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Sample records for caquizeiro diospyros kaki

  1. Patogenicidade cruzada de Ceratobasidium spp. do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki e do chá(Camellia sinensis e reação de cultivares de caqui ao patógeno Cross pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. from kaki (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis and reaction of kaki varieties to the pathogen

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    Elaine Costa Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Ceratobasidium spp. é o agente causal da doença mal-do-fio ou queima-do-fio em várias plantas frutíferas, em cafeeiro e em chá. Esta doença ocorre com maior freqüência em zonas de alta precipitação e temperaturas elevadas, típicas de regiões de florestas tropicais como a Amazônica e a Mata Atlântica. Em São Paulo, o primeiro relato do mal-do-fio em caquizeiro ocorreu na região de Mogi das Cruzes. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a patogenicidade cruzada de isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. de caquizeiro e chá para ambas as culturas e também para o cafeeiro e citros. Avaliou-se, também, a reação de oito cultivares de caquizeiro, sob condições controladas, a isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. obtidos da mesma cultura. Constatou-se que os isolados de caquizeiro e de chá, embora filogeneticamente distintos, foram patogênicos para ambas as culturas, além de afetarem cafeeiro e citros. Não foram verificados indícios de reação de resistência aos isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. para as oito cultivares de caquizeiro testadas.The fungus Ceratobasidium spp. causes the white-thread blight disease, which affects several fruit trees, coffee and tea crops. This disease frequently occurs in zones of high precipitation and temperatures, typical of the tropical forest regions such as the Amazon and the Atlantic Forests. In São Paulo State, Brazil, this disease was reported by the first time affecting kaki plants in Mogi das Cruzes county. The objective of this study was to test the cross-pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki and tea to both host plants and also to coffee and citrus. This study also aimed to determine the reaction of local kaki varieties to Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki under controlled conditions. Although phylogenetically distinct, kaki- and tea-infecting isolates were cross-pathogenic to both hosts, besides infecting coffee and citrus. There was no indication of resistance reaction

  2. Turboatomizador e repasse com pistola manual na cobertura de pulverização de agrotóxicos em caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L.f. Air-jet sprayer and spray gun in the pesticide spray coverage of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. trees

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    Leandro Riyuiti Higashibara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do caquizeiro vem crescendo em importância no Brasil e, com o aumento do cultivo, tem havido também incremento dos problemas relacionados a doenças e pragas. A pulverização de agrotóxicos é o método mais utilizado na prevenção e no controle desses problemas e a principal forma de aplicação é a pulverização hidráulica com auxílio de fluxo de ar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variação da taxa de aplicação e do repasse na parte interna das plantas em pulverização com pistola manual, na cobertura de calda das folhas. A pulverização foi realizada em plantas de caquizeiro com 17 anos, utilizando-se equipamento composto de trator e pulverizador turboatomizador. A aplicação foi realizada com duas velocidades de avanço do equipamento, o que promoveu diferentes taxas de aplicação. Para a realização do repasse, utilizou-se pistola manual acoplada ao mesmo equipamento. Para a avaliação da cobertura, utilizou-se calda preparada com corante fluorescente dissolvido em água. Foram coletadas folhas nas posições externa e interna das plantas. Posteriormente, em sala escura e com iluminação ultravioleta para destacar a área atingida pelo corante fluorescente, as superfícies abaxial e adaxial de cada folha foram fotografadas com câmera digital. Cada imagem gerada foi submetida à análise pelo software SIARCS 3.0, resultando em porcentagem de cobertura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subsubdivididas com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial (taxas alta e baixa de aplicação, com e sem repasse manual, localizações interna e externa da folha na planta. Foi avaliada a cobertura das superfícies abaxial e adaxial das folhas. Houve interação significativa entre tratamentos (taxa de aplicação e repasse manual, posição e superfície das folhas. A maior taxa de aplicação promoveu aumento significativo da cobertura

  3. Consumer evaluation of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) varieties for a chip-style product (abstract)

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    Asian persimmons (Diospyros kaki) are grown across the state of California, but the availability of this fruit outside the growing area and harvest season is limited. A dried, chip-style product would extend the geographic area and timeframe in which persimmon growers could sell their fruit. Persi...

  4. Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin from young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) in vitro and in vivo.

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    Matsumoto, Kenji; Kadowaki, Akio; Ozaki, Natsumi; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2011-04-01

    The bile acid-binding ability of a highly polymerized tannin (kaki-tannin) extracted from dried-young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) was examined. The kaki-tannin was composed mainly of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin was examined against cholic acid, glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid and deoxycholic acid in vitro, and its effect on fecal bile acid excretion in mice was also examined. Although the bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin was weaker than that of cholestyramine, kaki-tannin adsorbed all the bile acids tested and significantly promoted fecal bile acid excretion in mice when supplied at 1% (w/w) in the diet. PMID:20922818

  5. Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fractions of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

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    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Dried fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) are a traditional food in Japan and contain large quantities of tannins. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of non-extractable fractions from dried persimmons. Hydrolysed non-extractable fractions showed the highest antioxidant activities in vitro. In subsequent experiments, the plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in rats supplemented with a 5% non-extractable fraction were approximately 1.5times higher than those in control rats after 1week in vivo. Furthermore, using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract, the ORAC values of the non-extractable fraction were significantly increased with colonic fermentation in the large bowel stage. These data indicate that non-extractable fractions may possess significant antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26920271

  6. Larvicidal, insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and anti-oxidant activities of Diospyros kaki (L.) reported from Pakistan.

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    Nisar, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad Mukarram; Khan, Imran; Sheema; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Shah, Syed Muhammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Diospyros kaki is cultivated in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan, especially in Malakand division. The current study was designed to investigate the hide potential of the vulnerable species of the plant. Aqueous extracts of Diospyros kaki leaves were screened for larvicidal, insecticidal cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The extract exhibited moderate to outstanding larvicidal activity (100 to 28%) at 100, 80, 70, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10% concentrations respectively after 24 hours, showing 42% LC₅₀. Permitrin displayed 100% lethality at 0.3%. The extract demonstrated outstanding cytotoxic action against brain shrimps nauplii (Artemia salina), showing 10 ppm LC50 which is closed to the LC50 (9.8μg/ml) of standard drug Etoposide. Similarly profound insecticidal potential (100%) was recorded after 15 min against Cimex lectularius. In DPPH scavenging activity the extract demonstrated moderate 30.22%, while Quercetin, Gallic acid and Acetic acid showed 98, 96 and 97% activity respectively at 100 ppm. Thus on the basis of our finding it could be concluded that the decoction of the leaves of D. kaki is a good natural alternative for the control of insects and neoplasia. PMID:26142513

  7. Response surface methodology applied to Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of carotenoids from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.).

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    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Framboisier, Xavier; Frochot, Céline; Vanderesse, Régis; Barth, Danielle; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Blanchard, Fabrice; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol as co-solvent was used to extract carotenoids from persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L.). Based on a response surface methodology (RSM), a predicting model describing the effects of CO2 temperature, pressure, flow rate, ethanol percentage and extraction time was set up for each of the four carotenoids of interest. The best extraction yields in our experimental domain were found at 300 bars, 60°C, 25% (w/w) ethanol, 3mL/min flow rate and 30min for xanthophylls (all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin and all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin). The yields were 15.46±0.56, 16.81±1.74 and 33.23±2.91μg/g of persimmon powder for all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin and all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, respectively. As a non-oxygenated carotenoid, all-trans-β-carotene was better extracted using 100 bars, 40°C, 25% (w/w) ethanol, 1mL/min flow rate and 30min extraction time, with an extraction yield of 11.19±0.47μg/g of persimmon powder. PMID:27132842

  8. Acidic electrolyzed water efficiently improves the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) wine.

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    Zhu, Wanqi; Zhu, Baoqing; Li, Yao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-04-15

    The ability of acidic (AcW) and alkaline electrolyzed waters (AlW) to improve the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) wine was evaluated. Wines made with AcW (WAcW) were significantly better than wines made with AlW or pure water (PW) in aroma, taste, and colour. Volatile analysis showed that WAcW has high alcohol and ester contents, including 2-phenylethanol, isopentanol, isobutanol, ethyl dodecanoate, phenethyl acetate, and butanedioic acid diethyl ester. The total amino acid content of persimmon slurry soaked with AcW reached 531.2 mg/l, which was much higher than those of the slurries soaked in AlW (381.3 mg/l) and PW (182.7 mg/l). The composition of major amino acids in the AcW-soaked slurry may contribute to the strong ester flavour of WAcW. This is the first report to suggest that electrolyzed functional water (EFW) can be used to improve wine flavour, leading to the possible use of EFW in food processing.

  9. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

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    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  10. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

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    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  11. Growth and Photosynthetic Response of Two Persimmon Rootstocks (Diospyros kaki and D. virginiana under Different Salinity Levels

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    Meral INCESU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity continues to be a major factor in reduced crop productivity and profit in many arid and semiarid regions. Seedlings of Diospyros kaki Thunb. and D. virginiana L. are commonly used as rootstock in persimmon cultivation. In this study we have evaluated the effects of different salinity levels on photosynthetic capacity and plant development of D. kaki and D. virginiana. Salinity was provided by adding 50 mM, 75 mM and 100 mM NaCl to nutrient solution. In order to determine the effects of different salinity levels on plant growth, leaf number, plant height, shoot and root dry mass were recorded. Besides leaf Na, Cl, K and Ca concentrations were determined. Also leaf chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’ and leaf gas exchange parameters including leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, leaf transpiration rate (E, and CO2 substomatal concentration (Ci were investigated. Significant decrease of leaf number, shoot length and plant dry mass by increasing salinity levels was observed in both rootstocks. D. virginiana was less affected in terms of plant growth under salinity stress. Leaf chlorophyll concentration reduction was higher in the leaves of D. kaki in comparison to D. virginiana in 100 mM NaCl treatment. By increasing salinity levels PN, gS and E markedly decreased in both rootstocks and D. kaki was more affected from salinity in terms of leaf gas exchange parameters. In addition there was no significant difference but slight decreases were recorded in leaf chlorophyll fluorescences of both rootstocks.

  12. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.

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    Yoko Matsumura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to the research article entitled, “Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.” (Matsumura et al., 2016 [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.

  13. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease.

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    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-08-12

    The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS) disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon) leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  14. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease

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    Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  15. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

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    Fatemeh Forouzanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE and fruit pulp (PuHE of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0–500 μg/mL for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Bile acid-binding activity of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit and its hypolipidemic effect in mice.

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    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2010-02-01

    The hypolipidemic effects and bile acid-binding properties of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit were examined. In an animal experiment, male C57BL/6.Cr mice (n = 5) were fed an AIN-76-modified high fat diet supplemented with 2% or 5% (w/w) dried young persimmon fruit (YP) for 10 weeks. The intake of YP significantly enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and lowered the concentration of hepatic lipids and plasma cholesterol. Analysis of gene expression in liver tissue showed that 2% or 5% YP up-regulated the expression of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 gene. In the 5% group, there were increased expressions of the genes for cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Next, the bile acid-binding ability of YP was analysed in vitro using cholic acid (CA). In 100-2000 microM CA solutions, 1% (w/v) YP adsorbed approximately 60% of CA, while dried mature persimmon fruit adsorbed approximately 20% of CA. The positive control, cholestyramine, adsorbed approximately 80% of CA in the 100-2000 microM CA solutions. A crude tannin extract from YP, which contained 54.7% condensed tannins, adsorbed approximately 78% of CA in the 2000 microM CA solutions. These results suggest that the ability of YP to bind bile acid contributes to its hypolipidemic effect in mice. PMID:19585467

  17. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

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    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  18. Organogênese do caquizeiro a partir de segmentos radiculares

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    Carvalho Dayse Cristina de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki pelo processo da enxertia sobre porta-enxertos provenientes de sementes, ocasiona problemas de desuniformidade vegetativa. O objetivo do trabalho foi contribuir para o desenvolvimento de um protocolo para a regeneração de brotações de caquizeiro do tipo café, a partir de raízes por organogênese indireta. Segmentos radiculares obtidos de embriões germinados in vitro foram isolados de sementes de frutos maduros em meio MSfraction one-halfNO3. As sementes receberam assepsia pela imersão em etanol 70% por um minuto, em solução de hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% por 20 minutos e quatro lavagens em água esterilizada. No primeiro experimento, os segmentos radiculares de 2cm foram isolados em meio de cultura MSfraction one-halfNO3 acrescido de 0,01mM de ácido indolacético e quatro tipos de citocininas nas concentrações 1 e 10mM: zeatina, 6-benzilaminopurina, 2-isopenteniladenina e thidiazuron. No segundo experimento, para o enraizamento das brotações, foram testados quatro períodos de permanência em meio com 10mM de ácido indolbutírico: 0, 5 10 e 15 dias. A maior regeneração de brotos (1,2 brotos por explante ocorreu na combinação 1mM de zeatina com 0,01mM de ácido indolacético. As brotações juvenis obtidas possuem potencial natural para o enraizamento, sendo necessário novos estudos para confirmar o efeito da aplicação de auxinas.

  19. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki on a broad range of viruses.

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    Kyoko Ueda

    Full Text Available Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus. We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses.

  20. Conservação de caqui (Diospyros kaki, L., cv. fuyu, pela aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno Conservation of persimmons fruits (Diospyros kaki, L., cv. fuyu with aplication of 1-methylyclopropene

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    César Luís Girardi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP na conservação pós-colheita do caqui (Diospyrus kaki L. cv. Fuyu. Foram utilizadas frutas provenientes de um pomar comercial de Farroupilha-RS. Os caquis foram colhidos quando apresentavam coloração amarelo-alaranjada. Foram aplicadas três concentrações de 1-MCP (312, 625 e 1250 nL.L-1 durante 24 horas à temperatura ambiente (±25ºC. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, as frutas foram armazenadas em câmara fria sob ar refrigerado a 0ºC e aproximadamente 90% de umidade relativa, por um período de até 90 dias. As avaliações da qualidade foram realizadas na instalação do experimento, aos 30; 60 e 90 dias de armazenagem refrigerada, sendo as análises efetuadas 3 dias após a retirada da frigoconservação, para simular um período de comercialização. Ao final do período, observou-se que as variáveis pH, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável não foram influenciadas pela aplicação de 1-MCP. A produção de etileno não alcançou níveis detectáveis nas condições do experimento. Nas frutas tratadas com 1-MCP houve maior desenvolvimento de cor vermelha. A firmeza de polpa apresentou valores significativamente maiores nos caquis tratados com 1-MCP em relação às frutas do tratamento-testemunha. Não houve diferença significativa entre as concentrações de 1-MCP.The present work evaluated the effects of the 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene on persimmons fruits (Diospyrus kaki L. of cv. Fuyu stored at 0ºC for up to 90 days. Fruits were picked from a commercial orchard in Farroupilha-RS, when skin color was yellow-orange. Three concentrations of 1-MCP (312, 625 and 1250 nL.L-1 were applied for 24 hours in an ambient temperature (±25ºC. Control fruit were kept under identical conditions without 1-MCP treatment. Immediately after treatment application, the fruits were transferred to a cold storage at 0ºC and approximately 90% of

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DA EMBALAGEM DE POLIETILENO NA REMOÇÃO DA ADSTRINGÊNCIA E NA QUALIDADE DE CAQUIS (Diospyrus kaki L.), CV. GIOMBO, ARMAZENADOS SOB REFRIGERAÇÃO

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    ANTONIOLLI LUCIMARA ROGÉRIA; CASTRO PAULO ROBERTO DE CAMARGO E; KLUGE RICARDO ALFREDO; SCARPARE FILHO JOÃO ALEXIO

    2001-01-01

    Verificou-se a influência da utilização de embalagem de polietileno, durante o armazenamento refrigerado, sobre o processo de remoção da adstringência de frutos de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L.), bem como sobre a qualidade dos frutos. Caquis 'Giombo' foram mantidos em câmara refrigerada a 1°C e 95-98% UR, embalados ou não em polietileno de baixa densidade. Após 30 dias de armazenamento, os frutos foram submetidos ao processo de remoção da adstringência, mediante a exposição ao vapor de álcool...

  2. Conservação de caqui (Diospyros kaki, L.), cv. fuyu, pela aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi César Luís; Parussolo Aguinaldo; Danieli Roque; Corrent Adriana Regina; Rombaldi Cesar Valmor

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) na conservação pós-colheita do caqui (Diospyrus kaki L.) cv. Fuyu. Foram utilizadas frutas provenientes de um pomar comercial de Farroupilha-RS. Os caquis foram colhidos quando apresentavam coloração amarelo-alaranjada. Foram aplicadas três concentrações de 1-MCP (312, 625 e 1250 nL.L-1) durante 24 horas à temperatura ambiente (±25ºC). Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, as frutas foram armazenadas em câmara f...

  3. Teores de carboidratos em órgãos lenhosos do caquizeiro em clima tropical Carbohydrate content in persimmon tree woody organs in tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Corsato

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas fruteiras caducifólias, o metabolismo de carboidratos constitui-se no principal mecanismo que garante a sua sobrevivência no período de dormência, estando, também, relacionado ao seu potencial produtivo em safras subseqüentes. Conhecer a forma como a planta utiliza esses carboidratos durante o seu desenvolvimento é um passo importante para o entendimento das suas relações fonte-dreno e para fundamentar algumas práticas de manejo, como a poda e o raleio de frutos. Caracterizar a variação dos teores de amido e de carboidratos solúveis totais em órgãos lenhosos do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L., no decorrer do seu desenvolvimento fenológico, foi o objeto de investigação do presente estudo. O trabalho foi conduzido em um pomar de caquizeiros localizado na área experimental da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ, em Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo, durante o ciclo 2002/2003. A fenologia das plantas foi caracterizada pelo período de ocorrência e duração do alongamento dos ramos, florescimento, desenvolvimento dos frutos e das folhas e do abortamento natural de frutos. A variação dos teores desses carboidratos em ramos e em raízes foi analisada tendo por base os diferentes estádios fenológicos. Ocorreram variações significativas no teor desses carboidratos no período de estudo. A mobilização do amido nos ramos teve grande importância na sustentação de um novo ciclo de brotações. O maior consumo de amido ocorreu durante a abscisão foliar, e a reposição no seu estoque, nos ramos e nas raízes ocorreu, principalmente, entre o florescimento e a abscisão foliar.In deciduous fruit trees, the carbohydrate's metabolism are recognized as the main mechanism that ensures their survival during the rest period. Besides it, the very same metabolism is related to the productive potential in subsequent harvest seasons. Knowing how the plants use those carbohydrates during their development and growth is

  4. Remoção da adstringência de frutos de caquizeiro 'Giombo' sob diferentes períodos de exposição aovapor de álcool etílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIOLLI LUCIMARA ROGÉRIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de exposição ao vapor de álcool etílico na remoção da adstringência de frutos de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L. cultivar Giombo. Os frutos foram expostos ao vapor de álcool durante 24, 36 e 48 horas, sob temperatura de 20°C e 95% de umidade relativa. As características químicas e físicas dos frutos foram avaliadas durante dez dias, em intervalos de dois dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: teor de taninos solúveis, firmeza da polpa, perda de matéria fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e teor de ácido ascórbico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os períodos de 24 e 36 horas demonstraram ser igualmente eficientes no processo de remoção da adstringência dos frutos; no entanto, a avaliação das demais características indicou melhor qualidade dos frutos expostos durante o período de 24 horas. Constatou-se uma diminuição linear na firmeza da polpa em função do tempo. O melhor período para consumo dos frutos situou-se entre o 4°e o 8° dia após o tratamento, considerando-se que a partir do 4° dia a concentração de taninos solúveis ficou abaixo de 0,1%, imperceptível ao paladar, e a firmeza da polpa dos frutos se manteve aceitável durante o período de oito dias posteriores ao tratamento.

  5. Five Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences from Diospyros: Genome Organization and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Liang, Yuqin; Liang, Jinjun; Wuyun, Tana; Tan, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Diospyros is the largest genus in Ebenaceae, comprising more than 500 species with remarkable economic value, especially Diospyros kaki Thunb., which has traditionally been an important food resource in China, Korea, and Japan. Complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from D. kaki, D. lotus L., D. oleifera Cheng., D. glaucifolia Metc., and Diospyros ‘Jinzaoshi’ were sequenced using Illumina sequencing technology. This is the first cp genome reported in Ebenaceae. The cp genome sequences of Diospyros ranged from 157,300 to 157,784 bp in length, presenting a typical quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats each separated by one large and one small single-copy region. For each cp genome, 134 genes were annotated, including 80 protein-coding, 31 tRNA, and 4 rRNA unique genes. In all, 179 repeats and 283 single sequence repeats were identified. Four hypervariable regions, namely, intergenic region of trnQ_rps16, trnV_ndhC, and psbD_trnT, and intron of ndhA, were identified in the Diospyros genomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole cp genome, protein-coding, and intergenic and intron sequences indicated that D. oleifera is closely related to D. kaki and could be used as a model plant for future research on D. kaki; to our knowledge, this is proposed for the first time. Further, these analyses together with two large deletions (301 and 140 bp) in the cp genome of D. ‘Jinzaoshi’, support its placement as a new species in Diospyros. Both maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses for 19 taxa indicated the basal position of Ericales in asterids and suggested that Ebenaceae is monophyletic in Ericales. PMID:27442423

  6. ‘南通小方柿’GA2ox 基因的克隆、亚细胞定位及表达分析%Cloning, Subcellular Localization and Expression Analysis of Gibberellin 2-Oxidase Gene in Diospyros kaki Linn. cv. Nantongxiaofangshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠煦童; 张仕杰; 陈小云; 李宁宁; 辛璐; 薛晓晖; 章镇; 渠慎春

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]This paper aims to isolate the cDNA of GA2ox from Diospyros kaki Linn. cv. Nantongxiaofangshi, and do some preliminary study on their functions and expression level, in order to lay a foundation for further exploration of the dwarf mechanism and breeding of new dwarf cultivars. [Method] Total RNA was extracted from leaves of ‘Nantongxiaofangshi’ persimmon by improved CTAB method. Two fragments were identified from cDNA of ‘Nantongxiaofangshi’ by degenerate primers, and their full length cDNA were acquired by RACE amplification and named as DkGA2ox1 and DkGA2ox2, respectively. Gene structure characteristics were analyzed using the bioinformatics software. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to determine the expression pattern during pre-budding period, budding period, leaf expanding period, tip buds dying period, flowering period, physiological fruit-falling period, fruit coloring period, fructescence and abscission period. [Result] The full length cDNA of DkGA2ox1 and DkGA2ox2 were 1 318 bp and 1 267 bp, respectively, containing 5′ untranslated region (UTR) with lengths of 198 bp and 61 bp, 3′ UTR with lengths of 97 bp and 172 bp, and coding region with lengths of 999 bp and 1 005 bp which encoded 332 and 334 amino acids. The two amino acid sequences shared 73%-77% in homology compared with Populus tomentosa (JX102472.1), oleander (AY594292.1), tobacco (AB125232.1), Petunia (GU059939.1), apple (FJ571521.1), pears (JF441168.1) and grapes (JQ608472.1). The conserved structural domain analysis revealed that DkGA2ox1 and DkGA2ox2 had the typical functional domains of GA2ox protein, containing Fe2+ binding sites (DkGA2ox1: His-205, Asp-207, His-262; DkGA2ox2: His-204, Asp-206, His-261) and 2-oxoglutarate binding sites (DkGA2ox1: Arg-272, Ser-274; DkGA2ox2: Arg-271, Ser-273), as well as the 2OG-Fe(II)-Oxy protein domains. The protein molecular weights were 36 596.1 Da and 37 544.2 Da, respectively. Both of them are stable proteins

  7. Synapse-protective effect of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki in APP/PS1 transgenic mice%柿叶黄酮类化合物对 APP/PS1转基因小鼠脑组织突触的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉莹; 马莹娟; 吴小凡; 侯训尧; 罗鼎真; 陈健; 洪燕; 申超; 刘雪平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨柿叶黄酮类提取物(FLDK)对 APP/PS1小鼠认知水平、突触结构及突触相关蛋白表达的影响。方法20只4月龄 APP/PS1小鼠,随机分为阿尔茨海默病(AD)模型组(AD 组)及治疗组(AD +FLDK 组),每组10只;10只4月龄 C57BL/6小鼠为正常对照组(NC 组)。AD +FLDK 组给予 FLDK 80 mg /(kg·d)灌胃干预60 d,AD 组与 NC 组同样方法给予等量生理盐水60 d。分别采用 Morris 水迷宫测试小鼠逃避潜伏期(EL)及穿越平台次数,电镜观察突触超微结构,并用免疫组织化学方法检测皮层及海马区突触素(SYP)和大脑发育调节蛋白(drebrin)的含量。结果与 NC 组相比,AD 组小鼠 EL 明显延长,穿越平台次数显著减少,突触结构模糊,SYP 及drebrin 表达明显减少。与 AD 组相比,AD +FLDK 组 EL 减少,穿越平台次数明显增多,突触结构更完整且 SYP、drebrin 表达显著增加。结论FLDK 可显著改善 APP/PS1小鼠学习记忆水平,增强突触结构完整性,提高突触相关蛋白含量,具有认知及突触保护作用。%Objective To investigate the effect of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki (FLDK)on cognition levels,synapse structure and the expression of synapse-related proteins in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse. Methods Twenty APP/PS1 mice of four-month old were randomly divided into Alzheimer’s disease (AD)model group (AD group)and treatment group (AD +FLDK group),ten in each group;ten C57BL/6 mice of four-month old were regarded as normal control group (NC group).AD +FLDK group was treated intragastrically with 80 mg/(kg·d) FLDK,while AD and NC groups were fed intragastrically with the same volume of normal saline.Morris water maze was used to test the escape latency (EL)and number of crossing,transmission electron microscope was used to observe the ultrastructure of synapse,and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the

  8. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON

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    Sunitha Chintala et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros melanoxylon is a medium-sized tree or shrub which belongs to the family Ebenaceae. The whole plant is medicinally important and cures several diseases. Therefore, in this context the detailed pharmacognostic study of various parts like leaf, stem, petiole and root has been carried out with the aim to establish its Pharmacognostical standards. The parameters selected were microscopical studies, proximate analysis, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical screening. The microscopical studies of leaf,stem and root revealed the presence of branched trichomes,spiral xylem vessel. In physicochemical evaluation the ash values and extractive values were studied. Fluorescence analysis performed showed the wide range of fluorescence colors for the crude powder. The Diospyros melanoxylon powder was successively extracted with hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethylacetate, ethanol and water for the identification of the best solvent. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out for all the extracts and maximum chemical constituents were observed in the ethanolic extract.

  9. Armazenamento de caqui (Diospyros kaki, L. cv. Quioto, em atmosfera controlada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONAZZOLO JOEL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar, com o presente trabalho, o efeito da temperatura e do CO2 no armazenamento em atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação de caqui cv. Quioto. Foram avaliadas as temperaturas -1,0 e -0,5ºC, e pressões parciais de CO2 de 0; 5 e 10kPa, com os tratamentos arranjados em um esquema bifatorial. Os frutos foram avaliados após 3 meses de armazenamento mais 3 dias de exposição à temperatura ambiente (18-20ºC. Conforme os resultados, não foi constatada interação entre os fatores, havendo efeito significativo para temperatura somente na firmeza de polpa, em que -1,0ºC apresentou frutos mais firmes. As diferentes pressões parciais de CO2 não influenciaram a perda de peso e a firmeza de polpa. As podridões apresentaram uma resposta linear negativa em relação ao CO2, porém, mantendo elevada ocorrência. Valores de CO2 entre 5 e 10kPa proporcionaram frutos com menor índice de escurecimento de epiderme e com coloração mais amarela e vermelha. O CO2 entre 5 e 10kPa apresentou os melhores resultados, que somados à temperatura de -1,0ºC, foi a melhor condição de armazenamento, que, no entanto, teve o período de conservação inferior a três meses nesta condição, devido às altas perdas por podridões.

  10. Determination of suitable pollinizers for some selected local persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Seren SAĞIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of suitable pollinizers is very important for persimmon that have a widespread problem in fruit setting. This study aims to contribute for solving this problem. Study was carried out in 2010 vegetation period with 17 years old persimmon trees in Adana conditions. For this purpose, the suitability of Bruniquel and Ghora Gali pollinizer cultivars were searched for 9 local persimmon types (07TH05, 07TH06, 07TH13, 07TH14, 07TH17, 31TH01, 31TH02, 31TH03 and 33TH01. In laboratory tests of pollen viability, germination and quantity, it was determined that the potential of Ghora Gali and Bruniquel is satisfactory for a pollinizer. With controlled-pollination treatments, fruit drop was reduced compared with open pollination and non-pollination treatments. In terms of this, the best pollinator for 07TH14 and 33TH01 was Bruniquel and for 07TH06 and 07TH17 it was Ghora Gali. Both Bruniquel and Ghora Gali became suitable pollinators for 07TH05. In 07TH13, 31TH02 and 31TH03 genotypes, the best results were obtained from open pollination treatments. At the same time, 07TH14 and 33TH01 genotypes have high affinity to parthenocarpy because of their fruit set ability while there is not any pollinizer.

  11. Armazenamento de caqui (Diospyros kaki, L.) cv. Quioto, em atmosfera controlada

    OpenAIRE

    DONAZZOLO JOEL; BRACKMANN AURI

    2002-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar, com o presente trabalho, o efeito da temperatura e do CO2 no armazenamento em atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação de caqui cv. Quioto. Foram avaliadas as temperaturas -1,0 e -0,5ºC, e pressões parciais de CO2 de 0; 5 e 10kPa, com os tratamentos arranjados em um esquema bifatorial. Os frutos foram avaliados após 3 meses de armazenamento mais 3 dias de exposição à temperatura ambiente (18-20ºC). Conforme os resultados, não foi constatada interação entre os fatores, ha...

