7 ng/g, dm). The mean concentration of MCs in the intestinal walls of the fish species was significantly higher than in other organs (p<0.01). The fish from Meiliang Bay had significantly higher concentrations of MCs than those from the centre, west or south banks of the lake (p<0.01). The body lengths and masses of the fish were negatively correlated with the concentrations of MCs in the kidney (p<0.05) and heart (p<0.01). The average daily intake (ADI) of MCs in the muscle of all fishes exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (TDI) set by World Health Organization. The estimated daily intakes of MCs in 55.6% of the muscle samples exceeded the TDI. The MCs in the tissues of the fish from Lake Taihu pose potential risks to the health of humans who consume these four fish species. PMID:24784747

  17. Cloning and gene construction analysis of β-actin in Oreochromis aureus%奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin基因的克隆与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海彦; 贾永义; 唐永凯

    2011-01-01

    β-actin在真核细胞的生理过程中起着重要作用,其序列具有高度保守性,是一种管家基因.通过RT-PCR方法克隆出奥利亚罗非鱼(Oreochromis aureus)β-actin的部分cDNA序列,其长度为424 bp,翻译成138个氨基酸,计算的蛋白质分子量为15.5 ku.氨基酸同源性分析显示,奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin与真鲷(Pagrus major)、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)、青鳝(Oryzias latipes)、龙溪鳝(Rivulus marmoratus)的相似性最高,为99.3%;与鲫(Carassius auratus)、红鳍东方鲍(Takifugu rubripes)等其它鱼的相似性也较高,为97.8%~98.6%.此外,还克隆出了奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin相应的DNA序列,共619 bp.cDNA和DNA的序列比对显示克隆出的奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin含有2个内含子,这为将来设计β-actin荧光定量PCR引物以及测定其在不同组织中的表达量变化打下基础.%Eukaryotic β-actin gene plays an important role in physiological process and its sequence is highly conservative as a housekeeping gene. The partial cDNA encoding β-actin in Oreochromis aureus was isolated using RT-PCR. The cDNA isolated was 424 bp encoding 138 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 15.5 ku. The comparison analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of β-actin in O. aureus showed high similarity of 99.3% with those of Pagrus major, Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Rivulus marmoratus, and 97.8% ~ 98.6% homology with those of other fishes, such as Carassius auratus, Takifugu rubripes. The corresponding DNA sequence of O. aureus β-actin in size of 619 bp was also cloned. By comparing the sequences of cDNA and DNA, it was found that β-actin gene in O. aureus consisted of two introns. The present study provided some useful information in designing the β-actin primers for real time RT-PCR and evaluating the β-actin expression level for different tissues.

  18. Molecular surveillance of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in goldfish cultured in China%金鱼鲤疱疹病毒Ⅱ型的分子诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉娟; 罗杨志; 刘学芹; 顾泽茂; 袁军法

    2013-01-01

    Originally described from Japan, Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) was present in at least five other countries and probably has a global distribution in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Up to now,CyHV-2 has drawn little attention and is rarely reported in China. Recently, silver prussian carp {Carassius auratus gibelio} farmed in Yancheng,Jiangsu Province, was reported by news to be infected by CyHV-2 and caused heavy economic losses. But little was known about the ways of virus transmission, potential reservoirs and sources of infection for this newly emerged virus. Goldfish can be a source of infection by carrying CyHV-2 but showing no clinical symptom. To understand the epidemiology of CyHV-2 in China,healthy goldfish from markets in different districts were tested for CyHV-2 by degenerate polymerase chain reaction of the viral polymerase gene followed by sequencing. Results demonstrated that CyHV-2 has a wide geographic distribution in China. Molecular study indicated that the sequences of DNA polymerase encoded by CyHV-2 isolated from goldfish in China were identical with the published sequence for CyHV-2. The helicase sequences of CyHV-2 from goldfish were also partially i-dentical with those from silver prussian carp cultured in China,suggesting that the virus carried by goldfish and silver prussian carp were the same. Between the isolates from goldfish and H. Fukuda from Japan, there was only one or two residues difference in the amino acid sequence of helicase or intercapsom-eric triplex protein,suggesting that the two isolates of CyHV-2 were highly similar,but not the same.%针对国内市场上流通的金鱼,开展CyHV-2的流行病学调查,并比较CyHV-2不同分离株的分子特征.结果显示:无明显临床症状的金鱼带毒率较高(13.89%),表明我国已有CyHV-2的分布.分子生物学研究显示,我国金鱼和异育银鲫来源的CyHV-2编码的解旋酶基因部分序列一致,表明异育银鲫来源的CyHV-2和金鱼来源的CyHV-2

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05215-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 534325 |pid:none) Ciona intestinalis partial mRNA fo... 50 3e-05 EU312053_1( EU312053 |pid:none) Carassius caras...allithrix geoffroyi SRY (SRY) gen... 49 6e-05 EU312054_1( EU312054 |pid:none) Carassius carassius red var x

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14067-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thetical pr... 54 1e-05 (A4QRM8) RecName: Full=Protein SDS23; 54 1e-05 FM178281_1( FM178281 |pid:none) Carassius caras...05 FM178280_1( FM178280 |pid:none) Carassius carassius partial mRNA f... 52 5e-05