WorldWideScience

Sample records for car wheels railroads

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to... manufactured before May 7, 1958. 4. Griffin, three-riser cast steel wheel, ball rim design, 70-ton capacity....

  2. State of dental morbidity rateamong passenger car attendant of Chernivtsi railroad centre of Lviv railroad

    OpenAIRE

    Kitsak Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    3661 railroad men are employed by Chernivtsi railroad centre of Lviv railroad, of which the car attendants constitute the largest part– 484 (13,2%). working temperature range, noise and vibration, dust content, enhanced level of air microbial contamination inside the cars, disturbance of sleep and rest schedule, physiological and neuro-emotional tension. The increase of dental morbidity rateamong people whose professional activity is connected with chronic exposure of their organs to occupati...

  3. Analysis of Wheel Hubs : Student Car

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón García, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to do the study and analysis of Student Car wheel hubs. The first part is a briefing of the “StudentCar” competition and a short explanation of the problem. Also it talks about the information and files that the team have about their hubs. After that, the document has short information about the basics knowledge of Strength of Materials necessary for to do the analysis in hubs and information about the material used by the team (Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6). ...

  4. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyse the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction forces on the wheels. In usual cars, with front-wheel drive, when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this article we also study thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled with the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters in the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion taking into account the dragging forces is also discussed.

  5. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)

  6. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... in the basement of a building under construction resulted in an explosion and fire. This incident... the LPG leak prior to the explosion. While the LPG involved in the Norfolk accident did not originate.... Facilities that load, offer, receive, or offload railroad tank cars containing LPG review their procedures...

  7. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  8. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System..., is 11/2 inches, or more; (c) The thickness of a rim of a wheel on the car is 11/16 of an inch, or less; (d) A wheel rim, flange, plate, or hub area on the car has a crack or break; (e) A wheel on...

  9. Electric Power Controller for Steering Wheel Management in Electric Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés, Vicente; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Onieva, Enrique; González, Carlos; Pedro, Teresa de

    2009-01-01

    International audience Driverless driving is one of the most interesting topics in the field of the intelligent transportation systems. Among these topics, the automation of the actuators involved in the management of a car, and out of them the control of the steering wheel constitute one of the most complex. In this paper, automatic power steering architecture to manage the steering wheel via Ethernet controller is developed. An on-board PC is connected to the controller to permit handlin...

  10. Without wheels: alternatives to the private car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixson, T.

    1975-01-01

    Alternatives to private cars are examined in a response to the need for new transportation strategies. It is believed that there is no single panacea for the problem, and both existing technologies (trains, buses, taxis, bicycles, and cars) and new technologies (driverless vehicles, electronic guidance systems, and moving sidewalks) are considered. New concepts in town planning and life style that could reduce travel needs are examined, and various current urban experiments are detailed. (PMA)

  11. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  12. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  13. ULTRASONIC EVALUATION OF STRESS STATES OF RIMS OF RAILROAD WHEELS. PART 2 — EXPERIENCES AND FUTURE ADAPTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, E.; DYMKIN G.

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique was developed and different systems are in use to evaluate the stress state of the rim of solid railroad wheels. The measure results received with the UER system versions developed by IZFP as well as the Russian version УКОН-01 was shown and described in the paper. Because the stress state of new wheels is smaller in value than the stress in braked wheels, the influence of a slightly developed texture in new wheels cannot be neglected as it can in case of used wheels. ...

  14. Optimizing Railroad Tank Car Safety Design to Reduce Hazardous Materials Transportation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik

    2009-01-01

    The design of railroad tank cars is subject to structural and performance requirements and constrained by weight. They can be made safer by increasing tank thickness and adding various protective features, but these increase the weight and cost of the car and reduce its capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. Aircraft, automobiles and…

  15. Method for the multi-criteria optimization of car wheel suspension mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alexandru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a general method for the multi-criteria optimization of the rear wheels suspension mechanisms in terms of kinematic behavior. The suspension mechanism is decomposed in basic binary links, and the kinematic synthesis is separately performed for each of them. The design variables are the global coordinates of the joint locations on the car body (chassis. The disposing of the joints on the wheel carrier were exclusively established by constructive criteria. The design objectives relate to kinematic position parameters of the wheel (displacements of the wheel centre along longitudinal and transversal directions, and modifications of the wheel axis direction, the optimization goal being to minimize these variations during the wheel travel. A computer program for the kinematic study was developed in C++. The application was performed for the wheel suspension mechanism of a race car.

  16. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND...; exception. Unloading any product from an officially sealed railroad car, truck, or other means of...

  17. Analysis of railroad tank car releases using a generalized binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hong, Yili

    2015-11-01

    The United States is experiencing an unprecedented boom in shale oil production, leading to a dramatic growth in petroleum crude oil traffic by rail. In 2014, U.S. railroads carried over 500,000 tank carloads of petroleum crude oil, up from 9500 in 2008 (a 5300% increase). In light of continual growth in crude oil by rail, there is an urgent national need to manage this emerging risk. This need has been underscored in the wake of several recent crude oil release incidents. In contrast to highway transport, which usually involves a tank trailer, a crude oil train can carry a large number of tank cars, having the potential for a large, multiple-tank-car release incident. Previous studies exclusively assumed that railroad tank car releases in the same train accident are mutually independent, thereby estimating the number of tank cars releasing given the total number of tank cars derailed based on a binomial model. This paper specifically accounts for dependent tank car releases within a train accident. We estimate the number of tank cars releasing given the number of tank cars derailed based on a generalized binomial model. The generalized binomial model provides a significantly better description for the empirical tank car accident data through our numerical case study. This research aims to provide a new methodology and new insights regarding the further development of risk management strategies for improving railroad crude oil transportation safety. PMID:26298272

  18. Data on the acoustic comfort of passengers in railroad cars and soundproofing recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, C.; Vrasti, R.

    1974-01-01

    Acoustic passenger comfort in railroad cars is represented by the following values: Total noise level in db, octave sound spectrum in db, and indices of intelligibility. The noise level perceived inside the car results from two components: one due to the penetration of air noise, and another due to the transmission of vibrations through solids. Measurement results show the necessity of improving bogie and bogie-body connections, intensification of soundproofing of the floor, adaption of windows with double panes, etc.

  19. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings. PMID:26264518

  20. FFTF railroad tank car Safety Evaluation for Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides evaluations considered necessary to approve transfer of the 8,000 gallon Liquid Waste Tank Car (LWTC) from Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the 200 Areas. This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the LWTC will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements. This fulfills onsite transportation requirements implemented in the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, WHC-CM-2-14

  1. Determination of Steering Wheel Angles during CAR Alignment by Image Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Voegtle, T.

    2016-06-01

    Optical systems for automatic visual inspections are of increasing importance in the field of automation in the industrial domain. A new application is the determination of steering wheel angles during wheel track setting of the final inspection of car manufacturing. The camera has to be positioned outside the car to avoid interruptions of the processes and therefore, oblique images of the steering wheel must be acquired. Three different approaches of computer vision are considered in this paper, i.e. a 2D shape-based matching (by means of a plane to plane rectification of the oblique images and detection of a shape model with a particular rotation), a 3D shape-based matching approach (by means of a series of different perspectives of the spatial shape of the steering wheel derived from a CAD design model) and a point-to-point matching (by means of the extraction of significant elements (e.g. multifunctional buttons) of a steering wheel and a pairwise connection of these points to straight lines). The HALCON system (HALCON, 2016) was used for all software developments and necessary adaptions. As reference a mechanical balance with an accuracy of 0.1° was used. The quality assessment was based on two different approaches, a laboratory test and a test during production process. In the laboratory a standard deviation of ±0.035° (2D shape-based matching), ±0.12° (3D approach) and ±0.029° (point-to-point matching) could be obtained. The field test of 291 measurements (27 cars with varying poses and angles of the steering wheel) results in a detection rate of 100% and ±0.48° (2D matching) and ±0.24° (point-to-point matching). Both methods also fulfil the request of real time processing (three measurements per second).

  2. Unusual contact marks: connecting the hubcap to the wheel of the car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok; Klein, Asne; Volkov, Nikolay; Shor, Yaron; Vinokurov, Asya

    2002-05-01

    A case of homicide and attempted homicide is described. The comparison of tire-marks linked the suspect's vehicle to the scene of crime only with low certainty. However, the comparison of the pressure mark on the hubcap found at the scene, with the balance weight on one of the wheels of the suspect's car, connected the suspect to the scene of crime with high certainty. PMID:12051350

  3. Modeling of Engine and Driveline Related Disturbances on the Wheel Speed in Passanger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to derive a mathematical model of the engine and driveline in a passenger car, capable of describing the wheel speed disturbances related to the engine and driveline. The thesis is conducted in order to improve the disturbance cancelation algorithm in the indirect tire pressure monitoring system, TPI developed by NIRA Dynamics AB. The model consists of two parts, the model of the engine and the model of the driveline. The engine model uses an analytical cylinder press...

  4. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIMURAToshio; TAKAGIAtsushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and the active control force is constructed by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  5. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  6. Application of the method of the principal components for the analysis of bearing ability of the wheel pair of the car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor KROTOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the method of the principal components at the analysis of bearing ability of the wheel pair of the car. In this article it is given proof of the method of the principal components to the analysis of calculation of the stress-deformed condition of the wheel pair of the freight car. The statistical result estimation method allows to get mathematical models for researching parameters of the reliability of the wheel pair at changing of loading parameters.

  7. PIV measurement of the flow past a generic car body with wheels at LES applicable Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two reviewers required changes that were feasible to carry out. • Two changes were domanded from the first reviewer which were effectuated. • Twenty eight minor changes were asked by the second reviewer, which are corrected in detail. • Figures are updated to higher resolution and improved in quality in general. -- Abstract: Experiments by using 2D–2C Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were carried out and reported concerning the flow field past a generic car body (modified Ahmed body) which is equipped with wheels and wheel-arches. The Reynolds number was chosen to not exceed 2E+5 based on the height of the Ahmed body which makes it possible to investigate the same configuration by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The wheels were rotating but the ground was stationary. The wheel-ground contact was realized by means of small rectangular openings below the wheels in the ground plane in which the wheels were immersed. The transition contour of the immersed wheels and the ground, as well as the rectangular openings below the wheels were properly sealed to prevent parasite flow and to provide well defined boundary conditions for an upcoming LES investigation. The flow field was measured in several planes with normal vectors pointing towards the directions normal to the free stream. Statistical characteristics of the flow are provided and discussed

  8. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  9. Microstructural control in forged hardened-tempered 1050 steel for front-wheel hub for motor cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application forged-normalized-hardened-tempered 1050 steel in the front-wheel-hub (FWH ) of modern motor-cars necessitates a controlled microstructure i.e a good tempered martensite. Research in areas of heat treatment and metallography is conducted on forged 1050 steel, for FWH of modern motor cars. Experiments are conducted by use of modern (high precision) microhardness machine and metallographic equipment. The microstructure is quantitatively analyzed; and the ASTM Grain Size No. is calculated to be 8. The microstructural analysis and the structure/property relationship reveal that the material: forged normalized hardened tempered 1050 steel, when heat treated under controlled conditions, is appropriate for application in FWH of modern motor cars. (author)

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSPENSION BRACKET AND TIRES ON LOADING OF WHEELS OF THE CAR WHEN MOVING ON A MULCH BACKGROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing settlement modes of loading of wheels of cars are defined for the conditions which are closest to road service conditions and are reflected in the existing standards. However these standards can't be applied to an assessment of functional qualities of systems of cushioning the cars which are operated in the conditions of agricultural production. The small step of roughnesses, change the cushioned characteristics under the influence of operational factors lead to emergence of the off-design modes of the movement. The purpose of the work was the research of loading of wheels of the car when moving on mulch of grains. For the purpose of obtaining characteristics of the roughnesses influencing car wheels we have recorded a smoothed microprofile of the field and got the statistics, rated autocorrelated function, spectral density of influence of a microprofile. For carrying out the researches the known mathematical model of a car road system was accepted. Influence of speed of the movement, normal rigidity of springs and tires, coefficients of damping of a suspension bracket and tires on vertical fluctuations and loading of wheels of forward and back axes of the car is investigated. The executed researches showed that the movement of the car is followed by fluctuations of indicators of loading of running system with obviously expressed periodic components. The change of the coefficient of damping of a passive suspension bracket and tires in possible limits has no essential impact on loading of wheels. Values of normal roughness of springs of forward and back axes of the car, normal rigidity of tires at which dynamic load of wheels of the car is minimum are established

  11. Active suspension control of a one-wheel car model using single input rule modules fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIMURA Toshio; TERAMURA Itaru

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the construction of an active suspension control of a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model to be treated here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is designed as the fuzzy control inferred by using single input rule modules fuzzy reasoning, and the active control force is released by actuating a pneumatic actuator. The excitation from the road profile is estimated by using a disturbance observer, and the estimate is denoted as one of the variables in the precondition part of the fuzzy control rules. A compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension system improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  12. Boarding and alighting injury experience with different station platform and car entranceway designs on US commuter railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlok, Edward K; Nitzberg, Bradley F; Lai, Lee

    2004-03-01

    Commuter railroad systems in the US employ three combinations of station platforms and car entranceways. These are high-level platforms with remotely controlled doors and level entranceway (HL-RC), low-level platforms (just above the rail) with steps and remotely controlled doors (LL-RC), and a mixture of the two platform types with a correspondingly more complex, partly manual, door and entranceway arrangement (ML-MO). Much controversy exists over which type of platform/entranceway is better. This seemingly small feature significantly impacts many performance characteristics of these systems, including cost, speed, and boarding and alighting accidents. Northeastern systems are generally moving toward the mixed platform design or all high-level platforms, while systems elsewhere are generally selecting the low-level design. Data on actual accident experience for 1995-2000 are analyzed to determine the effect of platform/entranceway type on passenger and employee injuries. Passenger injury rates on systems with the HL-RC design are lowest, with LL-RC systems next, and ML-MO systems having the highest rates. Employee injury rates are the least on LL-RC systems, but higher on ML-MO and HL-RC systems. Systems with a mixture of high and low platforms (ML-MO) experience a higher overall (combined passenger and employee) injury rate than the other two designs. The implications of these results for both the modernization of existing systems and the design of new systems, in the US and abroad, are discussed. PMID:14642881

  13. 76 FR 4250 - Operating Certain Railroad Tank Cars in Excess of 263,000 Pounds Gross Rail Load; Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... record. 75 FR 27205 (Final Rule). The Final Rule titled, Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Special... hazardous materials such as PIH materials (HM-246; 74 FR 1770 (Jan. 13, 2009) (the ``Tank Car Rule'')), FRA... implement a crashworthiness performance standard as discussed in the Tank Car Rule. See 74 FR at 1771....

  14. THE IMPACT OF THE CAR BODY TILT WHEN MOVING ON CURVED TRACK SECTIONS ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN WHEELS AND RAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Yakunin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the information on calculated forces of interaction in the system "wheel-rail" is presented at movement on curve sections of a track with a speed less than 160 km/h and the change of wear of wheels is predicted.

  15. Design of Single Rope Road Car Wheel Beam%浅议单绳索道人车托轮梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽平

    2015-01-01

    单绳索道人车是煤矿常见的运输工具,其可以减轻井下工人劳动强度,提高工作效率。介绍了煤矿井下单绳索道人车托轮梁在特定条件下的设计改进的情况,并与传统的托轮梁蹬梁方式在同等条件下进行了效果对比分析。%Single rope road car is common means of transport of coal mine, its use can reduce underground workers labor intensity, improve work efficiency. this paper introduces the coal mine car wheel road flyover single rope beam design improvement of under certain conditions,and compared with the traditional roller beam way off beam under the same conditions the effect comparison analysis.

  16. Two-Wheeled Smart Car System Design Based on Magnetic Navigation%基于磁导航的两轮智能车系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁云; 赵亮; 陈晓东; 武丽

    2013-01-01

    A two-wheeled smart car system based on magnetic navigation is designed. The core of system is Freescale microcontroller. The acceleration sensor and gyroscope are used to measure the car's acceleration and angular velocity respectively. The speed and direction of the car are detected by the encoder. At the same time, using inductance coil to detect the path information. The microcomputer uses complementary filter algorithm to obtain the car's inclination information. And the car's balance, speed and direction are controlled by a DC motor driving module through the PID algorithm, so that the smart car can be smooth, accurate and fast driving.%设计了一种基于磁导航的两轮智能车系统.该系统以飞思卡尔单片机为核心,利用加速度传感器和陀螺仪分别测量车模的加速度与角速度,通过编码器检测车速及车模运动方向,采用电感线圈检测路径信息.单片机采用互补滤波算法获得车模倾角信息,通过PID算法控制直流电机驱动模块来控制车模的平衡及其行驶速度和方向,从而实现智能车稳定、准确、快速地行驶.

  17. 新款三轮运动车制动系统设计%Design of Brake System of New Three-wheel Sports Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锐; 李桂华

    2012-01-01

    Through the braking performance analysis for new three-wheel sports car,the paper designed and calculated the structure of floating type disc brake in braking system and fully hydraulic braking drive system by human power.According to GB 7258-2004"safety specification for power-driven vehicles operating on road",its performance is verified,and the design result is good.And so the braking requirements of three-wheel sports car in ideal pavement is also met.%通过对新款三轮运动车制动性能要求进行分析,设计计算了制动系统的浮钳形盘式制动器结构和采用人力操纵的全液压制动驱动系统,并根据《机动车运行安全技术条件》(GB 7258-2004)进行了验证,达到了设计效果,满足了三轮运动车在理想路面上的制动要求。

  18. The influence of high-frequency vibrations on derailment stability coefficient of cars at wheel flange climbing on the rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bezrukavyy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into account the traffic safety priority on the railway transport the search of factors promoting increase of derailment stability coefficient is an actual task. Purpose of the paper is the influence researches of the high-frequency vibrations on the train traffic safety parameter. In this case the special form of the wheel rim, at which its rigidity changes according to the harmonious law, was considered as a source of vibrations. Methodology. For the analysis of the vibration influence on the change of friction coefficient values the methods of so called vibrational mechanics were used. For determination of vibration amplitudes through moving the wheel flange points the finite-elements method was also used in the paper. Findings. During calculations it was established that the derailment stability coefficient to a great extent depends on the friction coefficient between wheel and rail. The paper shows that the friction coefficient in turn is influenced by the high-frequency vibrations. The form of the wheel rim was considered as a vibration source and the parameters characterizing vibration were calculated. It was given the quantitative estimation of the friction coefficient change under the vibration influence. It was also scientifically based the high-frequency vibration influence on the derailment stability coefficient. Originality. The paper proved the possibility of high-frequency vibration influence on the derailment stability coefficient. The studies theoretically substantiated the traffic safety increase in the presence of vibrations in the contact area of the wheel flange with the rail caused by special form of the wheel disc. Practical value. It is shown that the use of undulating wheel disc form do not constitute a threat to the traffic safety, and the availability of high-frequency vibration can reduce the derailment probability.

  19. Navigation and Control for Wheeled Intelligent Car Based on Electromagnetic Effect%基于电磁效应的轮式智能车导航控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云洲; 杨兵; 李龙; 蒋建军

    2013-01-01

    以智能交通概念原型系统为背景,引入电磁效应构建了微型道路交通线路,采用微型控制器设计了在缩微交通环境中行驶的轮式小车导航与控制系统.根据沙盘区域的实际几何参数,建立了可行的行驶路线网络,引入RFID设计了交叉路口的转向策略,实现了多辆车模按照设定路径的准确行驶.针对电磁效应导航线的识别进行了理论分析,给出了系统架构和传感器布局,以及小车偏航距离与方向的判断方法.实际测试表明,所设计的电磁导航控制系统能够稳定运行,可引导小车在复杂的道路网络上准确行驶.%With intelligent transportation system as the background,a navigation and control system of wheeled car was designed and implemented on the basis of the electromagnetic effect.The model cars would run in a micro-traffic-network environment.According to the real geometry parameters of the sand-table,feasible route for the cars was built and the direction-turning strategy of intersect junction with RFID tags was designed.Multiple conceptual models could run along with the designated path correctly.Theoretical analysis was proposed for electromagnetic navigation line.System architecture and sensors layout were introduced in details as well as the judgment of car' s deviation,including distance and direction.Experimental test showed that the proposed navigation and control system can work stably and lead the wheeled car run correctly in complex route net.

  20. Robust Multivariable Estimation of the Relevant Information Coming from a Wheel Speed Sensor and an Accelerometer Embedded in a Car under Performance Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speedsensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimalmultivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noisescorrupting the relevant information coming from the sensors’ outputs are so dangerous thattheir negative influence on the electrical systems impoverish the general performance of thecar. In short, the solution to this problem is a safety related problem that deserves our fullattention. Therefore, in order to diminish the negative effects of the disturbances and noiseson the car’s electrical and electromechanical systems, an optimum observer is used. Theexperimental results show a satisfactory improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of therelevant signals and demonstrate the importance of the fusion of several intelligent sensordesign techniques when designing the intelligent sensors that today’s cars need.

  1. Design of Car Wheels Spray System%汽车轮毂自动喷涂系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月琴; 汪惠芬

    2015-01-01

    Now the job of automotive wheel spraying is done manual y in lots of domestic SMEs, which greatly affects the health of workers and also shows a low degree of automation. The paper designs an automatic spray system that can spray the wheels of dif-ferent size continuously. Three spray guns with sprocket chain and rol er slide rail are used to spray the upper and side surface of wheel simultaneously. The control system is equipped with PLC, encoders and light curtain are used to detect the speed of wheel transport line and wheel condition intel igently.%许多国内中小企业对于汽车轮毂的喷涂都采用手工喷涂,这极大影响工人的身体健康,且自动化程度较低。设计了一种可对轮毂进行连续自动喷涂的简单喷涂系统。采用了链传动、滚轮滑轨等机械结构,使用3把喷枪对轮毂上表面及侧面分别同时进行喷涂;以PLC为控制核心,采用编码器及光幕传感器对轮毂运输线速度及轮毂情况进行智能检测,实现对喷枪喷涂动作自动控制。系统可对不同尺寸的轮毂进行连续自动的喷涂。

  2. Staying power toward corrosion on leaf spring steel of 4 wheel car with 1000 Kg heavy, that done nitriding process with discreet plasma fabricated by BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staying power toward corrosion on leaf spring steel of 4 wheel car with 1000 Kg heavy, that done nitriding process with discreet plasma fabricated by BATAN were carried out. Some samples were done nitriding process at temperature 250 °C for 240 minutes. After that the samples have immersed in HCl for 60 minutes at room temperature. The hardness of samples has tested with hardness Vickers. Microstructure and staying power toward corrosion have observed with microscope optic. The results show that the hardness after corrosion of as received sample was 340 Kgf/mm2 and after done nitriding process at temperature T = 250 °C was 423 Kgf/mm2. Matrix's after corrosion were austenite, ferrite, perlite, and martensite. (author)

  3. A Country on Wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小雨

    2007-01-01

    Cars are an important part of life in the United States. Most people feel that they are poor without cars. Though he is poor, he doesn't feel really poor when he has a car. Henry Ford was the man who first started making cars. Maybe, he didn't know how much the car was going to affect(影响) the United States. The cars made the United States a country on wheels(轮子). And they have helped to make the United States rich and modern.

  4. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to... 13/4″. (C)(1) Rim thickness is 11/16″ or less; (2) Rim thickness is 5/8″ or less; (3) Rim thickness is 9/16″ or less; (D) Wheel cracked or broken in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area....

  6. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  8. Design and test of drive and control system for electric wheeled mobile car%电动轮式移动小车控制系统设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁民; 黄翰; 黄鹏焕

    2014-01-01

    Electric wheeled mobile car plays an important role in agricultural production, but when the mobile car’s loads or road conditions change, the drive motor controller of the existing wheeled mobile car is difficult to control the motor efficiently and in real time, leading to difficulties in modularization and productization. Therefore, on the basis of the architecture developed in laboratory, a system for driving and controlling the motor of the car was developed, and a master-slave control system structure based on the main control chip STM32F103RCT6 and the underlying motor control chip ATMEGA48PA was proposed. In this paper, the drive control system included a control board and six driver boards, and master-slave electric wheel drive control system, steering drive control systems, overload and undervoltage alarm circuit of four-wheel drive moving car were designed. Following the transmission speed signal, the signal and various control signals of the host machine or hand control board changed with speed that was solved by the main control chip, and then the speed of the 4 brushless DC motor and the cornor of the 2 DC motor were controlled, allowing the car to achieve driving, steering, translation, rotation and braking. The control system used the main control MCU STM32F103RCT6 to calculate the mathematical model of the car and got the respective speed of the four driving wheels for the torque distribution of the drive motor, and then controlled the speed of the four in-wheel motors, the angle of the two steering motors and two breaking motors. Through the control of the motors, the car could be kept straight road, cornering, parallel displacement and rotation. The commutation mode of the BLDC motor driver control system was controlled by MCU ATmega48PA. The control system used the driver chip IR2113 to control the MOSFET, and calculated the pulse signal of the motor’s internal hall sensor for the speed detection of the brushless DC motor, and the over

  9. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  10. Driver at the wheel?