  12. Experimental Investigation of Drying Kinetics of Trabzon Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ahmet Kaya, Muhammed Safa Kamer, H. Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study was intended to determine the drying kinetics of persimmon puree in a freeze drier.Experimental drying data were fitted to theoretical (Fick’s Law of Diffusion) and ten well-knownempirical thin layer drying models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivity and color changesdepending on the drying time were determined. The criteria considered for selecting the most suitablemodel were to obtain the highest R2and lowest RMSE, and F2values. Depending on these criteria,Logarithmic...

  13. Concentração de macronutrientes nos ramos frutíferos do caquizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Wilson Takahashi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos de nutrição mineral do caquizeiro, no Brasil, de forma sistematizada, são inexistentes e bastante escassos, sendo encontrados alguns trabalhos no Japão, Nova Zelândia e Austrália. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a nutrição mineral do caquizeiro cultivar Giombo, focalizando o estudo da variação da concentração de macronutrientes ao longo dos estádios de desenvolvimento nos órgãos que compõem os ramos frutíferos. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial de caqui, cultivar Giombo, localizado no município de Faxina-PR. Os teores foliares de macronutrientes no estádio fenológico recomendado para avaliação do estado nutricional foram semelhantes aos da Austrália e do Japão e continham 20,30; 1,25; 30,55; 23,45; 3,85 e 3,05 g kg-1 de massa seca de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, respectivamente.

  14. Evaluation studies of persimmon plant (Diospyros kaki) for physiological benefits and bioaccessibility of antioxidants by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Las Heras, Ruth; Pinazo, Alicia; Heredia, Ana; Andrés, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the antioxidant benefits from persimmon leaf tea, fruit and fibres taking into account their changes along gastrointestinal digestion. The evolution of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity was studied using the recent harmonized in vitro protocol published by Minekus et al. (2014). The digestion was performed with and without digestive enzymes. Results showed aqueous leaf extract was richer in antioxidants than the fruit or the extracted fibres. Nevertheless, persimmon-leaf antioxidants were more sensitive to the digestive environment. In general, the oral conditions greatly affected the antioxidants, while gastric digestion led to slight additional losses. The intestinal step enhanced polyphenols and flavonoids solubility coming from the fruit and fibres. Additionally, the presence of digestive enzymes positively contributed to antioxidant release throughout digestion. Finally, the bioaccessibility of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of persimmon fruit were 1.4, 1.0 and 3.8 times higher than in aqueous leaf extract. PMID:27507501

  15. Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Song, Yingpan; Su, Huijun; ZHANG Li; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Jingrui

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. D...

  16. Diospyros and the myth of the forbidden fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the genus Diospyros (Greek for ‘grain ∞ food of the gods’) there are fruits (persimmons) that are highly valued for eating, fruits used to poison fish, and fruits that are reputed to have poisoned people. To the last category belong the terrible trio of D. demona Bakh. (‘daemona’), D. insidiosa B

  17. Embriogênese somática do caquizeiro Somatic embryogenesis of japanese persimmon

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    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estabelecimento de um protocolo para a embriogênese somática do caquizeiro. Como explantes, foram utilizados embriões zigóticos em diversos estádios de desenvolvimento, retirados de frutos coletados de plantas adultas a campo, a partir de quatro semanas após o pleno florescimento até 22 semanas. O meio básico para os experimentos foi o MS½NO3. O meio inicial de indução foi suplementado com 20µM de 2,4-D e 2µM de cinetina. Os calos escuros obtidos foram repicados para outro meio de indução, com concentrações 10 ou 20 µM de 2,4-D e 2 µM de cinetina. Os calos com massas pró-embriogênicas obtidos foram transferidos para meio de manutenção e multiplicação com 2 µM de cinetina e 2,4-D nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0 e 10 µM. As massas embriogênicas formadas foram transferidas para meio de maturação suplementado com 0,5 µM de AIB e as concentrações 5; 10 e 20 µM de 2-iP. Os embriões formados foram isolados em dois meios de conversão, sendo o primeiro com 5 µM de 2-iP, 5 µM de AG3 e 0,5 µM de AIB e o segundo com 0,5 µM de AG3 e BAP, nas concentrações 0; 0,25; 0,5 e 1,0 µM. Como resultados, obteve-se o padrão indireto de embriogênese somática a partir de embriões zigóticos maduros, com mais de 22 semanas de formação, quando cultivados em meio de cultura com 10 µM de 2,4-D combinado com 2 µM de cinetina. A manutenção e a multiplicação das culturas embriogênicas foram mais eficientes com 5 µM de 2,4-D, na qual os pró-embriões avançaram para o estádio globular. Na fase de maturação, as concentrações de 2-iP testadas atuaram promovendo os embriões globulares a estádios mais avançados da ontogenia como cordiforme, torpedo e cotiledonar. A suplementação do meio de cultura com 1 µM de BAP e 0,5 µM de AG3 gerou a formação de plantas mais desenvolvidas, com maior número e tamanho de folhas.The goal of this work was to develop a protocol for persimmon cloning

  18. Remoção da adstringência de frutos de caquizeiro 'Giombo' sob diferentes temperaturas

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    Antoniolli Lucimara Rogéria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas durante o período de exposição ao vapor de álcool etílico sobre a qualidade dos frutos de caquizeiro cultivar Giombo. Os frutos foram expostos ao vapor de álcool etílico durante 42 horas, sob temperaturas de 10, 20 ou 30°C e 95% de umidade relativa. As características químicas e físicas dos frutos foram avaliadas durante nove dias, em intervalos de três dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: grau de taninos solúveis, firmeza da polpa, perda de matéria fresca, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e teor de ácido ascórbico. O tratamento para remoção da adstringência pode ser realizado a 10, 20 ou 30°C, por 42 horas. Constatouse grau de taninos solúveis muito baixo ao sexto dia após o tratamento. A temperatura de 30°C promoveu maior rapidez no processo de perda da adstringência, mas os frutos apresentaram menor firmeza de polpa e maior perda de matéria fresca que os frutos submetidos a 20 ou 10°C.

  19. A rare cause of gastrointestinal phytobezoars: diospyros lotus

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    Ertuğrul Gökhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Diospyros Lotus (“Wild Date Palm of Trabzon or Persimmon”, which has been proven to cause phytobezoars, is a widely consumed fruit in the Black Sea and Northeast Anatolia regions of Turkey. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Diospyros Lotus together with other predisposing factors, on the development of gastrointestinal phytobezoars and to discuss the treatment results in comparison to the literature. Material and method The records of 13 patients, who had been admitted to the General Surgery Clinic of Düzce Atatürk State Hospital between August 2008 and August 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, predisposing factors, clinical and radiological findings, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and the outcomes of the patients were recorded from the patient files. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient for publication of this research article and accompanying images. Results All the patients had a history of consuming Diospyros Lotus. Of the patients, 30,7% had a history of previous gastric surgery, 30,7% had diabetes mellitus and 23% had dental implants. None of the patients had hypothyroidism, which is another predisposing factor for phytobezoars. The phytobezoars were located in the stomach alone in 23% of the patients, whereas 15,3% was detected in the jejunum and stomach, 15,3% was detected in the jejunum alone, and 46,1% was detected in the ileum alone. All patients were treated with surgery, and there were no deaths. Conclusion Gastric phytobezoars are rare. Preventive measures have particular importance in the management of this condition, which is difficult to treat. For this purpose, excessive consumption of herbal nutrients containing a high amount of indigestible fibers such as Diospyros Lotus should be avoided in patients with a history of gastrointestinal surgery or poor oral and dental health.

  20. Bioactive Natural Products from Two Sudanese Medicinal Plants Diospyros mespiliformis and Croton zambesicus

    OpenAIRE

    Ietidal E. Mohamed; El Bushra E. El Nur; Muhammad I. Choudhary; Shamsun N. Khan

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations were performed in two plant species used in Sudanese traditional medicines to treat different illnesses, Diospyros mespiliformis and Croton zambesicus. The investigations revealed compounds of triterpenes (lupane series), one trihydroxyflavone and one diterpene. The compounds have been isolated and identified using various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. These were lupeol (1), betulinic acid (2), betulin (3) and lupenone (4) from Diospyros mespilifor...

  1. PERILAKU MASYARAKAT TERKAIT PENYAKIT KAKI GAJAH DAN PROGRAM PENGOBATAN MASSAL DI KECAMATAN PEMAYUNG KABUPATEN BATANGHARI, JAMBI

    OpenAIRE

    Lasbudi P. Ambarita; Yulian Taviv; Hotnida Sitorus; R. Irpan Pahlepi; Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakPenyakit kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular bersumber binatang yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk pembawa parasit cacing filaria. Upaya yang dilakukan di tingkat global maupun nasional dalam program eliminasi filariasis,  yaitu  pengobatan  massal.  Penelitian  ini  bertujuan  untuk  mengetahui  perilaku  masyarakat terkait penyakit kaki gajah dan program pengobatan massal sebelum dilaksanakan pengobatan tahun ketiga di Kecamatan Pemayung Kabupaten Batanghari Propinsi Jambi. Metode penelitian...

  2. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência em várias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas orgânico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribuídos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avaliações de incidência de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantificação de frutos caídos com ou sem sintomas da doença foi a cada 15 dias, durante o período de crescimento de frutos até a colheita, relacionada com a produção total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e também após incubação no laboratório. Infecção latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias após a floração. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii é capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em pós-colheita após a incubação.

  3. Chemical diversity and antiviral potential in the pantropical Diospyros genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, Laure-Anne; Eparvier, Véronique; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Stien, Didier; Litaudon, Marc

    2016-07-01

    A screening using a dengue replicon virus-cell-based assay was performed on 3563 ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts from different parts of 1500 plants. The screening led to the selection of species from the genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae), among which 25 species distributed in tropical areas showed significant inhibitory activity on dengue virus replication. A metabolic analysis was conducted from the UPLC-HRMS profiles of 33 biologically active and inactive plant extracts, and their metabolic proximity is presented in the form of a dendrogram. The results of the study showed that chemical similarity is not related to plant species or organ. Overall, metabolomic profiling allowed us to define large groups of extracts, comprising both active and inactive ones. Closely related profiles from active extracts might indicate that the common major components of these extracts were responsible for the antiviral activity, while the comparison of chemically similar active and inactive extracts, will permit to find compounds of interest. Eventually, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros glans bark EtOAc extract afforded usnic acid and 7 known ursane- and lupane-type triterpenoids, among which 5 were found significantly active against dengue virus replication. The inhibitory potency of these compounds was also evaluated on a DENV-NS5 RNA-dependant RNA polymerase assay. PMID:27126897

  4. Utilização de embalagem de polietileno na conservação de caquis 'giombo' durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniolli Lucimara Rogéria; Castro Paulo Roberto de Camargo e; Kluge Ricardo Alfredo; Scarpare Filho João Alexio

    2003-01-01

    Procurou-se estudar o efeito da utilização de embalagem de polietileno durante o armazenamento refrigerado de frutos de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L.), cultivar Giombo. Os frutos foram acondicionados em sacos de PEBD (0,06mm) e mantidos a 1 ± 0,5ºC e 95-98% UR durante 30; 60 ou 90 dias. As características químicas e físicas dos frutos foram avaliadas ao final de cada período de armazenamento. As variáveis analisadas foram teor de taninos solúveis, firmeza da polpa, perda de matéria fresca, só...

  5. DAMPAK SOSIAL EKONOMI PENATAAN LINGKUNGAN BAGI PEDAGANG KAKI LIMA (PKL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Bakhirnudin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pedagang kaki lima identik dengan kesan buruk, kotor dan tidak tertib. Penempatan sarana perda­gangan yang tidak teratur dan tidak tertata serta sering menempati tempat yang menjadi tempat umum dianggap sebagai penyebab kondisi tersebut. Tingginya minat konsumsi masyarakat menyebabkan pedagang kaki lima menjadi semakin banyak, terutama masyarakat kelas bawah. Melalui Perda Nomor 11 Tahun 2000, Pemerintah Kota Semarang sudah berusaha menata PKL. Namun pada kenyataannya belum ditemukan solusi yang komprehensif untuk mengatasi permasalahan PKL. Populasi penelitian ini adalah PKL Perumnas Tlogosari Kota Semarang berjumlah 173 pedagang. Sampel yang digunakan berjumlah 100 orang sebagian besar berasal dari luar kawasan Perumnas Tlogosari. Model PKL di PerumTlogosari mengunakan Pola Penyebaran Memanjang (Linier Concentration. Hasil penelitian menunjuk­kan bahwa sebelum ada penataan tidak ada paguyuban. Namun setelah penataan terdapat sebuah paguyuban pedagang dan jasa (PPJ, dalam bentuk arisan. Dampak sosial selain paguyuban adalah agenda rutin arisan, serta peraturan lainnya sehingga meninimalkan konflik yang timbul. Dari sisi ekonomi, sebagian besar pedagang mengalami peningkatan pendapatan yang diperoleh per bulan. Oleh karena itu, untuk menjaga keberlanjutan dari dampak positif yang timbul, diharapkan PKL mampu menjaga dan melaksanakan aturan yang telah disepakati bersama, sekaligus melakukan inovasi-inovasi agar barang yang dijual lebih bervariatif untuk memperoleh keuntungan berkesinambungan.Street vendors usually have bad impression because they are dirty and disorderly. It is because they are disorganized and they often occupy public places. The high interest of consumers, especially from the lower class has made more and more street vendors. By issuing Perda of 2000 No. 11, the local government of Semarang has tried to organize them. However, it is not a comprehensive solution to overcome the problems of street vendors. The population of

  6. 柿属部分品种杂交亲和性以及结实性的研究%Studies of Cross Compatibility and Fecundity on Part of Diospyros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 王飞; 赵秀明; 杨凤美; 余亮; 牛佳

    2012-01-01

    Five varieties of Diospyros kaki,one variety of Diospyros virginiana were used as female plants,and four varieties of Diospyros kaki were used as male plants to study the fecundity of the hybrid. Pollen viability was observed by culture in vitro method. Cross compatibility among different crossing combinations was determined using fluorescence microscope. Fruit setting rate and compatibility index resulted from different combinations of crossing were calculated. The pollen viability of four male plants from the highest to the lowest was‘Za 3-2’,‘Zenjimaru’,‘Za 4-2’,‘Shougatsu’. Among the 24 crossing combinations under study,‘Xinchang Niuxinshi’בZa 3-2’had the highest compatibility index(1.30) and fruit setting rate(73.88%),while the lowest compatibility index(0.03)and fruit setting rate(17.22%) were observed in Meizhoushi × Shougastu. The phenomenon of parthenocarpy and sti-parthenocarpy was observed in Mopanshi and Xinchang Niuxinshi. The phenomenon of parthenocarpy was observed in Huaxian Dahongshi. The phenomenon of non-parthenocarpic was observed in Meizhoushi,Maokuishi and Wakasugikeijirou. The cross compatibility of interspecific persimmon fruits was lower than that of intraspecific persimmon fruits;The cross compatibility and fruit setting rate varied among different varieties,and the cross compatibility index had close correlation with fruit setting rate.%以柿属中柿种的5个品种和美洲柿种的1个品种为母本,柿种的4个雄株为父本进行杂交,研究结实特性。通过离体培养法比较雄株的花粉活力,利用荧光显微镜观察不同杂交组合花粉与柱头的亲和性,统计其亲和指数和坐果率。4个雄株花粉活力大小依次为‘杂3-2’〉‘禅寺丸’〉‘杂4-2’〉‘正月’;在24个杂交组合中亲和性最高的是‘新昌牛心柿’ב杂3-2’组合,亲和指数为1.30,坐果率为73.88%,亲和性最低的是‘美洲柿’ב正月

  7. Antipyretic and antinociceptive activity of Diospyros lotus L. in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdur Rauf; Ghias Uddin; Bina S Siddiqui; Naveed Muhammad; Haroon Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models.Methods: In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/fractions was evaluated in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.Results:The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane.Conclusions:In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic.

  8. Ethylene-responsive transcription factors interact with promoters of ADH and PDC involved in persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit de-astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ting; Yin, Xue-ren; Shi, Yan-na; Luo, Zheng-rong; Yao, Yun-cong; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-song

    2012-11-01

    The persimmon fruit is a particularly good model for studying fruit response to hypoxia, in particular, the hypoxia-response ERF (HRE) genes. An anaerobic environment reduces fruit astringency by converting soluble condensed tannins (SCTs) into an insoluble form. Although the physiology of de-astringency has been widely studied, its molecular control is poorly understood. Both CO(2) and ethylene treatments efficiently removed the astringency from 'Mopan' persimmon fruit, as indicated by a decrease in SCTs. Acetaldehyde, the putative agent for causing de-astringency, accumulated during these treatments, as did activities of the key enzymes of acetaldehyde synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Eight DkADH and DkPDC genes were isolated, and three candidates for a role in de-astringency, DkADH1, DkPDC1, and DkPDC2, were characterized by transcriptional analysis in different tissues. The significance of these specific isoforms was confirmed by principal component analysis. Transient expression in leaf tissue showed that DkPDC2 decreased SCTs. Interactions of six hypoxia-responsive ERF genes and target promoters were tested in transient assays. The results indicated that two hypoxia-responsive ERF genes, DkERF9 and DkERF10, were involved in separately regulating the DkPDC2 and DkADH1 promoters. It is proposed that a DkERF-DkADH/DkPDC cascade is involved in regulating persimmon de-astringency.

  9. Necessidade de frio para quebra de dormência de gemas de caquizeiro 'Fuyu' Chill requirement for budbreak of japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudival Faquim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, determinar a necessidade de frio para a quebra da dormência das gemas de caquizeiro 'Fuyu'. As coletas de ramos foram realizadas em cinco datas (26-04, 14-05, 21-06, 19-07 e 16-08. Foram aplicados nos ramos cinco tratamentos de frio adicional (0; 168; 336; 504; 672 h de frio em geladeira à temperatura de 4ºC a 7ºC. A avaliação da dormência foi feita pelo teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados por meio do tempo médio para brotação (TMB, velocidade de brotação (VB, taxa final de brotação (TF e taxa de brotações vigorosas (TBV. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 5 x 5 (cinco datas e cinco tempos de exposição ao frio, com três repetições. Foram realizados testes separadamente com gemas terminais e com gemas laterais. A quebra de dormência de gemas laterais e terminais de ramos de caquizeiro 'Fuyu' ocorreu no mês de agosto, após o tratamento com 504 h de frio, de 4ºC a 7ºC, obtendo-se 100% de gemas brotadas.This work aimed to evaluate the chill requirement for bud break of Japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu. The branches were collected in five dates (April 26th; May 14th; June 21st; July 19th, and August 16th and received five chill treatments (0, 168, 336, 504, 672 h in the refrigerator (4ºC to 7ºC. The evaluation of dormancy was observed by the biological test of single node cuttings by following variables: average time for budburst (TMB, velocity of budburst (VB, final rate of budburst (TF and rate of vigorous budburst (TBV. The experimental design was a factorial entirely randomized with five dates and five periods of chill treatment with three replications. Terminal and lateral buds were analyzed individually. The bud break of terminal and lateral buds of Japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu occurred in August after the treatment with 504 h of chill (4ºC to 7ºC, when 100% of budburst was obtained.

  10. Study of antimalarial activity of chemical constituents from Diospyros quaesita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cui-Ying; Musoke, Sebisubi Fred; Tan, Ghee Teng; Sydara, Kongmany; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Southavong, Bounhoong; Soejarto, D Doel; Fong, Harry H S; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2008-11-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of seven compounds from a sample of the dried leaves, twigs, and branches of Diospyros quaesita Thw. (Ebenaceae). One of the isolates, betulinic acid 3-caffeate (1), showed in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum clones D(6) (chloroquine-sensitive) and W(2) (chloroquine-resistant) with IC(50) values of 1.40 and 0.98 microM, respectively. Evaluation of compound 1 in the human oral epidermoid (KB) cancer cell line revealed cytotoxicity at ED(50) of 4.0 microM. In an attempt to reduce the cytotoxicity of 1, the acetylated derivative 1a and betulinic acid (1b) were prepared. Of the seven isolates, diospyrosin (2) was determined to be a new neolignan. In addition to 1, other known compounds isolated in this study were pinoresinol, lariciresinol, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol, scopoletin, and poriferast-5-en-3beta,7alpha-diol. The structure of 2 was elucidated based on spectroscopic data analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. PMID:19035573

  11. Phytoconstituents with Radical Scavenging and Cytotoxic Activities from Diospyros shimbaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Aronsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for natural products having antioxidant and anticancer properties, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros shimbaensis (Ebenaceae, a plant belonging to a genus widely used in East African traditional medicine, was carried out. From its stem and root barks the new naphthoquinone 8,8′-oxo-biplumbagin (1 was isolated along with the known tetralones trans-isoshinanolone (2 and cis-isoshinanolone (3, and the naphthoquinones plumbagin (4 and 3,3′-biplumbagin (5. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed cytotoxicity (IC50 520–82.1 μM against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moderate to low cytotoxicity was observed for the hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts of the root bark (IC50 16.1, 29.7 and > 100 μg/mL, respectively, and for the methanol extract of the stem bark (IC50 59.6 μg/mL. The radical scavenging activity of the isolated constituents (1–5 was evaluated on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. The applicability of the crude extracts and of the isolated constituents for controlling degenerative diseases is discussed.

  12. Comparative investigation of the free radical scavenging potential and anticancer property of Diospyros blancoi (Ebenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Khan

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that Diospyros blancoi stem bark had the significant highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties as well as moderate anticancer activity. Hence, we assume that the anticancer activity of this plant can be, at least in part, attributed to its content in phenolic compounds as well as its significant free radical scavenging properties.

  13. Passas de caqui ‘Fuyu’: processamento e aceitabilidade = Dehydrated ‘Fuyu’ kaki processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de caqui fresco resulta em grande quantidade de frutos nãoclassificados. Assim, considerando também que a desidratação prolonga a vida-de-prateleira de alimentos perecíveis, a pesquisa se propôs a fazer uma contribuição para o desenvolvimento do processo de fabricação de passa a partir de frutos de caqui ‘Fuyu’. Foi utilizado um secador contendo circulação forçada de ar e cinco bandejas. O fruto descascado foi fatiado em quatro formas diferentes: fatias em metades, de corte transversal; fatias em ¼, de cortes longitudinais; fatias em ¼, de corte longitudinal seguido de corte transversal; fatias em 1/8, de dois cortes longitudinais seguidos de transversais. A condição de secagem que aplicou temperatura de 80°C por 1h seguida de 60°C por cerca de 23h produziu passas de caqui ‘Fuyu’ com a melhor aparência. A forma da fatia passa que teve a preferência dosprovadores foi aquela em que o fruto foi cortado em oito fatias (fatias de 1/8. As passas de caqui ‘Fuyu’ contendo umidades residuais baixas, 19,7 e 27,4%, foram apreciadas, quanto ao paladar, igualmente pelos provadores. Os frutos de caqui proporcionaram, em peso, 16,7 e 18,1% de produtos em passas e perdas estimadas em 25,5%. Os resultados indicaram que a passa de caqui ‘Fuyu’ constitui-se numa excelente oferta de fruta desidratada.Because kakis are usually sold fresh, this results in a high number of fruits that do not meet the marketing standard. Thus, considering that dehydration extends the shelf life of perishable foods, this research was aimed at providing a contribution for the development of a product referred to as dehydrated ‘Fuyu’ kaki. A forced air circulation dehydrator was used, equipped with five trays. The peeled fruit was sliced in four different ways: sliced into halves, transversally; sliced into quarters, longitudinally; sliced into quarters, once longitudinally and once transversally; sliced into eighths, by cutting twice

  14. Uji Kualitas Mikrobiologis Minuman Teh Poci yang Dijual Pedagang Kaki Lima di Pasar Raya Padang

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    Genta Pradana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Minuman Teh Poci merupakan produk minuman yang berkembang pesat dan banyak dijual oleh pedagang kaki lima di Padang terutama di Pasar Raya kota Padang. Penjualan Teh Poci oleh pedagang kaki lima di Pasar Raya tidak mengikuti sistem franchise yang mempunyai standar kebersihan penyajian menyebabkan proses pembuatan Teh Pociyang  dijual di Pasar Raya tidak terjamin kebersihan penyajianya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji kualitas mikrobiologis  minuman Teh Poci yang dijual pedagang kaki lima di Pasar Raya Padang. Minuman yang diperiksa adalah minuman Teh Poci yang dijual di sepanjang jalan Pasar Raya dengan mengambil 13 sampel. Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan November 2011- September 2012 dengan menggunakan metode Most Probable Number (MPN yang terdiri dari tes penduga dan tes konfirmasi. Dari 13 sampel minuman yang diperiksa seluruh sampel tersebutmengandung bakteri Coliform. Faktor-faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi adalah kebersihan penjual minuman dalam menutup kemasan minuman, kurangnya higiene perseorangan, lokasi penjualan di tengah pasar, es batu yang tidak bersih, dan alat-alat yang digunakan. Kesimpulan penelitian ini ialah minuman Teh Poci yang dijual di Pasar Raya Padang tidak memenuhi standar kualitas mikrobiologis air minum yang sudah ditetapkan pada Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan tahun No. 492 tahun 2010.Kata kunci: pedagang kaki lima, teh Poci, higieneAbstract Teh Poci has become popular nowadays. There is a significant movement of Teh Poci street sellers in Padang especially in Pasar Raya Padang. Teh Poci street sellers in Pasar Raya do not buy the franchise system which has the appropriate standard for food serving. The Teh Poci stands are also located in the middle of traditional market which cause the serving to the society do not fulfill the sanitary standard.One of the indicators of water contamination is by measuring the amount of the coliform bacteria presents in water.  The objective of this study was to do

  15. PERILAKU MASYARAKAT TERKAIT PENYAKIT KAKI GAJAH DAN PROGRAM PENGOBATAN MASSAL DI KECAMATAN PEMAYUNG KABUPATEN BATANGHARI, JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi P. Ambarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular bersumber binatang yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk pembawa parasit cacing filaria. Upaya yang dilakukan di tingkat global maupun nasional dalam program eliminasi filariasis,  yaitu  pengobatan  massal.  Penelitian  ini  bertujuan  untuk  mengetahui  perilaku  masyarakat terkait penyakit kaki gajah dan program pengobatan massal sebelum dilaksanakan pengobatan tahun ketiga di Kecamatan Pemayung Kabupaten Batanghari Propinsi Jambi. Metode penelitian non-intervensi dengan rancangan potong lintang. Unit sampel adalah kepala keluarga dengan total sampel 380orang yang  ditentukan  secara  stratified  sampling.  Instrumen  yang  digunakan  adalah  kuesioner  terstruktur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 45,5% responden sering keluar rumah pada malam hari dengan berbagai jenis aktivitas, sebagian besar (99,5% menggunakan alat pelindung diri dari gigitan nyamuk. Sebanyak 7,5%  responden  menyatakan  pernah  diperiksa  sediaan  darah  jari  terkait  penyakit  kaki  gajah,  5,4% pernah mengalami gejala demam berulang. Sebagian besar (86,6% tahu ada pembagian obat massal di wilayahnya, 69,1% mengetahui ada sosialisasi pengobatan massal dan 86,1% pernah mendapat obat. Dari 324 responden yang menyatakan pernah diberi obat, 76% menyatakan minum obat yang diberikan dan 41% minum obat 2 kali, 24% tidak meminum obat yang diberikan yang sepertinya dengan alasan  utama  takut  efek  samping  obat  (50,8%.  Diperoleh  hubungan  bermakna  antara  umur,  jenis kelamin, informasi pengobatan, sosialisasi dan distribusi obat terhadap kepatuhan minum obat pada program pengobatan massal penyakit kaki gajah.Kata kunci : Penyakit kaki gajah, Perilaku, Pengobatan massal, Kecamatan PemayungAbstractLymphatic filariasis (LF is an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes that carries parasitic filarial worms. One of the efforts made at the national and global levels in the filariasis

  16. PENGEMBANGAN KURSI RODA SEBAGAI UPAYA PENINGKATAN RUANG GERAK PENDERITA CACAT KAKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Londen Batan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the survey to the wheelchair users in Surabaya, it is found that 70% of the respondents want to have activities inside or outside their home independently. Therefore, a wheelchair that can satisfy their requirements is on demand. In this research we used an integrated product development to design a wheelchair. We simulated the ergonomic design by a method so called RULA for static load 150 kg. This proposed wheelchair is an ergonomic wheelchair. It is a wheelchair, that satisfies the safety regulations. By using a joystick, a user can control the wheelchair to move forward and backward, to set the seat up and down as convenience as they want to. We hope that this wheelchair can help the physical handicaps to move more freely and have more activities than before. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Hasil kuisioner yang disebarkan ke pemakai kursi roda di kota Surabaya pada akhir 2005 dan awal 2006 menunjukkan bahwa 70% reponden tidak menginginkan lagi didampingi oleh seorang pemandu para saat mereka beraktifitas di dalam maupun di luar rumah. Sehingga, sebagai transportasi yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh penderita cacat kaki, kursi roda perlu untuk dikembangkan berdasarkan permintaan dan keinginan mereka. Pada makalah ini akan dipaparkan metode pengembangkan kursi roda yang didasarkan pada metode pengembangan produk terintegrasi. Melalui analisa kekuatan material pada beban statis 150 kg dan simulasi kenyamanan dengan metode RULA, dapat dirancang sebuah kursi roda yang aman dan nyaman, dapat bergerak maju mundur, tempat duduk dapat naik turun serta seluruh gerakannya dikontrol sendiri oleh pemakai kursi roda. Pengembangan kursi roda ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan ruang gerak penderita cacat kaki dalam beraktifitas. Kata kunci: kursi roda, transportasi, aman, nyaman, simulasi, RULA.

  17. Residue levels of captan and trichlorfon in field-treated kaki fruits, individual versus composite samples, and after household processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cruz, M L; Grimalt, S; Villarroya, M; López, F J; Llanos, S; García-Baudín, J M

    2006-06-01

    The dissipation of residue levels of captan and trichlorfon in field-treated kaki crops was studied according to good laboratory practices to propose maximum residue limits (MRLs). Residue levels of captan and trichlorfon were analysed by GC/MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Residue levels of captan and trichlorfon permitted one to propose MRLs in kaki of 3 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The behaviour of these residues was also studied after peeling and cooking, and in individual fruits versus composite samples. Residue levels of these compounds for individual fruits suggested that a variability factor up to three could be set for the acute risk assessment. Levels of captan decreased by more than 90% after peeling and completely after cooking. Trichlorfon penetrates into the flesh in a proportion of 70% of the residue at the pre-harvest interval. Cooking resulted in a decrease of 27% of residue levels of trichlorfon.

  18. Bioactive Natural Products from Two Sudanese Medicinal Plants Diospyros mespiliformis and Croton zambesicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietidal E. Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations were performed in two plant species used in Sudanese traditional medicines to treat different illnesses, Diospyros mespiliformis and Croton zambesicus. The investigations revealed compounds of triterpenes (lupane series, one trihydroxyflavone and one diterpene. The compounds have been isolated and identified using various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. These were lupeol (1, betulinic acid (2, betulin (3 and lupenone (4 from Diospyros mespiliformis. Compounds 1, 2, 3 in addition to diterpene ent -kaurane-3β, 16β, 17-triol (5 and vitexin (6 were re-isolated from Croton zambesicus. However,compound 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time from this source.The pure isolated compounds and semi-synthesized acetates 1Ac, 2Ac and 3Ac, which were prepared from compounds 1, 2 and 3 respectively, were subjected to two bioassays: α- glucosidase enzyme inhibition assay and antioxidant activity. Compounds, 1, 1Ac, 3 and 4 showed a marked α-glucosidase inhibitory potential, while compound 6 exhibited strong antioxidant activity.

  19. Analisa Umur Kelelahan Sambungan Kaki Jack-Up Dengan Mudmat Pada Maleo MOPU Dengan Pendekatan Fracture Mechanics

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    Abi Latiful Hakim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jack-Up adalah suatu struktur bangunan lepas pantai yang terdiri dari lambung (hull, kaki (legs, dan suatu sistem jacking sehingga memungkinkan untuk dipindahkan dari satu lokasi ke lokasi yang lain. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan studi kasus struktur Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit yang dioperasikan oleh SANTOS (Madura Pty.Ltd. yang beroperasi di Selat Madura blok Maleo dengan kedalaman perairan di lokasi ini adalah 57 m terhadap MSL (Mean Sea Level. Studi kasus ini dilakukan karena ditemukan indikator retak lelah pada sambungan antara kaki jack-up dan mudmat. Analisa kelelahan dengan pendekatan metode kepecahan (fracture mechanics akan dilakukan untuk menganalisa retak lelah yang terjadi. Variasi kedalaman retak akan dianalisa untuk menentukan umur kelelahan struktur yang tersisa berdasarkan kriteria kegagalan. Keretakan yang terjadi akan mengalami perambatan retak akibat beban siklis yang diterima, dan terus merambat hingga menembus ketebalan dari kaki Jack-Up atau yang disebut dengan through-thickness crack. Analisa dilakukan dengan bantuan pemodelan elemen hingga secara global dan pemodelan elemen hingga secara lokal. DNV OS C101 menyebutkan bahwa definisi kegagalan kelelahan  terjadi ketika retak merambat hingga mencapai ketebalan. Dari pemodelan metode elemen hingga didapatkan besarnya nilai tegangan di sekitar ujung retakan. Dengan menggunakan persamaan Paris-Erdogan didapatkan sisa umur sambungan tersebut sebesar 5.2 tahun.

  20. The effect of various media on growth of ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh seedlings through seeds multiplication

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    NURUL SUMIASRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Study of the effects of various media on growth of ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh seedlings through seeds multiplication was carried out. The experiment used various media i.e. sands, soil (latosol, compost and EM Bokashi. The study was arranged by Factorial Randomized Block Design with 4 replications, growth parameters were observed i.e. growth percentage, plant height, total leaves, total roots and roots length. The results showed that the best medium of all parameter observed was EM Bokashi and the low results showed by latosol soil medium. Statistically all of parameter observed showed significant level at 5% Duncans’ tested to various media. The best media at the study was EM Bokashi, and could be recommended for media of ebony seed multiplication especially.

  1. Drying of Leaves of Tendu (Diospyros melonoxylon plants using a solar dryer with mirror booster

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    S. P. Singh, Biplab Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory solar dryer with mirror booster was designed and developed for drying Tendu (Diospyros melonoxylon under the climatic condition (Composite Climate Zone of Malwa region, Indore (Latitude-22.44⁰N, Longitude-75.5⁰E of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Mirror booster solar dryer consist of an integrated collector and drying chamber enclosed. The aluminium drying chamber fitted with one fan operated by a photovoltaic module is placed inside the collector with glazed top, east, west and south wall. The bottom and north wall of the dryer was kept insulated. A door is provided to load and unload material in trays from the north side. The experiment result shows that the drying time reduction of Tendu leaves was nearly 75% in comparison to open sun drying. The maximum and minimum time of drying was found be 18 hours and 12 hours for 15 bundles of tendu leaves.

  2. Comparative investigation of the free radical scavenging potential and anticancer property of Diospyros blancoi (Ebenaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Ali Khan; Md Mahbubur Rahman; Md Nazmul Sardar; Md Saiful Islam Arman; Md Badrul Islam; Md Jahangir Alam Khandakar; Mamunur Rashid; Golam Sadik; AHM Khurshid Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the comparative effects of Diospyros blancoi (Ebenaceae) leaves (DBL), root bark (DBRB) and stem bark (DBSB) on free radicals and cancer. Methods: The polyphenol contents, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties were determined using standard spectrophotometric methods. Cytotoxicity and anticancer activ-ities were performed on brine shrimp nauplii and Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cells, respectively. Results: Among the extracts, DBSB showed the highest total antioxidant capacity and reducing capacity on ferrous ion. Based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, DBSB showed (95.760 ± 0.343)%and (67.460 ± 2.641)%scavenging with IC50 of (3.10 ± 0.17) and (50.00 ± 3.11) mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of standard butylated hydroxytoluene and catechin (CA) for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals were (8.50 ± 0.25) and (75.00 ± 0.14) mg/mL, respectively suggesting that DBSB had a significant (P DBRB > CA > DBL. Also, the phenolic [(139.91 ± 3.924) mg gallic acid equivalent/g] and flavonoid contents [(412.00 ± 16.70) mg catechin equivalent/g)] of DBSB were higher than that of other extracts. In addition, the DBSB showed the moderate cytotoxic and anticancer properties. Conclusions: Our results indicate that Diospyros blancoi stem bark had the significant highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties as well as moderate anticancer activity. Hence, we assume that the anticancer activity of this plant can be, at least in part, attributed to its content in phenolic compounds as well as its significant free radical scavenging properties.

  3. Quantitative Metabolomics:Analysis on Active Components in Extracts from Kaki Folium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Li-peng; GU Yuan; YIN Ren-jie; LIU Chang-xiao; SI Duan-yun

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to analyze the active components in the extracts from Kaki Folium(KF),quantitative metabolomics approach was adopted to investigate the number of active components existing among the different extracts and their variation.Methods LC-MS method was established for the quantitative determination of the active components taking the mixture with reference substance as tested sample.Results In terms of the number of active components and amount presented in the different tested samples of KF extracted by many types of solvents,variation was observed.But rutin,astragalin,and kaempferol were presented in all samples.Difference was found between the samples extracted from the products on market and from the raw materials of KF processed by polar solvents with different recipes.However,the three active components were found in all samples examined.Conclusion These results might be valuable as all information and could be used for the optimization of raw materials extraction procedure to enhance the productivity.

  4. Isolation and structural elucidation of cytotoxic compounds from the root bark of Diospyros quercina (Baill.) endemic to Madagascar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatiany Pierre Ruphin; Robijaona Baholy; Randrianarivo Emmanuel; Raharisololalao Amelie; Marie-Therese Martin; Ngbolua Kotote-Nyiwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and characterize the cytotoxic compounds from Diospyros quercina (Baill.) G.E. Schatz&Lowry (Ebenaceae). Methods: An ethno-botanical survey was conducted in the south of Madagascar from July to August 2010. Bio-guided fractionation assay was carried out on the root bark of Diospyros quercina, using cytotoxicity bioassay on murine P388 leukemia cell lines as model. The structures of the cytotoxic compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Results: Biological experiments resulted in the isolation of three bioactive pure compounds (named TR-21, TR-22, and TR-23) which exhibited very good in vitro cytotoxic activities with the IC50 values of (0.017 5±0.0060) µg/mL, (0.089±0.005) µg/mL and (1.027±0.070) µg/mL respectively. Thus, they support the claims of traditional healers and suggest the possible correlation between the chemical composition of this plant and its wide use in Malagasy folk medicine to treat cancer. Conclusions:The ability of isolated compounds in this study to inhibit cell growth may represent a rational explanation for the use of Diospyros quercina root bark in treating cancer by Malagasy traditional healers. Further studies are, therefore, necessary to evaluate the in vivo anti-neoplastic activity of these cytotoxic compounds as effective anticancer drugs.

  5. Effect of the extract of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. ‘Rama Forte’and rosemary oily extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L. on the sensory characteristics and color stability of frozen beef burgersEfeito de extratos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cultivar Rama Forte e do extrato oleoso de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. nas características sensoriais e na estabilidade da cor de hambúrguer de carne bovina congelado

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    Leadir Lucy Martins Fries

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the extract of persimmon cv. ‘Rama Forte’ and rosemary oily extract on the sensory characteristics and color stability of frozen beef burgers. The crude hydroethanolic extract was prepared and subjected to fractionation resulting in the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions as well as residual fraction. For the preparation of the burger samples a basic formulation was prepared and divided into parts: control, standard formulation ( 0.1% of sodium erythorbate, treatment 1 (0.5% of hydroethanolic crude extract, treatment 2 (0.7% of hydroethanolic crude extract, treatment 3 (0.5% of the residual fraction, treatment 4 (0.7% of the residual fraction , treatment 5 ( 0.5% of ethyl acetate fraction, Treatment 6 (0.7% of ethyl acetate fraction and treatment 7 (0.10% of oily extract of rosemary. The beef burger samples were stored at-25° C for 14 months and subjected to sensory analysis (color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the beginning of the experiment and the measurement of color (parameters L a*, b* and h* every two months. The addition of the extracts did not promote changes in the sensory attributes of the beef burgers at time zero of storage. A tendency to decrease a* values and increase of the h* values of the samples of frozen beef burgers occurred over the period of storage. Samples added with ethyl acetate fraction (0.5 and 0.7% and the oily extract of rosemary showed higher a* values than the other samples throughout the storage period and lower h* values than the standard sample at the end of the period evaluated. This indicates that the addition of ethyl acetate fraction and rosemary extract contributed to the retention and stability of the red color of the samples of beef burgers during the storage of the frozen product.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de extratos de caqui cv. Rama Forte e do extrato oleoso de alecrim sobre as características sensoriais e a estabilidade da cor de hambúrguer de carne bovina congelado. Para tanto foi elaborado o extrato hidroetanólico bruto que foi fracionado obtendo-se a fração hexânica, clorofórmica, de acetato de etila e a fração residual. Para o preparo das amostras de hambúrguer foi elaborada uma formulação básica que foi dividida em partes: controle, padrão (formulação adicionada de 0,1% de eritorbato de sódio, tratamento 1 (0,5% de extrato hidroetanólico bruto, tratamento 2 (0,7% de extrato hidroetanólico bruto, tratamento 3 (0,5% da fração residual, tratamento 4 (0,7% da fração residual, tratamento 5 (0,5% da fração acetato de etila, tratamento 6 (0,7% da fração acetato de etila e tratamento 7 (0,10% de extrato oleoso de alecrim. As amostras de hambúrguer foram armazenadas a –25 ºC por 14 meses e submetidas a análise sensorial (cor, aroma, sabor e textura no início do experimento e a determinação da cor (L*, a*, b* e h* a cada 2 meses. A adição dos extratos não promoveu alteração dos atributos sensoriais do hambúrguer bovino no tempo zero de armazenamento. Ocorreu tendência de diminuição dos valores de a* e aumento dos valores de h* das amostras de hambúrguer congeladas ao longo do período de armazenamento. As amostras adicionadas da fração acetato de etila (0,5 e 0,7% e do extrato oleoso de alecrim apresentaram maiores valores de a* que as demais amostras ao longo do período de armazenamento e menores valores de h* que a amostra padrão, no final do período avaliado, indicando que a adição da fração acetato de etila e do extrato de alecrim contribuiram na retenção e estabilidade da cor vermelha das amostras de hambúrguer de carne bovina durante o período de armazenamento do produto congelado.

  6. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BELEMTOUGRI R.G.; CONSTANTIN B.; COGNARD C.; RAYMOND G.; SAWADOGO L.

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts ofDiospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity.The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release.

  7. Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound.

  8. A Rare Class of New Dimeric Naphtoquiones from Diospyros lotus have Multidrug Reversal and Antiproliferative Effects

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    Dr. Abdur eRauf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new dimeric naphthoquinones, 5,4′-dihydroxy-1′-methoxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,5′,8′-tetraone (1, 5′,8′-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,1′,4′-tetraone (2 and 8,5′,8′-trihydroxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,1′,4′-tetraone (3, were isolated from the roots of Diospyros lotus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, such as HSQC, HMBS, NOESY and J resolved. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their effects on the reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein through use of the rhodamine-123 exclusion screening test on human ABCB1 gene transfected L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma. Compounds 1-3 were also assessed for their antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on L5178 and L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma lines. Both 1 and 2 exhibited promising antiproliferative and MDR-reversing effects in a dose dependent manner. The effects of the tested compounds on the activity of doxorubicin were observed to vary from slight antagonism to antagonism.

  9. In vivo sedative and muscle relaxants activity of Diospyros lotus L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdur; Rauf; Ghias; Uddin; Bina; Shaheen; Siddiqui; Haroon; Khan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sedative effect of Diospyros lotus L(D. lotus) extract in mice using the open field and Rota rod tests.Methods: For the sedative and muscle relaxants activities of extract/fractions of the plant, invivo open field and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time were used, while the Roda rod test was employed in animals for the assessment of muscle relaxant activity.Results: Results from this investigation revealed that the extracts of D. lotus have exhibited significant sedative effect in mice(45.98%) at 100 mg/kg i.p. When the extract was partitioned with different solvents, the n-hexane fraction was inactive whereas the chloroform fraction was the most active with 82.67% sedative effect at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. On the other hand,the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions displayed significant sedative effects(55.65% and40.87%, respectively) at 100 mg/kg i.p. Among the tested extract/fractions, only chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed significant(P < 0.05) muscle relaxant activity in the Rota rod test.Conclusions: In short, our study provided scientific background to the traditional uses of D.lotus as sedative.

  10. Processes Driving the Adaptive Radiation of a Tropical Tree (Diospyros, Ebenaceae) in New Caledonia, a Biodiversity Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, Ovidiu; Turner, Barbara; Trucchi, Emiliano; Munzinger, Jérôme; Chase, Mark W; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-03-01

    Due to its special geological history, the New Caledonian Archipelago is a mosaic of soil types, and in combination with climatic conditions this results in a heterogeneous environment across relatively small distances. A group of over 20 endemic species of Diospyros (Ebenaceae) has rapidly and recently radiated on the archipelago after a single long-distance dispersal event. Most of the Diospyros species in the radiating group are morphologically and ecologically well differentiated, but they exhibit low levels of DNA variability. To investigate the processes that shaped the diversification of this group we employed restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). Over 8400 filtered SNPs generally confirm species delimitations and produce a well-supported phylogenetic tree. Our analyses document local introgression, but only a limited potential for gene flow over longer distances. The phylogenetic relationships point to an early regional clustering among populations and species, indicating that allopatric speciation with respect to macrohabitat (i.e., climatic conditions) may have had a role in the initial differentiation within the group. A later, more rapid radiation involved divergence with respect to microhabitat (i.e., soil preference). Several sister species in the group show a parallel divergence in edaphic preference. Searches for genomic regions that are systematically differentiated in this replicated phenotypic divergence pointed to loci potentially involved in ion binding and cellular transport. These loci appear meaningful in the context of adaptations to soil types that differ in heavy-metal and mineral content. Identical nucleotide changes affected only two of these loci, indicating that introgression may have played a limited role in their evolution. Our results suggest that both allopatric diversification and (parapatric) ecological divergence shaped successive rounds of speciation in the Diospyros radiation on New Caledonia. PMID:26430059

  11. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico Rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with different concentration of indolbutyric acid

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    Débora Costa Bastos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar a capacidade de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro tratadas com AIB. Estacas lenhosas e herbáceas foram coletadas de ramos de caquizeiro das cultivares Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo e Fuyu e submetidas à aplicação de AIB (0; 3.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por vinte segundos. Em seguida, as estacas foram colocadas em canteiro contendo uma mistura de terra + esterco de curral (3:1 v/v como substrato (estacas lenhosas e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, contendo vermiculita média, em câmara de nebulização intermitente (estacas herbáceas. Como conclusão, observou-se que as cultivares de caquizeiro apresentam diferenças quanto ao potencial de formação de raízes e brotações; estacas herbáceas apresentam maior tendência na propagação via estaquia em comparação às estacas lenhosas.This work was carried out with the objective to study the capacity of rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of Japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with IBA. Hardwood and herbaceous cuttings were collected from branches of Japanese persimmon tree and submitted to treatments in function of cultivars (Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo and Fuyu and of application of IBA (0, 3,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 for twenty seconds. Later the cuttings were placed in stonemason containing a soil mixture + corral manure (3:1 v/v as substrate (hardwood cuttings and in polyethylene trays containing vermiculite as substrate, in intermittent mist chamber (herbaceous cuttings. As conclusion is observed that the cultivars of Japanese persimmon tree present differences in relationship to potential of roots and shoots formation; herbaceous cuttings present higher tendency in the propagation through cutting in comparison with the hardwood cuttings.

  12. Extensive phytochemical investigation of the polar constituents of Diospyros bipindensis Gürke traditionally used by Baka pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Ilaria; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Moundipa, Paul F; Brusotti, Gloria; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-01

    The water maceration and methanolic extract of the stem barks of Diospyros bipindensis, which is a medicinal plant used in Cameroon by Baka pygmies, revealed a complex high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile primarily composed of coumarin and naphthoquinone glycosides. The methanolic and apolar extracts also exhibited significant antifungal activity on a TLC bioautography assay against Candida albicans. HPLC-microfractionation in 96-well plates combined with bioautography enabled the rapid localization of the antifungal compound that was identified by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS analysis as plumbagin. These on-line structural information were also used to dereplicate four known compounds. The isolation of the polar constituents from the methanolic extract enabled the identification of eleven other compounds also present in the traditional preparation, nine of which are reported for the first time. The structures of those compounds were elucidated by UV, NMR and HR-MS analysis.

  13. Resfriamento rápido e armazenamento de caquis (Diospyrus kaki, L., cv. Fuyu, em condições de atmosfera refrigerada e modificada Fast cooling and storage of kakis (Diospyrus kaki, L., cv. Fuyu, in conditions of refrigerated atmosphere and modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir Carlos Ferri

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Para aumentar o período de conservação após a colheita de caquis, da cultivar Fuyu, dois sistemas de armazenamento foram estudados: atmosfera refrigerada (AR e atmosfera modificada (AM. As frutas foram separadas em dois lotes: 1º resfriamento rápido a 0ºC até que a polpa atingisse 10ºC e, então, armazenadas em AR a 10±0,5ºC e 90±5% UR; 2º resfriamento rápido a 0ºC até que a polpa atingisse 0,5ºC, para serem armazenadas em condições de AR a 0±0,5ºC e 90±5% de UR e em AM com filme PEBD 80mim a 0±0,5ºC e 90±5% UR. Neste sistema (AM, também se testou o uso de sachet contendo 1g de permanganato de potássio. Através dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que, para o armazenamento de caquis 'Fuyu', por períodos de até 30 dias, a temperatura de 10ºC é eficiente e, para períodos superiores, o emprego de filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade de 80mim, associado com a absorção do etileno, é o mais aficaz. O armazenamento em AR a 0±0,5ºC e 90±5% UR não foi eficiente na conservação dos caquis.In order to increase the conservation period of kakis cultivar Fuyu after harvest, two storage systems were studied: refrigerated atmosphere (RA and modified atmosphere (MA. The fruits were separated in two groups: 1 rapid cooling at 0 ºC until the pulp reached 10ºC and, then stored in RA to 10±5 ºC and 90±5% RH; 2 rapid cooling at 0 ºC until the pulp reached 0,5 ºC and, then stored in RA to 0±0,5 ºC and 90±5% RH; and in MA with LDPE film 80mum 0±0.5ºC and 90±5% RH. In the systems (MA, also the sachet containing 1 g of potassium permanganate were tested. Through the obtained results it was observed that for the storage of kakis 'Fuyu', for periods until 30 days, the temperature of 10 ºC is efficient and, for longer periods the use of films of polyethylene of low density (LPDE of 80mum, associated with the absorption of the ethylene is also efficient. The storage in RA at 0±0,5 ºC and 90±5% RH was not efficient

  14. Composição química de grãos de feijao-guandu cultivar kaki Chemical composition of pigeon pea seeds

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    João Paulo Feijão Teixeira

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas sementes de tegumento creme e alaranjado de feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Milisp., oriundas do cultivar Kaki, quanto aos teores de proteína, extrato etéreo, açúcares solúveis e polissacarídeos. Os dois tipos de sementes apresentaram composição química similar. Os teores médios encontrados foram: proteína 23,11%, extrato etéreo 1,34%, açúcar solúvel 9,46% e polissacarídeos 16,77%. A fração protéica apresentou baixos níveis de aminoácidos sulfurados, isoleucina, valina e treonina.Pigeon pea seeds, cv' Kaki either with light-yellow or orange testa pigments were analysed for protein, ether extract, total sugar and polysaccharides. Similar results were obtained for the two types of seeds. On the average the seeds had the following contents: protein - 23.11%; ether extract - 1.34%; total sugar - 9.46%; polysaccharides - 16.77%. The protein fraction had low levels of sulfured aminoacids, isoleucine, valine and threonine.

  15. Analysis of aroma compounds and nutrient contents of mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC., an ethnobotanical fruit of Austronesian Taiwan

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    Sheng-Feng Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros blancoi A. DC. is an evergreen tree species of high-quality wood. Mabolo, the fruit of this plant, is popular among the natives in Taiwan, but its potential in economic use has not been fully explored. Mabolo has a rich aroma. Of the 39 different volatile compounds isolated, its intact fruit and peel were found to both contain 24 compounds, whereas the pulp contained 28 compounds. The most important aroma compounds were esters and α-farnesene. Our data show that mabolo is rich in dietary fiber (3.2%, and the contents of other nutrients such as malic acid, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and choline chloride were 227.1 mg/100 g, 0.075 mg/100 g, 0.157 mg/100 g, 0.623 mg/100 g, 0.19 mg/100 g, and 62.52 mg/100 g, respectively. Moreover, it is rich in calcium and zinc; the contents of which were found to be 42.8 mg/100 g and 3.6 mg/100 g, respectively. Our results show that D. blancoi has the potential to be bred for a novel fruit.

  16. Composição química de grãos de feijao-guandu cultivar kaki Chemical composition of pigeon pea seeds

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Feijão Teixeira; Dayse Soave Spoladore; Nelson Raimundo Braga; Eduardo Antonio Bulisani

    1985-01-01

    Foram analisadas sementes de tegumento creme e alaranjado de feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Milisp.), oriundas do cultivar Kaki, quanto aos teores de proteína, extrato etéreo, açúcares solúveis e polissacarídeos. Os dois tipos de sementes apresentaram composição química similar. Os teores médios encontrados foram: proteína 23,11%, extrato etéreo 1,34%, açúcar solúvel 9,46% e polissacarídeos 16,77%. A fração protéica apresentou baixos níveis de aminoácidos sulfurados, isoleucina, valina e t...

  17. Analisis Integritas Struktur Kaki Jack-up yang Mengalami Retak dengan Pendekatan Ultimate Strength; Studi Kasus Jack-up Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alit Winiscoyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jack-up adalah suatu struktur bangunan lepas pantai yang terdiri dari lambung (hull, kaki (legs, dan suatu sistem jacking sehingga memungkinkan untuk dipindahkan dari satu lokasi ke lokasi yang lain. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan studi kasus struktur Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit yang dioperasikan oleh SANTOS (Madura Pty.Ltd. yang beroperasi di Selat Madura blok Maleo dengan kedalaman perairan di lokasi ini adalah 57 m terhadap MSL (Mean Sea Level. Studi kasus ini dilakukan karena ditemukan indikator retak lelah/damage pada sambungan antara kaki jack-up dan mudmat. Analisis ultimate strength akan dilakukan untuk mengetahui integritas struktur terhadap beban maksimal . Variasi dead load, live load dan environmental load menjadi tahapan penting dalam analisa ini untuk mengetahui tingkat integritas struktur. Dengan pengaruh variasi beban (dead load dan live load terhadap struktur untuk tiap-tiap kasus didapatkan nilai unity check (UC yang dari semua kasus dikategorikan aman karena tidak ada nilai UC yang melebihi 1,3 (API RP 2A WSD. Dari semua analisis yang dilakukan dead load lebih berpengaruh dibandingkan dengan live load. Dari analisis pushover yang telah dilakukan pada jack-up Maleo MOPU yang dimitigasi dengan menambahkan brace dan menambahkan ketebalan dihasilkan nilai Reserve Strength Ratio (RSR terkecil pada arah pembebanan 2700 dengan nilai 6,5 pada Brace Clamp case dan terbesar dengan nilai 18,3 pada X-Bracing case. Nilai RSR tersebut masih memenuhi syarat yang telah ditetapkan API RP 2A berupa nilai RSR minimal untuk platform berpenghuni adalah 1,6.  

  18. The advancement in the chemical and pharmacological study of Diospyros L.%柿属植物化学成分及药理活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光; 徐绥绪

    2001-01-01

    柿属植物含有萘醌、三萜、黄酮等化合物,具有抗菌、驱虫、抗杜氏利什曼虫、抗突变、抗癌等药理活性。%Diospyros cotains naphthoquinones,triterpenes and flavonoids andthey have activities of antibacterial,anthelmintic,inhibitory effects of Leishmania donovani promastigotes and activities of antimutagenicity and anticancer.

  19. 播前不同处理的君迁子苗期生长节律探究%Different Presowing Treatment of Diospyros lotus Seedling Growth Rhythm of Inqui ry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪琴; 魏素玲; 畅凌冰; 周林召; 梁臣

    2013-01-01

    对君迁子种子进行播前浸种和干播处理,进行了不同处理苗期的生长节律试验。结果表明:君迁子浸种处理幼苗高较干播幼苗生长量大,生长节律基本一致,苗高生长出现两个高峰分别在6月28日至7月26日,8月9日至9月7日。幼苗地径生长速度平稳,测定时间段内呈直线平稳生长。%this article carries out an experiment of soaking before sowing and dry sowing of Diospyros lotus (Diospyros lotus .l .) seed to investigate the grow th rhythm through different treatment at seedling stage . The results show that :the soaking seedlings of Diospyros lotus seed are higher than the dry sowing seed-lings ,growth rhythm is basically the same ,and the growth of seedlings appeares two peaks respectively in June 28th to July 26th ,August 9th to September 7th .The seedlings of coarse have stable growth rate ,and follow a linear steady grow th in the determination of period .

  20. Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Antiproliferative and Proteomics Analyses of the Differential Expression of Apoptotic Proteins in MCF-7 Cells Treated with Acetone Leaf Extract of Diospyros lycioides (Ebenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Pilane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in South Africa. The acetone leaf extract of Diospyros lycioides was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for its antioxidant potential using DPPH assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging effect, while the viability of MCF-7 cells was evaluated using the MTT. MCF-7 treated cells were stained with Hoechst 335258 dye and annexin-V-FITC to be evaluated for apoptotic effect of the extract, while mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and deferential protein expression levels using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results revealed presence of antioxidant constituents in the extract. Extract was shown to be cytotoxic in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity was demonstrated to be due to apoptosis, with 70% of the extract-treated cells being annexin-V-positive/PI negative at 48 hours. The extract was also shown to upregulate the expression of p53 gene with concomitant downregulation of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic gene while differentially expressed proteins were identified as enolase, pyruvate kinase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The extract in this study was shown to induce apoptosis at an early stage which makes it an ideal source that can be explored for compounds that may be used in the treatment and management of cancer.