    OpenAIRE

    Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks

    2015-01-01

    Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will share self-driving vehicles and rides, this may change the traffic and transport system fundamentally.These are some of the conclusions of the report 'Driver at the wheel - Self-driving vehicles a...

  11. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  12. Fatigue crack initiation life prediction of railroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of multiaxial high-cycle fatigue initiation life prediction for railroad is done in this paper. Using ANSYS 11.0 software three dimensional elasto-plastic finite element model of rail/wheel contact is constructed and fine mesh technique in contact region is used to achieve both computational efficiency and accuracy. Stress analysis is performed and fatigue damage in railroad is evaluated numerically using multiaxial fatigue crack initiation model. Using the stress history during one loading cycle and fatigue damage model, the effects of vertical loading, material hardness material fatigue properties and wheel/rail contact situation on fatigue crack initiation life are investigated.

  13. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  14. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  15. [Effects of selected factors on the degree of psychomotor efficiency of welders in a railroad car factory with automated work stations (robots)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszkiewicz, T; Andrzejak, R; Gosk, A; Smolik, R

    1992-01-01

    The study of 64 welders employed at automated work stands in the railway car factory conducted in 1989 and 1990 has shown that the psychomotor efficiency level in the examined workers (except for a few cases) was normal. The psychomotor efficiency of the welders studied depended on their age, work day phase and, to a small degree, on the detected biochemical and toxicological disorders. PMID:1453944

  16. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  17. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  18. 四驱混合动力轿车分布式卡尔曼车速估计%Vehicle Speed Estimation Based on Distributed Kalman Filter for Four Wheel Drive Hybrid Electric Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵治国; 杨杰; 吴枭威

    2015-01-01

    四驱混合动力轿车存在两轮/四轮多种驱动模式,针对某一驱动模式所设计的车速估计算法难以满足其他模式下车速估计的精度。考虑车辆不同驱动模式,利用车载传感器信号、后轮毂电机转矩信息以及既定档位下前轮转矩信息,提出两级分布式卡尔曼车速估计方法。考虑模型的强非线性,采用无味卡尔曼滤波(Unscented Kalman filter,UKF)算法设计主/子滤波器。同时为了提高UKF算法对模型误差、信号干扰的鲁棒性,实现了量测噪声均值和方差的自适应调节。基于Untire轮胎模型和滑移率递推方程,设计滑移率子滤波器;基于整车运动学模型,设计车速主滤波器;考虑不同驱动模式,利用子滤波器估计值在线融合得到车速。搭建 Carsim-Simulink 联合仿真平台,并分别在纯电动驱动模式和四轮混合驱动模式下,对车速估计算法进行仿真验证。结果表明,所提出的两级分布式卡尔曼车速估计方法能有效提高车速估计精度,并增强了对模型误差、量测信号干扰和不同驱动模式的鲁棒性。%The driving mode of hybrid electric car can be two-wheel or four-wheel drive. The speed estimation designed for a specific driving mode can hardly achieve high estimated accuracy in all modes. Focus on the changeable driving mode, a kind of distributed Kalman filter with two levels is proposed, by means of utilize vehicle sensors signals, the driving torque of rear in-wheel motors and the torque of front driving wheels at the given gear state. Considering the strongly nonlinear of the model, UKF is adopted to design the filter, and to improve the filter’s robustness on modeling error and signal noise, measurement noise mean and covariance is self-adaptive. Firstly, based on UniTire Model and recursive equation of slip rate, the sub-filter is developed; secondly, based on the vehicle Kinematics model, the master-filter can be

  19. 49 CFR 215.9 - Movement of defective cars for repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of defective cars for repair. 215.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.9 Movement of defective cars for repair. (a) A railroad freight car which has any component described as defective in...

  20. Study of Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four Wheel Drive Hybrid Electric Car%四轮驱动混合动力轿车驱动防滑控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵治国; 顾君; 余卓平

    2011-01-01

    多动力源增加了混合动力汽车驱动轮转矩的调节方式,也对依赖常规防抱死制动系统(Anti-lock braking system,ABS)而实施的驱动防滑控制(Acceleration slip regulation,ASR)带来新的挑战.针对四轮驱动混合动力轿车,考虑非线性7自由度车辆纵向动力学,建立样车动力系统前向仿真模型.利用转矩控制精确且响应快的电动机进行打滑车轮的转矩调整,基于既有并经验证的能量管理策略,开发逻辑门限及P-Fuzzy-PI多模态分段ASR控制算法,结合低附着系数路面纯电动起步及混合驱动急加速行驶工况进行离线仿真.通过整车电控单元(Hybrid control unit,HCU)引入前轮轮速传感器信号并集成ASR功能,在冰雪路面开展实车纯电动起步防滑试验.仿真及测试结果表明,所设计的两种ASR控制策略均能有效地抑制驱动轮的瞬时打滑,基于能量管理策略开发ASR控制算法并通过HCU来实施是可行且有效的.%The use of multiple power sources not only increases the modulation means of driving wheel torque, but also brings a new challenge to the acceleration slip regulation (ASR) realized by relying on conventional anti-lock braking system (ABS). Aiming at four wheel drive hybrid electric car, a powertrain forward simulation model is built with consideration of the nonlinear seven degree-of-freedom vehicle longitudinal dynamics. Using the electric motor characterized by the accurate control and rapid response of torque to adjust the torque of slipping wheel, and based on the existing energy management strategy validated in the real vehicle, ASR control algorithms of logic threshold and P-Fuzzy-PI having the qualities of multi-mode and time-sharing are respectively developed, offline simulation is conducted under the two running cases of pure electric launching and hybrid propulsion emergence acceleration at the low adhesion coefficient road. Afterwards, front wheel speed sensor signals are acquired by

  1. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  2. 四轮驱动混合动力轿车驱动模式切换控制%Mode Transition Control for Four Wheel Drive Hybrid Electric Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵治国; 何宁; 朱阳; 余卓平

    2011-01-01

    There are many driving modes existing in the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the torque coordination problem of related power sources during the transition of different modes is essential to vehicle's power and drivability performance.Based on the four wheel drive hybrid electric car, focusing on the switching from pure electric mode to hybrid four wheel drive mode as well as considering the difference of dynamic characteristics between ICE and in-wheel motors, bumpless mode switching control strategy is designed in order to solve drivability issues caused by propulsion mode's change during the vehicle running process.Forward simulation model of four wheel drive HEV is built on Matlab/Simulink/SimDriveline platform, simulation and real vehicle road test of mode switching control strategy are carried out.Results show that the designed control strategy can ensure a smooth power transfer during the mode switching process, and can effectively suppress the longitudinal impact caused by power coupling.Finally an enhanced drivability is achieved on condition of satisfying driver's requirement on torque.%混合动力汽车存在多种驱动模式,模式切换过程中相关动力源输出转矩的协调控制对车辆动力性及驾驶性能有重要影响.以四轮驱动混合动力轿车为研究对象,针对其在驱动过程中的模式切换可能导致的驾驶性能变差问题,重点考察纯电动向四轮混合驱动模式的切换过程,考虑动力耦合过程发动机和轮毂电机间动态特性的差异,设计出无扰动模式切换控制策略.在Matlab/Simulink/SimDriveline软件平台上建立四轮驱动混合动力轿车前向仿真模型,对模式切换控制策略的性能进行模拟.仿真和实车试验结果表明:所设计的模式切换控制策略可保证模式切换过程中的动力传递平稳性,有效地抑制了因动力耦合所造成的纵向冲击,在满足驾驶员需求转矩的前提下,提高了四轮驱动混合动力轿车的驾驶性能.

  3. CAR ACCESS USING MULTIMODAL BIOMETRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin LUPU

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the use of multimodal biometrics in order to identify or to verify a person that wants to start the engine of a car. First of all, a fingerprint sensor is posted on the car’s door, one on the steering wheel, a camera for iris recognition on the car's main mirror, and finally a microphone for voice recognition. There are two possibilities: if the person is identified as the car owner or a known user, then he/she can take control over the car; if it’s an intruder, the car ca...

  4. 49 CFR 231.21 - Tank cars without underframes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches. (3) Location. One safety railing at each end of car shall extend horizontally across car not less... car at center. (ii) The safety railing shall enclose the operating platform, manway and fittings used... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.21 Tank cars...

  5. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  6. Green Wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A domestic car maker takes the lead in China’s new energy auto industry whenever he needed to pick up guests at the Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport, Wu Jianzhong, President of Zotye Holding Group, would send a Zotye

  7. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  8. 76 FR 67073 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp cars that a railroad provides as sleeping quarters... hazardous material, of a camp car that is occupied exclusively by individuals employed to maintain...

  9. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  10. Soil Contamination by a Former Railroad Shop in Mexico:Proposed Handling and Remedation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Rocha, M.

    2001-12-01

    The study deals with an area of 589,062 m2 occupied by a national railroad shop located in Aguascalientes, a city in the central part of Mexico. Since 1903, the city became a transcendental railway center in the country and a transportation route toward the United States. Main activities were maintenance and repair of railroads cars, supply of fuel, and foundry of metallic pieces. The place was contaminated for 100 years, up to the recent sale of that company. The workshop area, now surrounded by populated urban areas, is abandoned. This study presents an evaluation of a previous survey of soil contamination in the different areas of the workshop. Based on our evaluation, we are proposing an optimal handling and remediation of the area. The survey referred 19 shallow boreholes (0-12 meters). Cores and chemical samples were analyzed. We defined the most relevant characteristic and contaminants of the soil samples. In terms of health risk analysis, we conclude that the most important contaminants are hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The following areas present the most significant health risk: the fuel supply zone , the oil petroleum or tar (called in Mexico "chapopote") lagoon, the painting area and the dump of axes and wheels.

  11. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  12. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  13. Wheels and Deals: Buying a Car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    This high interest, low vocabulary text is one of a series of readers in consumer education useful in English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Each page of text is illustrated with black-and-white photographs. (AMH)

  14. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  15. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  16. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229... in width. (c) A broken rim, if the tread, measured from the flange at a point five-eighths inch above... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  17. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 12 inches from end of car. (iv) If safety railings.... (3) Location. Safety railings shall be continuous around sides and ends of car, not less than 30 nor..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills....

  18. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the... 14 members from the Class I railroads (one marketing and one car management representative from...

  19. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  20. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative...

  1. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may be...... large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...

  2. Electromechanical Suspension-based Energy Harvesting Systems for Railroad Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nagode, Clement Michel Jean

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in the railroad industry, the lack of electrical sources in freight cars is a problem that has yet to find practical solutions. Although the locomotive generates electricity to power the traction motors and all the equipment required to operate the train, the electrical power cannot, in a practical manner, be carried out along the length of the train, leaving freight cars unpowered. While this has not been a major issue in the past, there is a strong interest in equipping modern ca...

  3. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars (1990 Guidelines), 55 FR 30892, July 27... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... is proposing to create regulations prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp...

  4. DOT Basemap Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents railroads lines within the state of Minnesota. It has its source as one of the layers in the State of Minnesota BaseMap 2001. This layer was...

  5. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main...

  6. Car Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

  7. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed.

  8. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  9. Yaw control using rear wheel steering

    OpenAIRE

    Westbom, Daniel; Frejinger, Petter

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to continue the work on a vehicle model developed in ADAMS/Car and applied with the concept of ACM (Autonomous Corner Module). The project is divided up in two parts. The objective of the first part is to setup a co-simulation environment between ADAMS/Car and MATLAB/Simulink, and evaluate the vehicle model. In the second part a yaw controller is developed using only the rear wheel steering possibilities. The controller will be evaluated when it is applied on th...

  10. REDUCING THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY IN THE TRANSMISSION OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE WHEELED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismailov V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses different types of drive axles of all-wheel drive machine. It is shown that if blocked drive of driving axle easy, it is able to provide the best traction drive qualities of the all-wheel car, if compensation of kinematic mismatch in movement of front and rear wheels. The article provides analysis of the causes of kinematic mismatch and its consequences. The analysis was given for the existing methods to reduce negative influence of kinematic discrepancy on the work of the four-wheel drive wheeled machine in locked mode. The method of reduction of kinematic mismatch by regulations of the air pressure in the tires of the wheels with one-time control of the leading moments on the axes was suggested. We show the relationship between the difference of kinematic radii of the wheels of different axles and the difference of the moments leading to them. The algorithm and description for the system of automatic control of air pressure in the tire, which realizes the proposed method, were presented. We have described experimental methods of determining the energy losses evaluation from kinematic mismatch when moving all-wheel drive machine. The article presents the results of the this assessment in relation to the agricultural wheel tractor of class 5 moving at different substructures

  11. REDUCING THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY IN THE TRANSMISSION OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE WHEELED VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov V. A.; Melikov I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses different types of drive axles of all-wheel drive machine. It is shown that if blocked drive of driving axle easy, it is able to provide the best traction drive qualities of the all-wheel car, if compensation of kinematic mismatch in movement of front and rear wheels. The article provides analysis of the causes of kinematic mismatch and its consequences. The analysis was given for the existing methods to reduce negative influence of kinematic discrepancy on the work of t...

  12. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Share Car Sickness Page Content Article Body My child gets sick in the car quite often. How ...

  13. Driver at the wheel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks

    2015-01-01

    Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will

  14. Design and Development of Labview Based Steering Wheel Angle Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional angle sensors can measure only 360°,but passenger car steering wheel turns through +/-720o (a total of 4 complete turns. In this paper we describe iGMR based steering wheel angle sensor implementation which can be used as a rotation sensor to measure +/- 720°.

  15. Carros jaula ferroviarios: determinación de un escalón en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento de sus ejes//Railroad cars for sugar cane transportation: determination of a new level of reconditioning to extend its life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlando Martín-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El transporte por ferrocarril de caña constituye una variante económica y Cuba cuenta con la infraestructura vial para este fin. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil del eje de los carros jaula, usados en el transporte de la caña de azúcar, a partir de escalones en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento en sus muñones. Se determinó el diámetro mínimo permisible en la zona del muñónpara las condiciones más severas de explotación a las que se expone el eje. El cálculo se realizó según las normas ferroviarias, basado en las ecuaciones clásicas de resistencia de los materiales, además del cálculo de tensional y deformacional utilizando el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los resultados permiten concluir que la propuesta de establecer el diámetro mínimo de 95,25 mm cumple con las condiciones necesarias de resistencia, obteniéndose un coeficiente de reserva dentro del rango establecido por las normas ferroviarias.Palabras claves: ferrocarril, eje, muñón, elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe railway transportation of sugar cane is an economic variant and Cuba has the railroad infrastructure for this purpose. This paper deals with the shaft exploitation period increasing for the sugar cane cars, by obtaining a new reduced dimension in the stump diameter, under the most hard exploitation conditions.The calculation was carried out according to the railway standards, based on the Strength of Materials classic equations. The tensional and deformational level was also obtained, by using the Finite Element Method. The authors conclude that the minimal proposed diameter 95,25 mm responds to the necessary strength conditions, with a security coefficient, according to the required railway standards.Key words: railroad, shaft, stump, finite element.

  16. Reinventing the Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyeon; Bland, Lori C.; Chandler, Kimberley

    2009-01-01

    "The Wheel of Scientific Investigation and Reasoning" (Kramer 1987; Paul and Binker 1992) is a graphic representation of the scientific investigative process. The scientific process is depicted in a wheel rather than in a list because "the process of scientific inquiry can begin from any stage, and that stage may be revisited as often as the…

  17. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  18. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  19. Wheeled hopping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  20. A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang

    2015-11-01

    Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.

  1. Strangulation--Suicide at the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Schmidt, Peter; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2015-11-01

    In cases of suicide at the wheel mostly velocity is used to cause death by a single occupant vehicle crash against a fixed roadside object or collision with other vehicles. A further well known mode of death is e.g. carbon monoxide poisoning. In the recent years several cases of vehicle assisted ligature strangulation resulting even in decapitation have been reported. However, cars are also used in rare cases just as places for a suicide by hanging or ligature strangulation. Not only forensic pathologists but also police officers have to be aware of this rare type of suicide to avoid unnecessary investigations. PMID:26594000

  2. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  3. Investigation of the Wheel-Flange Lubrication of Railway Trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tracer method was applied to investigate the wheel-flange lubrication action of the new Austrian multiple-unit train ''Transalpin''. On electric engines the flanges of the first pair of wheels are lubricated by a pendulum oil pump. This pump starts to work when there is lateral movement of the engine in curves or at high speed on straight lines. The lubricating oil is transferred, while the train is underway, from the first wheel to the inner surface of the rail. From there it should be taken up by the following wheels of the train. In this way the friction between the rails and the wheel flanges can be reduced and as a consequence the wear of material is decreased. Until the present investigation it has not been possible to get quantitative information about the action of this type of lubrication. By adding the tracer 198Au in the form of a colloid to the lubricating oil (specific activity 0.5 Ci/litre), quantitative measurements of the oil transport mechanism could be made on the moving train. The detection of the labelled lubricant was possible even on the last wheels of a train of 44 axles. The oil films which were still detectable on the wheel flanges had a thickness of about 0. 3 microns. By this tracer method, the dependence of lubrication on the speed and the line conditions can also be determined. The tracer method has a wide range of applications in the study of underway conditions in railroad operation including the investigation of the sine movement of trains. (author)

  4. Wheel Electrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Buehler, Martin G.; Mantovani, James G.; Buhler, Charles; Nomicki, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Two documents describe a prototype system of electrometers for measuring electrostatic fields and electrostatic responses of soils on Mars and the Moon. The electrodes of this electrometer are embedded in a wheel of an exploratory robotic vehicle, utilizing the wheel motion to bring the electrodes into proximity or contact with the soil. Each electrode resides in one of two types of sensor modules: electric-field (ELF) or triboelectric (TRIBO). In either type, what is measured is simply the electric charge induced on the electrode by exposure to the external distribution of electrostatic charge. In an ELF module, the electrode is bare and recessed radially from the wheel surface. The ELF sensor provides a measure of the charge on a small patch of undisturbed soil as the wheel rolls forward. In a TRIBO module, the electrode is only slightly recessed and covered with a polymeric insulator flush with the wheel surface. Through contact electrification, the insulator exchanges charge with the soil. There are five TRIBO sensors, each containing an insulator made of a different polymer. The charge data gathered by the five TRIBO sensors can be used to determine how the soil fits into a triboelectric series.

  5. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  6. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  7. Car-to-Car Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Stephan; Schroth, Christoph; Eberspächer, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Car-to-car communication aims at increased driving comfort and safety. Moreover, it changes the role of vehicles from mere transportation means to "smart objects". Despite many R&D activities in the last years, this technology still poses multiple challenges on the wireless transmission and network protocols. Aspects like efficient message dissemination, network scalability, and information security mechanisms are still major research areas in the area of vehicular ad hoc networks. In this pa...

  8. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  9. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  10. The prospects for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper as published is an outline of a presentation on retail wheeling of electric power. The topics discussed are development of increased wholesale transmission access, government regulatory policies on wholesale transmission, examples of past and present retail transmission access agreements, examples of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission jurisdiction over retail wheeling, and state policies on retail wheeling

  11. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  12. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Susquehanna Union Railroad Company--Control Exemption--North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad Company, Lycoming Valley Railroad Company, and Union County Industrial Railroad Company On April 12,...

  13. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  14. Getting Behind the Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEAN; O’CONNER

    2008-01-01

    I took the cramming school,the conveyor belt approach to learning to drive.As a passed and stamped graduate of the Oriental Fashion Driving School,I’m relieved that I no longer have to get up at 5 o’clock for a 7-to-12 seat behind the wheel

  15. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. 77 FR 4623 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc. Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From the Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... FMVSSs for a passenger car. \\4\\ See 76 FR 7898 (Feb. 11, 2011); Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0118. Wheego... wheels (spin out) or directional control at the front wheels (plow out). An anti-lock brake system (ABS... speeds. Wheego also states that the LiFe has a low center of gravity with 762 pounds of batteries...

  17. 77 FR 47915 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Petition for Temporary Exemption From the Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... wheels (plow out). An anti-lock brake system (ABS) is a prerequisite for an ESC system because ESC uses... passenger car. \\3\\ See 76 FR 7898 (Feb. 11, 2011); Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0118. Wheego asserts that the... states that the LiFe has an ABS system that prevents loss of control by preventing the wheels...

  18. Fuzzy model for predicting the number of deformed wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Đorđević

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deformation of the wheels damage cars and rails and affect on vehicle stability and safety. Repair and replacement cause high costs and lack of wagons. Planning of maintenance of wagons can not be done without estimates of the number of wheels that will be replaced due to wear and deformation in a given period of time. There are many influencing factors, the most important are: weather conditions, quality of materials, operating conditions, and distance between the two replacements. The fuzzy logic model uses the collected data as input variables to predict the output variable - number of deformed wheels for a certain type of vehicle in the defined period at a particular section of the railway.

  19. a Four Wheel Drive System for a Formula Style Electric Racecar

    OpenAIRE

    Aune, Peder August

    2016-01-01

    This is a master thesis detailing the development and design of a four wheel drive transmission system for a formula style race car using four electric motors to achieve asynchronous power output to each wheel. First an in depth analysis was performed in order to identify key system performance parameters. A concept development phase was used to come up with a system layout based on the performance requirements. The transmission system was then designed and calculated using KISSSoft. Topology...

  20. Putting China On Wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Cars and bicycles jockey fiercely for road space everyday at rush hour in Beijing,Shanghai, Guangzhou andother big cities. Traffic congestion is commonplace, and auto accidents have risen alarmingly. This is directly attributable to the increased number of vehicles

  1. Wear estimation of the wheel tyre in different service conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk BĄKOWSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article presented the results of fatigue strength test aluminium alloys using in car industry. Demonstrated distributions and values of stresses the wheel tyre made of aluminium alloys by means of FEM. In fatigue test used special machine, which can allow to determine Wohler diagram. In this way to determine the allowable stresses values in which do not occurring the damages.

  2. Numerical simulation of wheel wear evolution for heavy haul railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璞; 高亮

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of the wheel wear is a fundamental problem in heavy haul railway. A numerical methodology is introduced to simulate the wheel wear evolution of heavy haul freight car. The methodology includes the spatial coupling dynamics of vehicle and track, the three-dimensional rolling contact analysis of wheel-rail, the Specht’s material wear model, and the strategy for reproducing the actual operation conditions of railway. The freight vehicle is treated as a full 3D rigid multi-body model. Every component is built detailedly and various contact interactions between parts are accurately simulated, taking into account the real clearances. The wheel−rail rolling contact calculation is carried out based on Hertz’s theory and Kalker’s FASTSIM algorithm. The track model is built based on field measurements. The material loss due to wear is evaluated according to the Specht’s model in which the wear coefficient varies with the wear intensity. In order to exactly reproduce the actual operating conditions of railway, dynamic simulations are performed separately for all possible track conditions and running velocities in each iterative step. Dimensionless weight coefficients are introduced that determine the ratios of different cases and are obtained through site survey. For the wheel profile updating, an adaptive step strategy based on the wear depth is introduced, which can effectively improve the reliability and stability of numerical calculation. At last, the wear evolution laws are studied by the numerical model for different wheels of heavy haul freight vehicle running in curves. The results show that the wear of the front wheelset is more serious than that of the rear wheelset for one bogie, and the difference is more obvious for the outer wheels. The wear of the outer wheels is severer than that of the inner wheels. The wear of outer wheels mainly distributes near the flange and the root;while the wear of inner wheels mainly distributes around the

  3. Numerical Simulation Analysis of an Oversteer In-Wheel Small Electric Vehicle Integrated with Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izhar Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to conventional vehicle, most in-wheel small EVs that exist today are designed with understeer (US characteristic. They are safer on the road but possess poor cornering performance. With recent in-wheel motor and steer-by wire technology, high cornering performance vehicle does not limit to sport or racing cars. We believe that oversteer (OS design approach for in-wheel small EV can increase the steering performance of the vehicle. However, one disadvantage is that OS vehicle has a stability limit velocity. In this paper, we proposed a Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering (4WDIS for in-wheel small EV with OS characteristic. The aim of implementing 4WDIS is to develop a high steer controllability and stability of the EV at any velocity. This paper analyses the performance of OS in-wheel small EV with 4WDIS by using numerical simulation. Two cornering conditions were simulated which are (1 steady-state cornering at below critical velocity and (2 steady-state cornering over critical velocity. The objective of the simulation is to understand the behavior of OS in-wheel small EV and the advantages of implementing the 4WDIS. The results show that an in-wheel small EV can achieve high cornering performance at low speed while maintaining stability at high speed.

  4. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  5. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... vote on March 2, 2012. These recommendations address safety issues related to high-speed rail trainsets... appropriate safety standards for the high-speed rail projects planned in California and Nevada. The ETF II... such as international operators of high-speed equipment, car builders, wheel/rail interaction...