  1. Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Antiproliferative and Proteomics Analyses of the Differential Expression of Apoptotic Proteins in MCF-7 Cells Treated with Acetone Leaf Extract of Diospyros lycioides (Ebenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilane, M C; Bagla, V P; Mokgotho, M P; Mbazima, V; Matsebatlela, T M; Ncube, I; Mampuru, L

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in South Africa. The acetone leaf extract of Diospyros lycioides was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for its antioxidant potential using DPPH assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging effect, while the viability of MCF-7 cells was evaluated using the MTT. MCF-7 treated cells were stained with Hoechst 335258 dye and annexin-V-FITC to be evaluated for apoptotic effect of the extract, while mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and deferential protein expression levels using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results revealed presence of antioxidant constituents in the extract. Extract was shown to be cytotoxic in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity was demonstrated to be due to apoptosis, with 70% of the extract-treated cells being annexin-V-positive/PI negative at 48 hours. The extract was also shown to upregulate the expression of p53 gene with concomitant downregulation of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic gene while differentially expressed proteins were identified as enolase, pyruvate kinase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The extract in this study was shown to induce apoptosis at an early stage which makes it an ideal source that can be explored for compounds that may be used in the treatment and management of cancer. PMID:26457109

  2. Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo do tomate caqui cultivado em ambiente protegido Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of Kaki tomato cultivated in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia S. Reis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros aerodinâmicos de uma cultura cultivada em ambiente protegido podem ser considerados dependentes do nível de radiação global, temperatura do ar e umidade do ar, com base em leis exponenciais. Assim sendo se propôs com este trabalho, estimar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultivo da cultura do tomate caqui em ambiente protegido, sob irrigação por gotejamento, utilizando-se o modelo de Penman-Monteith. Os parâmetros aerodinâmicos foram medidos com sensores conectados à estação automática instalada dentro do ambiente protegido. A evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc foi determinada experimentalmente por meio de lisímetros de drenagem e a umidade do solo foi medida através de sensores instalados a uma profundidade de 20 cm. O desempenho do modelo de Penman-Monteith foi comparado aos valores decendiais do balanço hídrico nos lisímetros; já a evapotranspiração de referência foi calculada com dados externos e utilizada para o cálculo do Kc da cultura; enfim, os resultados indicaram que o modelo de Penman-Monteith subestima os valores de evapotranspiração encontrados pelo balanço hídrico nos lisímetros.The aerodynamic parameters of a crop cultivated in greenhouse can be considered dependent upon the level of global radiation, air temperature and relative humidity, based on exponential laws. Consequently, this work intends to estimate the evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient of Kaki tomato in greenhouse, under drip irrigation, using the Penman-Monteith model. The aerodynamic parameters were measured with sensors connected to the automatic station installed inside the greenhouse. The ETc was determined experimentally through drainage lysimeters and the soil water content was measured through sensors installed at a depth of 20 cm. The performance of the Penman-Monteith model was compared to decennial values of the water balance in the lysimeters, while the reference evapotranspiration was calculated

  3. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants.

  4. 适宜君迁子出苗及生长的育苗基质研究%Study about the Suitable Seeding Container Substrate of Diospyros lotus Emergence and Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丙尧; 马海林; 刘方春; 杜振宇; 段春华

    2011-01-01

    利用无纺布容器育苗技术,研究不同配比基质对君迁子出苗及生长的影响,探讨基质理化性质与出苗及生长的相关性,并采用因子分析法寻求适宜君迁子容器育苗的最佳基质.结果表明:处理1(V泥炭∶V珍珠岩=3∶1)、处理2(V泥炭∶V珍珠岩=2∶1)和处理7(V泥炭∶V蛭石∶V珍珠岩=6∶1∶1)的出苗率最低,均为95.8%,处理4(V泥炭∶V蛭石=3∶1)、处理5(V泥炭∶ V蛭石=2∶1)和处理6(V泥炭∶V蛭石=1∶1)的出苗率达100%.多重比较结果表明,处理3的株高和地径均为最低,而处理4、处理6的株高显著高于其他处理,处理4、处理6和处理7的地径显著高于其他处理,处理4和处理6的地上部生物量和地下部生物量相对较高,其地上部鲜重分别达到了69.28 g和72.67 g,地下部鲜重达34.36 g和34.13 g,而处理3(V泥炭∶V珍珠岩=1∶1)和处理5处理的生物量最低.君迁子的出苗、生长及壮苗指数与基质的各理化指标相关性并不显著.因子分析结果和壮苗指数结果并不完全相同.因子分析法综合评价不同基质君迁子的育苗效果是适宜的,结果表明,处理6为君迁子容器育苗最佳配比基质,其次为处理4和处理7,处理3综合效果最差.%Effects of different container nursery substrate on emergence and growth of Diospyros lotus seedings were studied by cultivation shaping of non-woven fabrics technique. Besides, we valuated the nursery effect of different container substrates by factor analysis method in order to search for the suitable seeding container substrate in Diospyros lotus cultivation seedings. Diospyros lotus emergence rate in the first treatment (V^I Vpariite=3> 1), the second treatment (1^*1 VJ??uie=2I 1) and the seventh treatment (V^I Kamcuiii.' Vf^au= 61 II 1) was significant lower than other treatments being 95.8%, respectively. However, Diospyros lotus emergence rate of the fourth (V^I F,?ni?oiito=311), the fifth {V^'. 7??**= 21 1

  5. Antifeedant and Toxicity Effects of Some Plant Extracts on Thaumetopoae solitaria Frey. (Lep.: Thaumetopoeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ERTÜRK, Ömer

    2006-01-01

    The insecticidal and antifeedant activity of extracts derived from different plants of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Artemisia absinthum L. (Compositae), Alnus glutiosa Goertn. (Betulaceae), Origanum vulgare L., (Labiatae), Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) and Ocimum basilicum L. (Labiatae) are reported. The 95% ethanol extracts of plants ...

  6. Cloning and expression of lipoxygenase genes and enzyme activity in ripening persimmon fruit in response to GA and ABA treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two genes of the lipoxygenase (LOX) family, DkLox1 and DkLox3 (GenBank accession No. JF436951 and JF436950), were cloned from persimmon fruit (Diospyros kaki L. ‘Fuping Jianshi’). Sequence analysis indicated that they belong to the 9-LOX sub-group. Heterologous expression of DkLox1 in E. coli produc...

  7. LYMANTRIA DISPAR L. (LEP: LYMANTRIDAE) ‘NIN LARVA GELİŞMESİ ÜZERİNE BAZI BİTKİ ÖZÜTLERİNİN ANTİFEEDANT (İŞTAH KESİCİ) VE TOKSİK ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    ERTÜRK, Ömer; ŞEKEROĞLU, Vedat; ÜNAL, Hasan Umut; ARSLAN, hamit Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L., Family (Labiatae), Buxus sempervirens L., Familya (Buxaceae),Sambucus nigra L., Familya (Caprifoliaceae), Aesculus hippocastanum L, Familya (Hippocastanaceae), Hypericum perforatum L., Familya (Compositae), Viscum album L., Familya ( Loranthaceae), Diospyros kaki L., Familya (Ebenaceae), Ocimum basilicum L., Familya (Labiatae), Alnus glutinosa Goertn, Familya (Betulaceae) ve Achilea biebersteinii Willd., Familya (Compositae), bitkilerinden kaynaklanan insekdisit etki...

  8. Moscas frugívoras e seus parasitoides nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies and their parasitoids in the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas frugívoras (Tephritoidea são as principais pragas da fruticultura de clima temperado no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a infestação desses dípteros e a ocorrência de seus parasitoides em frutíferas nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, localizados na região Sul, nas safras agrícolas de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Foram coletados frutos de araçazeiro-amarelo e vermelho (Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821, butiazeiro [Butia capitata (Mart. Becc., 1916], caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki Linnaeus, 1753, cerejeira-do-mato (Eugenia involucrata DC., 1828, goiabeira [Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753], goiabeira-serrana [Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret, 1941], nespereira [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindley, 1822], pessegueiro [Prunus persicae (L. Batsch, 1801], pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus,1753 e uvalheira (Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, 1832. Os frutos foram coletados e transportados para o laboratório, onde foram individualizados e determinados os seguintes parâmetros: índice de infestação das moscas, índice de parasitismo e frequência de indivíduos por espécie de parasitoide. Foram constatadas duas espécies de Tephritidae, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (90,5% e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (9,5% e duas de Lonchaeidae, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, 1982 (87,8% e uma espécie ainda não descrita, referida como Neosilba n. sp. 3 (12,2%. Anastrepha fraterculus é a espécie mais abundante nos dois municípios, sendo constatada na maioria das frutíferas coletadas. Caquizeiro e goiabeira foram os hospedeiros que apresentaram o maior índice de infestação por C. capitata. Quanto às espécies de Neosilba, a maior infestação ocorreu em frutos de goiabeira-serrana. Dos parasitoides emergidos, foram identificadas três espécies, sendo duas de Braconidae, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911 (52,6% e Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930 (27,5% e uma espécie de Figitidae, Aganaspis

  9. Controle da maturação de caquis 'Fuyu', com uso de aminoethoxivinilglicina e ácido giberélico Maturation control of kaki 'Fuyu' using aminoethoxivinilglicin adn gibberelic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDECIR CARLOS FERRI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o efeito do controle da maturação e o comportamento pós-colheita de caquis 'Fuyu', tratados a campo com aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG e ácido giberélico (AG3. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As pulverizações foram realizadas com AVG a 50ppm e AG3 a 30ppm, 30 dias antes da data prevista para a colheita. Após a colheita, os frutos foram armazenados em ambiente com temperatura 23±3ºC e umidade relativa de 75±5% e, a cada quatro dias, foram realizadas avaliações da perda de peso, firmeza de polpa, produção de etileno e teor de clorofilas e de carotenóides. As aplicações de AG3 e de AVG permitiram retardar o momento da colheita dos frutos e auxiliaram no armazenamento dos mesmos, através da preservação da integridade física dos frutos.This paper aims to evaluating the effect of maturation control and the post-harvest behavior in relation to Kaki 'Fuyu' sprayed with aminoethoxivinilglicin (AVG and Gibberelic acid (AG3 in the field. As to spraying, AVG at 50 ppm and AG3 at 30 ppm were used 30 days before harvest with four repeated applications at random. The fruits were stored at average temperatures of 23±3ºC and relative humidity of 75±5%; weight loss, pulp firmness, ethylene production, chlorophyll and caretenoid substances were evaluated every four days. The AG3 and AVG applications permited to retard harvest and helped storing of the fruits, through the physical structure preservation of fruits.

  10. 外源NO对干旱胁迫下君迁子幼苗光合作用的影响%Photosynthesis of Diospyros lotus seedlings under drought stress responding to exogenous nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力思; 王洁; 艾呈祥; 安淼; 秦志华

    2014-01-01

    一氧化氮( Nitric oxide, NO)作为一种气体信号分子,不仅参与植物生长和发育等生理代谢过程,而且对植物的抗逆性也具有一定的作用。以20%聚乙二醇PEG 6000溶液模拟干旱胁迫,100μmol/L SNP为NO供体,研究了NO对干旱胁迫下君迁子幼苗叶片电子传递、光能分配和反应中心开放等PSⅡ功能的影响,以探讨干旱条件下NO对植物光合作用的调节作用。结果表明:干旱胁迫的第1 d和第5 d,SNP处理增加了干旱胁迫下君迁子幼苗叶片的水势(ψw )和叶绿素含量,且恢复了PSⅡ的电子传递速率(ΦPSⅡ和Fm/Fo )及潜在活性( Fv/Fo );干旱胁迫降低了光化学淬灭系数( qp )和PSⅡ反应中心捕获光能的转化效率,但SNP处理增加了捕获光能用于光化学反应的比例( Pr ),进而增加了PSⅡ开放反应中心的活性,促进了非辐射能量的散耗,减轻甚至避免了过剩光能对光合机构的破坏。因此,干旱条件下外源NO供体可能参与了君迁子幼苗叶片PSⅡ对光能的利用。%Nitric Oxide ( NO) has emerged as a key signal molecule involved in physiological metabolic processes of growth and development, and induced resistance to various abiotic stresses in plants. To characterize the role of NO in drought tolerance induced by polyethylene glycol ( PEG) , sodium nitroprusside ( SNP) of 100μmol/L as exogenous NO donor was applied to study the biologically protective effects of NO at a low concentration on PSⅡfunctions in Diospyros lotus seed-lings hydroponically grown under 20% PEG stress. Under drought stress, on the first and fifth days of SNP treatment, the wa-ter potential (ψw ) and chlorophyll content were increased, the electron transport velocity (ΦPSⅡand Fm/Fo ) and potential activity of PSⅡreaction centers (Fv/Fo) were maintained in favorable level. The photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) and the transformation efficiency of light energy captured by PSⅡsystem declined under

  11. Effect of processing on the physicochemical, sensory, nutritional and microbiological quality of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon

    OpenAIRE

    SANCHÍS SOLER, ELENA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) 'Rojo Brillante' is an astringent variety characterised by good growing conditions, excellent colour, size, sensory characteristics and good nutritional properties. In the last decade, its production has grown substantially in Spain given the application of high levels of CO2 to remove astringency while firmness is preserved. This technology has also increased its potential as a fresh-cut commodity. However, physical damage during processing result in degrad...

  12. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  13. 不同处理对柿属植物DNA提取产率和品质的影响%Effect of Different Treatments on Genomic DNA Extraction in Diospyros spp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易庆平; 罗正荣

    2012-01-01

    基于CTAB法对鄂柿一号、前川次郎、君迁子3份材料进行DNA提取纯化,探讨不同采样时期、不同的纯化及沉淀方法对柿属植物DNA产率和品质的影响.结果表明,不同时期采样对DNA产率影响很大,随叶片生长,DNA产率不断下降,成熟叶片DNA产率仅为幼嫩叶片的16.7%~19.4%;在苯酚氯仿法、高盐乙醚法、CTAB沉淀法中以高盐乙醚法效果最好,可酶切,能有效去除多糖污染,产率较高;4种沉淀方法中,高浓度的盐溶液有助于去除多糖、多酚等杂质,相比单纯的乙醇或异丙醇沉淀可获得更高品质的DNA.另外,不同材料间提取DNA难度存在较大差异.%The efficiency of many nucleic acid isolation techniques is affected by the presence of plant metabolites such as polysaccharides, polyphones, etc. Based on CTAB DNA extraction method, some treatments with different sampling, purifying and precipitating were studied to preserve the effect on genomic DNA extraction in three materials of Diospyros spp. The results indicated that as the tissue developed, the yield of DNA decreased. Compared with tender shoots, the amount of DNA from mature leaves was 16. 7% —18. 4%. Among three purification methods, the high salt/water-saturated ether obtained high-quality easily digested DNA with higher yield. In addition, add high concentration salt before organic precipitation is helpful to remove the impurity, could gain higher-quality DNA. The efficiency of DNA extraction form cultivars differs much.

  14. DEBRIDEMENT SEBAGAI TATALAKSANA ULKUS KAKI DIABETIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Agustya Darmaputra Wesnawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported a case of female patient 45 years old with diagnose Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 withDiabetic Foot Ulcer Wagner grade 2 at region pedis dextra. Debridement was done in thispatient. The type of debridement was surgical debridement. The purpose of this procedure is toremove necrotic tissue and hyperkeratosis until reach the health tissue. After debridement, thewound was dressed with kassa sterile and elastic bandage. During treatment, there were no pus,bleeding, and unpleasant odor on wound, granulation tissue begin to appear, and pain on thepedis was reduced.

  15. 岭南藜蒴栲-罗浮柿群系粗木质残体的基本特征%Character of Coarse Woody Debris in a Castanopsis fissa-Diospyros morrisiana Formation in Lingnan Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊小丽; 周光益; 赵厚本; 邱治军; 刘伟新; 梁瑞友

    2016-01-01

    [目的]通过实地调查和采样对粗木质残体(CWD)进行量化研究,来了解未受冰灾干扰的岭南藜蒴栲-罗浮柿群系CWD的本底数据,建立CWD生物量回归方程。[方法]采用样方调查法,分析粤北小坑国家森林公园的常绿阔叶次生林在不同地形下CWD的基础特征及其存在形式、腐解等级和径阶的分布格局。[结果]表明:该林分CWD总贮量为8.25 t·hm-2,各腐解等级(1、2、3、4、5)所占比例分别为41.07%、17.75%、13.89%、21.74%、5.55%;CWD主要以倒木和枯立木的形式存在,其次是大枯枝和根桩;径阶结构主要集中在510、1015 cm。[结论]CWD的空间异质性较大,但不同地形下其贮量、蓄积量、覆盖面积和数量差异不显著(p>0.05)。通过423个粗木质残体直径和质量的实测数据建立了CWD不同腐解等级的生物量幂函数回归方程。%Objective]In order to understand the basic data and establish biomass regression equation of coarse woody debris(CWD)in a Castanopsis fissa-Diospyros morrisiana formation which was not influenced by ice storm, we carried out field investigation and sampling in Xiaokeng National Park,located in north of Guangdong. [Methods]We analyzed the basic characteristics and existing forms,distribution patterns in decay class and diame-ter of CWD in different landforms by plant plot investigation method.[Results]The results indicated that the total biomass of CWD was 8.25 t·hm-2,and the biomass in different decay class(1、2、3、4、5)occupied 41.07%, 17.75%,13.89%,21.74%,5.55% respectively in the forest.The CWD was mainly composed of fallen logs and snags,followed by the large branches and stumps.Diameter structure of CWD concentrated in the range of 5 10 cm and 10 15 cm.[Conclusions]The spatial heterogeneity of CWD was high,but there was no significant differ-ence in different landforms.Furthermore,biomass regression equation of CWD in

  16. EMBALAGENS NA PROTEÇÃO CONTRA PRAGAS DE FRUTOS DE CAQUIZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Rusin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The persimmon culture can be attacked by several pests and diseases, however, there are few studies related to the control. In addition, there is a lack of pesticides registered in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA, in Portuguese “Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento”, emerging the fruit bagging as an alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of protective packs for bagging persimmon fruits, in order to control pests and diseases and, consequently, improve the fruit quality. The experiment was conducted in a persimmon orchard on the experimental station of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS, located in the Tuiuty District, in Bento Gonçalves, RS. Were performed four treatments: control (not bagged fruits, perforated polypropylene packaging, white TNT (non woven tissue packing, and kraft brown paper packing. The harvested fruits were evaluated for weight, symptoms of caterpillars damage, presence of mealybug (Pseudococcus sp. and symptoms of Schyzothyrium pomi. The fluctuation population of Anastrepha fraterculus was performed using McPhail trap with hydrolyzed protein. Among the treatments, only the fruits protected with perforated polypropylene differ significantly from the control on the evaluations of weight and Schyzothyrium pomi symptoms. However, there was no significant difference on the damage caused by caterpillars and presence of mealybugs. The use of perforated polypropylene has demonstrated efficiency on the control of Anastrepha fraterculus, and it can be used to reduce the damage in the fruits.

  17. Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside suppresses melanin synthesis by augmenting p38 MAPK and CREB signaling pathways and subsequent cAMP down-regulation in murine melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hyun Gug; Kim, Han Hyuk; Paul, Souren; Jang, Jae Yoon; Cho, Yong Hun; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Yu, Jae Myo; Lee, Eun Su; An, Bong Jeun; Kang, Sun Chul; Bang, Byung Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of purified quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosid (QCGG) on melanogenesis was investigated. QCGG was isolated from the calyx of a traditional Korean medicinal herb, Persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The hypopigmentation effects of QCGG were determined by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay, and Western blotting of α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Our results showed that QCGG inhibited both melan...

  18. Effects of heat shock treatment on total phenol content and PAL, PPO, POD activities in Diospyros vaki explants%热激处理对甜柿外植体总酚含量和PAL、PPO、POD活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨谷良; 范媛媛; 邓先珍

    2015-01-01

    The explants of Diospyros vaki is easy to occur browning during tissue culture process. In order to prevent browning, explants should be treated by heat shock before cultivation. Phenols content and activities of PAL, PPO and POD in D. vaki c.v. ‘Baohuatianshi’ leaves were researched, and physiological mechanism of heat shock treatment preventing browning was discussed. The results showed that browning degree of leaves was decreased significantly after heat shock treating, and total phenol content and activities of PAL and PPO were also lower than the control. But preventing effect of hot shock treatment on POD activity was not obvious. It suggested that heat shock treatment could inhibit synthesis and oxidation of phenols, and decreased quinones content, which was browning production, through reducing activities of PAL and PPO in explants. So heat shock treatment could effectively prevent browning.%甜柿在组织培养过程中极易褐化,为了防止褐变,在培养之前应对外植体进行热激处理。文中研究了热激处理后的宝华甜柿叶片在培养过程中其酚类物质含量和苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性的变化情况,并对热激处理抑制组培褐变的生理机制进行了初步探讨。结果表明:热激处理后,宝华甜柿叶片的褐变程度比没有处理的明显减轻,其总酚含量与苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)及多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性均有所降低,但热激处理对其过氧化物酶(POD)活性的抑制效果并不明显,说明热激处理通过降低外植体的PAL及PPO活性,抑制酚类物质的合成及氧化,减少了褐变产物——醌类物质的形成,从而有效抑制了褐变现象的发生。

  19. Effects of Water Stress on Photochemical Quenching and Non-photochemical Quenching of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Four Tree Seedlings%水分胁迫对4种苗木叶绿素荧光的光化学淬灭和非光化学淬灭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史胜青; 袁玉欣; 杨敏生; 梁海永; 张金香

    2004-01-01

    The changes of photochemical quenching(qp) and non-photochemical quenching(qN) of chlorophyll a fluorescence in leaves of four tree seedlings ( Gleditsia sinensis, Juglans regia, Diospyros kaki and Diospyros lotus ) were different between two different water stress ways:detached drought treatment and potted drought treatment. After 4 hours dehydration by leaf detaching,the qp values had significant decrease except J. regia, only 6 hours later, the qp values compared with contrast decreased significantly in four tree seedlings(P>0.05), but the range of reduction( G.sinensis, J.regia and D.lotus) was just 2.5% to 6.4%. D.kaki, however,got to 31.3%. While the qN values increased significantly with conducting dehydration of the detached leaves. However, the qp values of four species showed no significant decrease when they were growing in pots under soil water stress(40%~60% RWC) for 30 days; and the qN values decreased obviously with a exception in J. regia, which was consistent with that of detached leaf treatment. The results suggested that some difference or changes in mechanism of excess light energy dissipation might perform in four seedlings by short-term and long-term water stress.

  20. TERAPI OKSIGEN HIPERBARIK SEBAGAI TERAPI TAMBAHAN UNTUK LUKA KAKI DIABET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilyatiz Zahroh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gangrenous wounds is one of the chronic complications of diabetes that most feared by every diabetic patient (Tjokroprawiro, 2007. Gangrenous wounds is a condition that begins from the tissue hypoxia where oxygen is reduced, it will affect the activity of vascular and cellular networks, which results in tissue damage (Guyton, 2006. TOHB (Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy or Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy or HBO therapy (Hyperbaric Oxygen is a way to increase tissue oxygen levels, by reducing the swelling caused by vasoconstriction of blood vessels. At the same time, TOHB also increases oxygen levels in the blood (Neubauer, 1998. Oxygen is expected to penetrate through to the peripheral tissues are deprived of oxygen, so that the supply of nutrients and oxygen are met, so that the network can do metabolism and function (Smeltzer, 2002. Review was conducted at 10 research/article. Search strategy articles by using two ways: manual and online libraries. This search is getting 113 articles, but the total articles reviewed were the 10 articles. 1 studies are case reports and 9 research is experimental research with 5 studies using random techniques. TOHB with adequate doses can have a positive effect on wound healing and reduce the risk of amputation. TOHB beneficial to improve peripheral perfusion and decrease the incidence of major amputation. However, there has been no research on the psychology of the patient. Abstrak: Luka gangren merupakan salah satu komplikasi kronik DM yang paling ditakuti oleh setiap penderita DM (Tjokroprawiro, 2007. Luka ganggren merupakan keadaan yang diawali dari adanya hipoksia jaringan dimana oksigen dalam jaringan berkurang, hal tersebut akan mempengaruhi aktivitas vaskuler dan seluler jaringan, sehingga akan berakibat terjadinya kerusakan jaringan (Guyton, 2006. TOHB (Terapi Oksigen Hiperbarik atau Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy atau terapi HBO (Hyperbaric Oxygen merupakan cara untuk meningkatkan kadar oksigen jaringan, dengan jalan mengurangi pembengkakan akibat vasokonstriksi pembuluh darah.  Pada saat yang bersamaan, TOHB juga meningkatkan kadar oksigen dalam darah (Neubauer, 1998. Oksigen tersebut diharapkan mampu menembus sampai ke jaringan perifer yang kekurangan oksigen, sehingga suplai nutrisi dan oksigen terpenuhi, sehingga jaringan luka dapat melakukan metabolisme dan fungsinya (Smeltzer, 2002. Review ini dilakukan pada 10 hasil penelitian/artikel.  Strategi pencarian artikel dengan menggunakan dua cara, yaitu perpustakaan manual dan online. Pencarian ini mendapatkan 113 artikel, namun total artikel yang direview adalah 10 artikel. 1 penelitian merupakan laporan kasus dan 9 penelitian merupakan penelitian eksperimen dengan 5 penelitian menggunakan tehnik random.TOHB dengan dosis yang adekuat dapat memberikan efek positif dalam proses penyembuhan luka dan menurunkan resiko amputasi. TOHB bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan perfusi perifer dan menurunkan kejadian amputasi mayor. Namun, belum ada penelitian tentang aspek psikologi pasien. 

  1. Analisis Pengaruh Bentuk Telapak Kaki Terhadap Kelelahan Fisik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herianto Herianto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity over time can cause fatigue during exercise such as walking or light running. Physical fatigue effects on heart rate and blood pressure. Factors that can cause fatigue are gender, cardiovascular disease status, sport exercise habits, BMI (Body Mass Index and study activities during a week. Physical fatigue also could be caused by factors shape of your foot, especially the form of flat feet/pesplanus in type 1, 2or 3. Subjects of this research were students of Industrial Engineering Gadjah Mada University ages 19 to 23 years with the aim of sampling techniques to the criteria of having normal or flat feet. The subjects run normally using a tread mill with a speed of 4 miles per hour for 6 minutes. The variables measured were heart rate and blood pressure. Heart rate was measured in three sessions among others before, during and after the experiment using a heart rate monitor while blood pressure was measured before and after the experiment. There are significant differences in systolic blood pressure before and after the experimental on indicator of sex, heart rate after experimental on indicator of disease status and heart rate on indicator exercise habit for normal feet. Then in the form of pesplanus foot type 1, there are significant differences like systolic and diastolic blood pressure after experimental on indicator of BMI (Body Mass Index and systolic blood pressure on indicator of pre-experimental study activities during a week, in which a significant difference in respondents who did not have study activities of the respondents who went tocollegein6-10 hours. In the form of pesplanus foot type 2 there is a significant difference in heart rate when experimental on indicator of cardiovascular disease status.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09420-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03 ) Diospyros kaki cDNA, clone: KA021_F02, 5' end, ex... 38 2e-05 3 ( EA376998 ) Sequence 25821 from patent...66 7e-69 2 ( AX489071 ) Sequence 6371 from Patent WO02053728. 80 1e-41 6 ( AR548682 ) Sequence 3813 from patent... US 6747137. 80 2e-41 6 ( AX537054 ) Sequence 655 from Patent WO02064766. 80 5e-36 6 ( AR941732 ) Sequence 655 from patent...ts) S2: 22 (44.1 bits) protein update 2009. 6.25 Homology vs Protein Query= Contig-U09420-1 (Co...66 AB274997_1( AB274997 |pid:none) Bombyx mori FPPS3_Bm mRNA for farn... 248 4e-64 DQ212770_1( DQ212770 |pid:none) Nicotiana lan

  3. Cytology of 2n Pollen Formation in Nonastringent Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xian-ying; LUO Zheng-rong

    2002-01-01

    Cytological mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in ‘Zenjimaru' nonastringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. ) were studied. The following abnormalities in meiosis were found to be responsible for the production of 2n pollens: (1) disoriented spindles, including parallel, fused and tripolar spindles, were formed at metaphase Ⅱ and anaphase Ⅱ; (2) the nuclei at telophase Ⅱ were arranged to two poles, each of which contained two nuclei, or to three poles, one of which contained two nuclei, the other two contained one nucleus respectively; (3) dyads and triads were produced at the tetrad stage. The dyad would develop into two 2n pollens, and the triad would develop into one 2n and two n pollens. The 2n pollens produced by this mechanism were genetically equivalent to FDR (first division restitution) gametes, thus providing a potential value for sexual polyploidization.

  4. Concentration change of radiocaesium in persimmon leaves and fruits. Observation results in 2011 Spring - 2013 Summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make dried-fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki), its fresh fruits were generally processed to decrease their water-contents to about 30-50%. During this food process, their radiocaesium concentrations increased without any loss, and, occasionally, the dried-fruits may exceed the food standard level of 100 Bq/kg (edible form). Thus, it is necessary to estimate the radiocaesium concentrations in the products before the fresh fruit harvesting and processing. For this purpose, radiocaesium concentrations in leaves of persimmon trees were monitored with time. The 137Cs concentrations in the fruits were usually lower than those in the leaves and the concentration ratio was less than 0.4 on a fresh weight basis. The ratio became smaller when closer the harvest season. Thus the concentration of leaves could be a good indicator to estimate the processed persimmon fruits. (author)

  5. 不同寄主植物对桃蛀螟解毒酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Host Plants on Activity of Detoxifying Enzymes in Beet Armyworm of Conogethes punctiferalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国华; 刘洛明; 段爱菊

    2014-01-01

    在室内条件下,对桃蛀螟(Conogethes punctiferalis)幼虫取食桃(A mygdalus persica)、向日葵(He-lianthus annuus)、棉花(Gossypium spp)、大豆(Glycine max)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)、柿(Diospyros kaki)、玉米(Zea mays)、高粱(Sorghum bicolor)、无花果(Ficus carica)9种寄主植物后的磷酸酯酶、谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶和乙酰胆碱酯酶的活性进行了研究.结果表明,不同寄主植物对桃蛀螟幼虫磷酸酯酶、乙酰胆碱酯酶和谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶活性均有显著的影响.