  6. The ubiquitous photonic wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Aiello, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A circularly polarized electromagnetic plane wave carries an electric field that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise around the propagation direction of the wave. According to the handedness of this rotation, its \\emph{longitudinal} spin angular momentum density is either parallel or antiparallel to the propagation of light. However, there are also light waves that are not simply plane and carry an electric field that rotates around an axis perpendicular to the propagation direction, thus yielding \\emph{transverse} spin angular momentum density. Electric field configurations of this kind have been suggestively dubbed "photonic wheels". It has been recently shown that photonic wheels are commonplace in optics as they occur in electromagnetic fields confined by waveguides, in strongly focused beams, in plasmonic and evanescent waves. In this work we establish a general theory of electromagnetic waves {propagating along a well defined direction, which carry} transverse spin angular momentum density. We show th...

  7. Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.

  8. Dream Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雅婷

    2010-01-01

    也许你需要一辆天马行空完全按自己心中所设计的车,无论是有太空感还是充满设计性,无论你希望它可以升空还是可以下水,那才是一辆真正的Dream Car!

  9. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  10. CRANE WHEELS PRODUCTION QUALITY CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    OTTO GRIGOROV; SERHY GUBSKIY; ANTON OKUN

    2014-01-01

    Quality control of crane wheels is an important part for support of crane mechanisms permanent operation. Normal functioning of logistics systems requires preventing of crane downtimes and delays. The research results of the impact of the crane wheels (710 mm diameter, 65 steel) surface hardness on coercivity indicators are presented in this paper. Obtained research results of dependence between the coercivity indicators and the crane wheels rolling surface hardness for their use in practice ...

  11. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  12. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  13. Study Shows Just How Big a Role Cellphones Play in Car Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Just How Big a Role Cellphones Play in Car Crashes In-vehicle videos highlight other distractions, such as ... the wheel, researchers report that video taken inside cars showed drivers were ... of crashes. Not surprisingly, the findings link cellphone use to ...

  14. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  15. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  16. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Vliet, Oscar P.R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, Andre P.C. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute, Science, Technology and Society Group, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-10-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost EUR5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO{sub 2} km{sup -1} compared to reference petrol (163 g km{sup -1}) and diesel cars (156 g km{sup -1}). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO{sub 2} km{sup -1}. (author)

  17. Reaction Wheel with Embedded MEMS IMU Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is to embed a MEMS IMU Sensor Chip into a reaction wheel to measure its spin rate as well as wheel attitude rate. We propose to use a reaction wheel...

  18. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  19. The outlook for wheeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, M.J.

    1990-04-01

    There is a continued national interest in decentralized power sources involving cogeneration and independent power production. But while these issues are debated in the halls of Congress, and the subject of generic rulemaking debate before the FERC, the real action is occurring elsewhere. Key momentum is building in the states ad individual electric utility systems requiring Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state commission review of discrete applications for case by case review. These reflect the pressure of competitive forces building within the industry from other electric utilities, power export marketeers, environmental and siting regulation, and from financial institutions. The underlying intent of PURPA is to encourage and provide incentives for the development of alternate energy sources to provide the efficient use of our nation's natural resources. Under PURPA the Commission can not direct an electric utility to provide transmission services. However, this power can only be exercised after a series of complex findings by the Commission through evidentiary hearings. In addition, PURPA amended other sections of the Federal Power Act to provide various rate incentives and exemptions for cogeneration and small power production facilities including the right for interconnection to the electric utility. The scope of such interconnection rights, and whether they might encompass broader transmission rights for QFs has yet to be tested. This paper describes wheeling rules prior to PURPA, the PURPA amendments governing wheeling; states' views; and the need for a review.

  20. GM Prototype Moon Buggy Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Under the direction of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions. During the development process, LRV prototype wheels underwent soil tests in building 4481 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Pictured is the GM wheel design.

  1. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  2. A Vehicle Maneuver by Using Two Mobile Robots Grasping Single Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Sugahara, Yusuke; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Koki; Murakami, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Masaki

    In this article, a new car transportation system which consists of two MRWheels (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel) is proposed. The system grasps only two front wheels of a front-wheel-drive vehicle and positions it. Therefore, it is possible that the system make smaller than the previous car transportation systems using multiple robots. However, the system has nonholonomic constraints because rear wheels of the vehicle are not lifted by the system. And it is necessary to transport vehicles that the system lifting front wheels knows their rear wheels' position. Therefore, to transport the vehicle, a motion control algorithm for the system and a vehicle's wheelbase estimate algorithm by mechanical interaction are proposed. First, a motion control algorithm based on the chained system is illustrated. Next, the system is applied Impedance Control to achieve the passive motion along its nonholonomic constraints when it doesn't know the vehicle's size. After that, the wheelbase estimate algorithm based on Impedance Control and its convergence are described. Finally, through preliminary experiments, the concept of the system is illustrated and the effectiveness of proposed algorithm is confirmed.

  3. Structure Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor Wheel Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Mohammad Rafi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When people talk about race cars or high-performance sports cars, the topic of turbochargers usually comes up. Turbochargers also appear on large diesel engines. A turbo can significantly boost an engine's horsepower without significantly increasing its weight, which is the huge benefit that makes turbos so popular. Turbochargers are a type of forced induction system. They compress the air flowing into the engine. The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder, and more air means that more fuel can be added. Therefore, you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. Here in this project we are designing the compressor wheel by using Pro-E and doing analysis by using FEA package. The main aim of the project is to increase the performance of the compressor wheel for this we are changing the material and also we are changing the existing design. By comparing the results we will get the best model from this data we suggests the design modifications to the company to improve the performance of the compressor wheel.

  4. Squeaky Wheel Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, D P; 10.1613/jair.561

    2011-01-01

    We describe a general approach to optimization which we term `Squeaky Wheel' Optimization (SWO). In SWO, a greedy algorithm is used to construct a solution which is then analyzed to find the trouble spots, i.e., those elements, that, if improved, are likely to improve the objective function score. The results of the analysis are used to generate new priorities that determine the order in which the greedy algorithm constructs the next solution. This Construct/Analyze/Prioritize cycle continues until some limit is reached, or an acceptable solution is found. SWO can be viewed as operating on two search spaces: solutions and prioritizations. Successive solutions are only indirectly related, via the re-prioritization that results from analyzing the prior solution. Similarly, successive prioritizations are generated by constructing and analyzing solutions. This `coupled search' has some interesting properties, which we discuss. We report encouraging experimental results on two domains, scheduling problems that ari...

  5. PHENOMENON OF CARVED DRIVING WHEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianghua; ZHANG Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    A newly found phenomenon of carved driving wheels of a rea-wheel-drive tractor used in an airport is discussed. The circum of every driving wheel is damaged at three regions, which distribute regularly and uniformly. Everyday, the tractor tows a trailer which are times heavier than the tractor, and moves on the same road in the airport. The phenomenon is explained by the torsional self-excited vibration system of the powertrain. The simplified torsional vibration system is discribed by a 2-order ordinary differential equation, which has a limit circle. Experiments and numerical simulations show the followings: Because of the heavy trailer, the slip ratio of the tractor's driving wheels is very large. Therefore, there is severe torsional self-excited vibration in the tractor's drivetrain, and the self-excited vibration results in severe and regular fluctuations of the rear wheel's velocity. The severe fluctuations in velocity fastens the damage of the driving wheels. At the same time, the time interval in which an arbitrary point in the circum of the driving wheel contacts with the road twice is two times more than the period of the torsional self-excited vibration, and this times explained the existence of three damaged regions. At last, it points out that the phenomenon can be avoided when the torsional damping is large enough.

  6. A DESIGN METHOD FOR TRACKS AND ROADBEDS OF RAILROAD-CROSSING UNDER FREIGHT TRAIN LOADS AND FORKLIFT LOADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Kazuki; Momoya, Yoshitsugu; Sekine, Etsuo

    In the current design method of asphalt pavement in freight container yard, a theoretical design method based on multilayered elastic analysis is applied. However, in a design of railroad-crossing existing in the yard, heavy wheel loads of forklift and viscosity of asphalt pavement is not considered. In this study, the method of identifying the stiffness coefficient of asphalt pavement with consideration on its viscoelasticity under the heavy loading, and the design of the railroad crossing corresponding to the heavy loading of the forklift are shown. The method of the new design of railroad-crossing by FEM using the stiffness coefficient set in consideration of viscoelasticity of the asphalt pavement and track structure corres ponding to traffic volume are shown.

  7. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'....

  8. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  9. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider...

  10. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  11. Wheels lining up for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 30 October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year.

  12. Strain measurements at railway wheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the radial strain component in railway wheels was investigated by neutron diffraction. In the as manufactured state four railway wheels were investigated. In all four wheels no significant strains were found. After 18,400 km usage first strain gradients close to the outer surface of the wheels were detected. In axial middle ranges the changes in strain are weak. After an usage of 61,000 km the gradients becomes strong at the axial outer position between about +700 με close below the tread and -500 με in a depth of 12.5 mm below the tread. At axial middle positions also strain gradients are formed. The end of live state (510,000 km) differs only slightly from the state measured after a usage of 61,000 km

  13. The big wheels of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS cavern is filling up at an impressive rate. The installation of the first of the big wheels of the muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel, was completed in September. The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons (see Bulletin No. 13/2006). The installation of the 688 muon chambers in the barrel is progressing well, with three-quarters of them already installed between the coils of the toroid magnet.

  14. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...

  15. The wheel of retail gravitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.

    1992-01-01

    Reilly's Law of Retail Gravitation ranks among the classics of marketing geography. In this paper an examination of the evolution of Reilly's law is made, the contemporaneous wheel of retailing theory being used as an organisational framework. In line with the wheel, the gravity model commenced as a simple conceptualisation of consumer spatial behaviour, became increasingly sophisticated through time, and thereby created conditions conducive to the reemergence of the basic interaction model. ...

  16. Chopping-Wheel Optical Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.

  17. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... productivity adjustment, as measured by the average change in railroad productivity for the years 2004...

  18. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2007-2011 (5-year) averaging period....

  19. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  20. Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Rui E.; Tanelli, Mara; Savaresi, Sergio M.; Freitas, Diamantino

    2012-01-01

    Among the many opportunities offered by electric vehicles (EVs), the design of power trains based on in-wheel electric motors represents, from the vehicle dynamics point of view, a very attractive prospect, mainly due to the torque-vectoring capabilities. However, this distributed propulsion also poses some practical challenges, owing to the constraints arising from motor installation in a confined space, to the increased unsprung mass weight and to the integration of the electric motor with the friction brakes. This last issue is the main theme of this work, which, in particular, focuses on the design of the anti-lock braking system (ABS). The proposed structure for the ABS is composed of a tyre slip controller, a wheel torque allocator and a braking supervisor. To address the slip regulation problem, an adaptive controller is devised, offering robustness to uncertainties in the tyre-road friction and featuring a gain-scheduling mechanism based on the vehicle velocity. Further, an optimisation framework is employed in the torque allocator to determine the optimal split between electric and friction brake torque based on energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and different actuators bandwidth. Finally, based on the EV working condition, the priorities of this allocation scheme are adapted by the braking supervisor unit. Simulation results obtained with the CarSim vehicle model, demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  1. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY... establishing a process for the review and approval of existing industry standards. This process will...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  3. Research on the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technology of arc-diamond grinding wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, X. L.; Wu, H. Y.; Peng, Y. F.

    2014-08-01

    The precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel is very hard, expensive and time-consuming because of the super-hard diamond particles and complicated geometrical shape. This paper aims to investigate the cup-wheel dressing technology to realize the high-efficiency regeneration of the arc-diamond wheel. A two-axis cup-wheel dressing technique for precision dressing arc-diamond wheel was suggested and tested. The dressing mechanism of 2-axis cup-wheel was studied. The dressing algorithm and error compensation method were further investigated to improve the dressing precision and efficiency. The experimental results show that the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technique is valid and applicable to realize the precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel. The machined optical surface condition was apparently improved with the cup-wheel dressed diamond wheel and even became much better when the error compensation algorithm was performed on the arc-diamond wheel.

  4. Two new wheels for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Juergen Zimmer (Max Planck Institute), Roy Langstaff (TRIUMF/Victoria) and Sergej Kakurin (JINR), in front of one of the completed wheels of the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. A decade of careful preparation and construction by groups in three continents is nearing completion with the assembly of two of the four 4 m diameter wheels required for the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. The first two wheels have successfully passed all their mechanical and electrical tests, and have been rotated on schedule into the vertical position required in the experiment. 'This is an important milestone in the completion of the ATLAS End Cap Calorimetry' explains Chris Oram, who heads the Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter group. Like most experiments at particle colliders, ATLAS consists of several layers of detectors in the form of a 'barrel' and two 'end caps'. The Hadronic Calorimeter layer, which measures the energies of particles such as protons and pions, uses two techniques. The barrel part (Tile Calorimeter) cons...

  5. Development of dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies taking into account wheel wear research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Saidova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Wear parameters clarification in wear simulation is an actual goal because of absence of corresponding data for freight cars in condition of using them on Russian railways. Research is devoted to development of dynamic models of wagons on three-peace two-axle models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies with maximum axle-loads 23,5 ts and 25 ts, and to choice of factors, with varying which parameters in the model of wheel wear can be identified. Methodology. The problem is solved by method of mathematic simulation in «MEDYNA» software. Wear calculation is based on abrasive wear theory (Archard’s theory. Findings. Clarification of wheels’ wear model may be done with varying of friction coefficient between wheel and rail for different wheel profile areas (flange and tread, wear coefficient in Archard’s model for mild and heavy wear and transition between them. Originality. Dynamic models of universal gondola on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies are developed. It is established, that rail treads irregularities size effect wheel wear insignificantly, when car is running on circle track of constant radius. Practical value. Developed dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies may be used in wear simulation, determination of car running characteristics, interaction of car and rail of different type, construction, condition and etc. Research results of some factors influence on freight car wheel wear may be interesting for people, who study this problem.

  6. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  7. Wheel arch aerodynamics of a modern road vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geometrically faithful model of the Aston Martin V12 Vanquish was formed in 3D CAD and used to perform an extensive CFD study into the airflow in and around the wheel arch of the vehicle. Parameters such as spin ratio, ground clearance, vertical and horizontal insertion into the wheel arch and the yaw angles experienced during cornering, were all under investigation. The additional aim of the research was to validate or refute the use of CFD as a tool in this complex area of fluid flow. This research serves to highlight a number of problems and potential solutions in the use of CFD. Meshing problems can be eliminated with increased computational power and suggestions have been made to improve the modeling of rotating boundaries that include radial features such as wheel spokes. Much of the CFD data ties well with previously conducted experimental work, if not numerically then in trend. Without additional physical validation however, it is difficult to ascertain the overall accuracy and usefulness of the remaining results, which have not yet been conducted in physical reality. Despite its limitations, the use of CFD permitted an extensive analysis in a comparatively short length of time and served to highlight potential areas for increased scrutiny. As an example, results from the final yaw angle case drew attention to a potential concern for aerodynamic destabilisation of the vehicle during cornering, generating lift on the front arch of the car that is already lifted due to cornering forces and body roll. (author)

  8. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel disturbances are some of the largest sources of noise on sensitive telescopes. Such wheel-induced mechanical noises are not well characterized....

  9. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection...

  10. New steering mechanism for wheeled mobile robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidibe Marie Bernard; FU Yi-li; XU He; MA Yu-lin

    2007-01-01

    A new castor wheel mechanism for omni-directional mobile platform is presented. A motion of translation is transformed into a rotation to steer the wheel with the help of a helical path fits into a translation joint and three rollers whose axes are connected to the driving shaft of the wheel. When the path moves in translation it acts on the rollers for steering. The path-roller friction transmission, the wheel kinematics and the maneuverability have been analyzed.

  11. Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander SHRAMKO; Alfred KOZLOWSKY; Elena BELAJA; Yuriy PROIDAK; Pinchuk, Sofia; Gubenko, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of corrosi...

  12. Train wrecks to typhoid fever: the development of railroad medicine organizations, 1850-World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, M

    2001-01-01

    From their beginning American railroads developed medical arrangements to care for the large number of workers and passengers they killed or injured. After the Civil War, both labor unrest and liability concerns led them to expand and formalize these arrangements, and three forms of organization arose. Western roads, facing an almost complete lack of medical facilities, developed employee-funded hospital organizations. In the east, companies created medical organizations under a salaried chief surgeon and contracted with local physicians to provide care. A third model, pioneered by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in the 1880s, devised a beneficial society that provided medical care and compensation for injured workers. Although these organizations involved both contract practice and group hospitalization, the AMA seems to have ignored them. In the 1880s railroad physicians developed their own organizations, including the National Association of Railway Surgeons, in which they discussed problems of professionalization and such medical matters as "railway spine." Concern with costs and labor turnover also led the carriers into preventive medicine. Some roads provided smallpox and typhoid vaccinations, campaigned against malaria, improved passenger-car sanitation, required physical examinations of their employees, and trained them in first aid. By World War I, railroad medical organizations provided care to nearly two million employees and employment to about 10 percent of all physicians. PMID:11423683

  13. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... rim bead area shall not exceed one-eighth of an inch of total indicated runout. (1)...

  14. Railroad Lines, Published in Not Provided, Embarq.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  15. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a Railroad... Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and (b) High speed ground transportation systems that...

  16. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Molyneux-Berry; Claire Davis; Adam Bevan

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variati...

  17. Wheel Wear and Rail Damage Prediction for Wheels Turned with Thin Flanges

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamedsalih, Yousif; Bevan, Adam; Stow, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Economic Tyre Turning (ETT) is the process of turning wheels to a profile that has the same tread shape but a thinner flange than the design case, allowing less material to be removed from the wheel diameter. ETT can allow maintainers to extend wheel life, particularly when the wheel is approaching its minimum diameter. Modern wheel lathes are typically capable of turning such profiles but GB railway group standards do not currently permit their use. This paper investigates the effect of usin...

  18. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  19. Intelligent Car System

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of o...

  20. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  1. Model railroad industry nuclear emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some day, perhaps soon, there will be a serious rail accident involving nuclear materials, and there will be some significant damage to the nuclear containers. There may be some release of the radioactive contents. What then. How well will be railroads be prepared to handle the many problems that will arise when that bad accident happens. How will the railroads handle the cleanup problems. How will such an accident interfere with restoring railroad operations, different from what happens in other hazardous materials accidents. How will the railroads handle the public information aspects of a nuclear accident, a whole new ball game from what is involved in other hazardous materials accidents. Should the railroads hire their own nuclear experts. Should they train and equip radiological monitoring teams of their own. Do they even have a plan of how to deal with all of these matters. An approach is discussed for dealing with these problems and what the Association of American Railroads is doing to help solve them

  2. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  3. Longitudinal and lateral slip control of autonomous wheeled mobile robot for trajectory tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamza KHAN; Jamshed IQBAL; Khelifa BAIZID; Teresa ZIELINSKA

    2015-01-01

    This research formulates a path-following control problem subjected to wheel slippage and skid and solves it using a logic-based control scheme for a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The novelty of the proposed scheme lies in its methodology that considers both longitudinal and lateral slip components. Based on the derived slip model, the controller for longitudinal motion slip has been synthesized. Various control parameters have been studied to investigate their effects on the performance of the controller resulting in selection of their optimum values. The designed controller for lateral slip or skid is based on the proposed side friction model and skid check condition. Considering a car-like WMR, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. The robot successfully followed the desired circular trajectory in the presence of wheel slippage and skid. This research finds its potential in various applications involving WMR navigation and control.

  4. When is 100% inspection not enough? An analysis of three pickup truck front wheel assembly failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kirk DJ; Sas; Cross

    2000-01-01

    The loss of a cotter pin in the front wheel assembly of cars and trucks has been a problem for several years. This is shown by the fact that the automobile manufacturers have been committed to a 100% inspection of the process for installing them on cars and trucks. In this paper, three accident cases are presented, along with a method by which the forensic engineer can determine if a cotter pin has ever been installed on the front wheel assembly. Testing was done to show what the spindle would look like if the cotter pin had been installed properly and forcibly removed. Photographs show both the accident and test spindle for comparison. PMID:10641934

  5. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  6. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Swan

    2015-01-01

    The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber). The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be hel...

  7. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  8. Research on Torque Ratio Based on the Steering Wheel Torque Characteristic for Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steer-by-wire system can improve the performance of vehicle handling stability. Removing the mechanical linkages between the front wheels and the steering wheel leads to a key technique of force feedback for steer-by-wire system. In view of the characteristic of variable torque transmission ratio for steer-by-wire system, this paper proposes a method for designing torque ratio based on the steering wheel torque characteristic for steer-by-wire system. It converts the torque ratio design into equivalent assist torque design by analyzing their relationship. It achieves the torque ratio design at different conditions based on the negative equivalent assist torque characteristic curve. Simulations and vehicle experiments are conducted by the proposed method, and the results show that the design goal has been achieved and the steering wheel torque characteristic obtained is very similar to that of the reference car.

  9. A New Set of Wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ One month ahead of the 11th Beijing International Automotive Exhibition(April 25-May 2),BMW China launched a nationwide advertisement campaign to attract Chinese consumers by integrating traditional and unique Chinese elements into its new concept cars.

  10. Railroad perspective on transportation of spent fuel and high level waste and recent ICC decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to summarize some railroad viewpoints on issues concerning transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste and to outline Interstate Commerce Commission decisions arising over differing opinions about the manner of such transportation. Although the railroad position includes a number of legal arguments, it also involves operating expertise and a number of well-based questions concerning the safety of casks under actual operating conditions in regular trains. The commonly-used estimates of accident frequency and severity in regular trains are severe underestimates based on a mistake in the annual number of railroad car-miles, inadequacies in and misunderstanding of accident reporting, and invalid assumptions, especially concerning fires, which some actual data suggest are far more frequent than assumed. Thus, railroads estimate casks could be involved in at least 12 accidents involving severe fires by 1990. A number of unanswered questions about casks and perceived inadequacies in testing lead to a conservative railroad position. These include the possibility of escape routes of materials other than by breach such as weld and pressure relief valve failures and direct radiation hazards through loss of shielding. These doubts are fostered through experience with accidents more severe than those used in testing or certification as well as these questions. Also, there is doubt concerning the integrity of fuel rod cladding (used as a second level of containment) in credible accident situations. Moreover, the damage estimates of $1,000 per man rem have been shown to have no relationship to damages in a transportation accident.Added safety is expected in special trains for at least 17 reasons involving speed, transit time, routing, train consist, crew alertness, reduced slack and other reduced hazards and accident opportunities

  11. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  12. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  13. Microfluidic CARS cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Han-Wei; Bao, Ning; Le, Thuc T.; Lu, Chang; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as flowing particles. Population measurements of adipocytes isolated from mouse fat tissues demonstrated the viability of microfluidic CARS cytom...

  14. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  15. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  16. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  17. Lead loading of urban roadways by motor vehicle wheel weights: some Australian observations using novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Eric J; van der Touw, John

    2014-01-15

    Wheel weights fall off motor vehicles, accumulate on urban roadways and contribute to lead loading of the environment. The objective of the present research was to determine mass distribution, deposition rate, residence time, mass loss, and lead loading per annum on roadways in Melbourne, the capital city of Victoria, Australia. We surveyed wheel weights on 3-3.5 km segments of local/secondary roads over five years, and an 8.2 km segment of a primary arterial road over five month periods. The approach to steady state was also monitored using Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of the position of weights deposited by motor vehicles. The average deposition rate and residence time were estimated using Poisson modeling of the observations. The distribution of wheel weight masses generally reflected the quantities supplied to the new car and tire market, with the 10 to 30 g range making up almost 70% of the total observed. The number of wheel weights observed was correlated with the commercial content of the route, but residence times depended on the location. The weighted average mass loss of wheel weights deposited on a primary arterial road was 5.9% and the average residence time was 38.1 days. Lead loading on Melbourne roadways was estimated to be 10.9 tonnes/year with 10.3 tonnes/year as intact pieces and 0.6 tonne/year as particulates (or dissolved). PMID:24112966

  18. Wheel Slip Control for Improving Traction-Ability and Energy Efficiency of a Personal Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust wheel slip control system based on a sliding mode controller is proposed for improving traction-ability and reducing energy consumption during sudden acceleration for a personal electric vehicle. Sliding mode control techniques have been employed widely in the development of a robust wheel slip controller of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles due to their application effectiveness in nonlinear systems and robustness against model uncertainties and disturbances. A practical slip control system which takes advantage of the features of electric motors is proposed and an algorithm for vehicle velocity estimation is also introduced. The vehicle velocity estimator was designed based on rotational wheel dynamics, measurable motor torque, and wheel velocity as well as rule-based logic. The simulations and experiments were carried out using both CarSim software and an experimental electric vehicle equipped with in-wheel-motors. Through field tests, traction performance and effectiveness in terms of energy saving were all verified. Comparative experiments with variations of control variables proved the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed control design.