  6. Effects of intercropping with persimmon on the rhizosphere environment of tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Haiyan; LIU Zhongde; WANG Changrong; ZHONG Zhangcheng

    2006-01-01

    The rhizosphere environment of tea (Camelllia sinensis Kuntze) intercropped with persimmon (Diospyros kaki) differs from monocultures of tea.A trial was conducted to determine the effects of intercropping with persimmon on root exudates and soil nutrient condition of tea.Amino acid exuded in intercropping was three times higher than that in monoculture.Phenol,phenol/amino acid ration,dissolved sugar,and total organic acid were also lower in intercropping.The value of pH in soil was higher,and soil nutrient condition of rhizosphere,especially available nutrient,was not as well in intercropping as that in tea grown alone.While soil nutrient of non-rhizosphere was better than that in monoculture,tea quality and soil nutrient condition were better in intercropping ecosystem.

  7. Teores de carboidratos em órgãos lenhosos do caquizeiro em clima tropical Carbohydrate content in persimmon tree woody organs in tropical climate

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Corsato; João Alexio Scarpare Filho; Eleuza Clarete Junqueira de Sales

    2008-01-01

    Nas fruteiras caducifólias, o metabolismo de carboidratos constitui-se no principal mecanismo que garante a sua sobrevivência no período de dormência, estando, também, relacionado ao seu potencial produtivo em safras subseqüentes. Conhecer a forma como a planta utiliza esses carboidratos durante o seu desenvolvimento é um passo importante para o entendimento das suas relações fonte-dreno e para fundamentar algumas práticas de manejo, como a poda e o raleio de frutos. Caracterizar a variação d...

  8. Frigoconservação de caquis (Diospyrus kaki, l. das cultivares Fuyu e Rama forte Storage of persimmons (Diospyrus kaki, l. cultivares Fuyu and Rama forte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O trahalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da temperatura e condições de atmosfera modificada (AM e controlada (AC sobre a manutenção da qualidade de caquis cvs Fuyu e Rama Forte. Ambas as cultivares foram armazenadas em AM, sendo a cv. Fuyu armazenada também em condições de armazenamento refrigerado (AR e AC. Em AM foram avaliados os filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade com 10mi e 40mide espessura e temperaturas de 0°C e 1°C com umidade relativa de 97%. Em AC foram avaliadas as concentrações de 10% e 15% de CO2 com 16% de O2, na temperatura de 0°C. Nas condições de AM, anbas as cultivares apresentaram qualidade satisfatória até dois meses de armazenamento, sendo que os frutos armazenados a 0°C e polietileno de 40mi mantiveram maior fimeza de polpa e menores percentuais de escurecimento da epiderme. Após três meses, a cv. Fuyu armazenada com 15% de CO2 e 16% de O2 apresentou firmeza de polpa acima do nível aceitável para o consumo, sem causar escurecimento da epiderme. Após quatro dias de exposição à temperatura ambiente, este tratamento também apresentou os menores percentuais de escurecimento da epiderme.This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature, controlled (CA and modified (MA atmosphere conditions on the quality of 'Fuyu' and 'Rama Forte' persimmons. Both cultivars were stored in MA packging and 'Fuyu' was also stored in cold storage and CA conditions. The thickness of MA packging of low density poliethylene were 10mu and 40mu. The storage temperatures were 0°C and 1°C with 97% RH. CA conditions were 10% and 15% CO2 plus 16% O2 at 0°C. In Ma packaging both cultivars showed good quality until two months of storage, however, the fruits at 0°C with 40mu film maintained higher flesh firmness and lower skin browning incidence. After three months of CA storage whith 15% CO2 plus 16% O2 'Fuyu' showed high flesh, firmness without skin browning. After, four days at shelf life this treatment showed the lowest percentage of skin browning.

  9. KARAKTERISTIK AKTIVITAS PEDAGANG KAKI LIMA PADA KAWASAN KOMERSIAL DI PUSAT KOTA Studi Kasus: Simpang Lima, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widjajanti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of street vendors in Simpang Lima should be recognized. It is connected with spatial region’sactivity so that both of the formal and informal activities can exists harmonically. The characteristics of thestreet food vendors activity are follows: the activity space (street vendor’s trading location is at the mall/office/school/mosque/ in Pancasila square and they are selling in the sidewalk at the edge of the Pancasila square;their distribution pattern is agglomeration; they are more settle; their activities (type of food/beverage,accessories, clothing, grocery, cigarettes, and their facilities are tent, wagon, carpet, table/rack; the time ofstreet vendors trading is following the formal activities of the region; goals and motivations of visitor’s vendorsis that most of them are visiting street vendors, and the motivational visits are to buy food/drinks and othertypes of merchandise.

  10. Perilaku Jual Beli Di Kalangan Pedagang Kaki Lima Dalam Perspektif Etika Bisnis Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawati Darmawati

    2012-01-01

    Islamic business ethics teach people to have a good behavior and to avoid the bad ones. It is based on Islamic values. Islam has a role about the weights of goods. It has been written in Al-Qur’an and hadits. Islam suggests people do business in a right way; because Islam deals with productivity in trade. In trade, both the producers and the consumers will have benefits from the trade. A good purchace and sale activity involve an honesty; in the right or wrong way. In Islamic business law, th...

  11. Perilaku Jual Beli Di Kalangan Pedagang Kaki Lima Dalam Perspektif Etika Bisnis Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawati Darmawati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic business ethics teach people to have a good behavior and to avoid the bad ones. It is based on Islamic values. Islam has a role about the weights of goods. It has been written in Al-Qur’an and hadits. Islam suggests people do business in a right way; because Islam deals with productivity in trade. In trade, both the producers and the consumers will have benefits from the trade. A good purchace and sale activity involve an honesty; in the right or wrong way. In Islamic business law, the concept of muamalah is mubah, unless it is done based on Al-Qur’an and Sunnah, without coercion, benefits-based consideration, avoiding bad effects, and fair

  12. 別府夏季大学会の現職教育機能に関する一考察

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 裕司

    2004-01-01

    More than a hundred of Kaki Daigaku was established as the social education course for a citizen in the Taisho Era. Shinano Kisaki Kaki Daigaku established in 1917 was the forerunner of Kaki Daigaku in Japan. Beppu Kaki Daigakukai was instituted as the social education course for the citizen in 1920, which provided a higher and more systematic education for them. It was continued until 1942, and became a prominent Kaki Daigakukai in Western Japan. Originally, Beppu Kaki Daigakukai, which had ...

  13. Aminoethoxivinilglicina no controle do amadurecimento de frutos de caqui cv. Fuyu Aminoethoxyvinylglycine in the ripening control of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fuentes Fagundes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG, aplicado na pós-colheita, no amadurecimento de frutos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu, armazenados à temperatura de 0 ± 2 ºC. Os frutos foram imersos durante dois minutos em solução de AVG, na concentração de 0; 415; 830 e 1.200 g ha-1 e dissolvidos em água destilada e adição de espalhante adesivo (óleo vegetal a 0,02% (v/v, secos à temperatura ambiente no barracão e armazenados em câmara fria a 0 ± 2 ºC e 95±2 % UR, e avaliados aos 32 e 52 dias com relação à firmeza, sólidos solúveis, pH da polpa, acidez titulável e injúria por frio. O AVG mostrou-se promissor no uso pós-colheita em caqui, onde os frutos tratados conservaram índices de firmeza linear em função da dose e teores de AT, SS e pH aceitáveis para o 'Fuyu'. Porém os frutos apresentaram translucidez, característica de injúria por frio, indicando a necessidade de novos estudos para se compreender a fisiologia pós-colheita deste fruto.An experiment was carried out to analyze the effect of the application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in post harvest application in persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu stored at a temperature of 0 ± 2ºC. The fruits were immersed for two minutes into an AVG solution at a concentration of 0; 415; 830; 1200 g ha-1 and dissolved in distillated water. Then it was added adhesive spreader (vegetable oil 0.02% (v/v, dried at room temperature and stored at 0 ± 2 ºC and 95±2 % humidity. The treatments were evaluated on the 32nd and 52nd days to check the firmness, soluble solids, pH of the pulp, tritable acidity and chilling injury. The AVG may be promising in post harvest use with persimmon fruits, where treated fruits preserved linear levels of firmness in function of the doses and TA, SS and pH levels are acceptable for cv. Fuyu. However, fruits showed translucency, which are characteristics of chilling injury, indicating that new studies are

  14. 甜柿巨大花粉萌发特征及辐射敏感性研究%Study on Germinant Characteristic and Radiosensitivity of Giant Pollen in Nonastringent Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷晓峰; 罗正荣

    2002-01-01

    以‘禅寺丸'(Diospyros kaki L.f.)为试材,对巨大花粉萌发率、花粉管伸长、亲和性及辐射敏感性进行了研究,结果表明:(1)巨大花粉在培养基和柱头上正常萌发,不存在萌发及亲和性障碍;(2)巨大花粉萌发迟缓及低萌发率造成其与普通花粉受精竞争中处于劣势;(3)巨大花粉和普通花粉对60Co γ-射线辐射敏感性有差异,巨大花粉的敏感性低于普通花粉,1 200 Gy为刺激巨大花粉萌发的适合剂量,同时可抑制普通花粉萌发,从而可相对提高巨大花粉的受精竞争力;(4)辐射延迟效应造成巨大花粉的萌发率在一定期间内有下降趋势,但自身的修复机制可部分恢复其生活力.

  15. Response of a Predatory Insect, Chrysopa sinica, toward the Volatiles of Persimmon Trees Infested with the Herbivore, Japanese Wax Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A predatory insect, Chrysopa sinica Tiedet (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, and its taxis behavior were investigated in a tritrophic system that included a herbivore, Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae, and a host plant, persimmon tree, Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae. The results showed that this predator was attracted to the volatile compounds of persimmon trees that were infested with C. japonicus; however, the attraction varied with the growth season of the trees and the development stage of the wax scale. The strongest attraction occurred in the autumn and not in the late spring or summer. For the four time periods considered throughout the day, the most significant attraction rates were found at midnight and the early afternoon. The results indicated that the transformation of the chemical compositions of the volatiles of the persimmon tree might drive the taxis response of the predator in the three studied seasons. We mainly found differences in terpenoid emissions and propose that these compounds play a key part in the observed differences in attractiveness.

  16. Regulation of Propylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene on Expressions of ACS and ACO Genes in Persimmon Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Le; RAO Jing-ping; CHANG Xiao-xiao; YI Shun-chao

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of postharvest treatment with propylene and 1-MCP on ethylene release rate and expressions of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes in Fuping Janshi persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruit were investigated. Fruits were treated with propylene and 1-MCP, then stored at 20℃, ethylene release rate of the treated fruits was measured at regular intervals and RNA was extracted for Northern blotting analysis. The results suggested that treatment with propylene accelerated the expressions of ACS and ACO genes and then enhanced the ethylene biosynthesis, while treatment with 1-MCP inhibited the expressions of two genes and their ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, different effects on expressions caused by treatments with propylene and 1-MCP existed in various fruit tissues, the inhibitory effect on ACS and ACO genes by 1-MCP was the strongest in pericarp, followed by pulp and core tissues, in the area near fruit stalk, the inhibitory effect was the weakest. While the enhanced effect on ACS and ACO genes by propylene increased from pulp, core, and pericarp to the area near fruit stalk. Expression of each member of ACS and ACO families in various tissues was also completely different, in control and propylene treatment, DKACS3 gene just expressed in the area near fruit stalk and did not express in other tissues, but DKACS2 gene expressed in four tissues by treatment with propylene.

  17. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf of Uenishiwase Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-lian; LIU Xiao-na; ZHANG Zi-de

    2004-01-01

    Effects of basal mediums, hormones and their concentrations on the shoot regeneration from leaf of sweet persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. Cv. Uenishiwase) were studied by orthogonal design trial. The result showed that modified Murashige and Skoog [MS (1/2 N)] was the most optimum for the regeneration and 1/2 MS was better than MS. Shoot percentage in the medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT(zeatin) was much higher than that of other two concentrations, among which 2.0 mg L-1 ZT was much better than 1.0 mg L-1 ZT and shoot percentage in the concentration of 1.0 mg L-1 ZT was only 4%. There were no any beneficial effects when supplementing IAA in the medium. Shoot percentage and average shoots perexplantsweredramaticallydecreasedinthe 2.0 mg L-1 IAA. Data in the orthogonal trial indicated that ZT was the most effective factor in the shoot regenerating of Uenishwase persimmon and basal medium was important too, but IAAhad no any beneficial effects at all. In the orthogonal trial, the best result was achieved in MS (1/ 2 N) medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT and 1.0 mg L-1 IAA, in which shoot percentage and average shoots per explants were 86% and 2.2, respectively.

  18. Persimmon fruit tannin-rich fiber reduces cholesterol levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Nobuki; Kadowaki, Akio; Hashimoto, Natsumi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-binding agents are known to lower blood cholesterol levels and have been clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. We previously showed that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits had bile acid-binding properties. In this study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of tannin-rich fiber in humans. The subjects (n = 40, plasma total cholesterol levels 180-259 mg/dl) were divided into 3 groups and ingested cookie bars containing 0 g (placebo group, n = 14), 3 g (low-dose group, n = 13), or 5 g (high-dose group, n = 13) of tannin-rich fiber 3 times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the low-dose (12 weeks, p < 0.005) and high-dose (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001) groups. In addition, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the high-dose group (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001). These improvements were not accompanied by changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. Our findings indicate that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon fruits is a useful food material for treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:23171573

  19. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside.

  20. Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, 1885 in the Adriatic Region of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Žanić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Dialeurodes citri (Hom. Aleyrodidae first invaded citrus orchards in the South Adriatic, near Dubrovnik, during 1977. Since the characteristics of the pest have not been studied in Croatia, this paper reviews its morphology, locations, host plant range and biology. Leaf samples, collected all over the Croatian coast and islands, were observed in the laboratory for purpose of creating a map with citrus whitefly locations, morphological description and a list of host plants. The pest biological cycle and population trend were investigated in the region of Split (May 1996-May 1998. The presence of citrus whitefly was confirmed in all citrus-growing areas of Croatia. The number of noted host plants was somewhat lower than in Mediterranean countries. Other than citrus, it also colonised and harmed laurustinus (Viburnum tinus Hemsl., persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. and several plants of Oleaceae. The citrus whitefly had three generations on citrus per year. However, the part of larval population that belonged to second generation did not finish the post-embryonic development and it remained on the summer flush leaves and awaited the hibernation. The appearance of adults followed the appearance of young citrus growth. All development stages had three population peaks during vegetation period. The presence of young larval stages (L-1, L-2 was pronounced during the middle of June, August and October. The pest overwintered mainly as fourth instar larva. On deciduous persimmon trees it had two generations per year.

  1. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Mao, Shujing; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiangning; Pu, Yuehua

    2006-06-01

    China lacks large scale authorized epidemiological study results in allusion to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within recent 15 years since MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study revealed SAH situation in China in 2000. The main cause of SAH in China is aneurysm which takes up 30-50%, while over 90% aneurysm locates at Willis circle. Early surgery for SAH after aneurysm rupture is the dominant procedure to deal with SAH in China. Moreover, calcium antagonists rank the absolute leading position for cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) among medication-based treatment options. However, traditional Chinese medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Acanthopanax senticosus, Ginkgo biloba, Pueraria lobata, Liguisticum chuanxiong, cow bezoar, Diospyros kaki and Gynostemma pentaphyllum have been proven beneficial in CVS prevention and treatment, while Salvia miltiorrhiza and TCM soup have unique effects on bleeding absorption. In addition, aescine and some TCM soup might relieve strong headache after SAH. In general, TCM integrated with western medicine have shown unique advantages in the current treatment of SAH in China. However, it is a pity that China still lacks larger scale randomized controlled trials and research on SAH treatment focusing on TCM and the related mechanism of TCM on SAH still need to be investigated further.

  2. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  3. Screening of vasorelaxant activity of some medicinal plants used in Oriental medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming Hao; Kang, Dae Gill; Choi, Deok Ho; Kwon, Tae Oh; Lee, Ho Sub

    2005-05-13

    Hexane, ethylacetate (EtOAC), and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts of medicinal plants traditionally used in the East Asia, such as China, Korea, and Japan were screened for their vasorelaxant activity using isolated rat aorta. Among the 60 solvent-extracts from 20 medicinal plants, hexane and n-BuOH extracts of Diospyros kaki and Polygonum aviculare, hexane, EtOAC, and n-BuOH extracts of Magnolia liliflora, n-BuOH extract of Sorbus commixta, and EtOAC and n-BuOH extracts of Selaginella tamariscina were found to exhibit distinctive vasorelaxant activity. The activity disappeared by removal of functional endothelium or pre-treatment of the aortic tissues with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the medicinal plants relax vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide. These results will be useful to further analyze those medicinal plants that contain the vasorelaxant activity in order to identify the active principles.

  4. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  5. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. PMID:27326901

  6. Persimmon breeding in Japan for pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) type with marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akihiko; Yamada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) originated in Eastern Asia, and many indigenous cultivars have been developed in China, Japan, and Korea. These cultivars are classified into four groups based on their natural astringency loss on the tree and seed formation: pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA), pollination-variant non-astringent (PVNA), pollination-constant astringent (PCA), and pollination-variant astringent (PVA). PCNA is the most desirable type because the fruit can be eaten without any postharvest treatment; therefore, one of the goals of our persimmon breeding programs is to release superior PCNA cultivars. The PCNA genotype is recessive to the other three non-PCNA genotypes, and PCNA-type F1 offspring are obtained exclusively from crosses among PCNA genotypes. Moreover, the number of superior PCNA cross-parents have been limited. In the late 1980s, inbreeding depression became obvious, especially in terms of fruit size, tree vigor, and productivity. To mitigate the inbreeding, a backcross program using PCNA [(non-PCNA × PCNA) × PCNA] was started in 1990. This process, however, was inefficient because only 15% of the offspring were PCNA, and all offspring had to be grown to the fruiting stage. Therefore, molecular markers linked to the PCNA locus were developed for discriminating PCNA offspring. A molecular marker linked to Chinese PCNA has also been developed. PMID:27069391

  7. Diospyrobezoar as a Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Padilha de Toledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytobezoar, a concretion of indigestible fibers derived from ingested vegetables and fruits, is the most common type of bezoar. Diospyrobezoar is a subtype of phytobezoar formed after excessive intake of persimmons (Diospyros kaki. We report the case of a diabetic man with a 5-day history of abdominal pain after massive ingestion of persimmons who developed signs of complicated small bowel obstruction. The patient had a previous history of Billroth II hemigastrectomy associated with truncal vagotomy to treat a chronic duodenal ulcer 14 years earlier. Since intestinal obstruction was suspected, he underwent emergency laparotomy that revealed an ileal obstruction with small bowel perforation and local peritonitis due to a phytobezoar that was impacted 15 cm above the ileocecal valve. After segmental intestinal resection, the patient had a good recovery and was discharged on the 6th postoperative day. This report provides evidence that diospyrobezoar should be considered as a possible cause of small bowel obstruction in patients who have previously undergone gastric surgery.

  8. Inibição da ação do etileno na conservação de caquis (Diospyrus kaki L. 'Fuyu' Ethylene inhibitor action in the storage of persimmon fruits (Diospyrus kaki L. 'Fuyu'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiane Salete Tibola

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar o período de conservação e de comercialização do caqui 'Fuyu', foram testadas alternativas para a manutenção da qualidade dos frutos. Realizaram-se três experimentos: 1 os frutos foram armazenados na temperatura de 18 ± 3°C e UR de 80 ± 5%, como ou sem aplicação de 1-MCP, avaliados na colheita aos 7 e aos 14 dias; 2 os frutos foram conservados na temperatura de 0 ± 1,0°C e UR de 95 ± 5%, com ou sem aplicação de 1-MCP, avaliados na colheita e aos 45 + 3 dias de comercialização simulada, e 3 os frutos foram armazenados em atmosfera modificada (AM com filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD de 80µm de espessura e em temperatura de 0 ± 1,0°C e UR de 95 ± 5%, com ou sem aplicação de 1-MCP, avaliados na colheita, aos 48 + 4 dias e aos 48 + 10 dias de comercialização simulada (CS na temperatura de 18°C. A concentração de 1-MCP utilizada nos tratamentos específicos foi de 500ppb/2h. As principais análises realizadas compreenderam: firmeza da polpa (FP, cor e escurecimento de epiderme (EE. Os caquis do experimento 2 perderam a qualidade de comercialização antes de alcançarem os 30 dias de estocagem. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração manteve frutos com FP acima de 40 N, além de prevenir a ocorrência de EE, após 48 dias de armazenamento mais 10 dias de CS. A obtenção destes índices proporcionou a manutenção da qualidade dos caquis por 48 dias de câmara mais 10 dias de CS no ar ambiente (18°C.With the objective of to extend the conservation period and commercialization of the 'Fuyu' persimmon fruit, alternatives to mantain fruits quality were tested. Tree experiments were accomplished to develop the work: 1 storage at the ambient temperature (AT: Temperature (T of 18 ± 3°C and relative humidity (RH of 80 ± 5%, with or without application of 1-MCP and evaluated in the crop, at 7 and 14 days; 2: cold storaged (CS: T of 0 ± 1,0°C and RH of 95 ± 5%, with or without application of 1-MCP, appraised in the crop and 45 + 3 days of simulated commercialization; and 3 CS and modified atmosphere (MA with films of polyethylene of low density (PELD with 80mm of thickness: T of 0 ± 1,0°C and RH of 95 ± 5%, with or without application of 1-MCP, appraised in the crop, 48 of CS and 10 days of simulated commercialization. The concentration of 1-MCP used in the specific treatments was of 500ppb/2h. The main physiochemical analyses accomplished were: pulp firmness (PF, color and epidermis browning (EB. The persimmon fruits of the experiment 2, maintained in CS, lost the commercialization quality before reaching 30 days of storage. The use of MA associated to CS, maintained the fruits with PF above 40 N, besides preventing the occurrence of EB. The yielded results showed that the maintenance of persimmon fruits quality can be kept for 48 days at CS and more 10 days of simulated commercialization at the environment temperature.

  9. Efeito da temperatura e condições de atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação de caqui (Diospyrus kaki, L. Effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere conditions on the storage of persimmon (Diospyrus kaki, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das temperaturas de armazenamento e condições de atmosfera normal (AN e controlada (AC sobre as qualidades físico-químicas e organolépticas de caquis, foi conduzido um experimento no Núcleo de Pesquisa em Pós-colheita(NPP da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM em 1994 com as cultivares Taubaté, Baurú e Fuyu. Os frutos foram colhidos no ponto de maturação em que possuíam a epiderme verde-amarelada. Os frutos das cvs. Taubaté e Baurú foram armazenados nas temperaturas de - 0,5°C e + 0,5°C, e a cultivar Fuyu somente na temperatura de + 0,5°C. Todas as cultivares foram armazenadas em atmosfera controlada (AC com concentrações de 8% CO2/2% O2 e 4% CO2/1% O2. As cultivares Taubaté e Baurú foram submetidas também a condições de AN. Após 85 dias de armazenamento, foi avaliado a firmeza da polpa, ocorrência de podridões e a qualidade organoléptica dos frutos. Os frutos de AN apresentaram alta firmeza da polpa, devido ao murchamento, e baixo índice de podridões. Em condições de AC, a temperatura de - 0,5°C e 8% CO2/2% O2 proporcionaram maior firmeza da polpa e menor incidência de podridões nas cvs. Taubaté e Baurú. Para a cv. Fuyu, avaliada somente em temperatura de + 0,5°C, a condição de 8% CO2/2% O2 também foi a que proporcionou maior firmeza da polpa e menor incidência de podridões. Após cinco dias em temperatura ambiente, não foi detectado sabor estranho nos frutos armazenados em condições de AC.The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of the temperatures and controlled atmosphere (CA conditions on the quality of persimmons during storage. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria, from March to July, 1994 with the cultivars Taubaté, Baurú and Fuyu. The fruits of all cultivars were harvested with yellow-green epidermis color. Taubaté and Baurú fruits were stored at - 0.5°C and + 0.5°C, Fuyu was stored only at + 0.5°C. All cultivars were stored in controlled atmosphere (CA conditions of 8% CO2/2% O2 and 4% CO2/1% O2, Taubaté and Baurú cultivars were also stored in air. After 85 days of storage, the pulp firmness, decay incidence and organoleptical quality were evaluated. Fruits stored in air exhibited high pulp firmness due to the withering, and low rate of decay. Fruits of Taubaté and Baurú cultivars stored in CA 8% CO2/2% O2 at - 0,5°C had higher pulp firmness and smaller decay incidence. Fuyu cultivar evaluated at + 0.5°C, 8% CO2/2% O2 condition showed higher firmness and lower decay incidence. After five days in shelf life, sensorial evaluation did not show off flavour on fruits stored in CA.

  10. Analisis Laporan Keuangan Dalam Menilai Kinerja Perusahaan Pada Kelompok Industri Alas Kaki Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Yasmi Chadijah

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to know whether the finance performance in footwear industry that licency in BEI has reached the safety situation or not yet. The writer restricted the evaluation of finance performance by using ten finance ratios. The finance ratios consist of Current Ratio, Quick Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Inventory Turnover, Total Asset Turnover, Gross Profit Margin, Net Profit Margin, Return on Investment, Return on Equity, dan PER. The finance performance is evalua...

  11. 1-MCP处理对不同成熟度甜柿采后品质和生理的影响%Effect of Post-harvest 1-MCP Treatment on Quality and Physiology of Sweet Persimmons of Varying Ripeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玲; 李冬香; 王威; 谢倩; 陈清西

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the pre-storage 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the physiology and quality of sweet persimmons (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyou' and Diospyros kaki L. cv. Cilang') harvested at different stages of ripeness and stored at different temperatures. The treatments were conducted with the 1-MCP concentration of 0. 50 μL · L-1 or 1.0 μL o L-1 and the fruits stored under either room (approximately 20℃) or refrigerated temperature (approximately 5℃). The results showed that the shelf life of the fruits at Stage I Ripeness could be extended for 14 days stored at room temperature, or 21 days under refrigeration. The 0. 50 μL o L-1 1-MCP application kept the fruits, especially those in Stage I Ripeness, fresh in the duration of storage. And, the percentage of acceptable fruits was significantly higher than the control. By combining the low temperature and 0. 50 μL o L-1 1-MCP treatment, the textural softening and peel color change to red on the fruits were delayed. The soluble sugar conversion, soluble tannin content, respiration rate, as well as the activities of PG and Cx in the fruits were also reduced. The results suggested that the sweet persimmons at Stage I Ripeness had a better potential than at Stage II Ripeness for an extended shelf life, and that the low temperature and 0. 50 μL o L-1 1-MCP treatment could postpone the ripening, and thus, the changes on the fruit' s texture and color.%为了探讨不同贮藏温度下1-MCP处理对不同成熟度的甜柿采后生理的影响.方法:以甜柿品种‘富有,、‘次郎’为材料,分别在低温(5℃)和室温(20℃)的贮藏条件下研究不同浓度(0.50 μL·L-1和1.00 μL·L-1)1-MCP(1-甲基环丙烯)处理对不同成熟度(成熟度Ⅰ与成熟度Ⅱ)甜柿好果率、硬度和若干生理指标的影响.结果表明,在贮藏期间,成熟度Ⅰ果实在室温下贮藏时间可延长14 d,低温下贮藏可延长21 d;0.50 μL·L-1 1

  12. Study on extraction and in vitro bioactivity of polyphenols from persimmon leaves%柿叶多酚的提取及体外生物活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁军; 任迪峰; 杨阳; 李祖明; 江頭祐嘉合

    2010-01-01

    利用水以及不同体积百分比(20%、40%、60%、80%和100%)的甲醇、乙醇、丙酮时柿(Diospyros kaki cv.Mopan)叶中的多酚物质进行提取,提取率最高的不同溶剂提取物采用HP-20大孔树脂进行纯化,分别得到了水提取物(WE)、甲醇提取物(ME)、乙醇提取物(EE)和丙酮提取物(AE),并时不同提取物的体外抗氧化活性、胶原酶和酪氨酸酶抑制活性进行了分析和比较.结果表明.柿叶中的多酚含量相于27.4±0.21mg GA/g(干重).采用体积分数为60%的丙酮溶液提取柿叶多酚时.柿叶多酚的提取率最高,为74.3%±2.3%.60%丙酮提取物对1,1-二苯基-2-苦基苯肼(DPPH)自由基的清除能力最高,达O.27±0.02μmol Trolox/mg,对胶原酶和酪氨酸酶也具有较高的抑制活性,IC50值分别为92.8 4-2.9μg/mL和185.4±5.3μg/mL.

  13. Cloning of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA-regulated ethylene production in detached young persimmon calyx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ping; ZHANG GuangLian; LI XiangXin; WANG LiangHe; ZHENG ZhongMing

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the typical climacteric fruits,persimmons (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) produce higher levels of ethylene when they are detached from trees at a younger stage.In order to obtain detailed information on the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in ripening,we cloned the DKNCED1,DKACS2,and DKAC01 genes from the calyx.Water loss was first noted in the calyx lobe,and DKNCED1 was highly expressed 1 d after the fruits were detached,coinciding with an increase in the ABA content.Then,the DKACS2 and DKAC01 genes were expressed after some delay.In the calyx,the ABA peak was observed 2 d after the fruits were harvested,and this peak preceded the ethylene peak observed on day 3.The fruit firmness rapidly decreased on day 4,and the fruits softened completely 6 d after they were harvested.The increases in the expressions of ABA,ethylene,and the genes in the calyxes occurred earlier than the corresponding increases in the pulp,although the 3 increases occurred on different days.Exogenous ABA treatment increased ABA concentration,induced expression of both ACS and ACO,and promoted ethylene synthesis and young-fruit softening;by contrast,treatment with NDGA inhibited the gene expressions and ethylene synthesis and delayed young-fruit softening.These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in the detached young persimmon fruits is initially triggered by ABA,which is induced by water loss in the calyx,through the induction of DKACS2 and DKAC01 expressions.The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses into the pulp tissue,where it induces autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis,resulting in an abrupt increase in ethylene production.

  14. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  15. Perlindungan Hukum Bagi Pedagang Kaki Lima dan Kontribusinya Terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah di Kabupaten Deli Serdang : studi atas Perda nomor. 3 tahun 2000 tentang Retribusi Pasar

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Eli Esra S

    2012-01-01

    The principle of regional autonomy is that the running of the government and the development is delegated to the regional government by using economic principle extensively, except Hankam (National Defense and Security), Finance, Religion, Foreign Affairs, and Court of Justice. This means that regional government is given the authority to manage and organize all affairs in its region as it is stipulated in Law No. 32/2004 on Regional Government and in Law No. 33/2004 on the Fin...

  16. ANALISIS PENGARUH VARIABEL INTERN TERHADAP PENDAPATAN USAHA (Studi kasus Pada Pedagang Kaki Lima Makan dan Buah-buahan di Kota Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Munir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The exsistence of informal sector in the cities is part of both macro and micro economic system. Implicity, the informal sector is needed and, indeed, its emergence conversely helps the formal sector. However, it is necessary to understand that some people resist its emergence and existence. Apart from the remark that the informal sector still needs some justification and approaches in order to minimize and to remove the resulted impacts, what is more important to know  is that the incomes obtained  from this sector are quite  sufficient to ful fit the daily minimum basic needs. The objective of the study is to know the influence of the internal variables on the operational incomes of the street vendors. The internal variables consist of such independent variables as Personnel (X1, Finance/Capital (X2, Marketing (X3, and a dependent variable of Operational Incomes (Y. Therefore , the methodology concerning the objective pursued is as folloows: The data are colled  using closed  quistionnaires and purposive sampling. Its sample consists of 70 respondents. Then, the collected data are  analyzed  using a computer program of SPSS 12.00 n order to know their correlations and regressions. Based on the data nalyis, it is partially proven that all the internal variables have a positive correlation with the operational incomes, being seen from the correlational coefficient (r of X1 =0.623 (P=0.000, X2 = 0.638 (P=0.000, X3 = 0.786 (P=0.000. Partially, all the internal variables have a significant influence on the operational incomes, being proven by the finding that the t table values of X1 = 4.959 (P=0.000, of X2 =3.972 (P=0.000 and of X3=7.017 >the t table value on DF (67:0.05 of 1.67. Simultaneously, the internal variables (X1,X2,X3 have a significant influence on the operational incomes, being proven by the finding that the F calc on DF (3:73:0.05 of 2.75. The contribution of each internal variable to the dependent variabel is that Operational Incomes : Personnel (X1 =32.37 %, Finance/Capital (X2 = 27,4% and Marketing (X3 = 50.7%. The internal varible having the most dominant influence on the operational incomes is Marketing (X3. Next, the amount of the influence can be simultaneously seen from the resulting R square of 0.774, meaning that the contribution of the internal variables simultaneously to the dependent variable is 77.4% where as  the remaining 22.6% is influenced by other variables being not studied

  17. L’exportation de bois précieux (Dalbergia et Diospyros « illégaux » de Madagascar : 2009 et après ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Lopez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Illegal rosewood logging has known a strong increase in 2009, following two inter-ministerial texts legalizing exports of precious wood. National parks are specifically affected by this exploitation. It is of course very difficult to know the real situation concerning exploitation but also exports. This paper presents and discusses information about “illegal” exports. Firstly, after a recall of the legal context, it underlines the difficulties in collecting information. Several reasons are underlined: the size of container, the density of wood, the diversity of material (log, board, etc, the place of shipment, the filling up of containers, and under-declaration for fiscal reasons. Nevertheless, even if exports estimations are probably far from the reality, the equivalent of around 1,202 containers, representing a value of more than US$ 220,000,000 are listed. Secondly, it analyzes also traffic regulation systems. More specifically, it proposes a parallel between the regulation of ivory traffic and the regulation of precious wood traffic in Madagascar. It concludes that the process of garnishment with resale by auction has very few chances to be efficient. The ivory case shows that reinforcing processes of garnishment do not succeed in stopping the traffic. It rather provokes reorganizations of the value chain. In the long term, the sole solution will be the development of a sustainable labeled chain for precious wood. European Union Due Diligence Regulation and Lacey Act in United States participate in the strengthening of control on precious wood.

  18. 陕西关中地区常见果粮间作树种养分循环研究%Nutrient Cycling of Common Fruit Trees Interplanting with Crops in Shaanxi Guanzhong Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建平; 刘增文; 魏婉玲; 陈凯; 迟铭

    2011-01-01

    针对陕西关中地区常见的4种果粮间作形式进行了林木生物量、养分循环量及循环特征研究.结果表明:在4种果粮间作类型中,柿树的年平均生物量最高,并且果实内营养元素存留量低,适合做果粮间作树种;桃树的富集能力和吸收力最强,营养元素需求量大,但速生效果好,适合做短期速生树种.在不同间作类型中,由于树种不同,造成系统中养分循环存在很大差异,应根据实际情况选择适宜树种,进而达到最优配置,创造最优的经济和生态效益.%Four species of fruit tree that are interplanted with grain crops in Guanzhong region, Shaanxi Province, China were used as research objects to study biomass, nutrient cycling and circulation characteristics. The results showed that among four species, the annual average biomass of Diospyros kaki was the highest, the retention level of the nutrients was lower than others, suitable for being interplanted with grain crops. Amygdalus persica exhibited the strongest capability to enrich and absorb nutrients, demanding large amount nutrient elements, suitable to be used as a short-term fast-growing species for its fast growing character. Juglans regia could grow in lean soil. Significant differences were found in nutrient cycling among different fruit trees species, indicating that rational consideration should be taken to select fruit tree species based on actual situations to create the best economic and ecological benefits in developing fruit tree-grain crop interplanting.

  19. The persimmon 9-lipoxygenase gene DkLOX3 plays positive roles in both promoting senescence and enhancing tolerance to abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali eHou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lipoxygenase (LOX pathway is a key regulator for lipid peroxidation, which is crucial for plant senescence and defence pathways. In this study, the transcriptional expression patterns of three persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. ‘Fupingjianshi’ 9-lipoxygenase genes (DkLOX1, DkLOX3 and DkLOX4 were investigated. DkLOX1 was specifically expressed in fruit, particularly in young fruit, and showed little response to the postharvest environments. DkLOX4 was expressed in all tissues and slightly stimulated by mechanical damage and low temperature. DkLOX3 was expressed mainly in mature fruit, and the expression was extremely high throughout the storage period, apparently up-regulated by mechanical damage and high carbon dioxide treatments. Further functional analysis showed that overexpression of DkLOX3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom accelerated fruit ripening and softening. This was accompanied by higher MDA content and lycopene accumulation, advanced ethylene release peak and elevated expression of ethylene synthesis genes, including ACS2, ACO1 and ACO3. In addition, DkLOX3 overexpression promoted dark induced transgenic Arabidopsis leaf senescence with more chlorophyll loss, increased electrolyte leakage and MDA content. Furthermore, the functions of DkLOX3 in response to abiotic stresses, including osmotic stress, high salinity and drought were investigated. Arabidopsis DkLOX3-OX transgenic lines were found to be more tolerant to osmotic stress with higher germination rate and root growth than wild-type. Moreover, DkLOX3-OX Arabidopsis plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity and drought, with similar decreased O2- and H2O2 accumulation and upregulation of stress-responsive genes expression, including RD22, RD29A, RD29B and NCED3, except for FRY1, which plays a negative role in stress response. Overall, these results suggested that DkLOX3 plays positive roles both in promoting ripening and senescence through lipid

  20. Cloning of full-length cDNA encoding ACC synthase of Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai and construction of its antisense and sense expression vector%砂梨ACC合酶cDNA全长克隆及其反义与正义表达载体构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔玉山; 宋长年; 王新卫; 李志强; 熊爱生; 姚泉洪; 章镇

    2008-01-01

    为构建干扰砂梨(Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)ACC合酶基因表达的遗传转化载体,利用RACE技术从'早生新水'成熟果实cDNA中克隆了ACC合酶的cDNA,该cDNA全长为1 939 bp,命名为Pyp-ACS,GenBank登录号为EF566865.Pyp-ACS核苷酸序列含有5′末端非翻译区109 bp、1 488 bp完整的开放阅读框和3′末端非翻译区342 bp(含25 bp的Ploy+(A)).Pyp-ACS编码495个氨基酸,与白梨(Pyrus×bretschneideri Rehd.)、西洋梨(Pyrus communis L.)、中国李(Prunus salicina Lindl.)、桃(Prunus persica(L.)Batsch)、梅(Prunus mume Seib.et Zucc.)、苹果(Malus×domestica Borkh.)和柿(Diospyros kaki Thunb.)有较高的同源性.该氨基酸序列具备ACC合酶7个保守区和组成该酶活性中心的12个氨基酸残基,即SLSKDMGFPGLR,进一步验证了克隆的正确性.以pYPX145载体为基础,分别将Pyp-ACS编码区序列反向和正向插入相应位点构建反义和正义表达载体,并分别命名为pPyp-ACS(-)和pPyp-ACS(+),目的基因由双35S启动子所控制.分别将这2个表达载体导入根癌农杆菌菌株(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)EHA105,为耐贮藏转基因梨的遗传转化提供载体.

  1. Direct Deposition Effect on the Distribution of Radiocesium in Persimmon Trees and the Effective Half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-7444 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) concentrations in persimmon tree tissues collected at Chiba, about 220 km south from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP), were measured to obtain half-life of radiocesium in the trees. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a deciduous tree and bears edible fruits in autumn. There were no leaves when the sampling area was received the radioactive fallout in March 2011 due to the FDNPP accident; the amount of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in this area was ca. 13 kBq/m{sup 3} Both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were found in the newly emerged shoots of the persimmon trees collected at 26 April 2011 mainly due to foliar uptake. The concentrations were 1.1 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 137}Cs and 1.3 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 134}Cs. After that, continuous sampling of leaves, branches and fruits of the persimmon trees had been carried out for two years. Immediately after the collection, samples were transferred to our laboratory and weighed to obtain fresh weight. Leaf samples were usually separated into two portions; one portion was washed with tap water to remove dust from the surface and the other portion was not treated. For fruit samples, if it is possible, fruit flesh, peal and non-edible part were separated. All the samples were oven-dried at 80 deg. C for three days at least. Each dried sample was chopped into fine pieces, mixed well, and then transferred into plastic vessels separately. Radioactivity concentration was measured by a Ge-detecting system (Seiko EG and G Ortec) using 3000-40000 s counting intervals. By August 14, 2013, about 140 samples were collected from the trees; about 60 samples were leaves (both washed and untreated). Radiocesium concentrations in tree leaves decreased with time, and the effective half-life was about 190 d; the value was similar to those in branches (160 d for new branches, and 250 d for 1-2 y.o. branches) and fruits (250 d for fruit flesh and 230 d for peals). Thus we concluded that the half-life of radiocesium in

  2. 上海植物园典型群落景观美景度评价%Scenic Beauty Evaluation of Typical Plant Communities in Shanghai Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启臻; 吴泽民

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive field survey on plant communities of Shanghai Botanical Garden, the study made the landscape aesthetic evaluation for 33 typical communities using scenic beauty evaluation (SBE) . The results indicated that the aesthetic value of the plant communities was - 1.38 -1.37. Sixteen communities were valued≥0, all of which included almost deciduous species and had 3 layers in vertical structure. The major canopy species of the communities with higher aesthetic value were Koelreteria paniculata, Salix madthudana, Sapium sebiferum, Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, Diospyros kaki, Albizzia julibrissin, etc; and the major understory species were colorful leaf or flower species such as Loropetarum chinense var. rublum, Malus spp. , Rhododendron spp. , Cerasus lannesiana. The factors affecting scenic beauty of plant communities include species composition, colors, vertical structure, harmonization between communities and ambient environment, health conditions of trees and canopy line change. The plant communities in city botanical garden provides a key basis for green space establishment in urban area, so it was proposed to pay close attention to the effects of botanical garden in city greening.%在全面调查上海植物园植物群落的基础上,采用美景度评判法(SBE)对33个典型群落进行美学价值评价,结果表明其美景度值为-1.38~1.37。得分值≥0的有16个群落,其建群树种几乎全为落叶阔叶树、且多为3层结构,得分较高的群落建群树种主要包括栾树、旱柳、乌桕、香樟、银杏、柿树、合欢等,下层以彩叶或观花树种如红花檀木、海棠、杜鹃、日本晚樱、八仙花等为主。影响群落景观关学特点的因素主要有树种组成、色彩、垂直结构、群落与周围环境的协调度、树木的健康状况及林冠线变化度等。植物园的植物群落关景度评价是构建城市绿地群落的重要参考。

  3. Drug: D07154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07154 Persimmon calyx (non-JP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D07154 Kaki calyx Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ebenaceae (ebony family) D07154 Kaki calyx PubChem: 51091493 ...

  4. Effects of the ratio of the time when wind is sensed on the comfort in a natural-ventilated room in summer. Kaki tsufu kankyo ni okeru kiryu kanchi jikanritsu no kaitekisei hyoka ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, N. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)); Matsuura, K. (Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-10-30

    The number of winds sensed and the ratio of time sensing were introduced as sensory indexes and their relation with the comfort index in a natural ventilated room in summer was studied. A current of air is felt uncomfortable in an air conditioned room but it is felt especially comfortable in a natural-ventilated room in summer. A field investigation was made on the third floor of a building in Kyoto for 4 days in the beginning of September. The number of winds sensed in a certain time was counted and the ratio of time sensing to the certain time was measured. The wind sensed was reported dividing into 2 categories, i.e. 'wind sensing' and 'not sensing'. In this paper, the environment and temperature distribution in the room and the appropriateness of the wind sensing reports are discussed. Then the number of winds sensed and the ratio of time sensing are studied using the data obtained and it is concluded that they are effective as comfort indexes in a natural-ventilated room. 16 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Controle da maturação de caquis 'Fuyu', com uso de aminoethoxivinilglicina e ácido giberélico Maturation control of kaki 'Fuyu' using aminoethoxivinilglicin adn gibberelic acid

    OpenAIRE

    VALDECIR CARLOS FERRI; MARIA MADALENA RINALDI; ROQUE DANIELI; LUCIANO LUCHETTA; CESAR VALMOR ROMBALDI

    2002-01-01

    Avaliaram-se o efeito do controle da maturação e o comportamento pós-colheita de caquis 'Fuyu', tratados a campo com aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG) e ácido giberélico (AG3). Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As pulverizações foram realizadas com AVG a 50ppm e AG3 a 30ppm, 30 dias antes da data prevista para a colheita. Após a colheita, os frutos foram armazenados em ambiente com temperatura 23±3ºC e umidade relativa de 75±5% e, a cada quatro dias, for...

  6. Larval instar impact on host selection suitability of asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM).%亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫寄主选择与龄期关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏靖; 骆有庆; 石娟; 王德鹏; 沈绍伟

    2012-01-01

    The Asian gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM) is one of three gypsy found in Asia. European gypsy moth was introduced to USA which caused a great damage moth subspecies that is . Former study showed Asia gypsy moth could harm more kinds of trees than European gypsy moth. In this experiment, we choose 16 kinds of tree species to test host selection suitability which are common in USA or China. Statistics mortality rate, developmental duration and pupae weight to analyze the host impact on Asia gypsy moth. The result showed the larve of AGM feed on Acer saccharum, Betula platyphylla, Populus canadensi could complete life cycle. Larvae feed on Juniperus rigida, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus megistophylla, Picea koraiensis, Albizia julibrissin, Lirioden- dron chinense × tulipifera, Pinus bungeana, Pinus massoniana and Pinus thunbergii all died before 2nd instar. Larvae feed on P. tabulaeformis, P. strobus and Diospyros kaki after 4th instar, mortality is lower than 2nd instar. Once the larve develop after 4th instar, host range is wider than 1 st and 2nd instar.%舞毒蛾是一种世界性的害虫,常被分为欧洲型和亚洲型2种类型,欧洲型舞毒蛾在传入美国之后造成了巨大危害。之前报道指出亚洲型舞毒蛾的寄主范围比欧洲型舞毒蛾的广,故造成的危害和损失更大,北美植物保护组织据此对中国的高风险港口实施了船舶特别检疫措施,对我国的进出口贸易产生了巨大影响。鉴于此,本实验以16种北美和中国常见的行道树种和绿化树种作为供试树种,分析了不同寄主植物对亚洲型舞毒蛾生长发育指标的影响规律。结果表明:饲喂白桦、加杨和糖槭的幼虫可以完成生活周期。饲喂杜松、女贞、大叶黄杨、红皮云杉、合欢、杂交鹅掌楸、马尾松、黑松和白皮松的幼虫在2龄以前全部死亡。虽然2龄以前幼虫饲喂北美乔松、油松和柿树后死亡率较高,但

  7. Uso de cera na conservação pós-colheita do caqui cv. Giombo Use of wax in 'Giombo' persimmon cold stored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Blum

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da cera de carnaúba na conservação pós-colheita do caqui cv. Giombo. Os tratamentos consistiram do tratamento- controle e rápida imersão nas soluções contendo 12,5; 25 e 50 % do produto comercial Meghwax ECF 100®, que é uma emulsão de cera de carnaúba não-iônica a 30 %. Após a secagem, os frutos foram armazenados a 4ºC ± 1ºC e 80 % de umidade relativa. As avaliações foram realizadas em intervalos de 15 dias de conservação em câmara fria, seguidos de 4 dias à temperatura de 20 ± 1ºC, simulando o período de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram: firmeza de polpa; sólidos solúveis; acidez titulável; pH; teor de ácido ascórbico, fenóis e perda de massa fresca. O uso de cera de carnaúba, independentemente da concentração utilizada, diminuiu a perda de massa dos frutos em até 7,8 % em armazenagem por 60 dias em câmara fria, seguido de quatro dias em temperatura ambiente. A imersão dos frutos em solução com 12,5% de cera foi eficiente na manutenção do teor de ácido ascórbico e da firmeza, prolongando o tempo de armazenamento por 6 dias. Com o decorrer do armazenamento, houve decréscimo da acidez e aumento do pH.This research had the objective of evaluating the efficiency of the "carnaúba" wax in post-harvest of persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki, cv. Giombo. The treatments were the rapid immersion of fruits into solutions containing 12.5, 25 and 50 % of the commercial product Meghwax ECF 100®, being a 30 % non ionic emulsion of carnaúba wax. After drying, fruits were stored at 4 ºC and 80 % RH. Chemical and physical characteristics of the fruits were measured throughout sixty days, at fifteen day intervals, followed by a 4-day period at 20 ºC simulating commercialization periods. The pulp firmness, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, water loss, tannins and ascorbic acid contents were evaluated. The use of carnaúba wax, regardless of

  8. Studies of Three Early-maturing Non-astringent Persimmon Cultivars on Biological Charac-teristics, Yield and Quality%三个甜柿早熟品种生物学特性及产量和品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彩虹; 郭创业; 黄雪民; 张丽萍; 杨新民

    2015-01-01

    Three early-maturing non-astringent persimmon(Diospyros kaki) cultivars, 'Izu', 'Shinsyu' and 'Akagaki' were tested. The biological characteristics, yield,fruit quality and the commodity fruit rate of three cultivars were studied. The results show that the harvest time of 'Akagaki' occurs from late August to early September,and the harvest time of 'Izu' & 'Shinsyu' occur from mid to late September. The tree vigor of 'Izu' is less, with a low branch density. The canopy of 'Shinsyu' is small, with a high branch density.'Akagaki' is more vigorous. 13 -2013 - old 'Izu' produced total fruit weight 36. 2kg per tree, the fruit is roundish oblate, weighing about 158. 7g, the skin color is reddish-orange, the flesh is fine, soluble solids content is 15. 5, the commodity fruit rate is 93. 4 percent, but the duration of hard fruit is only 10 to 20 days.At the same time the yield of 'Shinsyu' is 9. 6kg per tree, its fruit is weighing about 198. 5g, Some fruits of 'Shinsyu' have skin cracking or calyx - separation, and the the commodity fruit rate is 46. 9% . 'Akagaki' is a pollination variant non - astringent, there are more seeds and brown specks in the flesh. The yield of 'Akagaki' is 48. 3 kg per tree at 13 - 2013 - old, but its fruit has a poor commodity value. The trees of 'Akagaki' produce a large number of male flowers which blossom early and have a long flowering period, so 'Akagaki' can be used as a pollinizer or germplasm resource.%以甜柿早熟品种'伊豆'、'新秋'和'赤柿'为试验材料,研究其生物学特性、柿果产量、品质和商品率等表现.结果表明,'赤柿'成熟期在8月下旬~9月上旬,'伊豆'和'新秋'在9月中下旬;'伊豆'发枝较少,树势较弱,'新秋'树冠矮小,枝条密生,'赤柿'树势较强;'伊豆'定植13年树平均产量36.2 kg/株,果实扁圆形,平均单果重158.7 g,果皮橙红色,肉质细腻,可溶性固形物含量15.5%,商品果率达93.4%,但硬果期只有10~20天;同树龄的'新秋'平均产量9

  9. Foliar concentration of heavy metals in the leaves of trees in mining area as a mechanism for phytoremediation%矿区常见乔木叶片重金属特征及其修复应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱媛; 何际泽; 杨汉彬; 张良军; 黄良美; 温远光; 杨梅; 张新英

    2013-01-01

    Absrtact:Mining has a range of deleterious effects on the environment, including increasing the concentration of heavy metals in soils. Natural revegetation may contribute to phytoremediation by removing heavy metals. Therefore it’s important to determine which trees are most effective at phytoremediation. The vegetation and the topsoil of the mining area in Dachang Mine of Hechi city, Guangxi Province, China, were investigated, to determine which trees are more suitable for phytoremediation for the heavy metal pollution. The total content of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb) in the leaves of eight tree species and in the topsoil were measured in the three sites in the mining area. The trees were:Pyrus pyrifolia (burm.f.) nakai, Castanea mollissima, Hovenia acerba, Citrus maxima, Ginkgo biloba, Cinnamomum camphora, Diospyros kaki, Eriobotrya japonica. The concentrations of heavy metals in leaves were detected by ICP-MS and ICP-AES, and in soil by ICP-AES. The concentrations of heavy metals were over 5-1200 times background values for soils in the Guangxi Province; with Cd more than 1200 times background values. There were no significant differences in foliar heavy metal contents among the three sampling sites except for Mn;and there were no significant differences among tree species in foliar heavy metal concentrations, either. Concentrations per leaf were converted to values per tree using an equation for tree leaf biomass. H. acerba and C. camphora accumulated more different heavy metals than the others overall. For example a single H. acerba tree can absorb 21.25 g Mn, 3.003g Zn, 0.20 g Cu, 0.28 g As, 0.066 g Cd, 0.014 g Sn, 0.17 g Sb and 1.23 g Pb, while a C. camphora tree can absorb 1.55 g Mn, 0.79g Zn, 0.17 g Cu, 0.12 g As, 0.011 g Cd, 0.017 g Sn, 0.14 g Sb and 0.40 g Pb. The values for the two fruit trees, P. pyrifolia and C. mollissim were also high, for P. pyrifolia can uptake 2.90 g Mn, 3.32 g Zn 0.57 g Cu, 0.11 g As, 0.043 g Cd, 0.014 g

  10. Qualidade de caquis Fuyu tratados com cálcio em pré-colheita e armazenados sob atmosfera modificada

    OpenAIRE

    FERRI VALDECIR CARLOS; RINALDI MARIA MADALENA; LUCHETTA LUCIANO; ROMBALDI CESAR VALMOR

    2002-01-01

    Avaliou-se a eficiência do cálcio (CaCl2) na conservação de caquis Fuyu armazenados em temperatura ambiente (TA), atmosfera refrigerada (AR) e modificada (AM). Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os caquizeiros foram tratados com 1% de CaCl2, em pulverizações de cobertura total, a cada 15 dias, a partir de 90 dias antes da data prevista para a colheita. Para a testemunha, pulverizaram-se as plantas com água destilada. As frutas foram colhidas com 65-75...

  11. A CADEIA PRODUTIVA DE CAQUI NO MUNICÃ PIO DE ANTÔNIO CARLOS SOB A ÓTICA DA ECONOMIA DOS CUSTOS DE TRANSAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Cristina Aparecida; Pereira, Claudia Maria Miranda de Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This work discusses the importance of the kaki productive chain in the Antônio Carlos district and its growing potentialities, analysed from the perspective of Transaction Costs Economics. The objective is to verify how the transactions between the kaki producers from the Antônio Carlos district and the downstream and upstream agents of the productive chain occur, as well as to study the governance structure in this chain. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews carried out wit...

  12. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R.; Bank, van der, M.; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A. M.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Roux, J.; Madrid, H.; Damm, U.; Wood, A. R.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Hodges, C.S.; Munster, M.

    2013-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusico...

  13. Occurrence of three Western Ghats elements in dry evergreen forest of Gingee Hills, Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balachandran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The botanical exploration of Gingee hills, Tamil Nadu, India resulted in collection of three species viz., Diospyros affinis Thwaites, Drypetes porteri (Gamble Pax & K. Hoffm. and Premna wightiana Schauer have showing their extended geographical distribution in Eastern Ghats. This study revealed about the disjunct distribution, ecology and the present status of these three species from the Eastern Ghats. 

  14. MASS TREATMENT OF FILARIASIS IN SIDONDO, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Putrali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengobatan massal terhadap penyakit Kaki Gajah telah dilakukan pada penduduk desa Sidondo, Sulawesi Tengah dengan menggunakan obat Filarzan, (diethylcarbamazine citrate. Delapan puluh tiga per cent dari penduduk telah tercakup pada pengobatan ini dan delapan puluh sembilan per cent dari penderita yang mengandung bibit penyakit ini dalam darahnya dapat disem­buhkan. Gejala-gejala samping ditemukan pada penderita dan reaksi dari pengobatan yang ditemukan diantara penduduk yang tidak melihatkan gejala

  15. Uji Aktivitas Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Majakani (Quercus Infectoria G. Olivier) Terhadap Tikus Putih Yang Diinduksi Karagenan

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Khairunnisa

    2015-01-01

    Obat-obat antiinflamasi non-steroid (OAINS) termasuk obat analgesik, antipiretik dan antiinflamasi yang mempunyai efek samping terhadap gastrointestinal, sehingga perlu dicari obat alami yang lebih aman. Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) telah lama digunakan untuk pengobatan inflamasi secara tradisional yang diharapkan mempunyai efek yang sama dengan OAINS. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antiinflamasi ekstrak etanol majakani terhadap udem kaki tikus yang diinduksi ...

  16. Usulan Peracangan Alat Bantu Pengambilan Cocopeat pada Stasiun Penguraian untuk Mengurangi Keluhan Muskuloskeletal pada UD Pusaka Bakti

    OpenAIRE

    Riza, Reviana

    2010-01-01

    UD. Pusaka Bakti merupakan Industri kecil menengah yang pertama kalinya yang memproduksi keset kaki dari sabut kelapa. Proses produksi pada industri UD. Pusaka Bakti sebagian besar dilakukan secara manual dengan posisi tubuh yang tidak ergonomis dan proses pemindahan yang dilakukan secara manual. Pada proses pengambilan cocopeat, pekerja melakukan kegiatan dengan posisi jongkok dan berjalan diatas lutut menyebabkan keluhan-keluhan pada pekerja. Pemindahan cocopeat dengan karung sebagai wadahn...

  17. PENULARAN FILARIASIS DI PEMUKIMAN TRANSMIGRASI KUMPEH, JAMBI DITINJAU DARI ASPEK SOSIO ANTROPOLOGI

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sudomo; Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo; Siti Sapardiyah Santoso

    2012-01-01

    Study on the socio-cultural aspects in relation to filariasis transmission dynamics was carried out in the transmigration area of Kumpeh, Iambi. In this study a number of 266 respondents originated from Java were interviewed. Beside interview by using questionnaires, focus group discussions and observation were also implemented. From this study it was known that the word "filariasis" seemed to be unpopular among the transmigrants. They used to called the disease untut or penyakit kaki gajah. ...