  19. A multi-objective ant colony optimization method applied to switch engine scheduling in railroad yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodelson A. Sabino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an ant colony optimization algorithm to assist railroad yard operational planning staff in their daily tasks. The proposed algorithm tries to minimize a multi-objective function that considers both fixed and variable transportation costs involved in moving railroad cars within the railroad yard area. This is accomplished by searching the best switch engine schedule for a given time horizon. As the algorithm was designed for real life application, the solution must be delivered in a predefined processing time and it must be in accordance with railroad yard operational policies. A railroad yard operations simulator was built to produce artificial instances in order to tune the parameters of the algorithm. The project is being developed together with industrial professionals from the Tubarão Railroad Terminal, which is the largest railroad yard in Latin America.Este trabalho propõe um algoritmo de otimização com colônia de formigas para auxiliar a equipe de planejamento de operações de pátios ferroviários em suas tarefas diárias. O algoritmo proposto é baseado em uma função multi-objetivo que busca a redução dos custos fixo e variável de movimentação de vagões no pátio. Isto é feito através da busca da melhor programação para as locomotivas de manobra, considerando um dado horizonte de planejamento. Como o algoritmo foi desenvolvido para aplicação na vida real, a solução deve ser entregue em um tempo de processamento definido previamente e deve obedecer as políticas operacionais do pátio. Foi desenvolvido um simulador de operações de pátio que gera instâncias artificiais utilizadas para ajuste dos parâmetros do algoritmo. O projeto está sendo desenvolvido em conjunto com profissionais envolvidos na operação do Terminal Ferroviário de Tubarão, o qual é o maior pátio de manobras da América Latina.

  20. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. Sisseton Milbank Railroad... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  1. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  2. ATLAS- lowering the muon small wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS - the two muon small wheels lowered into the cavern Like briefly separated twin sisters, ATLAS’s small wheels were once again united at the experiment’s surface building at Point 1 on St Valentine’s Day. The lowering of the small wheels into the tunnel will mark the end of the installation of detector components for the experiment. At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern.

  3. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  4. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital for 2012. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2012...

  5. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad ] industry's cost of capital for 2009. The decision solicits comments on the following narrow issues: (1) The railroads'...

  6. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  7. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2010 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  8. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In a... change in railroad productivity for the 2006-2010 (5-year) averaging period. This represents a...

  9. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2004-2008 (5-year) averaging period. This is...

  10. 76 FR 2748 - Competition in the Railroad Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Competition in the Railroad Industry AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... to explore the current state of competition in the railroad industry and possible policy alternatives... Railroad Industry and Analysis of Proposals That Might Enhance Competition (November 2009), is available...

  11. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... duty to prevent violations. (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to go...

  12. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  13. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  14. Finite element simulation of wheel impact test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to achieve better performance and quality, the wheel design and manufacturing use a number of wheel tests (rotating bending test, radial fatigue test, and impact test to insure that the wheel meets the safety requirements. The test is very time consuming and expensive. Computer simulation of these tests can significantly reduce the time and cost required to perform a wheel design. In this study, nonlinear dynamic finite element is used to simulate the SAE wheel impact test.Design/methodology/approach: The test fixture used for the impact test consists of a striker with specified weight. The test is intended to simulate actual vehicle impact conditions. The tire-wheel assembly is mounted at 13° angle to the vertical plane with the edge of the weight in line with outer radius of the rim. The striker is dropped from a specified height above the highest point of the tire-wheel assembly and contacts the outboard flange of the wheel.Because of the irregular geometry of the wheel, the finite element model of an aluminium wheel is constructed by tetrahedral element. A mesh convergence study is carried out to ensure the convergence of the mesh model. The striker is assumed to be rigid elements. Initially, the striker contacts the highest area of the wheel, and the initial velocity of the striker is calculated from the impact height. The simulated strains at two locations on the disc are verified by experimental measurements by strain gages. The damage parameter of a wheel during the impact test is a strain energy density from the calculated result.Findings: The prediction of a wheel failure at impact is based on the condition that fracture will occur if the maximum strain energy density of the wheel during the impact test exceeds the total plastic work of the wheel material from tensile test. The simulated results in this work show that the total plastic work can be effectively employed as a fracture criterion to predict a wheel

  15. Railroad Lines, Line feature class representing individual Railroad rail lines, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Line feature class representing individual...

  16. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom...

  17. Trajectory generation for car-like robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autonomous robots or remotely operated vehicles have raised high hopes in the military and industrial communities because of the potential safety improvement and gain of productivity they may provide. Waste management on nuclear sites, pallet manipulation in factories, interventions on battlefields, etc., are actively studied. A lot of these applications require powerful four-wheel vehicles, the kinematics of which is similar to that of a car. Such vehicles have three degrees of freedom: the (x,y) positions in a plane and the orientation of the vehicle. Path planning is often understood as only changing the position of the vehicle, whereas the tasks performed by this kind of robot require a perfect orientation of the vehicle: forklifting a pallet or docking at a loading or unloading station requires accuracy in the orientation of the vehicle. It is this requirement and the kinematic constraints of the motion mode that have led to the path-planning algorithm presented in this paper

  18. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  19. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  20. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  1. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  2. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  3. A computational study of tandem dual wheel aerodynamics and the effect of fenders and fairings on spray dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-13

    With the goal of understanding how to mitigate the safety hazard of splash and spray around heavy vehicles, a computational study of the aerodynamics and spray dispersion about a simplified trailer wheel assembly has been completed. A tandem dual slick (TDS) wheel model that neglects complex geometric features such as brakes, wheel bolts and wheel cutouts but with the same dimensions as an actual trailer wheel assembly was used . A detailed simulation of the wheels alone demonstrated that the flow field is both unsteady and complex, containing a number of vortical structures that interact strongly with spray. Preliminary simulations with fenders and fairings demonstrated that these devices prevent the ballistic transport of drops larger than approximately 0.1 mm, but the fine mist speculated to be responsible for visibility reduction is unaffected. This work suggests that to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to design and evaluate spray mitigation strategies the jet or sheet breakup processes can be modeled using an array of injectors of small (< 0.01 mm) water droplets; however the choice of size distribution, injection locations, directions and velocities is largely unknown and requires further study. Possible containment strategies would include using flow structures to 'focus' particles into regions away from passing cars or surface treatments to capture small drops.

  4. Entropy parameters for desiccant wheel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a thermodynamic analysis of a desiccant wheel is proposed to investigate and identify the optimum size and operating regime of this device. A steady state entropy generation expression, based on effectiveness parameters suitable for desiccant wheels operability, is obtained applying a control volume approach and assuming perfect gas behaviour of the binary air–vapour mixture. A new entropy generation number NL is defined using a minimum indicative value of the entropy generation SL,min and investigated in order to obtain useful criteria for desiccant wheels optimization. The effectiveness-NTU design method is employed by combining solution of thermal exchange efficiency for rotary heat exchanger with the characteristic potential method, under the conditions of heat and mass transfer analogy. The analysis is applied to a specific desiccant wheel and NL variation with NTU is explored under various operative conditions and wheels characteristics in terms of dimensionless velocity and flow unbalance ratio. - Highlights: • Steady state entropy generation based on effectiveness parameters for heat and mass transfer. • Definition of a new entropy generation number NL for desiccant wheel. • Least irreversible features for a defined dehumidification rate of the desiccant wheel. • NL can be used as an optimization parameter for desiccant wheels design and control

  5. Development of the FASTER Wheeled Bevameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.; Eder, V.; Hoheneder, W.; Imhof, B.; Lewinger, W.; Ransom, S.; Saaj, C.; Weclewski, P.; Waclavicek, R.,

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) within the FASTER project (Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain Data for Exploration Rovers), funded by the European Union's FP7 programme. In FASTER, novel and innovative concepts for in situ forward sensing of soil properties and terrain conditions in the planned path of a planetary rover are developed. Terrain strength measurements for assessment of the mobility of crosscountry vehicles have decades of heritage on Earth, but typically trafficability of terrains is only gauged by human operators ahead of vehicle operations rather than in-line by probes deployed from the vehicle itself, as is intended for FASTER. For FASTER, a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) has been selected as the terrain sensing instrument for the vehicle. Wheeled Bevameters are suitable for terrain measurements while driving but traditionally have mostly been employed on terrestrial vehicles to evaluate particular wheel designs. The WB as conceived in FASTER uses a dedicated, passive-rolling test wheel (‚test wheel') placed on the terrain as the loading device to enable to determine bearing strength, compressive strength and shear strength of the terrain immediately ahead of the vehicle, as well as rover-terrain interaction parameters used in semi-empirical vehicle-terrain traction models. The WB includes a placement mechanism for the test wheel. The test wheel would remain lowered onto the ground during nominal rover motion, including when climbing and descending slopes. During normal operations, the placement mechanism assumes the function of a passive suspension of the wheel, allowing it to follow the terrain contour. Quantities measured with the WB are: test wheel sinkage (through a laser sensor), test wheel vertical load, test wheel horizontal reaction force, and test wheel rotation rate. Measurements are performed while the rover is in motion. Measured test wheel rotation rate (with appropriate corrections for slight skid) can

  6. Eddy current arrays for wheel inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Rémi

    2001-04-01

    Wheel inspections are routine and very time-consuming, especially for large aircraft wheels where a single-coil probe is moved manually taking precious long minutes. Eddy current arrays can decrease the inspection time by reducing to one the number of rotations needed to completely cover the wheel surface. Since the EC array probe fits the profile of the wheel, manipulation is easy and the lift-off is kept constant improving signal quality. C-scan displays assist the analysis and help locate the defect by dividing the inspected wheel surface into a small grid. Furthermore, the impedance plane and the strip chart, for all the channels used to build the C-scan, are accessible to provide better sizing accuracy of the defect.

  7. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  8. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based on a...... do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  9. Kinematics of a smart variable caster mechanism for a vehicle steerable wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazar, Reza N.; Subic, Aleksandar; Zhang, Nong

    2012-12-01

    The lateral force of a tyre is a function of the sideslip and camber angles. The camber angle can provide a significant effect on the stability of a vehicle by increasing or adjusting the required lateral force to keep the vehicle on the road. To control the camber angle and hence, the lateral force of each tyre, we can use the caster angle of the wheel. We introduce a possible variable and controllable caster angle ϕ in order to adjust the camber angle when the sideslip angle cannot be changed. As long as the left and right wheels are steering together according to a kinematic condition, such as Ackerman, the sideslip angle of the inner wheel cannot be increased independently to alter the reduced lateral force because of weight transfer and reduction of the normal load F z . A variable caster mechanism can adjust the caster angle of the wheels to achieve their top capacity and maximise the lateral force, when needed. Such a system would potentially increase the safety, stability, and maneuverability of the vehicles. Using the screw theory, this paper will examine the kinematics of a variable caster and present the required mathematical equation to calculate the camber angle as a function of suspension mechanism parameters and other relevant variables. Having a steered wheel about a tilted steering axis will change the position and orientation of the wheel with respect to the body of the car. This paper provides the required kinematics of such a suspension and extracts the equations in special practical situations. The analysis is for an ideal situation in which we substitute the tyre with its equivalent disc at the tyre plane.

  10. Cars submerged in water.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have to assist the vehicle occupants to escape from a car submerged in water. An adequate road design, barrier constructions in road bends and shoulder surfacing, and education and information can redu...

  11. Composing for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Adam; Tanaka, Atau

    2013-01-01

    The authors report on composing a piece for RoadMusic, an interactive music project which generates and manipulates music for the passengers and driver in a car, using sensor information gathered from the surroundings and from the movements of the car. We present a literature review which brings together related works in the diverse fields of Automotive UI, musical mappings, generative music and sonification. We then describe our strategies for composing for this novel system, and the uni...

  12. Competition and Car Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Molly; Hamilton, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We examine determinants of the nearly 30 percent increase in the average age of domestically produced, registered automobiles since the mid-1960s. We find that very little of the increase in car longevity is attributable to improvements in the inherent durability of cars. Rather, we find that the temporal pattern of longevity improvement is highly correlated with the level of market concentration in the auto industry. In particular, we argue that the arrival of competition in the industry led...

  13. Influence of Tire Dynamics on Slip Ratio Estimation of Independent Driving Wheel System Influence of Tire Dynamics on Slip Ratio Estimation of Independent Driving Wheel System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiu; SONG Ziyou; WEI Yintao; OUYANG Minggao

    2014-01-01

    The independent driving wheel system, which is composed of in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor(I-PMSM) and tire, is more convenient to estimate the slip ratio because the rotary speed of the rotor can be accurately measured. However, the ring speed of the tire ring doesn’t equal to the rotor speed considering the tire deformation. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detailed I-PMSM are modeled by using Matlab/Simulink. Moreover, the tire/road contact interface(a slippery road) is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and the Magic Formula pragmatic model. Based on the relatively accurate model, the error of slip ratio estimated by the rotor rotary speed is analyzed in both time and frequency domains when a quarter car is started by the I-PMSM with a definite target torque input curve. In addition, the natural frequencies(NFs) of the driving wheel system with variable parameters are illustrated to present the relationship between the slip ratio estimation error and the NF. According to this relationship, a low-pass filter, whose cut-off frequency corresponds to the NF, is proposed to eliminate the error in the estimated slip ratio. The analysis, concerning the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation, shows that the peak estimation error can be reduced up to 75% when the LPF is adopted. The robustness and effectiveness of the LPF are therefore validated. This paper builds up the deformable tire model and the detailed I-PMSM models, and analyzes the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation.

  14. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  15. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  16. Theoretical considerations of machining with grinding wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Oyakhobo Odior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is one of the most versatile methods of removing material from machine parts by the cutting action of the countless hard and sharp abrasive particles of a revolving grinding wheel. It works by forcing the abrasive grains into the surface of the workpiece so that each grain cuts away a small bit of material in the form of chips. Abrasive grinding wheel is an expendable wheel that carries an abrasive compound on its periphery. They are made of small, sharp and very hard natural or synthetic abrasive minerals, bonded together in a matrix to form a wheel. The paper presents a review of some of the characteristics as well as theoretical considerations of operations of abrasive grinding wheel. The relationships among the various grinding parameters; the radial force f, the force on individual grit of grinding wheel F, velocity of grinding wheelg Vg, velocity of work piecew Vw, the wheel diameterg Dg, and the diameter of the work piece Dw were established for given grinding operations.

  17. Minisatellite Attitude Guidance Using Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STROE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper [2], the active torques needed for the minisatellite attitude guidance from one fixed attitude posture to another fixed attitude posture were determined using an inverse dynamics method. But when considering reaction/momentum wheels, instead of this active torques computation, the purpose is to compute the angular velocities of the three reaction wheels which ensure the minisatellite to rotate from the initial to the final attitude. This paper presents this computation of reaction wheels angular velocities using a similar inverse dynamics method based on inverting Euler’s equations of motion for a rigid body with one fixed point, written in the framework of the x-y-z sequence of rotations parameterization. For the particular case A=B not equal C of an axisymmetric minisatellite, the two computations are compared: the active torques computation versus the computation of reaction wheels angular velocities ̇x , ̇y and ̇z. An interesting observation comes out from this numerical study: if the three reaction wheels are identical (with Iw the moment of inertia of one reaction wheel with respect to its central axis, then the evolutions in time of the products between Iw and the derivatives of the reaction wheels angular velocities, i.e. ̇ , ̇ and ̇ remain the same and do not depend on the moment of inertia Iw.

  18. Algorithmic generation of railroad and highway routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J. T.; Bushnell, R. C.; Shannon, R.; Borsos, R.; Graham, J.; Sherry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A minimum-time algorithm can be used to generate realistic highway routes between specific origins and destinations. Minimizing distances on links will not produce realistic railroad routes if links bear any resemblance to physical trackage. There are also multiple routes between two points since each carrier has its own philosophy. This paper outlines a systematic method of preparing information such that a computer algorithm can generate realistic routes for single- or multiple-carrier movements.

  19. Loading and damageability of wheels and rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George TUMANISHVILI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction, rolling resistance and durability of rails and wheels at operation, belong to a number of the most important problems of railway transportation because they have strong impact on derailment, energy consumption and restorative maintenance. Various aspects of these problems are insufficiently investigated, have only partial solution. The sources of creep and slipping of a wheel on a rail and ways of its reduction are specified in the work. These approaches alongside with the traditional methods (lubrication, radial steering bogie, etc. will ensure the reduction both the power and the thermal loading of the contact zone and wear rate of rails and wheels.

  20. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a... wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or...

  1. Rollover Mitigation Controller Development for Three-Wheeled Vehicle Using Active Front Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Amer Azim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-wheeled vehicles are agile, less complex, but relatively more prone to rollover. The current study focuses on the rollover mitigation control design using active front steering for such vehicles. A lateral load transfer ratio (LLTR adapted for a three-wheeled platform is presented. Sliding mode control design strategy has been devised which results in pseudo-direct control for roll dynamics of the vehicle. The lag in vehicle roll angle response has been managed using adaptive sliding surface. This concept can be extended for other vehicle configurations. The proposed control scheme is investigated for efficacy using a full vehicle simulation model of CarSim software and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s proposed Fishhook maneuver. The controller is able to limit the rollover propensity even with vehicle parameter uncertainties.

  2. Zeno at the Steering Wheel

    OpenAIRE

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2009-01-01

    This paper collects some reflections about an apparent incongruity between the usual (third-person) understanding of the probability of an event calculated for an extended period of time in the future (e.g., the expected probability of a driver to meet with a car accident in the next $M$ years) and the subjective perception of the same probability/risk that the person involved in that event has, instant by instant during that period of time. Similarities with the classical Zeno's paradoxes co...

  3. [Fracture of the diaphyseal radius during Cyr wheel practice - an uncommon injury of wheel gymnastics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauther, M D; Rummel, S; Hussmann, B; Lendemans, S; Nast-Kolb, D; Wedemeyer, C

    2011-12-01

    The cyr wheel is a modified gymnastic wheel with only one ring that can lead to extreme forces on the gymnast. We report on a distal radius shaft fracture (AO 22 A 2.1) and a fracture of the styloid process of the ulna that occurred after holding on to a slipping Cyr wheel and exposition to high pressure on the lower arm. The fracture was fixed by screws and a plate. PMID:22161268

  4. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  5. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  6. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  7. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Molyneux-Berry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing. The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  8. The influence of wheel/rail contact conditions on the microstructure and hardness of railway wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Davis, Claire; Bevan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an "in-service" wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets. PMID:24526883

  9. Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Metal Bond Diamond Wheels- Part II: Wheel Wear Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    The use of stereo scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to investigate the wear mechanism of the wire EDM true metal bond diamond wheel for ceramic grinding is presented. On the grinding wheel, a wedge-shape removal part was machined to enable the examination and measurement of the worn wheel surfaces using the stereo SEM. The stereo SEM was calibrated by comparing results of depth profile of a wear groove with the profilometer measurements. On the surface of the grinding wheel after wire EDM truing and before grinding, the diamond protruding heights were measured in the level of 35 {micro}m, comparing to the 54 {micro}m average size of the diamond in the grinding wheel. The gap between the EDM wire and rotating grinding wheel is estimated to be about 35 to 40 {micro}m. This observation indicates that, during the wire EDM, electrical sparks occur between the metal bond and EDM wire, which leaves the diamond protruding in the gap between the wire and wheel. The protruding diamond is immediately fractured at the start of the grinding process, even under a light grinding condition. After heavy grinding, the grinding wheel surface and the diamond protrusion heights are also investigated using the stereo SEM. The height of diamond protrusion was estimated in the 5 to 15 {micro}m range. This study has demonstrated the use of stereo SEM as a metrology tool to study the grinding wheel surface.

  10. Reaction Wheel with Embedded MEMS IMU Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheels are used to stabilize satellites and to slew their orientation from object to object with precision and accuracy by varying the rotational speed of...

  11. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1978-01-01

    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  12. Mechanics of wheel-soil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    An approximate theory for wheel-soil interaction is presented which forms the basis for a practical solution to the problem. It is shown that two fundamental observations render the problem determinate: (1) The line of action of the resultant of radial stresses acting at the wheel soil interface approximately bisects the wheel-soil contact angle for all values of slip. (2) A shear stress surface can be hypothesized. The influence of soil inertia forces is also evaluated. A concept of equivalent cohesion is introduced which allows a convenient experimental comparison for both cohesive and frictional soils. This theory compares favorably with previous analyses and experimental data, and shows that soil inertia forces influencing the motion of a rolling wheel can be significant.

  13. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel mechanical noise is one of the largest sources of disturbance forcing on space-based observatories. Such noise arises from mass imbalance, bearing...

  14. Analysis and Design of a Redundant X-by-Wire Control System Implemented on the Volvo Sirius 2001 Concept Car

    OpenAIRE

    Degerman, Pär; Wiker, Niclas

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis project has been to analyze and document the Sirius 2001 Concept Car. In addition, it has also been a goal to get the car in a usable state by implementing new software on the on board computers. The car is a Tiger Cat E1 that is modified with four wheel steering and an advanced X-by-Wire system. The computers in the X-by-Wire system consist of six TTP PowerNodes that communicate with each other over a redundant, fault tolerant TTP/C communications bus. The ...

  15. Railroad expansion and entrepreneurship: evidence from Meiji Japan

    OpenAIRE

    John Tang

    2013-01-01

    Railroads in Meiji Japan are credited with facilitating factor mobility as well as access to human and financial capital, but the impact on firms is unclear. Using a newly developed firm-level dataset and a difference-in-differences model that exploits the temporal and spatial variation of railroad expansion, I assess the relationship between railways and firm activity across Japan. Results indicate that railroad expansion corresponded with increased firm activity, particularly in manufacturi...

  16. Improved Squeaky Wheel Optimisation for Driver Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Aickelin, Uwe; Burke, Edmund; Li, Jingpeng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a technique called Improved Squeaky Wheel Optimisation (ISWO) for driver scheduling problems. It improves the original Squeaky Wheel Optimisation’s (SWO) effectiveness and execution speed by incorporating two additional steps of Selection and Mutation which implement evolution within a single solution. In the ISWO, a cycle of Analysis-Selection-Mutation-Prioritization-Construction continues until stopping conditions are reached. The Analysis step first computes the fitness...

  17. Minisatellite Attitude Guidance Using Reaction Wheels

    OpenAIRE

    Ion STROE; Dan N. Dumitriu

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper [2], the active torques needed for the minisatellite attitude guidance from one fixed attitude posture to another fixed attitude posture were determined using an inverse dynamics method. But when considering reaction/momentum wheels, instead of this active torques computation, the purpose is to compute the angular velocities of the three reaction wheels which ensure the minisatellite to rotate from the initial to the final attitude. This paper presents this computation of ...

  18. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic and evolutionary algorithms or in modeling of complex networks. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(log(N)) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm, which typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. We also discuss a hybrid version, which might be suitable for highly heterogeneous weight distributions, found, fo...

  19. 解决检修轮对车轮探伤难题的思考%Reflection on the Solution of Problems in Using Overhaul Wheels to Detect Flaws of Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳伶

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzed the status of flaw -detecting of spoke boards of car wheels ,put forward the difficulties of flaw-detecting in repair process:one lies in wheel rust ,and the other lies in the magnetic field of detecting machines ,and proposed to correspond innovate rust -removing water wheel washing equipment and detecting equipment to solve the two problems ,so as to the quality of wheel flaw-detecting ,ensure wheel flaws to be found timely ,and prevent accidents .%本文对车轮辐板探伤的现状进行了分析,提出了目前检修过程中车轮探伤的难点,一个是车轮除锈问题,一个是探伤机磁场问题,并提出了应对水轮冲洗除锈设备和探伤设备进行相应改造解决这两项难题,以确保车轮探伤质量,确保车轮裂纹能够及时发现,防止行车事故的发生。

  20. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  1. Distortionary Company Car Taxation: Deadweight Losses through Increased Car Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Jos N. van Ommeren; Gutierrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in Empirical Economics 2013, 45(3), 1189-1204. We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household carownership for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate thatfor about 20 percent of households company car possession increases car ownership. Theannual welfare loss of distortionary company taxation through increased car ownership isgenerally rather small, maximally €120 per compan...

  2. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  3. Experimental investigations on desiccant wheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations on several commercially available and newly fabricated rotors are conducted in two different laboratories to evaluate performance trends. Experimental uncertainties are analysed and the parameters determining the rotor performance are investigated. It is found that the optimal rotation speed is lower for lithium chloride or compound rotors than for silica gel rotors. Higher regeneration air temperatures lead to higher dehumidification potentials at almost equal dehumidification efficiencies, but with increasing regeneration specific heat input and enthalpy changes of the process air. The influence of the regeneration air humidity was also notable and low relative humidities increase the dehumidification potential. Finally, the measurements show that rising water content in the ambient air causes the dehumidification capacity to rise, while the dehumidification efficiency is not much affected and both specific regeneration heat input and latent heat change of the process air decrease. For desiccant cooling applications in humid climates this is a positive trend. - Highlights: ► New experimental results on a range of desiccant wheels. ► High dehumidification capacities and low enthalpy changes for process air high water content. ► Higher regeneration temperature increases capacity, but lowers energy efficiency.

  4. Rotating wheels as active components in the enhancing of air handling in road vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Márquez, Florencio

    2008-01-01

    Automotive engineering is a very competitive field and find new ways of innovation is difficult. Use an existing element for a new use, far from his normal use can give more chances for this innovation. With a new design, it is possible to take profit of the existing rotating movement of the wheels, and make them work as turbomachines. The objective of this new use is to reduce the air pressure beneath the car, increasing then the downforce. This extra downforce achieved with t...

  5. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  6. French Professional Car Language

    OpenAIRE

    Veslav Kuranovič

    2011-01-01

    In this scientific article is presented french professional car language, also it is analysed a problem of teaching professional language at the technical university. It is presented lot of methods which help student to acquire language skills and also it is presented importance of dialog between student and teacher. Psychology and pedagogy are 2 sciences strong related in teacher’s work.

  7. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  8. Autonomous Car Path Optimalization

    OpenAIRE

    Vladyka, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with path search and optimalisation of model car in unknown space. All data from sensors are processed in real-time onboard at ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller. Model’s main sensor is line-scan camera.

  9. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  10. Rating forces grip and driving and accelerations of the car with drive different configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a typical drive systems used in today's vehicles, mainly cars. Approximated scheme of the formation of the driving force of the vehicle and the necessary mathematical relations for the calculation. For example, a typical passenger car BMW 320 was analyzed and calculations obtained a driving force, of adhesion and acceleration. The calculations were performed for the drive system, the classical (i.e. the rear axle of the vehicle for front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive (4×4. Virtually assumed that to the above mentioned vehicle it is possible buildings of each of said system. These are shown graphically in diagrams bearing a distribution of the forces acting on the substrate and the reactions - the data necessary for the calculations. The resulting calculation is graphically shown in the diagrams, in which is illustrated a change value of the resulting adhesive strength, and the acceleration depending on the drive type vehicle.

  11. Project considerations and design of systems for wheeling cogenerated power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Boyle, J.R.; Fish, J.H. III; Martin, W.A.

    1994-08-01

    Wheeling electric power, the transmission of electricity not owned by an electric utility over its transmission lines, is a term not generally recognized outside the electric utility industry. Investigation of the term`s origin is intriguing. For centuries, wheel has been used to describe an entire machine, not just individual wheels within a machine. Thus we have waterwheel, spinning wheel, potter`s wheel and, for an automobile, wheels. Wheel as a verb connotes transmission or modification of forces and motion in machinery. With the advent of an understanding of electricity, use of the word wheel was extended to be transmission of electric power as well as mechanical power. Today, use of the term wheeling electric power is restricted to utility transmission of power that it doesn`t own. Cogeneration refers to simultaneous production of electric and thermal power from an energy source. This is more efficient than separate production of electricity and thermal power and, in many instances, less expensive.

  12. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  13. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  14. Optimization of an Autonomous Car Controller using a Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Seong Kim; Joong Chae Na; Kyung Joong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous cars control the steering wheel, acceleration and the brake pedal, the gears and the clutch using sensory information from multiple sources. Like a human driver, it understands the current situation on the roads from the live streaming of sensory values. The decision‐making module often suffers from the limited range of sensors and complexity due to the large number of sensors and actuators. Because it is tedious and difficult to design the controller manually from trial‐and‐error,...

  15. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42 Section 408.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an...

  16. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software - RWDMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The RWDMES is a tool for modeling the disturbances imparted on spacecraft by spinning reaction wheels. Reaction wheels are usually the largest disturbance source on a precision pointing spacecraft, and can be the dominating source of pointing error. Accurate knowledge of the disturbance environment is critical to accurate prediction of the pointing performance. In the past, it has been difficult to extract an accurate wheel disturbance model since the forcing mechanisms are difficult to model physically, and the forcing amplitudes are filtered by the dynamics of the reaction wheel. RWDMES captures the wheel-induced disturbances using a hybrid physical/empirical model that is extracted directly from measured forcing data. The empirical models capture the tonal forces that occur at harmonics of the spin rate, and the broadband forces that arise from random effects. The empirical forcing functions are filtered by a physical model of the wheel structure that includes spin-rate-dependent moments (gyroscopic terms). The resulting hybrid model creates a highly accurate prediction of wheel-induced forces. It accounts for variation in disturbance frequency, as well as the shifts in structural amplification by the whirl modes, as the spin rate changes. This software provides a point-and-click environment for producing accurate models with minimal user effort. Where conventional approaches may take weeks to produce a model of variable quality, RWDMES can create a demonstrably high accuracy model in two hours. The software consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables the user to specify all analysis parameters, to evaluate analysis results and to iteratively refine the model. Underlying algorithms automatically extract disturbance harmonics, initialize and tune harmonic models, and initialize and tune broadband noise models. The component steps are described in the RWDMES user s guide and include: converting time domain data to waterfall PSDs (power spectral

  17. Wheeling rates evaluation using optimal power flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeling is the transmission of electrical power and reactive power from a seller to a buyer through a transmission network owned by a third party. The wheeling rates are then the prices charged by the third party for the use of its network. This paper proposes and evaluates a strategy for pricing wheeling power using a pricing algorithm that in addition to the fuel cost for generation incorporates the optimal allocation of the transmission system operating cost, based on time-of-use pricing. The algorithm is implemented for the IEEE standard 14 and 30 bus system which involves solving a modified optimal power flow problem iteratively. The base of the proposed algorithm is the hourly spot price. The analysis spans a total time period of 24 hours. Unlike other algorithms that use DC models, the proposed model captures wheeling rates of both real and reactive power. Based on the evaluation, it was concluded that the model has the potential for wide application in calculating wheeling rates in a deregulated competitive power transmission environment. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Brush-Wheel Samplers for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellini, Tommaso

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes brush-wheel mechanisms for acquiring samples of soils from remote planets. In simplest terms, such a mechanism would contain brush wheels that would be counter-rotated at relatively high speed. The mechanism would be lowered to the ground from a spacecraft or other exploratory vehicle. Upon contact with the ground, the counter-rotating brush wheels would kick soil up into a collection chamber. Thus, in form and function, the mechanism would partly resemble traditional street and carpet sweepers. The main advantage of using of brush wheels (in contradistinction to cutting wheels or other, more complex mechanisms) is that upon encountering soil harder than expected, the brushes could simply deflect and the motor(s) could continue to turn. That is, sufficiently flexible brushes would afford resistance to jamming and to overloading of the motors used to rotate the brushes, and so the motors could be made correspondingly lighter and less power hungry. Of course, one could select the brush stiffnesses and motor torques and speeds for greatest effectiveness in sampling soil of a specific anticipated degree of hardness.

  19. New developments in clinical CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  20. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: Optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or 'risk reduction options' (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  1. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  2. Railroad infrastructure adequacy for safe transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the railroad industry's concerns on the movement of spent nuclear fuel including the magnitude of thermal and mechanical forces in train accidents, emergency response capability, railroad's liability for non-breach-of-cask accidents, and the importance of using dedicated trains to improve public perception of these movements; summarize the current status of the condition of the American railroads' equipment, facilities, track structure, and right-of-way; outline the continuing efforts of the railroad industry to improve customer service and profitability through downsizing and shifting of branch lines to more customer-oriented and efficient short-line carriers; and discuss potential problems of government subsidization of private railroads to enable upgrading of tracks and structures to handle rights-of-way in the future

  3. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  4. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  5. Bucket wheel excavators for varying mining conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachtschneider, H.; Seliger, E.

    1987-06-01

    TAKRAF bucket wheel excavators have proven their efficiency through the achievement of daily production rates in excess of 300,000 bcm, and have accomplished this under the most difficult geological and climatic conditions. Even heavy, plastic, very sticky clays, very abrasive soils, and rocky partings have been successfully mined with bucket wheel excavators. The use of BWEs to mine the hard coal deposits at the Ekibastus surface mine in the U.S.S.R., has broadened the field of application of these machines. Based on the experience gained in heavy-duty service, the bucket wheel excavators designed in the future will be capable of successfully coping with even more difficult site conditions.

  6. Wheels and Butterflies: Title, Structure, Cover Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Warwick

    2015-01-01

    The gold-stamped heraldic design of Yeats’s Wheels and Butterflies (London: Macmillan, 1934; Wade 175), together with a colour to approximate to that of the cloth on that book, have been represented on the top board of the present volume. In Wheels and Butterflies that device was also replicated in black on the title-page. It was created by an unknown (and probably in-house) artist commissioned by Macmillan, working from photographs of masks by Hildo Van Krop for Vrouwe Emer’s Groote Strijd, ...

  7. Wheeled foot quadruped robot HITAN-I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Pengfei; Sun Lining

    2006-01-01

    In view of the robot running environment, the structure of wheeled foot and quadruped are adopted in this robot system, which combines the priorities of both wheeled robot and legged robot. Based on CAN bus, the two-class robot control system using multiple controllers and drivers is constructed. At the same time, serial inverse kinematics of swaying leg and parallel inverse kinematics of supporting legs are analyzed independently. The forward gait and turning gait are planned and experiment image is given at last.

  8. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Lipowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic or evolutionary algorithms. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(\\log N) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm that typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. With minor modifications the algorithm might be also used for sampling with fitness being cut-off at a certain value or for sampling without replacement.

  9. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2012-03-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic and evolutionary algorithms or in modeling of complex networks. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(logN) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm, which typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. We also discuss a hybrid version, which might be suitable for highly heterogeneous weight distributions, found, for example, in some models of complex networks. With minor modifications, the algorithm might also be used for sampling with fitness cut-off at a certain value or for sampling without replacement.

  10. Solar wheel chair; Solar kurumaisu (iryokei no tachiba kara no kokoromi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, K. [Gunma Prefectural College of Health Sciences, Gunma (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Physically handicapped people due to accidents for example have been increasing yearly in number with the increase of the aged, spread of cars, and change in the living environment. Therefore, participation in society by such people as called the weak is indispensable. Under the circumstances, as a means of their participation, a wheel chair as a moving aid was examined from the viewpoint of medical treatment and classified into three categories as follows: (1) for the use of the aged who are healthy but leg muscles are weak, (2) for the use of the invalid incapable of moving a part of the body and (3) for the use in sports by people who are disabled in the lower half of the body but healthy otherwise. In other words, prototypes were made for three kinds of solar wheel chair, for the aged, for the invalid and for sport use by the disabled, with a field test performed for each prototype. The wheel chairs were exhibited in the school, used in welfare facilities and driven by a disabled person who participated in 100km marathon. The users` opinions were favorable stating they were able to drive by themselves the new vehicle utilizing the clean energy and to move around by their own free will. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Evaluation of the 30 Ton CHA Crane Wheel Axle Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An existing design for eccentric bushings was utilized and updated as necessary to accommodate minor adjustment as required to correct wheel alignment on the North West Idler wheel. The design is revised to install eccentric bushings on only one end

  12. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pizza

    Full Text Available Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, narcolepsy type 2 (NT2 and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population.We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1 and 470 healthy subjects.Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years, a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30-3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26-3.30], as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps. Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56-2.69]. Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects.Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment.

  13. Bucket wheel excavators: variable mining equipment in the focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, G.; Jurisch, H. (Schwermaschinenbau Lauchhammerwerk AG, Lauchhammer (Germany). TAKRAF Tagebautechnik)

    1992-01-01

    Specifications and performance parameters of different types of bucket wheel excavators are given. Factors discussed include: bucket wheel power requirement, discharge of the bucket wheel boom, structure of the digging unit, variations in the loading units, and adaptation of the crawler vehicle. 15 figs., 4 refs.

  14. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  15. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary conditions for nose wheels... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  16. The motor car past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo; Cavallino, Francesco; Filtri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to automotive engineering, to give freshmen ideas about this technology. The text is subdivided in parts that cover all facets of the automobile, including legal and economic aspects related to industry and products, product configuration and fabrication processes, historic evolution and future developments. The first part describes how motor vehicles were invented and evolved into the present product in more than 100 years of development. The purpose is not only to supply an historical perspective, but also to introduce and discuss the many solutions that were applied (and could be applied again) to solve the same basic problems of vehicle engineering. This part also briefly describes  the evolution of automotive technologies and market, including production and development processes. The second part deals with the description and function analysis of all car subsystems, such as: ·         vehicle body, ·         chassis, including wheels, suspensions, brakes a...

  17. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  18. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  19. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  20. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl;

    2014-01-01

    Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete...

  1. The time has come for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retail wheeling, the transmission and distribution of electric power for end users, fosters competition and promotes the efficient use of resources. Access to electric-utility transmission and distribution systems would establish competitive electric markets by permitting retail customers to obtain the lowest cost for energy which would meet their specific needs. Among electric utilities and their customers, the idea of allowing market forces to attract supply and set prices is a current controversy. To counter the anticompetitive effects of recent mergers in the wholesale market, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has mandated open transmission access for wholesale customers. However, the FERC denied access to retail customers and qualifying facilities (QF) in both its Northeast Utilities (FERC case No. EC-90-1 90) and PacifiCorp (U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for D.C., 89-1333) decisions. Retail wheeling will benefit both consumers and producers. The ability of large customers to purchase power from the lowest cost sources and have it transmitted to their facilities, will save American industrial and commercial customers at least $15 billion annually. The Increased efficiency resulting from competition would also reduce residential electric bills. Through retail wheeling, independent power producers can market their capacity to a greater customer base, and traditional utilities will benefit from access to other utilities markets with the more efficient utilities prospering. Retail wheeling will, therefore, reward efficient utilities and encourage inefficient utilities to improve

  2. Before the Outline--The Writing Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Colleen

    1986-01-01

    To help students write more effectively, a technique for writing from thesis statements is described that requires students to create a picture of a wheel. The hub is a word that is the essence of the topic; the spokes are concrete examples; and the tire is the thesis statement. (MLW)

  3. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  4. The best selled car. ''Twizy'' leads the sales statistics of electrically powered vehicles - a test report; Der Meistverkaufte. Renaults ''Twizy'' fuehrt die E-Mobil-Verkaufsstatistik an - ein Fahrbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, Philippe

    2013-02-15

    Four wheels, two seats, one steering wheel: What does it require more for a small, electrically powered city car? Nothing, says the manufacturer. Two side windows, that is our opinion. With a maximum speed of 80 kilometers per hour and a range of 100 kilometers, the vehicle is certainly ideal for many applications over short distances in the city. PHOTON now uses the ''Twizy'' for almost a year, and gained consistently good experiences.

  5. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220.307 Section 220.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic...

  6. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... interested parties. See 77 FR 2774-2775 (January 19, 2012). After examining the carrier's proposal and...

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  8. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO2-emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  9. [Location of direct injuries in car drivers and passengers on the front seats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakunin, S A; Kalashnikov, M S

    2007-01-01

    The authors give statistics on most frequent variants of location of primary injuries (LPI) in car drivers (CD) and front seat passengers (FSP) of left-hand wheel cars. There was neither significant intra- and intergroup difference in the incidence of injuries nor LPI both in the groups and between the groups. Prevalence of LPI in CD on the left and in FSP on the right side of the body was not confirmed statistically. Significantly higher frequency of pubic injuries was found in FSP versus CD which is explained by different biomechanical route of the body dislocation in strong primary blow. The authors believe this sign to be distinctive and propose to use it in forensic-medical examinations. They also advocate wider use of section roentgenography and medico-criminalistic methods to raise detectability of characteristic body injuries which is essential because of a great rise in the number of modern cars on the roads decorated with less traumatic materials. PMID:17598439

  10. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing... be selected as the result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. The selection method must...

  11. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  12. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  13. Chinese Sojourn Labor and the American Transcontinental Railroad

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Alan Carson

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the institutional arrangements and labor market forces that interacted in the construction of America's transcontinental railroad. The demand for Chinese laborers on the transcontinental railroad was a product of a complex set of relationships, including the transaction costs of turnover costs, labor queuing and demand-side learning. Institutions that facilitated the supply of Chinese workers included the Chinese Six Companies. The influences of external factors, such as ...

  14. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  15. Railroad Lines, To provide railroads of Louisiana, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'To provide railroads of Louisiana'. The extent of these data is...

  16. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  17. Railroad Lines, This is an ESRI feature class of Railroads within Rock County, Wisconsin., Published in 2001, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2001. It is described as 'This is an ESRI feature class of Railroads within Rock County, Wisconsin.'. Data by this publisher are...

  18. Numerical analysis of small recessed silicon carbide grinding wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Jackson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Silicon carbide grinding wheels are tools used in manufacturing industry to form precision componentsand continue to be used to increase production rates due to their ability to remove high volumes of material athigh speeds. There is a demand to increase the speed of rotation of the grinding wheel in order to achieve highremoval rates. The increase in speed creates a situation where the grinding machine and the operator are subjectedto a possible catastrophic failure of the wheel due to the stresses generated in the coarse brittle structure of thevitrified grinding wheel. The study focused on building and analyzing computer models of grinding wheels withrecessed features spinning at different rotational speeds. By employing a computational approach, it was possibleto determine the maximum principal stresses in the wheel together with the location of the stresses. The geometryof vitrified wheels considered included a plain-sided rotating wheel and a recessed rotating wheel.Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how stresses and factors of safety are calculated in order topredict the bursting speeds of small recessed SiC grinding wheels. The main methods used include finite elementanalysis and mechanical testing of abrasive materials. The approach of the paper is to integrate the use of numericalanalysis techniques and experimental techniques to predict the safe operating conditions of SiC abrasive products.Findings: Calculations were conducted to determine maximum stress in parallel-sided and recessed cup wheels.Relevant factors of safety and bursting speed were also calculated and compared with experimental data. Thepaper proves the usefulness and applicability of a method developed for taking account of stress concentrationsat the recess of small cup-shaped silicon carbide grinding wheels.Research limitations/implications: The paper is limited to analyzing small recessed SiC grinding wheels.Further work should focus on large

  19. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  20. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use for...

  1. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  2. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate of EV and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. At 30% penetration of EV, off-peak charging would result in a 20% higher, more stable base load and no additional peak load at the national level and up to 7% higher peak load at the household level. Therefore, if off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not require additional generation capacity, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles. GHG emissions from electric driving depend most on the fuel type (coal or natural gas) used in the generation of electricity for charging, and range between 0 g km-1 (using renewables) and 155 g km-1 (using electricity from an old coal-based plant). Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for EV charging would largely be generated using natural gas, emitting 35-77 g CO2eq km-1. We find that total cost of ownership (TCO) of current EV are uncompetitive with regular cars and series hybrid cars by more than 800 EUR year-1. TCO of future wheel motor PHEV may become competitive when batteries cost 400 EUR kWh-1, even without tax incentives, as long as one battery pack can last for the lifespan of the vehicle. However, TCO of future battery powered cars is at least 25% higher than of series hybrid or regular cars. This cost gap remains unless cost of batteries drops to 150 EUR kWh-1 in the future. Variations in driving cost from charging patterns have negligible influence on TCO. GHG abatement costs using plug-in hybrid cars are currently 400-1400 EUR tonne-1 CO2eq and may come down to -100 to 300 EUR tonne-1. Abatement cost using battery powered

  3. Wheel traffic effect on air-filled porosity and air permeability in a soil catena across the wheel rut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu;

    than at the periphery of the wheel rut (0.4 m) or outside the wheel rut. At least one of these differences εa was significant at all soil depths . At all matric potentials, the ka was lowest at the periphery of the wheel rut and highest outside the wheel rut, with intermediate values inside the wheel...... catena running from center of the wheel rut to un wheeled part of the field ( 0, 20, 40, 50,60 and 400 cm horizontal distance). We measured water retention and air permeability (ka) at -30, -100 and -300 hPa matric potentials. At -100 hPa, we obtained consistently lower air filled under the wheel rut......The impact of wheel traffic on soil physical properties is usually quantified by randomly collecting soil cores at specific depths below the wheeled surface. However, modeling studies as well as few measurements indicated a non-uniform stress distribution in a catena across the wheel rut, which...

  4. Railroad Lines, Railroad Crossings: Public Roads, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as...

  5. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  6. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  7. The relationship between four-wheel drives and risky driving behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the increased number of four wheel drive (4WD vehicles in Qatar and their involvement in crashes, casualties and road fatalities, it is important to understand the association between risky driving behavior and 4WD crashes. Aim/Objective: This study aimed to determine the association between risky driving behaviours and 4WD vehicles and its impact on road traffic accidents in the State of Qatar. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique to recruit 1824 drivers of two wheel drive (small cars and 4WD across different primary health centres (PHCs in Qatar. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ and Driver Skill Inventory (DSI were used to collect the data. Information regarding socio-demographic and road traffic crashes during last three years was also obtained. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Results: 762 (41.8% owned 4WD vehicles. Drivers of 4WD were significantly higher between 30-50 years age (P < 0.001, urban dwellers (P = 0.003, having more driving experience (atleast 5 years (P < 0.001 and annual mileage higher than the drivers of small cars (P < 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of 4WD drivers had previous penalties for traffic violations such as crossing a red traffic signal (51.6% vs. 21.4%; P < 0.001 or exceeding the speed limit (35% vs. 27.8%; P < 0.001. A higher proportion of 4WDs' drivers reported previous involvement in accidents as compared to the drivers of small cars (42.4% vs. 35.7%; p 0.004. The risk of accident involvement was 1.21 times higher among drivers of 4WD as compared to the counterparts (OR 1.21; 95%CI; 1.01-1.46. Besides, excessive speed, annual mileage, male gender, traffic violations, lapses, errors and driving skills were significantly associated with crashes. Conclusion: The drivers of 4WD cars are at higher risk of crashes as compared to the drivers of small cars. Also, they have

  8. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. Because modern... Task Force is developing new industry standards for safety appliance arrangements on new car... alternative standards relating to the safety appliance arrangements on any passenger car type considered to...

  9. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  10. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,254), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC...

  11. Improved Squeaky Wheel Optimisation for Driver Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe; Li, Jingpeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a technique called Improved Squeaky Wheel Optimisation for driver scheduling problems. It improves the original Squeaky Wheel Optimisations effectiveness and execution speed by incorporating two additional steps of Selection and Mutation which implement evolution within a single solution. In the ISWO, a cycle of Analysis-Selection-Mutation-Prioritization-Construction continues until stopping conditions are reached. The Analysis step first computes the fitness of a current solution to identify troublesome components. The Selection step then discards these troublesome components probabilistically by using the fitness measure, and the Mutation step follows to further discard a small number of components at random. After the above steps, an input solution becomes partial and thus the resulting partial solution needs to be repaired. The repair is carried out by using the Prioritization step to first produce priorities that determine an order by which the following Construction step then schedul...

  12. Smart Wheel Chair for Visually Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Pratap Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The visually impaired persons suffer from lack of confidence, restricted mobility and dependence on others in their daily life. This paper proposes an embedded system design of a smart wheel chair aiming for visually impaired using high-end technical tools like AVR Studio, ATMEGA 16 Development Board (Atmel Corporation, proximity sensors and DTMF Decoder. The movement of wheelchair is controlled by cellular phones specifically designed for the visually challenged people (Toshiba, Huawei, Sens are companies that manufacture such specific mobiles. In this paper existing designs of wheel chair are also discussed. In addition to being user-friendly, the proposed design also provides a high degree of mobility and defence against obstacles for the visually impaired. Further the design is also tested using Printed Circuit Board (PCB and the results obtained are in perfect accordance with the expectations. This proposed smart chair design outperforms the existing designs in terms of obstacle avoidance and technology.

  13. Advanced Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Fan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems is an orderly presentation of recent ideas for overcoming the complications inherent in the control of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) systems, in the presence of uncertain dynamics, nonholonomic kinematic constraints as well as underactuated configurations. The text leads the reader in a theoretical exploration of problems in kinematics,dynamics modeling, advanced control design techniques,and trajectory generation for WIPs. An important concern is how to deal with various uncertainties associated with the nominal model, WIPs being characterized by unstable balance and unmodelled dynamics and being subject to time-varying external disturbances for which accurate models are hard to come by.   The book is self-contained, supplying the reader with everything from mathematical preliminaries and the basic Lagrange-Euler-based derivation of dynamics equations to various advanced motion control and force control approaches as well as trajectory generation met...

  14. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  15. A magneto-electric quantum wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Feigel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Here we show that self-propulsion in quantum vacuum may be achieved by rotating or aggregating magneto-electric nano-particles. The back-action follows from changes in momentum of electro-magnetic zero-point fluctuations, generated in magneto-electric materials. This effect may provide new tools for investigation of the quantum nature of our world. It might also serve in the future as a "quantum wheel" to correct satellite orientation in space.

  16. Bucket wheel excavators VABE 550 in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In June 1989, China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CNM Corp.) and Voest-Alpine Bergtechnik (VA-Bergteknik) signed a contract for the engineering and delivery of 3 bucket wheel excavators type VABE 550 to be used in a large open pit brown coal mine in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. This article provides technical data relating to the excavators and discusses the results of a performance test conducted after completion of erection and commissioning. 2 photos.

  17. Tram wheel modelling for dynamic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, Luděk; Veselý, Jan; Podruh, J.