  18. Activities of clean up committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. Actual soil washing tests for agriculture and rice crop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean up committee of Atomic Society of Japan has several kinds of activities for remediation of cesium contaminated soil in Fukushima prefecture in order to return to the native village, for example, advance of recovery of environments in Fukushima prefecture, making catalogue of various kind of decontamination technique, actual soil washing tests for agriculture and rice crop tests, Q and A for temporary storage for contaminated soil and materials. This paper outlines actual soil washing tests for agriculture and rice crop tests in Fukushima prefecture. We tested the actual soil washing method 'Ara-kaki' using water for rice fields. Once of 'Ara-kaki' decreased half of the radioactivity in rice field. Twice of 'Ara-kaki' decreased s quarter of the radioactivity there last year. This year, rice crop tests have been done in order to investigate the effect of dispersing zeolite and fertilizing in rice field of Fukushima prefecture. Amount of zeolite and fertilizer as parameter are changed to rice field. The results of the rice crop tests will be presented. (author)

  19. PERANCANGAN ULANG ALAT PERONTOK PADI YANG ERGONOMIS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS DAN KUALITAS KEBERSIHAN PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Kristanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu tahapan dalam proses panen padi adalah proses perontokan padi, yang secara umum masih dilakukan secara manual. Alat perontok padi saat ini tidak ergonomis, yang dilakukan berdiri pada satu kaki dan kaki yang lain mengayuh pedal perontok, mengakibatkan ketidaknyamanan, seperti pegal pada punggung, kaki, leher, pinggang, bahu, dan lain sebagainya. Kondisi kerja tersebut berakibat tingginya konsumsi energi saat ini sebesar 2,61 Kkal/menit, rata-rata waktu proses perontokan lama yaitu 3,76 menit/unit dan tingginya prosentase kotoran padi yaitu 11.72%. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah perancangan ulang alat perontok padi yang ergonomis untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan kualitas kebersihan padi. Data yang digunakan pada penelitian ini meliputi data keluhan operator, waktu proses, denyut jantung, tingkat kebersihan padi, dan data antropometri. Untuk menguji keandalan dan kesahihan data dilakukan pengujian statistic meliputi uji normalitas, uji keseragaman dan uji kecukupan data. Perangkat lunak Solidworks 2014 digunakan untuk mendesain alat perontok padi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penurunan waktu proses sebesar 65,69%, penurunan konsumsi energi sebesar 67,43%, penurunan kotoran dalam padi 79,52%, dan peningkatan produktivitas sebesar 205,5%.

  20. Cytoplasmic inheritance of somatic hybrids and development of primers for cpSSR in Citrus%柑橘体细胞胞质遗传及叶绿体SSR引物开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运江

    2011-01-01

    chloroplast genomes among the hybrids of the 38 fusion combinations,random segregation of chloroplast in Citrus fusion hybrids was further proved,and 1 : 1 segregation ratio were revealed in the fusion combinations of Kinnow tangerine+Jincheng Orange and Bonanza navel orange+Goutou sour orange,respectively.4) Sixty-four DNA samples belonging to 31 kinds of tropical and subtropical fruit crops were ampli-fiedwith the synthesized cpSSR primers,and a set of wide adaptable universal primers were screened. For instance,SPCC1 was rich in polymorphism among intergenera or interspecies,such as persimmon (Dto-spyros kaki ) and dateplum persimmon (Diospyros lotus),banana (Musa spp. ) ,guava (Psidium spp.), papaya (Carica spp. ) and grape (Vitis spp. ).8. Twenty-three genotypes of calli adequately representing the Citrus species and related genera were selected,and corresponding leaves were used as the control to analyze the stability of mitochondrial and chloroplast (plastome) genome. RFLPs,histological section, cpSSR and mtDNA transferring from the cytoplasm to the nuclei were analyzed. The results were as follows:Dlow frequency of mtDNA mutation existed in Citrus calli,while the mtDNA contents increased in individual mitochondria,and no such phenomena were observed in chloroplast genome.2) Analyzed with cpSSR, novel bands were detected among most of the calli. Both Southern hybridization and sequencing proved that the bands were amplified uniquely, suggesting that short sequences insertion occurred frequently in Citrus calli plastid genomes.3) Dot blotting analyses were performed by using nuclear DNA hybridized with mitochondrial probes. Results showed that mitochondrial DNA transfering from cytoplasm into nuclei occurred during long-term subculture.

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST SEEDS REGARDING THE DESICCATION TOLERANCE AND STORAGE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Carvalho Mayrinck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to classify forest seeds native to the Alto Rio Grande region regarding the desiccation tolerance and storage behaviour. Germination and water content tests were performed in seeds of different species. The tests were conducted immediately after seed processing, at 12% and 5% of water content, and at 5% after 3 months of storage in -18°C. Based on the results obtained, seeds were classified into recalcitrant, intermediate and orthodox class. Seeds of Brosimum gaudichaudii, Erythroxylum deciduum, Eugenia pleurantha, Myrcia venulosa, Nectandra megapotamica were classified as recalcitrant (22.7% of all species. Seeds of Aegiphila sellowiana, Aspidosperma parvifolium, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Casearia lasiophylla, Cassia occidentalis, Dalbergia miscolobium, Diospyros brasiliensis, Diospyros hispida, Ilex brevicuspis, Ilex cerasifolia, Myrocarpus fastigiatus, Senna aversiflora, Senna splendida e Blepharocalyx salicifolius were classified as intermediate (59.1% of all species. Seeds of Miconia albicans, Platycyamus regnellii, Styrax camporum and Piptadenia gonoacantha were classified as orthodox (18.2% of all species.

  2. Dynamics of Mixed Dipterocarps Forests in Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan after Three Times of Forest Fires within the Periods of 1980-2003

    OpenAIRE

    HERWINT SIMBOLON

    2005-01-01

    A plot of 150x700 m2 was established in a mixed dipterocarps of Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan during the periods of 1979-1981. The forest was dominated by Eusideroxylon zwageri (Lauraceae), Dipterocarpus cornutus (Dipterocarpaceae), Pholidocarpus majadum (Arecaceae), and Diospyros borneensis (Ebenaceae). Since the plot establishment, the forests then had experienced three times of forest fires, those were in 1982-1983, 1994-1995 and 1997-1998. The present paper reports the results of re-...

  3. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Chauhan; Ravinda K. Chauhan; Ashok K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of f...

  4. NEGATIVE PRESSURE WOUND THERAPY (NPWT FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT WOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesiana Heris Santy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Complications often experienced by people with diabetes are complications in the feet ( 15 % called diabetic foot ( Akhtyo , 2009 . Where the injury to the leg if not treated properly will lead to infections and ultimately need to be amputated .The purpose of writing articles is to review and discuss the evidence-based literature bersadarkanpraktice of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Effectiveness ( NPWT on the healing of diabetic foot ulcers.One technology that is used to prevent and avoid lower limb amputation is the technique of negative pressure or Negative Pressure Wound Therapy ( NPWT . This negative pressure technique has grown rapidly and now has been widely used in many countries , especially in Western European countries ( Germany and the United States . Negative pressure technique has the advantage that it is relatively cheaper cost than the use of hyperbaric oxygen . Results obtained by several studies that the use of NPWT may improve wound healing process through efforts to create a moist wound environment and decrease edema that becomes optimal wound healing , throw that out of the wound exudate so that the protease enzyme in the exudate also go wasted , this enzyme is known to interfere wound healing process . The other benefit is that it can stimulate cell growth by increasing angiogenesis physically , so that the growth of new cells will be maximal Abstrak : Komplikasi sering dialami pengidap diabetes adalah komplikasi pada kaki (15% disebut kaki diabetes (Akhtyo, 2009.Dimana luka pada kaki jika tidak ditangani dengan baik akan menyebabkan terjadinya infeksi dan akhirnya perlu di amputasi. Tujuan penulisan artikel adalah mengkaji dan membahas literature bersadarkan evidence based praktice  tentang Efektifitas Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT pada penyembuhan ulkus kaki Diabetik. Salah satu teknologi yang digunakan untuk mencegah dan menghindari amputasi ekstremitas bawah adalah  teknik tekanan negatif atau Negative

  5. Shiatsu Di Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Shiatsu adalah sebuah kata dalam bahasa Jepang yang bila diterjemahkan secara harafiah artinya “tekanan jari”.Hal ini merupakan tekanan jari yang di berikan ke tubuh sebagai metode utama penerapan shiatsu untuk merangsang suatu respon penyembuhan.Namun,shiatsu lebih dari situ.Teknik shiatsu tidak hanya menggunakan jari,tetapi juga ibu jari,telapak tangan,lutut,lengan bawah,siku dan kaki.Lebih jauh lagi,kerena shiatsu dilakukan di lantai dan di tikar ataupun tempat tidur,shiatsu juga focus pad...

  6. Possessive pour in the French Lexicon of the Ivory Coast and Language Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Akissi Boutin, Béatrice

    2007-01-01

    Any variationist study of Ivory Coast French needs to take into account sociolinguistic considerations and systemic features of other contact languages. For instance, there is a specific usage of pour against which the interference hypothesis can easily be tested:FI: Le kaki que je porte présentement, c'est pour un bachelier qui me l'a laissé avant de partir en fac, cadeau. (Lafage 2003: 676). Avant de te moquer du linge de ta voisine, regarde si pour toi est propre..In Ivory Coast French, po...

  7. ネパールのカリガンダキ河流域の家畜たち

    OpenAIRE

    藤瀬, 浩; フジセ, ヒロシ; Hiroshi, FUJISE

    2001-01-01

    Domestic animals that breed in the Kaki Gandaki valley in Nepal, from Kagbeni, Mustang district to Rahughat, Myagdy district, were surveyed. There are mainly mini cattle, lulu, in the upstream area, a mixed breed of lulu and zebu type cattle in the downstream area from a height of 2500m, and zebu type cattle in the downstream area. Preservation of native animals such as the lulu is an urgent matter. Sheep and goats are bred in the upper stream area. A lot of horses are used for riding and as ...

  8. Fitonematoides associados a frutíferas na região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.

  9. Modeling long-term tree growth curves in response to warming climate: test cases from a subtropical mountain forest and a tropical rainforest in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricker, M.; Gutierrez-Garcia, G. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Estacion de Biologia Tropical; Daly, D.C. [New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-05-15

    A new indirect growth model was used to predict the growth of 2 Mexican tree species in a climatic warming scenario. The growth trajectory of 30 Pinus hartwegii trees was modelled using radial increment data over a period of 102 years. The average growth pattern of 28 Pinus hartwegii trees were then modelled with radial increment data over a period of 37 years while considering average increments and temperature as important variables. Results showed that precipitation was significantly correlated with temperature. The average growth rate of 92 Diospyros digyna trees were then modelled with increment data over a period of 3 years with specific reference to circumference measurements, with temperature and precipitation as explaining variables. The piecewise linear (PL) model derived long-term age-diameter growth curves for trees without detectable annual growth rings through the use of species- and site-specific short term data. Multiple PL regression, statistical analyses and growth curve calculations were conducted. Growth curves were developed as a linear function of environmental variable including temperature and precipitation. The average of the annual increment over the measured years of the tree was then used as an index for nutrient availability, water access, and light exposure. The study showed that as a consequence of a 0.6 degree C temperature increase, the species Pinus hartwegii will decrease its expected growth by 10.6 per cent throughout its lifetime. The rainforest species Diospyros digyna will increase its expected relative growth by 25.4 per cent. It was concluded that increased carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations will also accelerate growth of the Diospyros digyna species. 63 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Generic delimitation and relationships in Ebenaceae sensu lato : Evidence from six plastid DNA regions

    OpenAIRE

    Duangjai, S.; Wallnofer, B.; Samuel, R.; Munzinger, Jérôme; Chase, M W

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the pantropical family Ebenaceae s.1. were investigated using plastid DNA sequence data from six regions: atpB, matK, ndhF, trnK intron, trnL intron, and trnL-trnF spacer. Sampling included representatives of all currently recognized genera of Ebenaceae, Diospyros, Euclea, and Lissocarpa, and nearly all taxa that were previously recognized at the generic level, e.g., Cargillia, Gunisanthus, Maba, Macreightia, Royena, and Tetraclis. Our results strongly support mo...

  11. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  12. Anti-allergic activity of Thai medicinal plants used in longevity formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sawanee Kraithep; Kwunchit Oungbho; Supinya Tewtrakul*

    2008-01-01

    The ethanolic (EtOH) and water extracts of six plants including Piper nigrum, Streblus asper, Cyperus rotundus, Tinospora crispa, Diospyros rhodocalyx and Albizia procera used in Thai traditional longevity formulation, were examined for anti-allergic activity on antigen-induced b-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells (rat-basophilic leukemia cell line), a tumor analog of mast cell. It was revealed that Piper nigrum (EtOH) extract exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 14...

  13. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST. PMID:17331673

  14. Brugia timori INFECTION IN LEKEBAI, FLORES: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbain Joesoef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan filariasis pada penduduk Nualolo-Lekebai, Pulau Flores telah dilakukan pada bulan Februari 1975. Kampung Nualolo-Lekebai berpenduduk 680 jiwa, pekerjaan bertani dan menganut agama Nasrani. Kebiasaan hidup di antara penduduk di daerah ini adalah menyerahkan pelaksanaan pekerjaan berat pada kaum wanita, baik di rumah ataupun di kebun. Dalam perjalanan jauh baik ke kebun atau ke pasar, kaum wanitanya selalu berjalan kaki sedangkan kaum prianya menunggang kuda. Sejumlah 80% dari penduduk kampung ini telah diperiksa terhadap infeksi parasit filaria dan terhadap gejala filariasis. Dari hasil yang ditemukan ternyata penduduk kampung ini menderita infeksi Brugia timori dengan angka derajat infeksi sebesar 7.0% dan angka derajat elephantiasis sebesar 10.3%. Hal yang menarik yang ditemukan dalam pengamatan ini adalah tingginya angka derajat elephantiasis pada kaum wanita dibandingkan dengan pada kaum pria. Fenomena ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kebiasaan hidup kaum wanita di daerah ini sehari-hari yang bekerja lebih berat dan berjalan kaki lebih sering dan lebih jauh dibandingkan kaum prianya.

  15. Anti-allergic activity of Thai medicinal plants used in longevity formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawanee Kraithep

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic (EtOH and water extracts of six plants including Piper nigrum, Streblus asper, Cyperus rotundus, Tinospora crispa, Diospyros rhodocalyx and Albizia procera used in Thai traditional longevity formulation, were examined for anti-allergic activity on antigen-induced b-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells (rat-basophilic leukemia cell line, a tumor analog of mast cell. It was revealed that Piper nigrum (EtOH extract exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 14.0 μg/ml, which was higher than that of ketotifen fumarate, a positive control IC50 = 20.2 μg/ml. It was also found that the preparations of Piper-Diospyros (EtOH and Piper-Tinospora (EtOH in the ratio of 1 : 1 appreciably inhibited antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with IC50 values of 23.5 and 26.7 μg/ml, respectively. The antiallergic effects of these two preparations were higher than that of the original longevity formulation (IC50 = 66.6 μg/ml.

  16. Qualidade de caquis Fuyu tratados com cálcio em pré-colheita e armazenados sob atmosfera modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRI VALDECIR CARLOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência do cálcio (CaCl2 na conservação de caquis Fuyu armazenados em temperatura ambiente (TA, atmosfera refrigerada (AR e modificada (AM. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os caquizeiros foram tratados com 1% de CaCl2, em pulverizações de cobertura total, a cada 15 dias, a partir de 90 dias antes da data prevista para a colheita. Para a testemunha, pulverizaram-se as plantas com água destilada. As frutas foram colhidas com 65-75mm de diâmetro, coloração verde-amarelada e armazenadas em: 1 - TA (23±3ºC e 75±5%; 2 - AR (0±0,5ºC e 90±5% de umidade relativa; e 3 - AM (filme de polietileno de baixa densidade 33µm, 29x46cm, 0±0,5ºC e umidade relativa 90±5%, durante 80 dias. As frutas foram submetidas a avaliações de perda de peso, firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais e escurecimento da epiderme. As avaliações foram efetuadas 24 e 96 horas após as frutas serem retiradas da câmara. Para as frutas armazenadas em TA, as análises foram realizadas a cada 4 dias, durante 20 dias. A aplicação de CaCl2 em pré-colheita melhorou o potencial de armazenamento, e a AM teve efeito sinérgico ao CaCl2 na melhoria do potencial de conservação dos caquis.

  17. INTERVENSI ERGONOMI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SAINS MENGURANGI KELUHAN MUSKULOSKELETAL SISWA SD 1 SANGSIT KECAMATAN SAWAN KABUPATEN BULELENG

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    Nyoman Wijana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peranan intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains untuk menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD. Jenis penelitian ini termasuk jenis penelitian quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan randomized pre-test and post-test control group design. Pada kelompok kontrol pembelajarannya dengan cara konvensional (tanpa intervensi ergonomi dan kelompok eksperimen dengan intervensi ergonomi. Intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains mengacu pada pendekatan ergonomi (PE yakni gabungan antara SHIP dan TTG. Implementasi dari hal ini adalah melakukan perbaikan dan atau penataan terhadap instrumental input, environmental input dan porcess, sedangkan untuk di kelompok kontrol tidak dilakukan intervensi ergonomi, di mana kondisi instrumental input, environmental input dan process berlangsung secara konvensional. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara random. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney dengan taraf signifikansi 5 %. Simpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah (1 intervensi ergonomi dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD  (p < 0,05; (2 Hasil pengukuran dengan nordic body map pada kelompok kontrol terjadi keluhan pada otot pinggang (86,1%, otot pantat (86,1%, otot punggung (84,8%, otot lengan atas kiri (78,8%, otot lengan atas kanan (67,9%, otot siku kanan (78,2%, otot siku kiri (74,6%, paha kanan (76,9%, paha kiri (75,7%, otot betis kanan  (66,1%, otot betis kiri (64,2%, otot pergelangan kaki kanan (67,3%, dan otot pergelangan kaki kiri (65,5%. Dengan demikian dapat disarankan bahwa intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran dengan menggunakan PE sebaiknya diterapkan dalam pembelajaran sains di SD karena telah terbukti dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal.[MEDICINA 2009;40:11-20].  

  18. Nutrient utilization in some tropical forest tree seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalman, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Na in seedlings of Dalbergia sissoo, Tamarindus indica, Diospyros melanoxylon, Terminalia arjuna and Tectona grandis was evaluated in field plantings in Uttar Pradesh, from the age of 1 to 12 months (April 1978 to March 1979). In all species, concentration of Na in leaves was higher than that of K, Ca and P (highest in D. melanoxylon) and was higher in leaves than in roots and stems. Concentration was found to increase with age of leaves up to 8-9 months (at the time of yellowing), after which N, P and K contents decreased rapidly. N, P and K content of stems and roots showed steady increase with age, but Ca and Na, after showing increases up to 8-10 months showed a slight reduction in the 11th and 12th months. 51 references.

  19. Increasing the Effectiveness of the “Great Green Wall” as an Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change and Desertification in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O'Connor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Great Green Wall (GGW has been advocated as a means of reducing desertification in the Sahel through the planting of a broad continuous band of trees from Senegal to Djibouti. Initially proposed in the 1980s, the plan has received renewed impetus in light of the potential of climate change to accelerate desertification, although the implementation has been lacking in all but two of 11 countries in the region. In this paper, we argue that the GGW needs modifying if it is to be effective, obtain the support of local communities and leverage international support. Specifically, we propose a shift from planting trees in the GGW to utilizing shrubs (e.g., Leptospermum scoparium, Boscia senegalensis, Grewia flava, Euclea undulata or Diospyros lycioides, which would have multiple benefits, including having a faster growth rate and proving the basis for silvo-pastoral livelihoods based on bee-keeping and honey production.

  20. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fourteen Wild Edible Fruits from Burkina Faso

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    Odile G. Nacoulma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen (14 species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso wereanalyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities usingthe DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic andtotal flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana andLannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the otherfruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit alsoshowed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with highantioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents.There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidantactivities.

  1. 广东省野生树种地理分布新记录%The New Geographical Distribution Records of Wild Tree Species in Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩维栋; 陈杰

    2013-01-01

    对广东省雷州半岛各地野生木本植物实地踏查与标本采集鉴定,并参照相关文献,发现广东省地理分布新记录树种6个,分别是:硬骨藤(Pycnarrhena poilanei(Gagnep.)Forman)、光叶海桐(Pittosporum glabratum Lindl.)、台琼海桐(Pittosporum pentandrum (blanco) Merr.var.hainanense(Gagnep.)Li.)、铁线子(Manilkara hexandra(Roxb.)Dubard)、光叶柿(Diospyros diversilimba Merr.et Chun)、玉蕊(Barringtonia racemosa(Linn.)Spreng.).

  2. An in-vitro studies on green synthesis of gold nanoparticles against pathogens and cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine. It is imperative to integrate nanoscience and medicine. The present investigation is highly warranted to through more light upon the gold nanoparticles reduced from gold salt through the active principle of medicinal plant. The special emphasis of investigation is the active principle along with gold nanoparticles against for cancer cells. The 70 - 90 nm sized particles were synthesized by using Diospyros ferrea and this confirmed by SEM. These gold nanoparticles showed a characteristic absorption peak at 540 nm in UV spectra. The possibility of protein as a stabilizing material in gold nanoparticles is revealed by FTIR analysis. Remarkably, as a result of wide screening on the application of newly synthesized gold nanoparticles their anticancer potential has been discovered using MTT assay. The antimicrobial activity of AuNPs showed effective against bacteria than the fungal strains.

  3. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

  4. Eland browsing of Grewia occidentalis in semi-arid shrubland: the influence of bush clumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia occidentalis plants in the study area generally occurred in bush clumps with other shrub species. Grewia occidentalis commonly occurred with Diospyros austro-africana, Rhus longispina and Rhus pollens (nurse shrubs, but seldom with Acacia kar-roo and Lycium cinereum (non-nurse shrubs. Eland browsed G. occidentalis plants at higher levels than other shrub species, but browsing was not evenly spread across all plants. Grewia occidentalis plants associated with nurse shrubs had lower levels of browsing than those growing alone and those growing with non-nurse shrubs, while G. occidentalis plants in the centre of nurse shrubs experienced the lowest levels of browsing. The latter group of plants also produced the most fruit. Eland browsing is consid-ered an important factor determining the distribution of G. occidentalis plants in the study area, while the presence of nurse shrubs is considered essential for the establishment and maintenance of the G. occidentalis population in the study area.

  5. Anti - HIV-1 integrase activity of Thai Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingkan Bunluepuech

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of discovering anti-HIV-1 agents from natural sources, the aqueous and EtOH extracts of eight Thaiplants including Clerodendron indicum (whole plant, Tiliacora triandra (stem, Capparis micracantha (wood, Harrissoniaperforata (wood, Ficus glomerata (wood, Diospyros decandra (wood, Dracaena loureiri (heartwood, and Tinospora crispa (stem were screened for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (IN using the multiplate integration assay(MIA. Of the EtOH extracts, Ficus glomerata (wood was the most potent with an IC50 value of 7.8 g/ml; whereas the water extract of Harrisonia perforata (wood was the most potent aqueous extract with an IC50 value of 2.3 g/ml. The isolation of active principles against HIV-1 IN from Ficus glomerata is now actively pursued.

  6. Investigation of the antimutagenic effects of selected South African medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaeve, L; Kestens, V; Taylor, J L S; Elgorashi, E E; Maes, A; Van Puyvelde, L; De Kimpe, N; Van Staden, J

    2004-02-01

    Dichloromethane extracts from different parts of Rhamnus prinoides, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Gardenia volkensii, Spirostachys africana, Diospyros whyteana, Syzigium cordatum and Prunus africana were investigated for mutagenic and antimutagenic effects in Salmonella/microsome and micronucleus tests. None of the extracts tested in the Ames test were found to induce mutations or to modify the effect of the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4NQO). In the micronucleus test, extracts from twigs/bark of R. prinoides, twigs of D. whyteana, P. africana and S. cordatum significantly lowered the effect of the mutagen mitomycin C (MMC). Extracts from twigs/bark of G. volkensii and S. africana were genotoxic in the micronucleus test, while extracts of O. longibracteatum leaves potentiated the genotoxicity of MMC. This preliminary investigation shows that plant extracts used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to mutagenicity and antimutagenicity indicating careful use in some instances and the need to isolate their active principles for further research.

  7. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-02-01

    Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.), rhein from Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb), dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. (raisins), essential oils, probiotics and mushrooms. Further, the review highlights plants from Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of the plants' antimicrobial properties and chemical principles have been elucidated. While the use of natural products for oral health is prominent in resource-poor settings, antimicrobial testing is mainly conducted in the following countries (in decreasing order of magnitude): India, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, France, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, Kenya, Switzerland, Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. While the review exposes a dire gap for more studies on clinical efficacy and toxicity, the following emerging trend was noted: basic research on plants for oral health is mainly done in Brazil, Europe and Australia. Brazil, China, India and New Zealand generally conduct value addition of natural products for fortification of toothpastes. African countries focus on bioprospecting and primary production of raw plants and other natural products with antimicrobial efficacies. The Middle East and Egypt predominantly research on plants used as chewing sticks. More research and funding are needed in the field of natural products for oral health, especially in Africa where oral diseases are fuelled by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). PMID:26522671

  8. Dynamics of Mixed Dipterocarps Forests in Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan after Three Times of Forest Fires within the Periods of 1980-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERWINT SIMBOLON

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A plot of 150x700 m2 was established in a mixed dipterocarps of Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan during the periods of 1979-1981. The forest was dominated by Eusideroxylon zwageri (Lauraceae, Dipterocarpus cornutus (Dipterocarpaceae, Pholidocarpus majadum (Arecaceae, and Diospyros borneensis (Ebenaceae. Since the plot establishment, the forests then had experienced three times of forest fires, those were in 1982-1983, 1994-1995 and 1997-1998. The present paper reports the results of re-measurement of some 150x110 m2 parts of the plot in August 2003, about 23 years after plot establishment. Micro topographically, the studied plot was relatively undulating in higher parts and relatively flat in the lower parts of the plot, while the differences between lowest sub-plot and higher sub-plot of the re-measured plot was 26 m. Forest floor of the lower parts of the plot were humid to wet during rainy season and still humid during dry season. Almost all of the trees within lower parts of the plot were escaped from these three times of forest fires; hence these sub-plots were dominated by the trees of primary species that enumerated in 1980. Those sub-plots in the higher parts were burnt during the past forest fires indicated by the charcoal of standing trees and remaining felling logs in the forest floor. These burnt sub-plots were dominated by pioneer or secondary tree species, such as: Mallotus spp., Macaranga spp., Ficus spp. and Vernonia arborea. Local distribution of some indicator species (such as primary tree species: Pholidocarpus majadum, Diospyros spp., Eusideroxylon zwageri and species of Dipterocarpaceae; pioneer or secondary tree species Vernonia arborea, Macaranga spp., Mallotus spp., Ficus uncinulata, Piper aduncum, Peronema canescens within the plot were figured. Mortality, recruitment and growth rate during the period of 1980-2003 were also discussed.