    Brno : SVS FEN s.r.o., 2003, s. 1-7. ISBN 80-239-1598-3. [ANSYS & STAR-CD Users' Meeting /11./. Znojmo (CZ), 25.09.2003-26.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/02/0241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : tram wheel * experimental modal analysis Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  18. Hybrid uranyl-vanadium nano-wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchyk, G A; Wylie, E M; Prizio, S; Szymanowski, J E S; Sigmon, G E; Burns, P C

    2015-06-25

    Hybrid uranyl-vanadium oxide clusters intermediate between transition metal polyoxometalates and uranyl peroxide cage clusters were obtained by dissolving uranyl nitrate in the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate mixed with an aqueous solution containing vanadium. Where sulfate was present, wheel-shaped {U20V20} crystallized and contains ten sulfate tetrahedra, and in the absence of added sulfate, {U2V16}, a derivative of {V18}, was obtained. PMID:26008125

  19. Influence of wheel configuration on wheelchair basketball performance: wheel stiffness, tyre type and tyre orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B S; Lemstra, M; van der Woude, L H V; Vegter, R; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to explore the lateral stiffness of different sports wheelchair wheels available to athletes in 'new' and 'used' conditions and to determine the effect of (a) stiffness, (b) tyre type (clincher vs. tubular) and (c) tyre orientation on the physiological and biomechanical responses to submaximal and maximal effort propulsion specific to wheelchair basketball. Eight able-bodied individuals participated in the laboratory-based testing, which took place on a wheelchair ergometer at two fixed speeds (1.1 and 2.2 m s(-1)). Outcome measures were power output and physiological demand (oxygen uptake and heart rate). Three participants with experience of over-ground sports wheelchair propulsion also performed 2 × 20 m sprints in each wheel configuration. Results revealed that wheels differed significantly in lateral stiffness with the 'new' Spinergy wheel shown to be the stiffest (678.2 ± 102.1 N mm(-1)). However the effects of stiffness on physiological demand were minimal compared to tyre type whereby tubular tyres significantly reduced the rolling resistance and power output in relation to clincher tyres. Therefore tyre type (and subsequently inflation pressure) remains the most important aspect of wheel specification for athletes to consider and monitor when configuring a sports wheelchair. PMID:25726151

  20. Flow Visualization around a Simplified Two-Wheel Landing Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Alis; Feltham, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The flow topology around a simplified two-wheel landing gear model is investigated experimentally by employing the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique in a recirculating water channel. The landing gear test model consists of two identical wheels, an axle, a main strut and a support strut. The flow Reynolds number based on wheel diameter is 31,500 and wheels with varying geometric details are considered. Flow structures have been identified through analysis of long-time video recordings and linked to the model geometry. In the flow region above the wheels (wing side), the flow in the inter-wheel region either separates prematurely from the inner surfaces of the wheels and forms slant vortices in the near-wake, or remains attached till the aft wheel perimeter. Inclusion of interior wheel wells are found to result in a jet-like ejection as a result of the interaction with the axle and main strut. In the flow region below the wheels (ground side) the near wake contains periodically forming, complex, large-scale structures.

  1. Parametric analysis of wheel wear in high-speed vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wu; Jing Zeng

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the wheel profile wear of high-speed trains and extend the service life of wheels, a dynamic model for a high-speed vehicle was set up, in which the wheelset was regarded as flexible body, and the actual mea-sured track irregularities and line conditions were considered. The wear depth of the wheel profile was calculated by the well-known Archard wear law. Through this model, the influence of the wheel profile, primary suspension stiffness, track gage, and rail cant on the wear of wheel profile were studied through multiple iterative calculations. Numerical simulation results show that the type XP55 wheel profile has the smallest cumulative wear depth, and the type LM wheel profile has the largest wear depth. To reduce the wear of the wheel profile, the equivalent conicity of the wheel should not be too large or too small. On the other hand, a small primary vertical stiffness, a track gage around 1,435-1,438 mm, and a rail cant around 1:35-1:40 are beneficial for dynamic per-formance improvement and wheel wear alleviation.

  2. Rotating target wheel for the FMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Davids, C.N.; Falout, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In anticipation of high intensity beams that will be available from the PII-ECR source injector to ATLAS, a new rotating target wheel was developed for the sliding seal chamber at the FMA. The wheel is 9 inch in diameter and contains up to ten targets. The rotation of the wheel is achieved by a DC motor, a ferrofluidic feedthrough, and a gear mechanism that allows both target rotation and changing the target angle relative to the beam. The nominal rotation speed is 1000 RPM, although higher speeds can be achieved if necessary. The assembly is equipped with an absolute encoder which is read out via a newly developed CAMAC module. This module provides the following main functions: (1) a TTL signal to be used for sweeping the beam when a target frame is about to pass through the beam, (2) a read-out of the target position that can be included in the data event structure, (3) programmable set points for the beam-off signal. The system is presently being tested and will be used in experiments scheduled for March 1995.

  3. Application of Monte Carlo-based statistical significance determinations to the Beta Cephei stars V400 Car, V401 Car, V403 Car and V405 Car

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbrecht, C. A.; Frescura, F. A. M.; Frank, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    We have used Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis and Monte Carlo significance tests to detect periodicities above the 3-sigma level in the Beta Cephei stars V400 Car, V401 Car, V403 Car and V405 Car. These methods produce six previously unreported periodicities in the expected frequency range of excited pulsations: one in V400 Car, three in V401 Car, one in V403 Car and one in V405 Car. One of these six frequencies is significant above the 4-sigma level. We provide statistical significances for...

  4. Compatibility of radioactive materials transportation with railroad operations: two views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has a growing need for safe, economical and efficient transport of nuclear spent fuel and similar radioactive materials. In most cases railroads are the clearly economic mode of transport. Many US rail carriers have shown an increasing reluctance - in some instances an outright refusal - to handle these commodities. This is in spite of very stringent packaging and safety regulations, and a virtually perfect accident record to date. Following several years of fruitless discussions with the railroads on this issue, the nuclear industry filed several complaints with the Interstate Commerce Commission seeking to force the railroads to handle this traffic in normal operations. The history and results of the investigations stemming from these complaints are covered in other papers. The testimony, exhibits and briefs submitted in these cases illustrate the reasons for the railroads' safety concerns and why they believe certain train operating restrictions will produce a safer transport environment. Despite the acknowledged sturdiness of spent fuel casks, the rail industry has not been convinced that the tests and model simulations used by the nuclear industry to design and certify casks adequately portrayed the forces actually generated in a railroad accident. The most significant of the operating changes proposed by the carriers in response to this concern was the requirement that spent fuel be moved only in special trains.According to the railroads, this would permit closer monitoring; reduce both the probability and consequences of accidents; permit better control of speeds; and minimize switching and terminal handling. A review of the material submitted by both the protestants and respondents in these proceedings provides a clearer understanding of the litigants' respective positions, as well as some insights into practical railroading as it pertains to the transportation of nuclear materials

  5. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  6. GIS for Nevada railroads: 1993 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on a task within a large, ongoing study by the University of Nevada, Reno to examine the safety of Nevada railroads. The overall goal, of which this year's research is a middle stage, is to develop models based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS). These models are to enable the selection of the best and safest railway routes for the transport of high-level nuclear waste across Nevada to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Last year's research concluded that the databases are adequate and that GIS are feasible and desirable for displaying the multi-layered data required to reach decisions about safety. It developed several database layers. This report deals with work during 1993 on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for rail-route selection. The goal was to identify and assemble many of the databases necessary for the models. In particular, the research aimed to identify (a) any problems with developing database layers; and (b) the level of effort required. This year's effort developed database layers for two Nevada counties: Clark and Lincoln. The layers dealt with: topographic information, geologic information, and land ownership. These are among the most important database layers. The database layers were successfully created. No significant problems arose in developing them. The level of effort did not exceed the expected level. The most effective approach is by means of digital, shaded relief maps. (Sample maps appear in plates.) Therefore, future database development will be straightforward. Research may proceed on the full development of shaded relief elevation maps for Elko, White Pine, Nye and Eureka counties and with actual modeling for the selection of a route or routes between the UP/SP line in northern Nevada and Yucca Mountain

  7. Examination of the causes of a bucket wheel fracture in a bucket wheel excavator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusinski, E.; Harnatkiewicz, P.; Kowalczyk, M.; Moczko, P. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A bucket wheel excavator failure occurred in a brown-coal mine. The failure was caused by a fractured shaft of the bucket wheel. An attempt to determine the causes of the bucket wheel shaft fracture has been made. To that end, the character of changing loads and their maximum amplitudes has been determined by performing measurements on the excavator. A discreet model of the shaft was built and a numerical simulation of the shaft operation using the FEM method was achieved. An analysis of the materials in the fracture area was also implemented. Macroscopic and microscopic images of the fracture area are provided. The shaft fracture was mainly caused by a non-metallic inclusion located below the surface of the shaft as a result of its being rolled. Moreover, it was discovered that the shaft had not been heat-treated.

  8. Problems of locomotive wheel wear in fleet replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lingaytis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a research and find out the causes of defects appearing on the wheel thread of freight locomotives 2М62 and SIEMENS ER20CF. Methodology. To find the ways to solve this problem comparing the locomotive designs and their operating conditions. Findings. After examining the nature of the wheel wear the main difference was found: in locomotives of the 2M62 line wears the wheel flange, and in the locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF – the tread surface. After installation on the 2M62 locomotive the lubrication system of flanges their wear rate significantly decreased. On the new freight locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF the flange lubrication systems of the wheel set have been already installed at the factory, however the wheel thread is wearing. As for locomotives 2M62, and on locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF most wear profile skating wheels of the first wheel set. On both locomotive lines the 2М62 and the SIEMENS ER20CF the tread profile of the first wheel set most of all is subject to the wear. After reaching the 170 000 km run, the tread surface of some wheels begins to crumble. There was a suspicion that the reason for crumb formation of the wheel surface may be insufficient or excessive wheel hardness or its chemical composition. In order to confirm or deny this suspicion the following studies were conducted: the examination of the rim surface, the study of the wheel metal hardness and the document analysis of the wheel production and their comparison with the results of wheel hardness measurement. Practical value. The technical condition of locomotives is one of the bases of safety and reliability of the rolling stock. The reduction of the wheel wear significantly reduces the operating costs of railway transport. After study completion it was found that there was no evidence to suggest that the ratio of the wheel-rail hardness could be the cause of the wheel surface crumbling.

  9. Future cars: the electric option

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Avery, NR; Muddle, BC

    1999-01-01

    Global economic, environmental and political issues are pushing car manufacturers to consider electric power systems as an alternative to the current spark ignition engine. In this article, we analyse the power and energy requirements of a modern car and conclude that a viable electric car could be operated with a 50 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack to provide power for cruising and climbing, coupled in parallel with a 30 kW supercapacitor or battery bank to supply additional sho...

  10. Our Car as Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating useful ‘waste’ products in the form of heat and fresh water. The produced electricity, heat and fresh water can be fed into the respective grids or be used directly in our house, office or the school o...

  11. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  12. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF HEATING OF GEAR WHEEL USING NUMERICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Benešová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF HEATING OF GEAR WHEEL USING NUMERICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Benesova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.

  15. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  16. A simulation model for risk assessment of turbine wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Hage, Richard T.

    A simulation model has been successfully developed to evaluate the risk of the Space Shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) turbine wheels for a specific inspection policy. Besides being an effective tool for risk/reliability evaluation, the simulation model also allows the analyst to study the trade-offs between wheel reliability, wheel life, inspection interval, and rejection crack size. For example, in the APU application, sensitivity analysis results showed that the wheel life limit has the least effect on wheel reliability when compared to the effect of the inspection interval and the rejection crack size. In summary, the simulation model developed represents a flexible tool to predict turbine wheel reliability and study the risk under different inspection policies.

  17. Numerical and experimental analysis of a solid desiccant wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Koronaki Irene P.; Papoutsis Efstratios; Papaefthimiou Vassilis; Rogdakis Emmanouel

    2016-01-01

    The rotary desiccant dehumidifier is an important component which can be used in air conditioning systems in order to reduce the electrical energy consumption and introduce renewable energy sources. In this study a one dimensional gas side resistance model is presented for predicting the performance of the desiccant wheel. Measurements from two real sorption wheels are used in order to validate the model. One wheel uses silica gel as desiccant material and ...

  18. Model-based vision for car following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Henry; Nashman, Marilyn; Lumia, Ronald

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes a vision processing algorithm that supports autonomous car following. The algorithm visually tracks the position of a `lead vehicle' from the vantage of a pursuing `chase vehicle.' The algorithm requires a 2-D model of the back of the lead vehicle. This model is composed of line segments corresponding to features that give rise to strong edges. There are seven sequential stages of computation: (1) Extracting edge points; (2) Associating extracted edge points with the model features; (3) Determining the position of each model feature; (4) Determining the model position; (5) Updating the motion model of the object; (6) Predicting the position of the object in next image; (7) Predicting the location of all object features from prediction of object position. All processing is confined to the 2-D image plane. The 2-D model location computed in this processing is used to determine the position of the lead vehicle with respect to a 3-D coordinate frame affixed to the chase vehicle. This algorithm has been used as part of a complete system to drive an autonomous vehicle, a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) such that it follows a lead vehicle at speeds up to 35 km/hr. The algorithm runs at an update rate of 15 Hertz and has a worst case computational delay of 128 ms. The algorithm is implemented under the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobotic Control System Architecture (NASREM) and runs on a dedicated vision processing engine and a VME-based multiprocessor system.

  19. Cars Are Hot in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    MANY Chinese have long dreamedabout the joy of driving. However, in thepast only professional drivers had theopportunity as most cars were stateowned and it was too expensive forindividuals to buy their own.

  20. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  1. Car Safety for Special Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Suzanne Hauser

    1983-01-01

    Various car seats, harnesses, and vests that can be used with handicapped children are described. Suggestions are also made for improvment when existing equipment is not appropriate. A list of resources on the topic is also provided. (CL)

  2. MODELING AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF ALLOY WHEEL USING ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Sasank Shekhar Panda*; Mr. Dibya Narayan Behera; Mr. Satya Narayan Tripathy

    2016-01-01

    Wheel spokes are the supports consisting of a radial member of a wheel joining the hub to the rim with Carbon Fiber, Magnesium Alloy, Titanium Alloy and Aluminum Alloy. The two main types of motorcycle rims are solid wheels, in which case the rim and spokes are all cast as one unit, usually in Aluminum or magnesium alloys and the other spoke wheels, where the motorcycle rims are laced with spokes which require high spoke tension, since the load is carried by fewer spokes. If a spoke does brea...

  3. Vibration issues in passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał BURDZIK; Konieczny, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  4. Vibration issues in passenger car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał BURDZIK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  5. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  6. INTERLINE, a railroad routing model: program description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INTERLINE is an interactive computer program that finds likely routes for shipments over the US railroad system. It is based on a shortest path algorithm modified both to reflect the nature of railroad company operations and to accommodate computer resource limitations in dealing with a large transportation network. The first section of the report discusses the nature of railroad operations and routing practices in the United States, including the tendency to concentrate traffic on a limited number of mainlines, the competition for traffic by different companies operating in the same corridors, and the tendency of originating carriers to retain traffic on their systems before transferring it to terminating carriers. The theoretical foundation and operation of shortest path algorithms are described, as well as the techniques used to simulate actual operating practices within this framework. The second section is a user's guide that describes the program operation and data structures, program features, and user access. 11 refs., 11 figs

  7. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  8. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  9. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  10. Robust Switched Predictive Braking Control for Rollover Prevention in Wheeled Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Antonio Rodríguez Licea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a differential braking rollover mitigation strategy for wheeled vehicles. The strategy makes use of a polytopic (piecewise linear description of the vehicle and includes translational and rotational dynamics, as well as suspension effects. The braking controller is robust and the system states are predicted to estimate the rollover risk up to a given time horizon. In contrast to existing works, the switched predictive nature of the control allows it to be applied only when risk of rollover is foreseen, interfering a minimum with driver’s actions. The stability of the strategy is analyzed and its robustness is illustrated via numerical simulations using CarSim for a variety of vehicles.

  11. An optimal torque distribution control strategy for four-independent wheel drive electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Goodarzi, Avesta; Khajepour, Amir; Chen, Shih-ken; Litkouhi, Baktiar

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, an optimal torque distribution approach is proposed for electric vehicle equipped with four independent wheel motors to improve vehicle handling and stability performance. A novel objective function is formulated which works in a multifunctional way by considering the interference among different performance indices: forces and moment errors at the centre of gravity of the vehicle, actuator control efforts and tyre workload usage. To adapt different driving conditions, a weighting factors tuning scheme is designed to adjust the relative weight of each performance in the objective function. The effectiveness of the proposed optimal torque distribution is evaluated by simulations with CarSim and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results under different driving scenarios indicate that the proposed control strategy can effectively improve the vehicle handling and stability even in slippery road conditions.

  12. Wheel Torque Distribution of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The wheel driving torque on four-wheel-drive electric vehicles (4WDEVs can be modulated precisely and continuously, therefore maneuverability and energy-saving control can be carried out at the same time. In this paper, a wheel torque distribution strategy is developed based on multi-objective optimization to improve vehicle maneuverability and reduce energy consumption. In the high-layer of the presented method, sliding mode control is used to calculate the desired yaw moment due to the model inaccuracy and parameter error. In the low-layer, mathematical programming with the penalty function consisting of the yaw moment control offset, the drive system energy loss and the slip ratio constraint is used for wheel torque control allocation. The programming is solved with the combination of off-line and on-line optimization to reduce the calculation cost, and the optimization results are sent to motor controllers as torque commands. Co-simulation based on MATLAB® and Carsim® proves that the developed strategy can both improve the vehicle maneuverability and reduce energy consumption.

  13. MULTIAXIAL FATIGUE OF A RAILWAY WHEEL STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    CHIN-SUNG CHUNG; HO-KYUNG KIM

    2015-01-01

    Uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue specimens were extracted from a railway wheel steel. The fatigue tests were performed with the stress ratio of R= -1 by using uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue test specimens at room temperature in air. The ultimate and yield strengths of the steel were evaluated. The uniaxial fatigue limit was 422.5 MPa, which corresponds to 67% of the ultimate tensile strength. The ratio of e  e  / was 0.63. Appropriate parameters to predict the fatigue life ...

  14. Innovative stair climber using associated wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Girish Sudhir; Bhoomkar, Manmohan Manikrao

    2016-03-01

    The study proposes an innovative and completely new but low-cost configuration of a platform that can easily climb stairs. This platform serves the purpose of a chassis. Different versions, such as staircase-climbing wheelchair or staircase-climbing trolley for material transferring, can be derived depending on the structure built on the platform. The driving wheels have a shape that completely matches with the profile of the steps. Complex components are eliminated. Thus, this platform is conveniently applicable in the configurations useful for climbing staircases.

  15. The railroad perspective: Issues behind the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rail transportation is a vital segment of DOE's spent fuel program. Most of the shipments from reactors to a repository or to a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility will be by rail, and essentially all of the shipments from an MRS to a repository. Casks must move economically and efficiently, while at the same time providing adequate safety to the public and transport workers, and meeting the legal/institutional constraints. Shippers are faced with the problem of procuring transportation services in a safe manner at a reasonable cost, trying to balance freight charges against cask inventory costs. Carriers are cautious about accepting potentially high hazard materials in routine service, and are worried about uninsured losses in case of accidents. Both shippers and carriers operate under different scheduling and operational criteria. Technical and institutional constraints add to the complexity of the operation. Standardization of shipping casks and rail car design will ease the resolution of the complex problems now existent. This paper discusses the economic, safety, operational, and legal issues surrounding rail transportation

  16. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  17. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  18. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  19. EFFECT OF OPERATION CONDITIONS ON CHANGE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krivoshapov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of analytical determination of the efficiency of the entire vehicle and individual units are stated. The dependences of change of the efficiency depending on the speed and load modes of vehicle operation are specified. The mathematical model takes into account the real characteristics of the road and transport machines operating conditions. The results of calculation of the indicator and the mechanical efficiency of the engine, transmission and the wheel efficiency, total efficiency of the car, depending on the category of roads, weight and the speed of the machine on example of GAZ-3307 truck are presented.

  20. Simulation of Intelligent Single Wheel Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki K. Rashid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Stabilization of a single wheel mobile robot attracted researcher attentions in robotic area. However, the budget requirements for building experimental setups capable in investigating isolated parameters and implementing others encouraged the development of new simulation methods and techniques that beat such limitations. In this work we have developed a simulation platform for testing different control tactics to stabilize a single wheel mobile robot. The graphic representation of the robot, the dynamic solution, and, the control scheme are all integrated on common computer platform using Visual Basic. Simulation indicates that we can control such robot without knowing the detail of it's internal structure or dynamics behaviour just by looking at it and using manual operation tactics. Twenty five rules are extracted and implemented using Takagi-Sugeno's fuzzy controller with significant achievement in controlling robot motion during the dynamic simulation. The resulted data from the successful implementation of the fuzzy model are used to utilize and train a neurofuzzy controller using ANFIS scheme to produce further improvement in robot performance

  1. New Small Wheel Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, T; Pontecorvo, L; Dubbert, J; Mikenberg, G; Iengo, P; Dallapiccola, C; Amelung, C; Levinson, L; Richter, R; Lellouch, D; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance that will be provided by the Phase-I upgraded LHC, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap system (Small Wheel,SW) will need to be replaced. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will have to operate in a high background radiation region (up to 15 kHz=cm2) while reconstructing muon tracks with high precision, as well as furnishing information for the Level-1 trigger. These performance criteria are demanding. In particular, the precision reconstruction of tracks for offline analysis requires a spatial resolution of about 100microns, and the Level-1 trigger track segments have to be reconstructed online with an angular resolution of approximately 1mrad. The NSW will have two chamber technologies, one primarily devoted to the Level-1 trigger function (small-strip Thin Gap Chambers, sTGC) and one dedicated to precision tracking (Micromegas detectors, MM). The sTGC are primarily deployed for triggering given their single bunch crossing identification capabi...

  2. Fatigue Properties of Cast Magnesium Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenming; Luo, Alan A.; Wang, Qigui; Peng, Liming; Zhang, Peng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the fatigue properties and deformation behavior of a newly developed Mg-2.96Nd-0.21Zn-0.39Zr magnesium alloy wheel in both as-cast and T6 conditions. Compared with the as-cast alloy, the T6-treated alloy shows a significant increase in fatigue strength and cyclic stress amplitude. This is believed to be attributed to the change of defect type from porosity to oxides and the increased matrix strength in the T6 (peak-aged) condition. For the as-cast alloy wheel, fatigue failure mainly originated from the cast defects including porosity, oxide film, and inclusion at or near the sample surface. In the T6-treated alloy, however, oxides and inclusions or slip bands initiate the fatigue cracks. Solution treatment appears to reduce or eliminate the shrinkage porosity because of grain growth and dissolution of as-cast eutectic phases in the grain boundaries. The cyclic stress amplitude of the as-cast alloy increases with increasing the number of cycles, while the T6-treated alloy shows cyclic softening after the stress reaches a maximum value. The Coffin-Manson law and Basquin equation can be used to evaluate the life of low cycle fatigue. The developed long crack model and multi-scale fatigue (MSF) models can be used to predict high-cycle fatigue life of the Mg-2.96Nd-0.21Zn-0.39Zr alloys with or without casting defects.

  3. Automatic detection of flats on the rolling stock wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this work was increasing safety of tram, metro and trams operation.Design/methodology/approach: The accelerometers were fixed directly to the rail to provide the system with the best defect signal quality. Analysis of the acoustic signals collected using microphones proved that too much of the background noise limited their usefulness.Findings: It has been proven that all wheel geometry defects can be reliably detected and classified according to the experimentally established defect categories.Research limitations/implications: Exact measurements of the wheel defect geometry may be possible only after collecting huge signals time series along with the wheel measurements taken with other methods to reveal the relationships between them. This goal is hard to achieve, as the system performs already very well, and such experiments would be very costly and time consuming.Practical implications: Integrated wheel geometrical data collected from the wheel ovality, flat spots, and build-up detection system along with the wheel profile information have eliminated all derailments due to faulty wheel geometry.Originality/value: The system presented is the first wheel monitoring application in Poland, its unique feature is that it can be used at low speeds, like those allowed in depots.

  4. Wheeling and transmission system service policy in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a review and discussion of the status of wheeling in the USA and Canada; the pros and cons of the new policies that are evolving and under consideration for wheeling and transmission access; specific case examples of some of the difficulties that have arisen; and the potential for new transmission technology. (author)

  5. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A...

  6. First Wheel of the Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the LAr calorimeters well advanced in module production, the attention is turning to Batiment 180 where the calorimeter modules are formed into complete detectors and inserted into their respective cryostats. For the Hadronic End Cap (HEC) Group the task in B180 is to assemble the wheels, rotate them into their final orientation, and put them onto the cradle in front of the End Cap Cryostat. These tasks have been completed for the first HEC wheel in the B180 End Cap Clean Room. Given that this wheel weighs 70 tons the group is very relieved to have established that these gymnastics with the wheel proceed in a routine fashion. To assemble a wheel we take modules that have already been cold tested, do the final electrical testing and locate them onto the HEC wheel assembly table. Four wheels are required in total, each consisting of 32 modules. Wheel assembly is done in the horizontal position, creating a doughnut-like object sitting on the HEC table. The first picture shows the last module being added ...

  7. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...

  8. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...

  9. The Wheels of Stress Go 'Round and 'Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    "The Wheels of Stress Go Round and Round" teaching idea uses three activity wheels to reinforce stress-related content and concepts. After presenting a definition of stress, the instructor assists students in identifying stressors, and aids in formulating a list of negative, reactive behaviors and a list of positive coping mechanisms. Using…

  10. Considering the Influence of Prerequisite Performance on Wheel Spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Beck, Joseph Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of wheel spinning refers to students attempting to solve problems on a particular skill, but becoming stuck due to an inability to learn the skill. Past research has found that students who do not master a skill quickly tend not to master it at all. One question is why do students wheel spin? A plausible hypothesis is that students…

  11. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory trackin...

  12. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How a private railroad pension affects a... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines whether a pension established by a railroad employer is a private pension that will cause a reduction...

  13. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... of contractor employees at Sec. Sec. 243.1(b), 243.101(e)-(f), and 243.209. 77 FR 6453. These... Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR); Proposed Rule #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AB89 Railroad Workplace Safety;...

  14. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  15. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  16. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  17. 77 FR 25229 - Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company--Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption--in Dallas County, TX Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company (DGNO) has filed a... from Union Pacific Railroad Company exclusive trackage rights over the Line. See Dallas,...

  18. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... filed verified notice of exemption in Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--...

  19. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a) The operating rules of each railroad with respect to radio communications shall conform to the requirements of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio...

  20. Controlling omni-directional Wheels of a MSL RoboCup autonomous mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Moutinho, Ivo; Silva, Pedro; Fraga, Carlos; Pereira, Nino

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Mobile Locomotion is of extreme importance in RoboCup robots. Even though in 2050 the robotic team will very likely use legs rather than wheels, at the moment all teams on middle size league use wheels to overcome other problems first. Most teams are using two driving wheels (with one or two cast wheels), four driving wheels and even three driving wheels. The Minho team has been using two driving wheels for the last 5 years (with two caster wheels), but for reaction speed optimi...

  1. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  2. Nonlinear analysis of the GFRP material wheel hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the current bicycle wheel was replaced by the ones which composed by the wheel hub with Glassfiber Reinforced Plastic (alkali free thin-walled cylinder material, hereinafter referred to as GFRP material and the protective components made up of rubber outer pneumatic pad. With the help of the basic theory of elastic-plastic mechanics, the finite element “Nonlinear buckling” analysis of the wheel was carried out. The results show that the maximum elastic deformation of the wheel hub and the critical value of buckling failure load were restricted by the elasticity under the condition of external loads. Considering with the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the GFRP value of the material, it is demonstrated that the material is feasible to be used for wheel hub.

  3. A fully omnidirectional wheeled assembly for robotic vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of wheeled or tracked platform mechanisms have been studied and developed to provide their mobility capability to teleoperated and autonomous robot vehicles. This paper presents an original wheeled platform based on an orthogonal wheel assembly that provides a full (three-degrees-of-freedom) omnidirectionality of the platform without wheel slippage and with the capability for simultaneous motions in rotation and translation (including sideways movements). A schematic of the basic wheel assembly is shown. The motion of the assembly is unconstrained (freewheeling) in the direction parallel to the main assembly shaft, while it is constrained in the direction perpendicular to the shaft, being driven in this direction by rotation of the shaft. A prototype platform was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of this new concept

  4. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects of...... increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices are...

  6. One smart card, one less car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, B.

    2003-06-30

    A system of car-sharing in Bremen, Germany, a membership-based structure of car-sharing that gives members access to a network of cars stationed throughout the city on a pay-per-trip basis, and without the hassles of car ownership, is discussed. The car-sharing scheme is combined with the city's transit system by means of a smart card that serves both as a pass for the city's transit system and as an electronic key to the cars in the car-sharing system. Future plans include to use the card also as a method of payment for taxis, and organizers are also working with the municipal government to get support for having car-sharing included in the city's official plan. At present, car-sharing stations are simply reserved parking spots for one or more cars, however, future stations are envisaged to include parking for up to five cars, a computer to book cars, direct access to keys using the smart card, parking for bicycles, and information about car-sharing stations, bus, trams, as well as bike and walking routes. Similar, if somewhat more modest, car-sharing schemes are also available in several cities in Canada, including Halifax, Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver.

  7. 汽车轮罩护板选材方案探讨%Discussion of Methods to Select Material for Wheel-house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丽丽; 张娜; 史荣波; 程海勇

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了四种常用的轮罩护板材料,并从零件重量、吸音降噪效果、使用寿命、精度、成本及模具费用等方面对四种轮罩护板进行了综合比较,同时结合车型档次、目标市场和产量等给出了性价比最佳的五种选材方案.即:对于低档车,产量小或者目标市场为低温市场者用HDPE材料,产量大或者目标市场为非低温市场者用PP+EPDM材料;对于中档车,产量小或者目标市场为低温市场者,前轮用HDPE材料,后轮用PP+PET材料,产量大或者目标市场为非低温市场者,前轮用PP+EPDM材料,后轮用PP+PET材料;高档车则用PP+PET材料.%Four materials of wheel-house which Comprehensive comparison for the four different damping, service life time, dimension tolerance are in common use are introduced in brief. materials are made regarding part weight, noise and tooling cost. Five solutions are recommended based on car category, target market and volume of the model. For low class economical car, HDPE material is suggested for low volume model or low temperature service environment. PP + EPDM material is recommended for high volume model or non low temperature service environment. For middle class car, HDPE material for front wheel and PP + PET material for rear wheel are recommended for low volume model or low temperature environment. PP + EPDM material for front wheel and PP + PET material for rear wheel for high volume model or non low temperature service environment are recommended. For luxury car, PP + PET material is recommended.

  8. Installation of the first of the big wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons

  9. Electromobility concept for racing cars based on lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, B.; Kurzweil, P.; Rönnebeck, H.

    For the construction of an all-electric race car, all aspects from engineering design over cost estimation up to the road capability are illuminated. From the most promising batteries for electric vehicle propulsion, the state-of-the art and commercial availability of lithium-ion secondary batteries is critically discussed with respect to cycle-life and unfavorable charge-discharge conditions. A market-overview is given with respect to a small electric car. Different combinations of electric motors and a recuperation system have been investigated. Weight aspects of central drive systems were considered and compared with decentralized wheel-hub drives. As a result, a centralized high-speed drive train based on a permanent-magnet synchronous engine with high-energy magnets seems to be superior due to limited space for assembly.

  10. The Design of FSAE Race Car Speed Display System Based on 51 Single Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Students Formula One racing speed display system is through the speed of acquisition, signal analysis and display output to achieve the speed display. The topics selected the Hall sensor to collect the vehicle wheel edge speed; 89C51 micro-controller and four digital cathode tube to simulate the real-time analysis and display output of the speed signal. In the subject of the implementation process, the signal from the Hall sensor is converted to the rising edge signal to input 89C51; MCU internal timer and counter counts the rising edge number; C language program to count the rising edge of signal and convert it into the speed signal. Finally use digital tube to display car speed. After testing, the system run well, has high reliability and can show the car speed clearly.

  11. 四轮独立驱动轮毂电机电动汽车研究综述%Review on Electric Vehicle with Four-wheel Independent Drive In-wheel Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 宗长富

    2014-01-01

    In-wheel motor electric vehicle is an important development direction for future cars. In view of the present development and its situation in both of the home and abroad as far as the electric vehicle with four-wheel independent drive is concerned, a comprehensive discussion was made. First, the control structure of the in-wheel motor and in-wheel motor electric vehicle was introduced in this paper. Second, the study of electric vehicle with four-wheel independent in-wheel motors at home and abroad was stated. At last, it pointed out that theoretical study and practical exploration are further needed in stability control, urban conditions energy control from the productization aspect and the intelligent control based on driver characteristics, which is an important direction in future research.%基于轮毂电机驱动的电动汽车是未来汽车的重要发展方向,而针对四轮独立驱动轮毂电机电动汽车的发展和国内外研究现状,论文进行了综述。首先介绍了轮毂电机和轮毂电机电动汽车结构和控制特点,对四轮独立驱动轮毂电机电动汽车国内外研究概况进行了说明,最后指出从产品化角度四轮毂电机电动汽车在稳定性控制、城市工况节能控制方面进行深入的理论研究和实践探索,而充分发挥其控制优势进行基于驾驶员特性的智能控制是未来研究的重要内容。

  12. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  13. Car car cars:车库梦想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    在曾经关于南京摇滚大集合的专题中我们介绍过这支年轻而有趣的乐队,当时他们刚刚开始,最令人印象深刻是男吉他+女鼓手的车库摇滚乐队配置,今年,他们在近一年的辗转与坚持中,越来越多地参与到南京、北京和更多城市的演出中,同时独立发行了乐队的首张同名EP。Car Car Cars的名字和他们热衷的车库风格鲜明地联系在一起,而除了对于风格上的暗示,这个名字与他们最初组建时一直在一间废弃的驾校模拟器教室排练有很大关系。“里面有很多那种模驾练习机嘛,当时就想取一个和“车”有关的乐队名字应该很酷,就叫CAR CAR CARS吧!”酷的不只有名字,Car Car Cars由兄妹二人组成,主唱兼吉他手小汤是年轻的哥哥。鼓手是漂亮的妹妹,这种无意间造就的话题性让人有意无意地联系统The White Stripes。除了外型、配置上的天生抢眼,Car Car Cars这一年中的数场演出,也展示了他们凌厉的台风与属于车库的狂野,首张EP一上来就使用了同期录音的方式,展示了很多惊喜,虽然也不可避免地了一些些遗憾。在进一步的发展中。克服了创作、表现力的一些进阶困难之后,Car Car Cars完全有实力为风格趋于过份统一的国内年轻摇滚圈添上与众不同的一笔。

  14. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease...

  15. Infinity properads and infinity wheeled properads

    CERN Document Server

    Hackney, Philip; Yau, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this book sits at the interface of the theory of higher categories (in the guise of (∞,1)-categories) and the theory of properads. Properads are devices more general than operads, and enable one to encode bialgebraic, rather than just (co)algebraic, structures.   The text extends both the Joyal-Lurie approach to higher categories and the Cisinski-Moerdijk-Weiss approach to higher operads, and provides a foundation for a broad study of the homotopy theory of properads. This work also serves as a complete guide to the generalised graphs which are pervasive in the study of operads and properads. A preliminary list of potential applications and extensions comprises the final chapter.   Infinity Properads and Infinity Wheeled Properads is written for mathematicians in the fields of topology, algebra, category theory, and related areas. It is written roughly at the second year graduate level, and assumes a basic knowledge of category theory.

  16. Well-to-wheel energy analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis evaluates separately the fuel cycle (well to tank) and the propulsion (and emission control) systems (tank to wheel). The analysis assessed 75 different fuel pathways (gasoline diesel, Fischer Tropsch diesel, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, and natural gas) and 15 different propulsion systems (conventional, conventional hybrid, and fuel cell) on a single vehicle type (GM full-size pickup). The results show that in terms of primary energy consumption, petroleum hybrid engines or fuel cell engines are significantly better than most natural gas options and all renewable options. However, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, fuel-cell vehicles offer a clear edge (although diesel-engine hybrid vehicles are close), but renewable fuel options using ethanol (from biomass fermentation) offer the lowest emissions. (author)

  17. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  18. Online measurement for geometrical parameters of locomotive wheel set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaihua; Li, Zhengjie; Ban, Tao

    2009-11-01

    Locomotive is the most important parts of a train. Wheel set is the major running components of a locomotive. Wheel set tread is the contacting part with the rail and tread will be worn down gradually. The wearing degree of the wheel set tread is one of the main factors that influence the safety and stability of running train. The measurement of wheel set wear is usually static and by handwork, which limits the accuracy and reliability. An automatic measurement method for geometrical parameters of locomotive wheel set based on optoelectronic technique was proposed. Geometrical parameters include flange thickness, flange height and rim inside distance. Linear structured laser light was projected on the wheel tread surface. The geometrical parameters can be deduced from the profile image. An online image acquisition system was designed based on asynchronous reset of CCD. Precision hardware time-delay and asynchronous reset pulse generation circuits were designed. The entire time sequence of asynchronous reset was researched. Images were acquired only when wheel sets moved into the designed position. The image acquisition was fulfilled by hardware interrupt mode. The measuring system was installed along the straight railway section. When the locomotive was running in a limited speed, the devices placed alone railway line can measure the geometrical parameters automatically.

  19. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  20. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  1. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  2. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  3. Passenger car market encountered depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

  4. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  5. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  6. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  7. Sustainable Rural Energy: Traditional Water Wheels in Padang (PWW) Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Gusri Akhyar; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Azhari, Che Husna

    2010-06-01

    Renewable and sustainable energy is increasingly gaining interest in current research circles due to the debates on renewable energy resources. It is essential for scientists and researchers to search for solutions in renewable energy resources, with effective technologies, and low cost in operation and maintenance. Hydro resources can be considered a potential renewable energy resource. The traditional water wheel with simple construction coupled with a basic concept of technology can be utilised as a renewable and sustainable rural energy system. This paper discusses the case of the water wheel as a renewable energy system employed in Padang, Indonesia. The Padang water wheel is constructed from hardwood material with a diameter of 300 cm and width of 40 cm. It is built on a river using water flow to generate the movement of the wheel. The water wheel application in the area showed that it is suitable to be utilised to elevate and distribute water to rice fields located at a higher level than the water level of the river. The water wheel capacity is about 100-120 liters/min. It could continuously irrigate ±5 ha. of the rice fields. One of the advantages of this water wheel type is to function as a green technology concept promising no negative effect on the environment. The traditional water wheel has also a big economic impact on the rural economy, increasing the productivity of the rice fields. The people of Padang live in a water landscape encompassing the water wheel as an ubiquitous part of their lives, hence they relate to it and the technology of fabrication as well as the utilisation, making it an amenable and effective technology, finding relevance in the modern world.

  8. Interaction between a railway track and uniformly moving tandem wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskiy, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    Interaction among loaded wheels via railway track is studied. The vertical parametric oscillations of an infinite row of identical equally spaced wheels, bearing constant load and uniformly moving over a railway track, are calculated by means of Fourier series technique. If the distance between two consecutive wheels is big enough, then one can disregard their interaction via the railway track and consider every wheel as a single one. In this case, however, the Fourier series technique represents an appropriate computation time-saving approximation to a Fourier integral transformation technique that describes the oscillations of a single moving wheel. Two schemes are considered. In the first scheme, every wheel bears the same load. In the second one, consecutive wheels bear contrarily directed loads of the same magnitude. The second scheme leads to simpler calculations and so is recommended to model the wheel-track interaction. The railway track periodicity due to sleeper spacing is taken into account. Each period is the track segment between two adjacent sleepers. A partial differential equation with constant coefficients governs the vertical oscillations of each segment. Boundary conditions bind the oscillations of two neighbour segments and provide periodicity to the track. The shear deformation in the rail cross-section strongly influences the parametric oscillations. It also causes discontinuity of the rail centre-line slope at any point, where a concentrated transverse force is applied. Therefore, Timoshenko beam properties with respect to the topic of this paper are discussed. Interaction between a railway track and a bogie moving at moderate speed is studied. The study points to influence of the bogie frame oscillations on variation in the wheel-rail contact force over the sleeper span. The simplified bogie model considered includes only the primary suspension. A static load applied to the bogie frame centre presents the vehicle body.

  9. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  10. Development of exoskeletal robotic limbs for a rat controlled by neural signals based on a vehicular neuro-robotic platform RatCar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukayama, Osamu; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Ryuta; Suzuki, Takafumi; Mabuchi, Kunihiko

    2012-01-01

    A pair of exoskeletal limbs for a rat has been developed based on a vehicular Brain-Machine Interface "Rat-Car". The "RatCar" is a whole-body motor prosthesis system for a rat developed by the authors, estimating locomotion velocity according to neural signals pattern to move the rat body by the vehicle instead of its original limbs. In this paper, exoskeletal limbs have displaced the wheels for more natural modality of body control. The system was tested by applying peripheral nerve signals from a behaving rat. PMID:23366238

  11. Model-based analysis and simulation of regenerative heat wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Melnik, Roderick V. N.; Borup, F.

    2006-01-01

    The rotary regenerator (also called the heat wheel) is an important component of energy intensive sectors, which is used in many heat recovery systems. In this paper, a model-based analysis of a rotary regenerator is carried out with a major emphasis given to the development and implementation of...... mathematical models for the thermal analysis of the fluid and wheel matrix. The effect of heat conduction in the direction of the fluid flow is taken into account and the influence of variations in rotating speed of the wheel as well as other characteristics (ambient temperature, airflow and geometric size) on...

  12. Symbolic derivation of bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Everett X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels is presented in this paper. Using symbolic mathematic tool Maple, we obtain two holonomic and four nonholonomic constraint equations due to front and rear wheels of a bicycle. We show that the two holonomic constraints cannot be expressed in quartic form for bicycle rear body pitch angle unless the minor (crown radius of the torus are the same for both the front and rear wheels. In addition, we show that all the constraints can be written in differential form, from which a constraint matrix is constructed, according to standard procedure for developing dynamics in robotics.

  13. Impulsive dynamics and stabilization of a single wheel robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ou Yongsheng; Wu Xinyu; Xu Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    The impulsive motion of a dynamically stabilized robot-Gyrover, which is a single-wheel gyroscopically stabilized robot is studied. A method based on the D' Alembert-Lagrange principle is proposed to develop the impulsive dynamic model of the single wheel robot. This method that can be used to find ways to investigate a single wheel mobile robot rolling on a rough terrain is tested using the experimental platform Gyrover. The conditions of falling over without actuators are addressed. Simulations that validate the analysis are provided as well.

  14. Identification of wheeling paths by an extended sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a practical method for identifying wheeling paths in deregulated electricity markets based on an extended sensitivity analysis. Using this method, it becomes possible to decide the proper and fair wheeling rate according to the degree of burden on transmission lines by each power flow transaction. Moreover, a wheeling rate based on the real power flow burden is also an important signal to new power suppliers in the markets. In order to show the validity of the proposed method, a series of simulations on the IEEE 30-bus test system were conducted. (author)

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  16. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  17. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  18. Determining the Air Drag on a Car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Students' cars and wristwatches are used as "apparatus" to introduce and demonstrate Newton's second law of motion. Forces acting on cars are discussed and typical student data (for different makes of cars) are provided. Data could also be used in discussions of work, horsepower, efficiency, and energy cost. (JN)

  19. Car Ownership and Private Car Use A Microeconometric Analysis Based on Norwegian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dag G. Wetterwald

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we analyze household's car ownership and private car use decisions in a model proposed by de Jong (1990). The model, which incorporates variable and fixed costs of car use, can be used to predict the effects of changes in policy measures on the car stock and aggregate use. The model is estimated on Norwegian household data for 1985.

  20. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Minagawa; Xiaoou Zhou; Shin Mineishi; Antonio Di Stasi

    2015-01-01

    T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigati...

  1. Entwurfskonzept einer Car2Car-Multiband-Dachantenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Reit, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the vastly increasing use of wireless services in the car, such as WiFi, Car2Car and LTE, the requirements on bandwidth and radiation pattern of the roof antenna systems become more challenging. In this work, a design concept for multi-band roof antenna systems is presented. We aim to get a higher bandwidth and an almost circular radiation pattern on the horizontal plane. Moreover, the antenna length is considered in order to fulfill the requirements set by construction ECE-regulations (ECE, 2010). The applicability of the design concept is not limited to multi-band roof antennas, it can also be used for a general wideband antenna design. For illustration of this concept, a multi-band roof antenna with a bandwidth of 780 MHz to 5.9 GHz and a near circular radiation pattern with an average gain of G = 3 dBi (at 5.9 GHz) on the horizontal plane is designed. The simulation and measurement results are presented.

  2. Railroading technique of dermal grafting for linear atrophic scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Nirmal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal grafting is a valuable technique in the field of dermatosurgery for the treatment of atrophic scars where the source of filler material is the patient′s own dermis. However, it is underused for the reasons being difficulties in placing the graft in the tunnel, keratin cysts and complications due to biofilms. Railroading technique used in urology for rupture urethra has been described for dermal grafts to overcome the technical difficulties of graft placement.

  3. Obstacle performance of cobalt-enriching crust wheeled mining vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhong-hua; LIU Shao-jun; XIE Ya

    2006-01-01

    A cobalt-enriching crust mining vehicle with four independent driven wheels was proposed. The influence of center-of-gravity position of mining vehicle on obstacle performance was studied. The results show that the mining vehicle has optimal obstacle performance with center-of-gravity position in the middle of suspension. A virtual prototype based on ADAMS software was built and its obstacle performance was simulated. Simulation results show that the mining vehicle with four independent driven wheels has excellent obstacle performance, the maximum climbing capacity is no less than 30°, the maximal ditch width and shoulder height are no less than wheel radius ofmining vehicle. Thus wheeled mining vehicle is feasible for cobalt-enriching crust commercial mining.

  4. Vehicle wheels vibration suppression by dynamic vibration absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinovij STOTSKO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methods of calculation and optimization ofdynamic processes in vibroexcitated constructions with dynamic absorbers. The improved constructions of such absorbers for vehicle wheels vibration suppression are discussed.

  5. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  6. Miniature Reaction Wheel for Small Satellite Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to design, develop, demonstrate, and deliver a miniature, high torque, low-vibration reaction wheel for use on small satellites....

  7. Numerical and experimental analysis of a solid desiccant wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koronaki Irene P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotary desiccant dehumidifier is an important component which can be used in air conditioning systems in order to reduce the electrical energy consumption and introduce renewable energy sources. In this study a one dimensional gas side resistance model is presented for predicting the performance of the desiccant wheel. Measurements from two real sorption wheels are used in order to validate the model. One wheel uses silica gel as desiccant material and the other lithium chloride. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is used to compare the counter flow with the co-current wheel arrangements and to explain why the counter flow one is more efficient for air dehumidification.

  8. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  9. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  10. Characterization of grinding wheels: An annotated Bibliography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClung, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    The characteristics of grinding wheels, after both fabrication and periods of operation, have a significant effect on the processed surface and the mechanical properties of advanced ceramics. An extensive literature survey and review has been conducted to determine and catalogue the various characterization methods that have been investigated and reported. Although many of the references have addressed the grinding of metals, the historical and technical merit justify their inclusion in this bibliography. For convenience, the references have been subdivided into nine subheadings: Nondestructive examination; elasticity and stiffness; wheel hardness; topography and profilometry; observation of texture of wheel surfaces wheel wear; in process monitoring of grinding, acoustic emission, other; characteristics of ground surfaces; and miscellaneous.

  11. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). This report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.

  12. Diesel exhaust exposure in the Canadian railroad work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Finkelstein, Murray M; Kurtz, Lawrence; Smolynec, Kathy; Eyre, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust, in terms of elemental carbon, was conducted as part of a feasibility study in the Canadian railroad industry. Both personal and area samples were collected from three major operating divisions of the railways: mechanical service, transportation, and engineering. A total of 255 elemental carbon samples have been described. The results show that all but six elemental carbon concentrations, expressed as size-selective respirable air samples taken using a 10 mm nylon cyclone, are well below the 2001 proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 20 microg/m3. The concentration of diesel exhaust, expressed as elemental carbon, in the railroad industry is much lower than that in some other major industries such as mining and forklift truck operations. If the TLV is to be applicable to a broad range of workplace settings such as railroad, construction, and mining, the use of a TLV that is based on an elemental carbon measurement of size selective respirable samples, as recommended in the 2001 ACGIH proposal, would appear to be the most valid strategy for control of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:12650546

  13. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  14. Damage evolution assessment and modeling for CBN grinding wheel wear

    OpenAIRE

    YU, TIANYU; Bastawros, Ashraf F; Chandra, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    The wear rate of a grinding wheel directly affects the workpiece surface integrity and tolerances. This paper summarizes a combined experimental-modeling framework for life expectancy of an electroplated Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) grinding wheel, typically utilized in nickel-based superalloy grinding. The article presents an experimental framework to facilitate the formulation of a micromechanics based modeling framework. The presented study investigates the topological evolution of the grindi...

  15. High Speed, Low Weight Momentum/Reaction Wheels

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhide, Larry; Brothers, Louis; Breyer, Eugene

    1999-01-01

    Advancements in several critical areas have made possible lightweight, strong and highly reliable momentum / reaction wheels. The development of reliable bearings with design features that allow high speed operation for space flight applications has significantly altered the weight / speed / wheel design considerations. Current designs typically operate at speeds at or below 6,000 RPM The new retainerless can achieve speeds 10 times that and meet or improve all other significant bearing opera...

  16. The influence of different steering systems on a wheel slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stajnko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modern and advanced mountain tractor allows four different modes of steering wheels: front wheels, back wheels, four wheels and crab steering. The current paper presents the impact of different ways of steering to control the slip in the work transverse on the steep hill slope (39.08%. Design/methodology/approach: For each mode of steering eight measurements were made; four measurements at a forecasted speed of 0.69 m/s and four measurements at a speed of 1.39 m/s. During the two of four measurements the travelling direction was from the left to the right, and vice versa.Findings: The measured slip depended significantly on the steering system, while the driving direction did not cause any differences in the slip.Research limitations/implications: The experiment results presented herein can be applied only with the similar mountain tractors, which allows four different modes of steering wheels. Additional limitation represents the working polygon and the growing conditions of grass.Practical implications: The crab - steering resulted in the smallest slip (5.96% at the average driving speed of 1.08 m/s. When steering with all four wheels, the slip at the average speed of 1.03 m/s increased to 7.27%. The biggest slip was measured when steering with only front wheels was applied. In this case the slip was 8.07% at the average speed of 1.01 m/s.Originality/value: The findings from our experiments indicated that it is very useful to have all wheels steering tractor when working on step slope, because it is grass friendly, offers bigger agility of tractor and improve the safety of the operator.

  17. ARM7 Based Smart Car Security System.

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Shaikh, S. M. Kate

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to offer an advance security system in CAR, which consists of a face detection subsystem, a GPS module, a GSM module and a control platform. The face detection subsystem can detect faces in cars during the period in which nobody should be in the car, and make an alarm loudly or soundlessly. The other modules transmit necessary information to users and help to keep eyes on cars all the time, even when the car is lost.In todays world, many new techniques such as ...

  18. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  19. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  20. Servicing a Connected Car Service

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Benjamin; Varnai, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Increased wireless connectivity to vehicles invites both existing and new digital methods of attack, requiring the high prioritisation of security throughout the development of not just the vehicle, but also the services provided for it. This report examines such a connected car service used by thousands of customers every day and evaluates it from a security standpoint. The methods used for this evaluation include both direct testing of vulnerabilities, as well as the examination of design c...

  1. Railway ground vibrations induced by wheel and rail singular defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P.; Alexandrou, Georgios; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Railway local irregularities are a growing source of ground-borne vibration and can cause negative environmental impacts, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this paper analyses the effect of railway track singular defects (discontinuities) on ground vibration generation and propagation. A vehicle/track/soil numerical railway model is presented, capable of accurately predicting vibration levels. The prediction model is composed of a multibody vehicle model, a flexible track model and a finite/infinite element soil model. Firstly, analysis is undertaken to assess the ability of wheel/rail contact models to accurately simulate the force generation at the wheel/rail contact, in the presence of a singular defect. It is found that, although linear contact models are sufficient for modelling ground vibration on smooth tracks, when singular defects are present higher accuracy wheel/rail models are required. Furthermore, it is found that the variation in wheel/rail force during the singular defect contact depends on the track flexibility, and thus requires a fully coupled vehicle/track/foundation model. Next, a parametric study of ground vibrations generated by singular rail and wheel defects is undertaken. Six shapes of discontinuity are modelled, representing various defect types such as transition zones, switches, crossings, rail joints and wheel flats. The vehicle is modelled as an AM96 train set and it is found that ground vibration levels are highly sensitive to defect height, length and shape.

  2. Milestone reached for the Big Wheels of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandro Palestini

    The assembly and integration of the Big Wheels sectors of the Muon Spectrometer is reaching its conclusion, with only a few sectors of Wheel TGC-A-3 remaining on the assembly stations in building 180. The six trigger chambers (TGCs) wheels and two precision chambers wheels (MDTs) contain in total 104 sectors, which were assembled, equipped with detectors and fully tested over a period of two years. The few remaining Big Wheel sectors still stored in building 180 Most of the sectors left building 180 over the last twelve months, and form the six Wheels currently installed in the ATLAS detector. The remaining two will be installed before the end of the summer. The commitment of the personnel from the many teams who contributed to different parts of the project was essential to its success. In particular, teams coming from countries of different traditions and languages, such as China, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Russia and USA contributed and collaborated very effectively to the timely completion of the p...

  3. Optimization of Angular-Momentum Biases of Reaction Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clifford; Lee, Allan

    2008-01-01

    RBOT [RWA Bias Optimization Tool (wherein RWA signifies Reaction Wheel Assembly )] is a computer program designed for computing angular momentum biases for reaction wheels used for providing spacecraft pointing in various directions as required for scientific observations. RBOT is currently deployed to support the Cassini mission to prevent operation of reaction wheels at unsafely high speeds while minimizing time in undesirable low-speed range, where elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication films in bearings become ineffective, leading to premature bearing failure. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in which maximum wheel speed limit is a hard constraint and a cost functional that increases as speed decreases below a low-speed threshold. The optimization problem is solved using a parametric search routine known as the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. To increase computational efficiency for extended operation involving large quantity of data, the algorithm is designed to (1) use large time increments during intervals when spacecraft attitudes or rates of rotation are nearly stationary, (2) use sinusoidal-approximation sampling to model repeated long periods of Earth-point rolling maneuvers to reduce computational loads, and (3) utilize an efficient equation to obtain wheel-rate profiles as functions of initial wheel biases based on conservation of angular momentum (in an inertial frame) using pre-computed terms.

  4. In-wheel hub SRM simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Milton W., III

    Is it feasible to replace the conventional gasoline engine and subsequent drive system in a motorcycle with an electric switched reluctance motor (SRM) by placing the SRM inside the rear wheel, thereby removing the need for things such as a clutch, chain, transmission, gears and sprockets? The goal of this thesis is to study the theoretical aspect of prototyping and analyzing an in-wheel electric hub motor to replace the standard gasoline engine traditionally found on motorcycles. With the recent push for clean energy, electric vehicles are becoming more common. All currently produced electric motorcycles use conventional, prefabricated electric motors connected to the traditional sprocket and chain design. This greatly restricts the efficiency and range of these motorcycles. My design stands apart by turning the rear wheel into a SRM which uses electromagnets around a non-magnetic core to convert electrical energy into mechanical force driving the rear wheel. To my knowledge, there is currently no motorcycle designed with an in-wheel hub SRM. A three-phase SRM and a five-phase SRM will be simulated and analyzed using MATLAB with Simulink. Factors such as friction, weight, power, etc. will be taken into account in order to create a realistic simulation as if it were inside the rear wheel of a motorcycle. Since time and finances will not allow for a full scale build, a scaled model three-phase SRM will be attempted for demonstration purposes.

  5. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.98 and...... 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect to...

  6. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. PMID:26994970

  7. Dynamic analysis of a container with a single layer of drums mounted on a railroad car suffering collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic analysis has been performed with a new Type of 20' box container qualified as an industrial package Type 2 and 3 and as a Type A container. In the model for a numerical collision experiment the container was partially loaded with 21 x 1000 kg drums, arranged along three parallel rows forming a single layer. One of the aims in the container development was to achieve a system that could transport cargoes with a variable number of drums stacked in changeable configurations, while ensuring the safety of the container for dynamic forces that could arise during normal conditions of transport. This led to the design of an interchangeable tray for the drums that can easily be handled and loaded into the container, together with passive restraining devices that prevent this assembly from moving inside the container when subjected to dynamic forces. The container system is designed to withstand accelerations of up to 6g in the longitudinal direction. One result of the calculations is that stiff support systems are not capable of absorbing the impact forces once the critical velocity of 10 km.h-1 is exceeded, since the forces quickly grow beyond even the design strength of a new 20' box container of 500 kN. In comparison the design strength of today's IP 2/IP 3 container is only approximately 80 kN. In the numerical experiments, it was observed that a soft cushioning support tray system like the one developed by CORROBESCH/STM has excellent shock absorbing characteristics. By contrast, a rigid support system, or worse, no support system at all, is likely to produce impact forces at normal conditions of transport capable of endangering the container walls. (author)

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., published at 42 CFR part 72, or is approved for drinking purposes by the State or local authority having...” occur, as defined in 49 CFR 228.101 (c)(3) and (c)(4), respectively. Every reasonable effort should be... serious physical harm. (k) Urinal means a toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the...

  9. Residual stresses in railway wheels and their effect on damage rates through the life of a wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Bevan, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Wheelset maintenance and renewal comprises a significant portion of the whole-life cost of railway rolling stock. At present, many GB passenger trains have their wheels turned on a lathe at regular intervals to prevent the propagation of Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) cracks in the rim. Evidence from a number of fleets suggests that RCF damage occurs much more quickly as the wheelsets near the end of their life. Wheel manufacturing processes are intended to induce a compressive hoop stress in ...

  10. 轮辋数控加工工艺分析及其加工中心夹具设计%Analysis of NC Machining Process and Design of Machining Center Fixture for Wheel Rim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国政; 周元枝

    2014-01-01

    From the engineering practice,for numerical control (NC)machining setup problem of car's wheel rim,NC machi-ning process of the wheel rim was analyzed,the method of unit normal vector of machining surfaces was used to analyze the part of wheel rim,and the feature of integrated process on NC machine tool was considered,the feasible NC machining process planning was designed. To solve the setup problem of the wheel rim on the NC machining center,the location of the wheel rim was analyzed and the planning of pneumatic clamping was used to design typical machining center fixture equipment. The designed fixture has simple struc-ture and comfortable operation. It meets the needs of NC machining with batch for installing the similar work-pieces,such as wheel rim and wheel hub.%从工程实际情况出发,针对汽车轮辋工件数控加工装夹问题,分析轮辋数控加工工艺,采用加工面单位法矢量方法分析轮辋零件图纸,并考虑数控机床工序集中的特点,制定出合理可行的数控加工工艺方案。为解决轮辋工件在加工中心上的装夹问题,分析轮辋工件定位问题,采用气动控制夹紧方案,设计了一种加工中心夹具装置。该夹具结构简单、装夹方便,适用于轮辋、轮毂等同类工件的批量数控加工。

  11. History, Path Dependence and Development: Evidence from Colonial Railroads, Settlers and Cities in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Remi Jedwab; Edward Kerby; Alexander Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and forces of urban path dependence in developing countries.  Railroad construction in colonial Kenya provides a natural experiment to study the emergence and persistence of this spatial equilibrium.  Using new data at a fine spatial level over one century shows that colonial railroads causally determined the location of European settlers, which in turn decided the location of the main cities of the country at independence.  Railroads declined and settlers lef...

  12. Economies of Density and Regulatory Change in the U.S. Railroad Freight Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzan, John D; Keeler, Theodore E.

    2007-01-01

    Two reform acts, the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980 and the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, represented big changes in U.S. policy toward railroads. An important welfare gain from these changes predicted by researchers was the efficiency gain from increased densities in rail freight traffic. However, few retrospective studies have analyzed the accuracy of these predictions. The present paper fills this gap by analyzing the effects of regulatory changes on freight tra...

  13. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu; Har, Dongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative...

  14. Control for 4-Wheel Individual Steering and 4-Wheel Driving Electronic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Hiroyasu; Tani, Masashi; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Ishii, Akira; Imai, Katsuya

    An indoor 4-wheel individual steering and driving vehicle with full electronics was built for evaluating the system ability and the performance in practical use. Mechanical parts such as the connecting rod and the differential gear are not provided for this vehicle. From trial operation, the characteristics are fully performed as in design, but some problems that originated from the design concept are disclosed. Rotating radius (R) of the vehicle was taken for steering command parameter, but it was found that it is not an appropriate parameter for driving operation. The reasons are as follows 1) R has much different sense of driving conformability for the driver, because it doesn’t refer to the running direction, but to the rotating radius of crosswise direction. 2) Sensitivity of each wheel steering angle against R differs over double figures in full range of R. 3) R changed from plus to minus and also the other way in most practical situations around go-straight operation. For these reasons, the steering command parameter was changed from R to α, where α is the angle between vehicle lengthwise direction and the moving direction. The steering control algorithm using α parameter has been proven to solve the above mentioned problems 1), 2), and 3).

  15. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Mariner混合动力车是一款豪华紧凑型SUV,它采用混合动力发动机,无级变速和全驱动驾驶,续航里程达640公里。如果您是一位不喜欢走寻常路的人,那么这款车型先进的导航系统以及出色的稳定性控制定会给带来惊喜。

  16. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车 10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  17. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  18. Applied design methodology for lunar rover elastic wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Diego; Viola, Nicole; Chiesa, Sergio; Rougier, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    In recent years an increasing interest in the Moon surface operations has been experienced. In the future robotic and manned missions of Moon surface exploration will be fundamental in order to lay the groundwork for more ambitious space exploration programs. Surface mobility systems will be the key elements to ensure an efficient and safe Moon exploration. Future lunar rovers are likely to be heavier and able to travel longer distances than the previously developed Moon rover systems. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is the only manned rover, which has so far been launched and used on the Moon surface. Its mobility system included flexible wheels that cannot be scaled to the heavier and longer range vehicles. Thus the previously developed wheels are likely not to be suitable for the new larger vehicles. Taking all these considerations into account, on the basis of the system requirements and assumptions, several wheel concepts have been discussed and evaluated through a trade-off analysis. Semi-empirical equations have been utilized to predict the wheel geometrical characteristics, as well as to estimate the motion resistances and the ability of the system to generate thrust. A numerical model has also been implemented, in order to define more into the details the whole wheel design, in terms of wheel geometry and physical properties. As a result of the trade-off analysis, the ellipse wheel concept has shown the best behavior in terms of stiffness, mass budget and dynamic performance. The results presented in the paper have been obtained in cooperation with Thales Alenia Space-Italy and Sicme motori, in the framework of a regional program called STEPS . STEPS-Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale is a research project co-financed by Piedmont Region and firms and universities of the Piedmont Aerospace District in the ambit of the P.O.R-F.E.S.R. 2007-2013 program.

  19. Economic efficiency, independent power producers and wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, electric utilities have sought to decrease the cost of production by such means as merit order running of machines, by improving equipment efficiency, by fuel mix, by interconnection and exchange of cheap energy, and by unit participation and firm purchase and sale contracts for long term savings. In the ''new look'', it was suggested that financial and technical competition is not enough, and that economic gains could be achieved through fostering independent power producers, i.e., non-utility generators (NUG's), greater exchanges of economy energy, unrestricted access to the transmission network for moving cheap energy through facilities of third parties, and by bidding to supply energy to non-generators, etc. Naturally, the proposals to change the comfortable and time-hallowed practices by which utility business had been carried out in the past has created an ongoing debate both pro and con, much of it acrimonious, and, unfortunately, some of it ill-informed. The turmoil in the political context impacts on a utility's technical and financial planners, and on their managements, all of whom contribute to justifying and maintaining the flow of capital to the industry and energy to the customer. They must now seek new ways to implement both short- and long-term planning of power supply. Some of the factors that were neglected in the past will demand more attention in the future. This paper discusses some of the costs that, under the anticipated modus operandi, must be integrated into the planning process while meeting the new challenges. The costs are those relating to third-parties, costs of transmission constraints, and costs of wheeling. The opinion is ventured that much of the efficiency improvement anticipated during the debate has already been achieved by conscientious utility managements. (author)

  20. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  1. Driving CAR T-cells forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-06-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  2. Diesel cars in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the causes of the recent increased interest in diesel cars, thereby providing insight into the related behavior of institutions and individuals. This knowledge may improve the formulation of federal policies for diesel, electric, and other more energy-efficient car systems. The study describes developments in the diesel car field over the past few years, and discusses the present status of diesel cars. Historical data were assembled on diesel car sales and on parameters that might have affected the sales. Information is included on the following items related to diesel cars: buyers preferences and why; fuel economy and availability; energy conservation potential; and exhaust emissions, their control and air pollution effects. (LCL)

  3. Electric pulse treatment of rim wheel metal after operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I.Vakulenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Load increase on the wheel pair ax requires the use of railway wheels with the advanced complex of properties. Except strength properties, the properties of metal resistance to defect nucleation on the wheel thread are of high importance. The above mentioned properties increase is possible by using different technological decisions: alloying and heat strengthening. Purpose. The purpose is an attempt to estimate the softening degree of the wheel thread metal using the electric pulse treatment. Methodology. Electric pulse treatment (ET was carried out on the special plant in the conditions of JSC DS (Nikolayev city. As the property of metal strength the Vickers hardness number is used. The microstructure research was carried out using the light microscope. The material for research is the carbon steel of the rim fragment of railway wheel №181732, withdrawn after operation, containing 0,55%С, 0,74%Mn, 0,33%Si, 0,009%P, 0,01%S, 0,06% Ni, 0,1%Cr, 0,08%Cu. Findings. Exposing the rim fragment to electric pulse treatment (ET, the qualitative changes of internal structure of the wheel rim metal corresponded to the experimentally observed geometrical dimensions change of the specimen, depending on the cycles number. As a result of the treatment the reduction of cold strained metal hardness is observed. It was found out 20 % softening on the wheel thread for the І rim area the, for the ІІ rim area the 8% softening and for the ІІІ 11% softening in relation to the initial state. Originality. As a result of electric pulse treatment, the change of the specimen geometrical dimensions is observed. Depending on the number of cycles it causes softening effect. It is proved that the observed softening value during ET is qualitatively connected with the cold strain level on the rail wheel thread. Practical value. As a result of metal cold work on the wheel thread its resistance to the defect nucleation is being reduced. The resulted data can

  4. Evaluation of wheel dampers on an intercity train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färm, J.

    2003-10-01

    Pass-by noise from high-speed trains is one important area that has to be handled in all new train projects. For the new line between Oslo and the Gardemoen Airport which opened in 1998, very stringent requirements were set out regarding external noise. To reach the target it was decided that the train should be equipped with wheel dampers. Two different types of wheel dampers were used on the train; a ring damper was mounted on the wheels of the driven bogies, whilst plate dampers divided into tuned absorber fins were mounted on the wheels of the trailer bogies. During the type testing of the Airport Express Train, additional measurements were performed in order to evaluate the acoustic effect of the plate wheel dampers. Two test series were performed with the same train set; first with the train in standard configuration and secondly with the wheel dampers removed from the second and third bogie. The external noise was measured at 5 and 25 m distance from the centre of the track at speeds ranging from 80 to 200 km/h. The third-octave filtered time histories were analyzed to calculate the effect of the wheel dampers. As expected, there was a significant reduction of 4-6 dB at frequencies above 2000 Hz, but there was also a reduction of 2 dB for frequencies as low as 800 Hz. This reduction was also found in the parts of the time histories when the rail should be dominating. This implies that the wheel dampers also reduce the rail noise. The total rolling noise reduction for the trailer bogie was 3 dB at 200 km/h and 1 dB at 80 km/h. From comparison with TWINS-calculated sound power levels it was estimated that the wheel noise would be reduced by 5 dB and the rail noise would be reduced by 1 dB at 200 km/h.

  5. Parametric study of wheel transitions at railway crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, C.; Markine, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle-track interaction at railway crossings is complex due to the discontinuity of the crossings. In this study, the effect of the local crossing geometry, the track alignment, and the wheel profiles on the wheel transition behaviour is investigated using the multi-body system software package VI-Rail. The transition behaviour is evaluated based on the location of the transition point along the crossing (and the location of impact), the contact pressure and the energy dissipation during the wheel-rail contact. A detailed parametric study of the crossing geometry has been performed, through which the most effective parameters for defining the crossing geometry are identified. These parameters are the cross-sectional shape of the nose rail, which can be tuned by one variable, and the vertical distance between the top of the wing rail and the nose rail. Additionally, a parametric study on the interaction influence of the crossing geometry, the track alignment and the wheel profile is performed using the design of experiments method with a two-level full factorial design. The longitudinal height profile of the crossing and the wheel profile are the most significant factors.

  6. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  7. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  8. Development of a safe car seat

    OpenAIRE

    Malnarič, Vili; Zupanc, Mirko; Drenovec, Mitja

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a list and order of actions to be taken for the successful development and industrialization of a safe car seat. During the seat's development, its safety role in the car has to be considered. With respect to this, the procedures defining the safety characteristics of the products have to be taken into account. The development stages for a safe car seat are merged within three phases, as follows: the preparation of the starting pointsfor the development of a safe car seat, the...

  9. Optimization of an Autonomous Car Controller using a Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seong Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous cars control the steering wheel, acceleration and the brake pedal, the gears and the clutch using sensory information from multiple sources. Like a human driver, it understands the current situation on the roads from the live streaming of sensory values. The decision‐making module often suffers from the limited range of sensors and complexity due to the large number of sensors and actuators. Because it is tedious and difficult to design the controller manually from trial‐and‐error, it is desirable to use intelligent optimization algorithms. In this work, we propose optimizing the parameters of an autonomous car controller using self‐ adaptive evolutionary strategies (SAESs which co‐evolve solutions and mutation steps for each parameter. We also describe how the most generalized parameter set can be retrieved from the process of optimization. Open‐source car racing simulation software (TORCS is used to test the goodness of the proposed methods on 6 different tracks. Experimental results show that the SAES is competitive with the manual design of authors and a simple ES.

  10. Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

    2009-10-01

    We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

  11. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  12. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...\\ 76 FR 62894 (Oct. 11, 2011). \\3\\ See ``Findings and Recommendations of the SOFA Working Group... procedures. Support from railroad management and positive peer pressure from fellow railroad...

  13. Railroad Lines, MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  14. Railroad Lines, Separate layers for active and inactive railroad lines for an eleven county region. Data is a subset from NCOneMap., Published in 2007, NC Dept of Commerce - DCA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Separate layers for active and inactive railroad...

  15. Car-to-car safety broadcast with interference using Raptor codes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, NF; Doufexi, A; Piechocki, RJ

    2011-01-01

    Car-to-car safety applications that demand real-time and reliable communications in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) requires a new paradigm of coding techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel coding approach using a systematic Raptor code for car-to- car post-crash warning broadcast applications. A cross-layer simulator model is developed to evaluate the performance of Raptor codes against repetition codes using also multiple antennas spatial diversity techniques. The end-to-end delay ...

  16. Transmission access and retail wheeling. The key questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casazza, J.A. [CSA Energy Consultants, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The key questions involving transmission access and retail wheeling are discussed, distinguishing between opposing views regarding the effect on system costs and the environment, particularly on optimal planning involving matching capacity and demand, generation use, demand side management, and economic operations. Also discussed are contrasting views regarding the effect of cost control pressures, regulatory advantages and disadvantages, the impact on system reliability, and the stranding of investment. The author`s key concern is the effect of retail wheeling upon optimal planning and operation i.e., will competitors be willing to provide one another with the cost and technical information required for coordination? In his worst scenario, retail wheeling may lead to substantial production cost increases, lessened reliability, and unfair cost-shifting between customer classes. More optimistically, production costs and reliability may be unaffected and the cost-shifting could be salubrious. 7 figs., 11 refs.

  17. Model Design for Water Wheel Control System of Heumgyeonggaknu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Ham, Seon Young; Lee, Yong Sam

    2016-03-01

    Heumgyeonggaknu (????) is powered by a water-hammering-type water wheel. The technique that maintains the constant speed of the water wheel is assumed to be the one used in the Cheonhyeong (??? ) apparatus in Shui Yun Yi Xiang Tai (????) made by the Northern Song ( ??) dynasty in the 11th century. We investigated the history of the development and characteristics of the Cheonhyeong apparatus, and we analyzed ways to transmit the power of Heumgyeonggaknu. In addition, we carried out a conceptual design to systematically examine the power control system. Based on the conceptual design, we built a model for a water wheel control system that could be used in experiments by drawing a 3D model and a basic design.

  18. Fabrication of low cost cutting wheel via thermal spray process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anasyida, A. S.; Nurulakmal, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study is mainly focused on development of metal cutting wheel. The process involved hard particles (abrasives) being bonded on the wheel to enhance the cutting capability by thermal spraying process and followed by polymer bonding. The purpose of this work is to produce low cost cutting wheel and study the performance of cutting behavior. Two different types of powders; silicon carbide (SiC) as bonding agent and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) as abrasives were used. Wear loss and depth of cut as function of load, cutting time and cutting speed were evaluated. The results showed that the speed and load were the main factors that affected the cutting efficiency and the optimum cutting process can be performed at low cutting speed and high load or at high cutting speed and low load.

  19. Transmission access and retail wheeling. The key questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key questions involving transmission access and retail wheeling are discussed, distinguishing between opposing views regarding the effect on system costs and the environment, particularly on optimal planning involving matching capacity and demand, generation use, demand side management, and economic operations. Also discussed are contrasting views regarding the effect of cost control pressures, regulatory advantages and disadvantages, the impact on system reliability, and the stranding of investment. The author's key concern is the effect of retail wheeling upon optimal planning and operation i.e., will competitors be willing to provide one another with the cost and technical information required for coordination? In his worst scenario, retail wheeling may lead to substantial production cost increases, lessened reliability, and unfair cost-shifting between customer classes. More optimistically, production costs and reliability may be unaffected and the cost-shifting could be salubrious. 7 figs., 11 refs

  20. An improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Huang, Mengxing; Ren, Jia; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-05-01

    To better describe car-following behaviors in the adaptive cruise control strategy and further increase roadway traffic mobility and reduce fuel consumptions, the linkage between velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car and the following car's acceleration or deceleration is explored with respect to the measured car-following data by employing the gray correlation analysis theory and then an improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on basis of the full velocity difference model is proposed. Numerical simulations are carried out and the effects of velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on each car's velocity, acceleration, vehicular gap, fuel consumptions and the total fuel consumptions of the whole car-following system with different time window lengths are investigated in detail. The results show that velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car has significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions, and that considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car in designing the adaptive cruise control system can improve traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.