  9. Fitonematoides associados a frutíferas na região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil Plant parasitic nematodes associated with fruit crops in the Northwest of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.A survey was carried out in order to study the occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in fruit crops in the Northwest of Paraná, from December 2007 to February 2009. A hundred and twenty four soil and roots samples were collected from 19 species of fruit crops in 15 different municipalities. Nematodes were extracted from the samples and identified under an optical microscope. Nine genera of plant parasitic nematodes were found. In citrus, the most abundant species was Tylenchulus semipenetrans, but it was also recovered Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema and Dolichodorus. In the other fruit crops, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Hemicycliophora were recovered. Pratylenchus brachyurus was most abundant in pineapple crops, Meloidogyne incognita in fig and

  10. Faktor Risiko Terjadinya Ulkus Diabetikum pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus yang Dirawat Jalan dan Inap di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil dan RSI Ibnu Sina Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Loviana Roza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakUlkus diabetikum adalah keadaan ditemukannya infeksi, tukak dan atau destruksi ke jaringan kulit yang paling dalam di kaki pada pasien Diabetes Mellitus (DM akibat abnormalitas saraf dan gangguan pembuluh darah arteri perifer. Ulkus diabetikum dapat dicegah dengan melakukan intervensi sederhana sehingga kejadian angka amputasi dapat diturunkan hingga 80%. Amputasi memberikan pengaruh besar terhadap seorang individu, tidak hanya dari segi kosmetik tapi juga kehilangan produktivitas, meningkatkan ketergantungan terhadap orang lain serta biaya mahal yang dikeluarkan untuk penyembuhan. Penelitian ini memberikan pengetahuan tentang faktor risiko terjadinya ulkus diabetikum agar angka mortalitas dan morbiditas dapat di kurangi. Jenis penelitian ini adalah retrospektif observasional dengan mengumpulkan data menggunakan wawancara, kuisoner, dan pemeriksaan fisik pada pasien diabetes mellitus yang di rawat jalan dan inap di RSUP DR. M. Djamil dan RSI Ibnu Sina Padang periode Januari-Maret 2014. Analisis data terhadap 6 variabel di dapatkan Jenis kelamin (p =0,595; OR=0,654 lama DM (p=1,000; OR = 1,158, neuropati (p=0,411; OR=1,833, PAD (p=0,004; OR, trauma (p=0, 02; OR= 4, dan perawatan kaki (p=1,000; OR=1,158. Berdasarkan uji statistik Chi-Square didapatkan 2 variabel yang memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan kejadian ulkus diabetikum yaitu PAD dan trauma. Sedangkan, hasil uji statistik regresi logistik ganda menyatakan bahwa lama DM, neuropati, PAD, riwayat trauma, dan perawatn kaki merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya ulkus diabetikum. PAD dan trauma adalah faktor yang paling berpengaruh.Kata kunci: faktor risiko, DM, ulkus diabetikumAbstractDiabetic foot ulcer is defined as the presence of infection, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissues associated with neurologic abnormalities and various degrees of peripheral arterial disease (PAD in the lower limb on patients with diabetes. Foot ulceration is preventable, and relatively simple

  11. The risk of varicose veins in standing female workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hidayat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Varises sering terjadi pada karyawan yang harus bekerja dalam posisi kerja berdiri. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui beberapa faktor risiko terhadap varises tungkai dan atau kaki di antara pekerja perempuan. Metode:Penelitian potong lintang ini dilakukan pada Januari-Maret 2010. Sampel penelitian yang dipilih secara purposif yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi penelitian di antara pekerja perempuan perlu bekerja dalam  posisi  kerja  berdiri.  Data  dikumpulkan  dengan  wawancara,  pemeriksaan  fisik  dan  observasi posisi kerja berdiri. Pengolahan data untuk menentukan faktor dominan terhadap varises menggunakan pendekatan risiko relatif.Hasil:Dari 152 karyawan yang terdapat 111 yang bersedia mengikuti penelitian, dan yang menderita varises tungkai dan atau kaki sebanyak 52,3% (53 orang. Sebagian besar responden berusia 18-35 tahun, memiliki masa kerja 3-17 tahun, bekerja dalam posisi kerja banyak berdiri. Sebagian kecil responden memiliki riwayat varises di dalam keluarga (13,51%, memakai kontrasepsi oral (11,71%, memiliki kebiasaan olah raga (18,02% dan memakai sepatu hak tinggi (11,71%. Faktor umur, pemakaian kontrasepsi oral, pemakaian sepatu hak tinggi, kebiasaan olah raga, posisi kerja berdiri, tempat kerja, dan masa kerja tidak berhubungan dengan varises tungkai dan atau kaki. Karyawan yang mempunyai dibandingkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai riwayat keluarga varises, berisiko 69% lebih tinggi menderita varises [risiko relatif (RR = 1,69; P = 0.121]. Kesimpulan:Karyawan yang mempunyai riwayat keluarga varises berisiko lebih tinggi menderita varises. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:47-50 Kata kunci:varises, posisi kerja berdiriAbstractBackground: Varicose veins often occur in employees who have to work in a position of standing work. The purpose of this study to determine risk factors for varicose veins and leg or foot among women workers.Methods: In this cross-sectional study in January-March 2010 the

  12. DILEMA KEBERADAAN SEKTOR INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Sulistyo Rini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai sistem ekonomi alternatif, keberadaan sektor informal mengundang pro dan kontra. Peranannya yang signifikan sebagai katup pengaman ekonomi nasional belum diimbangi dengan proteksi atau perlindungan dari pemerintah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membahas peran sektor informal dalam mengatasi masalah sosial ekonomi masyarakat dan dilema yang dialami oleh sektor informal dalam menjalankan perannya tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan terdapat peran sektor informal pada bidang ketenagakerjaan dan penyerapan angka pengangguran. Sektor formal dianggap tidak mampu menyediakan kesempatan kerja untuk seluruh lapisan masyarakat, apalagi mereka yang ada pada posisi marjinal. Pada beberapa kasus-khususnya yang berhubungan dengan sektor informal perkotaan perlakuan dan kebijakan negara menjadi sangat diskriminatif karena seringkali berhadapan dengan kebijakan negara yang bahkan berakhir dengan kekerasan.  Perlindungan terhadap sektor informal salah satunya adalah pada pedagang kaki lima di Surakarta.  Kota ini menjadi contoh representatif dalam pengorganisasian kepentingan  pemerintah  dan pedagang kaki lima. Ini dapat menjadi inspirasi positif bagi penanganan sektor informal di tempat yang lain untuk memperluas lapangan kerja bagi masyarakat dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan sosial. As an alternative economic system, the existence of informal sector invites pros and cons. The significant role of informal sector as a safety valve of the national economy has not been matched by government with the protection or support The objective of this study is to discuss the role of the informal sector in addressing social and economic issues, and the dilemma faced by the informal sector in carrying out this role. The results of this study shows that there is an important role of the informal sector in the field of employment and unemployment absorption. The formal sector is not considered able to provide job opportunities to all levels of society

  13. Parâmetros fitossociológicos de um cerrado no Parque Nacional Da Serra Do Cipó, MG Phytosociological parameters of a cerrado in "Serra Do Cipó" national park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e os fatores determinantes da ocorrência da vegetação de cerrado há muito têm despertado o interesse de pesquisadores. Muitos cerrados protegidos em unidades de conservação ainda não foram investigados florística e estruturalmente. Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19º22'01''S e 43º37'10''W. Foram instaladas 12 parcelas de 150 m² e foram amostrados todos os indíviduos lenhosos com circunferência do caule à altura do solo maior ou igual a 10 cm. Foram relacionadas 44 espécies de 37 gêneros e 30 famílias. Entre estas, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae e Guttiferae, com três espécies cada, foram as mais ricas. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis e Piptocarpha rotundifolia.The diversity of species and the factors determining the occurrence of cerrado vegetation have long called the attention of researchers. Many protected cerrados in Conservation Units have not been floristically and structurally studied. This work conducted a floristic and phytosociological survey of the Parque Nacional da "Serra do Cipó" ("Serra do Cipó" National Park (19º22'01''S and 43º37'10''W. Twelve quadrats of 150 m² were established and all individuals with a stem circumference at ground level larger than or equal to 10 cm were sampled. A total of 44 species of 37 genera and 30 families were found. The richest families were Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae and Guttiferae, with three species each. The most important species (VI were Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis and Piptocarpha rotundifolia.

  14. Observation on Feeding Habit of Dominant Birds and Forage Sites in an Evergreen Broadleaved Forest, Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang%天童常绿阔叶林样地中优势鸟类食性与采食地点植物的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 王军馥; 张航; 丁虎林; 唐思贤

    2012-01-01

    Based on observation of food habit of common birds was observed at a 20 hm2 plot from October 2010 to September 2011 in Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang, we analyzed the relation between birds and tree species. Among the 3 130 birds of 32 species observed that belong to 5 families and 12 orders 5 species Alcippe morrisonia, Aegithalos concinnus, Parus major, Hemixos castanonotus and Pycnonotus sinensis were dominant. The species of trees perched by birds were correspondingly related to bird species by similarity index and Spearman correlation analysis. Birds Parus major and Aegithalos concinnus more likely foraged on or near trees of Diospyros gtaucifolia, bird Pycnonotus sinensis was near trees of Vaccinium trichocladum and Schoepfia jasminodora in autumn, while birds Hemixos castanonotus selected their forage site near trees of Eurya muricata in summer and autumn.%2010年10月至2011年9月,在浙江天童国家森林公园内的天童20 hm2样地中对鸟类食性进行观察,并对鸟类与植物物种间分布关系进行研究.调查观察到鸟类5目12科32种3 130只次,其中优势种类为灰眶雀鹛(Alcippe morrisonia)、红头[长尾]山雀(Aegithalos concinnus)、大山雀(Parus major)、栗背短脚鹎(Hemixos castanonotus)和白头鹎(Pycnonotus sinensis).采用Sorensen相似性指数和Spearman相关性分析对优势种鸟类与植被分布的关系进行分析,结果显示鸟类分布与植物分布呈对应关系:大山雀和红头[长尾]山雀在同一时期与浙江柿(Diospyros glaucifolia)有相关性,白头鹎同时期与刺毛越橘(Vaccinium trichocladum)和青皮木(Schoepfia jasminodora)相关,栗背短脚鹎在不同时期与同种植物格药柃( Eurya muricata)相关.

  15. Comportamento de espécies de adubos verdes em diferentes épocas de semeadura e espaçamentos na região dos Cerrados

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    Amabile Renato Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e desenvolvimento de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes, instalaram-se três ensaios, em três épocas de semeadura e dois espaçamentos na região dos Cerrados, durante o ano agrícola de 1991/1992, na área experimental da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Solo (CNPS, em Senador Canedo, GO. As espécies avaliadas foram Crotalaria juncea L., mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy Merr., guandu cv. Kaki (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. e Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don. O delineamento experimental utilizado, dentro de cada época, foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os resultados indicaram que C. juncea e C. cajan apresentaram as maiores produções de fitomassa seca. O atraso da semeadura, em relação ao início da estação chuvosa, reduziu os rendimentos de fitomassas verde e seca produzidos pelas leguminosas, exceto pela mucuna-preta. Os espaçamentos de 0,5 m e 0,4 m não influenciaram o período para o florescimento e as produções de fitomassas verde e seca.

  16. Oligo- and polysaccharides exhibit a structure-dependent bioactivity on human keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Alexandra M; Lengsfeld, Christian; Hensel, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    In traditional medicine, a variety of plants with high carbohydrate contents were used for dermatological therapies. Contemporary investigations confirmed exogenous carbohydrates as biologically active. The recent study describes the characterization of oligo- and polysaccharides from medicinal herbs and evaluation of composite-dependent physiological activity of carbohydrates on human keratinocytes in vitro. Polysaccharide isolation was followed by size- and charge fractionation. Identification of monosaccharide components was performed by GLC/MS. Primary human keratinocytes (NHK) and cells of the cell line HaCaT were used for investigation of carbohydrate action on cellular proliferation (BrdU-uptake), differentiation specific enzymes (involucrin), cell viability (MTT-reduction) and cytotoxicity. Incubation of keratinocytes with a purified beta-glucan from Reed mace seeds resulted in an improved proliferation followed by an increased differentiation after contact inhibition. Fucosylated oligo- and polysaccharides of human milk and Sea weed induced involucrin expression as maker for early differentiation without an increase in proliferation. Cell viability and proliferation of keratinocytes were enhanced by an arabinogalactan of Kaki fruits. Okra fruit rhamnogalacturonans increased cell proliferation. Heart sease pectin-like polysaccharides reduced the proliferation significantly but improved the cell viability. These results led assume that the carbohydrates of traditional used herbs play a part in their efficacy. PMID:16111846

  17. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. PMID:18838807

  18. PENULARAN FILARIASIS DI PEMUKIMAN TRANSMIGRASI KUMPEH, JAMBI DITINJAU DARI ASPEK SOSIO ANTROPOLOGI

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    M. Sudomo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Study on the socio-cultural aspects in relation to filariasis transmission dynamics was carried out in the transmigration area of Kumpeh, Iambi. In this study a number of 266 respondents originated from Java were interviewed. Beside interview by using questionnaires, focus group discussions and observation were also implemented. From this study it was known that the word "filariasis" seemed to be unpopular among the transmigrants. They used to called the disease untut or penyakit kaki gajah. A great number of the respondents stated that the disease is transmitted through mosquito bites, but they did not know the mode of the transmission. A small number of the respondents were of the opinion that the disease was hereditary and this knowledge was adopted from the local inhabitants. The attitude of the respondents towards filariasis control measures was positive, and it was shown among others, by their willingness to be bled for filariasis examination. Their behaviour in its connection with filariasis transmission was not supportive towards filariasis control e.g. they used to stay in the ladang, and chat outdoor during the night without protection against mosquito bites. From this study it was also known that they exposed themselves to the mosquito bites mainly in the ladang when they take guard of their crops from pests damages. Their low education affected their perception towards filariasis and will hamper health education on filariasis control.

  19. Effect of Jojoba Oil Emulsion on Prolonging Storage Periods of Costata Persimmon Fruits

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    A.S.E. Abd-Allah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out during two successive seasons (2008-2009 and (2009-2010 on Costata persimmon fruits (Disopyros kaki, L harvested at mature stage. Experimental fruits were divided into five similar groups; each of three boxes and each box about 2 kg. Fruits of each group were emulsified in one of the following jojoba oil emulsion concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Treated fruits were stored at 13+1oC and 90% RH. Weight loss percentage, decayed fruits, changes in fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, flesh SSC, total sugars, acid and vitamin C were evaluated at 7 days intervals. Jojoba oil emulsifying reduced weight loss, decay fruit percentage. This beneficial effect was connected to oil emulsion concentrations; the high oil concentration recorded the lower weight loss and discarded fruit percentage. Jojoba oil treatments increased both fruit flesh firmness and acid content, since fruits treated with 100% concentration showed higher flesh firmness and flesh acid values than the lower tested oil concentrations. Fruits received oil at 75% concentration showed the lower total sugar content than those of the control. SSC of fruit was not much affected by all jojoba oil concentrations. All treatments improved shelf live compared with the control. The percentage of natural infection was increased with increasing storage period. In this concern, jojoba oil emulsion at 100% was the effective preserving natural compound.

  20. A Long and Winding Road: Cross-Cultural Connections Between Brazil, Australia and Japan

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    Cristina Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available My first experiences of Japan were so early in life that they are hazy in my memory. My neighbours in São Paulo City, a sprawling megalopolis in Brazil, were Japanese migrants. I was seven or eight when I first saw their festivals and performance presentations from my parents’ bedroom window. I remember my awe at their colourful costumes, masks and music. On a daily basis I remember the pungent smell of the soy sauce they produced in a factory in their backyard. We also shopped at a small neighbourhood supermarket called Shinohara. We bought paper and sticks for our kites from a general store owned by another Japanese migrant. We would tell our mother that we were going to ride our bikes to the ‘Japonesa’ to get kite material. At home, caqui (Japanese kaki was my favourite fruit, but we also had all sorts of vegetables the Japanese migrants brought from Japan. We even called Japanese pumpkin by its Japanese name – kabocha.

  1. Possessive pour in the French Lexicon of the Ivory Coast and Language Contact

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    Akissi Boutin, Béatrice

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Any variationist study of Ivory Coast French needs to take into account sociolinguistic considerations and systemic features of other contact languages. For instance, there is a specific usage of pour against which the interference hypothesis can easily be tested:FI: Le kaki que je porte présentement, c'est pour un bachelier qui me l'a laissé avant de partir en fac, cadeau. (Lafage 2003: 676. Avant de te moquer du linge de ta voisine, regarde si pour toi est propre..In Ivory Coast French, pour (N/Pro can display a variety of functions: it can be part of associative predications, it can stand for genitive phrases in an anaphoric construction, make reference to an object in relation with another and participate in various idiomatic expressions.This paper has a twofold objective. First, I argue that pour (N/Pro constructions has to be analysed as an empty headed "associative" noun phrase. Second, I will show the relevance of extra- AND intersystemic factors in accounting for language variation. Incidentally, the use of pour (N/Pro constructions seems to be conditioned by the availability of similar constructions in other Ivory Coast languages on the one hand, such as baoule (o liε or dioula (à tá, and, cultural needs on the other.

  2. [Acute intestinal occlusion caused by phytobezoar in Israel. Role of oranges and persimmons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, F; Dona, G; Kaufman, M; Weisberg, D; Krispin, M

    1985-05-01

    Forty-one patients were operated upon for acute intestinal obstruction secondary to the presence of phytobezoars, 34 of these patients (83%) having a history of previous gastric surgery for ulcer. The etiologic factor in 44% of cases was oranges and in 56% persimmons (Kakis). Treatment was by enterotomy in 27 patients (65,85%) and by "milking" in 14 (34,15%). Postoperative mortality was 2,44% (1 case). Recurrence was noted in three cases (7,3%) including one with an ileocutaneous fistula, treatment being by enterotomy in 2 cases and "milking" in the third patient. First intention intestinal resection was never required. Five patients required several admissions for subacute obstruction treated conservatively. These findings suggest that gastric surgery predisposes to intestinal obstruction by phytobezoar. Careful exploration of the digestive tube and particularly the stomach should avoid postoperative relapse, while prevention depends on a dietary regimen avoiding excessive intake of foods rich in cellulose, particularly oranges and persimmon fruit. PMID:4044688

  3. Studies on the effect of environmental conditions and gamma rays on the capability of certain plant pathogenic fungi to produce the enzyme degrading tannic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannins (polyphenols and catechins) are distributed in species throughout the plant kingdom. They are commonly found in both gymnosperms as well as angiosperms. Histologically tannins are mainly physically located in the vacuoles or surface wax of plants. These storage sites keep tannins active against plant predators. Tannins themselves are found principally in the bark, leaves and immature fruits of a wide range of plants. They form complexes with proteins and other plant polymers such as polysaccharides. It is thought that the role of tannins in nature is one of the plant defense mechanisms. They have an astringent, aversive taste that is off-putting to wannabe herbivores. As an animal or insect begins to munch on plant tissues, the tannins are released from cellular compartments and bind with the proteins and other cell components, making them taste unpleasant and rather indigestible. Tannins are found in many foods and drinks such as tea plant, pomegranates, persimmons (kaki), berries (especially cranberries, strawberries and blueberries), nuts (especially hazelnuts, walnuts and pecans), beer, herbs and spices (especially cloves, tarragon, cumin, thyme, vanilla and cinnamon), legumes (especially red colored beans) and chocolate (6% tannins). It is worth to mention that apple juices, grape juices and berry juices are all high in tannins. Sometimes tannins are even added to juices to create a more astringent feel to the taste

  4. 9种贵州的新记录植物%9 New Records Plant Species in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷建强; 李鹤; 邓伦秀; 杨成华

    2016-01-01

    9 plant species are reported as new records to Guizhou Province.They are Diospyros sutchuensis Yang (Ebenaceae), Celastrus homaliifolius Hsu (Celastraceae), Cryptocarya brachythyrsa H.W.Li (Lauraceae), Ly-sionotus heterophyllus Franch.( Gesneriaceae ) , Morinda nanlingensis Y.Z.Ruan ( Rubiaceae ) , Raphiolepis lan-ceolata Hu (Rosaceae), Photinia bergerae Schneid.(Rosaceae), Photinia raupingensis Kuan (Rosaceae) and Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don ( Bignoniaceae ) , of which Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don is an alien specie .%报道了柿树科、卫矛科、樟科、苦苣苔科、茜草科、蔷薇科和紫葳科共7科9种植物在贵州的分布新记录。它们是川柿、小果南蛇藤、短序厚壳桂、异叶吊石苣苔、南岭鸡眼藤、细叶石斑木、湖北石楠、饶平石楠和蓝花楹,其中的蓝花楹属于外来物种。

  5. Test of validity of a dynamic soil carbon model using data from leaf litter decomposition in a West African tropical forest

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    G. H. S. Guendehou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the applicability of the dynamic soil carbon model Yasso07 in tropical conditions in West Africa by simulating the litter decomposition process using as required input into the model litter mass, litter quality, temperature and precipitation collected during a litterbag experiment. The experiment was conducted over a six-month period on leaf litter of five dominant tree species, namely Afzelia africana, Anogeissus leiocarpa, Ceiba pentandra, Dialium guineense and Diospyros mespiliformis in a semi-deciduous vertisol forest in Southern Benin. Since the predictions of Yasso07 were not consistent with the observations on mass loss and chemical composition of litter, Yasso07 was fitted to the dataset composed of global data and the new experimental data from Benin. The re-parameterized versions of Yasso07 had a good predictive ability and refined the applicability of the model in Benin to estimate soil carbon stocks, its changes and CO2 emissions from heterotrophic respiration as main outputs of the model. The findings of this research support the hypothesis that the high variation of litter quality observed in the tropics is a major driver of the decomposition and needs to be accounted in the model parameterization.

  6. Biosorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Diospyrous melanoxylon Leaf Waste

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    Raghvendra G Patil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon leaves from bidi (local cigarette industry has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon applying sulfuric acid carbonization method. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the potential for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using the activated carbon and compared to raw tendu leaves powder and commercial activated carbon. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies have been done by varying the parameters such initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dose, pH of the dye solution, and varying the contact time between the carbon and the dye. It was found that the methylene blue adsorption on tendu waste-based activated carbon conformed to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities were found to be 219.3, 355.9 and 495.1 mg/g for raw tendu waste, carbonized tendu and commercial carbon, respectively. The kinetic studies were well characterized by a pseudo second order kinetic model. The results of this study indicate that raw tendu waste a renewable bioresource, as such as well as its carbonized form are attractive biosorbent for removing a cationic dye from the dye wastewater.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2735

  7. Comparing Floristic Diversity between a Silviculturally Managed Arboretum and a Forest Reserve in Dambulla, Sri Lanka

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    B. D. Madurapperuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated slash and burn cultivation creates wasteland with thorny shrubs, which then takes a long time to become secondary forests through serial stages of succession. Assisted natural regeneration through silvicultural management is a useful restoration method to accelerate succession. This survey evaluates the effectiveness of a simple silvicultural method for the rehabilitation of degraded lands to productive forest, thereby increasing floristic wealth. Field-based comparative analyses of floristic composition were carried out at a silviculturally managed forest (Popham Arboretum and a primary forest (Kaludiyapokuna Forest Reserve which is located in Dambulla in Sri Lanka. Floristic analysis was used to examine the effectiveness of silvicultural techniques for successful restoration of degraded forest in the dry zone. Nine 20 m × 20 m plots in each forest were enumerated and the vegetation ≥ 10 cm girth at breast height was quantitatively analyzed. Cluster analysis resulted in five distinguishable clusters (two from Popham Arboretum and three from Kaludiyapokuna Forest Reserve. Similarity indices were generated to compare the plots within and between sites. Floristic similarity was higher in forest reserve plots compared to arboretum plots. A total of 72 plant species belonging to 60 genera and 26 families were recorded from the study sites. Of the recorded species, Grewia damine and Syzygium cumini (Importance Value Index, IVI = 24 and 23 respectively were the ecologically co-dominant taxa at the Popham Arboretum. In contrast, Mischodon zeylanicus (IVI = 31, Schleichera oleosa (IVI = 25 and Diospyros ebenum (IVI = 21 were the abundant taxa in the forest reserve.

  8. Taiwanese Native Plants Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity after Ultraviolet B Irradiation

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    Yueh-Lun Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have long been used as a source of therapeutic agents. They are thought to be important anti-aging ingredients in prophylactic medicines. The aim of this study was to screen extracts from Taiwanese plant materials for phenolic contents and measure the corresponding matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity. We extracted biological ingredients from eight plants native to Taiwan (Alnus formosana, Diospyros discolor, Eriobotrya deflex, Machilus japonica, Pyrrosia polydactylis, Pyrus taiwanensis, Vitis adstricta, Vitis thunbergii. Total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. MMP-9 activities were measured by gelatin zymography. The extracted yields of plants ranged from 3.7 % to 16.9 %. The total phenolic contents ranged from 25.4 to 36.8 mg GAE/g dry material. All of these extracts (except Vitis adstricta Hance were shown to inhibit MMP-9 activity of WS-1 cell after ultraviolet B irradiation. These findings suggest that total phenolic content may influence MMP-9 activity and that some of the plants with higher phenolic content exhibited various biological activities that could serve as potent inhibitors of the ageing process in the skin. This property might be useful in the production of cosmetics.

  9. 甜柿的嫁接繁殖试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先明

    2002-01-01

    @@ 甜柿不同于涩柿,其果实在树上脱涩,象苹果、梨那样削皮脆食,且营养丰富,保脆期长,耐贮运,为我国原产的特色果树之一.目前我国甜柿生产面积不及柿栽培总面积2%,发展速度缓慢,其主要原因之一是良种苗木繁育困难.甜柿对砧木的要求较涩柿严格,不同的甜柿品种与我国柿产区常用的柿砧君迁子(Diospyros lotus L.)的嫁接亲和力不同,而且不同的嫁接时期及方法对嫁接成活率亦有重要影响.自1996年开始,湖北省农科院果茶蚕桑研究所先后引进日本甜柿品种10余个,中国甜柿品种(系)3个,进行了嫁接繁殖试验研究,为甜柿良种的繁殖提供依据.

  10. Characteristics of a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) population in Trans Pecos, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, B.K.; Harveson, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ringtails (Bassariscus astutus) few studies have been conducted to assess population characteristics. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) habitat selection, (2) home range, (3) denning characteristics, and (4) food habits of ringtails in the Trans Pecos region of west Texas. Seventeen ringtails were captured between November 1999 and January 2001 using Havahart live box traps. Second- and third-order habitat selection was determined for a ringtail population using range sites, slope, elevation, and vegetation communities. Diets were determined from volumetric scat analysis. The mean summer and winter range sizes (100% Minimum Convex Polygon [MCP]) for ringtails (n = 5) were 0.28 ?? 0.163 km2 and 0.63 ?? 0.219 km2, respectively. Overlap between ringtail ranges averaged 33.3%. Ringtails preferred catclaw (Mimosa biuncifera), persimmon (Diospyros texana), oak (Quercus sp.) bottom and catclaw/goldeneye (Viguiera stenoloba), sideoats (Bouteloua curtipendula) slope communities. Rock dens were used exclusively by ringtails, with 80.6% of dens found on slopes between 30-60%. Plant (seeds and miscellaneous vegetation) and animal material were found in 74.6 and 86.6% of scats, respectively. Findings suggest that ringtails in Trans Pecos, Texas, are an important component of the ecosystem and that management practices should conserve canyon habitats and adjacent slopes for ringtails.

  11. Tree species diversity in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

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    M. Tarakeswara Naidu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to analyze tree species diversity in the tropical forests of the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India.  A total of 270 species of trees (≥15cm girth at breast height pertaining to 177 genera belonging to 55 families were recorded.  Among the 270 species, 141 species were observed to be common, 78 were occasional and 51 species were rare in the study area.  Fabaceae was the dominant family with 33 species followed by Rubiaceae with 15 species and Malvaceae, Moraceae and Phyllanthaceae with 13 species each.  The genera with the highest number of species include Ficus (12 species, Diospyros (8 species, Albizia and Grewia (6 species each, Acacia and Bauhinia (5 species each.  Forty-five percent of the species were indigenous. This illustrates the diversity of the tree species in the studied area of the Eastern Ghats and also emphasizes the need for their conservation. 

  12. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagattoli, P C D; Cipriani, D C; Mariano, L N B; Correa, M; Wagner, T M; Noldin, V F; Filho, V Cechinel; Niero, R

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  13. Nutrient content of four edible wild plants from west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Robert S; Vanderjagt, Dorothy J; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Glew, Robert H

    2005-12-01

    Non-cereal plant foods in the Western Sahel of Africa contribute significantly to the diets of local residents, especially during periods of grain shortages. In this paper, we analyze four such plant foods including diyan kwakwa (nut of coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L.), muricin giginya (young shoot of Borassus aethiopum), tsamiya biri (fruit of the tree, Tamarindus indica), and yari (a mixture of lichens, mainly Rimelia reticulate) that grows on ebony trees (Diospyros mespiliformis). They were analyzed for their content of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Although diyan kwakwa contained the highest protein content (27.1%), its protein quality fell below the WHO standard in 3 of 8 essential amino acid categories. Yari and muricin giginya contained moderate levels of good quality protein. Only diyan kwakwa contained calorically significant amount of total fatty acid (24.7%); however, none of the plants contained useful amounts of the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid, or alpha-linolenic acid. All four plants contained useful amounts of zinc (> 12 microg/g dry weight), while yari contained the most calcium (14.7 mg/g dry weight) and iron (1.41 mg/g), and diyan kwakwa the most copper. All the four plant foods contained lesser amounts of magnesium, molybdenum, or selenium. These data indicate that the four plants contain useful amounts of various essential nutrients that could supplement the diets of populations inhabiting the Western Sahel.

  14. Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Wilson Barbosa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira, figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral, existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agr

  15. KARAKTER FISIK DAN SOSIAL REALESTAT DALAM TINJAUAN GERAKAN NEW URBANISM

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    Timoticin Kwanda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization will be critical to urban environments. The immediate and most critical urban environment problems facing several big cities, such as Jakarta and Surabaya, what are referred to as the "brown" problems, among them: lack of safe water, pollution from vehicles and industrial facilities, and congestion. To cope with these urban environmental problems, New Urbanism through the Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND believes that it will cure the problems by pedestrian oriented planning, encouraging people to drive less, mixed land uses, higher density, then traffice congestion is reduced,and mitigate air pollution. Moreover, the other physical and social characters are mixed housing types, front porches, more park that will encourage more interaction, then restore a sense of community. Based on this concept, this paper discusses the physical and social characters of real estates in Jakarta and Surabaya. The results show that real estate developments in these suburban areas is one of the causes of urban environment problems. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Cepatnya urbanisasi akan menyebabkan lingkungan perkotaan yang kritis. Masalah lingkungan kritis yang dihadapi oleh kota-kota besar seperti Jakarta dan Surabaya adalah apa yang disebut dengan masalah "warna coklat" yaitu kurangnya air yang sehat, polusi udara yang berasal dari kendaraan bermotor dan industri, serta kemacetan lalu lintas. Untuk menyelesaikan masalah lingkungan ini, gerakan New Urbanism melalui konsep Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND percaya bahwa masalah lingkungan ini dapat diatasi dengan perencanaan permukiman yang berorientasi pada pejalan kaki, multi fungsi, kepadatan tinggi, sehingga mengurangi kendaraan bermotor dan berakibat pada berkurangnya kemacetan lalu lintas dan polusi udara. Karakter fisik dan sosial lainnya adalah multi tipe rumah, taman publik yang lebih banyak dan rumah berteras depan yang akan mendorong interaksi sosial dalam lingkungan

  16. COMPARAÇÃO DE ASPECTOS QUÍMICOS E TECNOLÓGICOS DE GRÃOS VERDES E MADUROS DE GUANDU COM OS DE FEIJÃO-COMUM E ERVILHA

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    Jairo Osvaldo CAZETTA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os aspectos químicos e tecnológicos de grãos verdes e maduros de três variedades de guandu (Cajanus cajan com os de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e ervilha (Pisum sativum. Foram estudadas as características de hidratação e coação, os teores de cinzas, extrato etéreo, proteína bruta, amido, carboidratos solúveis totais e redutores, nitrogênio solúvel total e atividade antitríptica. As determinações químicas foram realizadas nas amostras cruas, cozidas e no caldo. Os grãos maduros do guandu Kaki apresentaram composição química e características tecnológicas compatíveis com as do feijão, a não ser uma pequena porção de hardshell. Os grãos verdes das três variedades de guandu apresentaram-se mais ricos em minerais e extrato etéreo, mas uma atividade antitríptica muito superior à da ervilha. Quando recém-colhidos, revelaram cocção semelhante à da ervilha, mas a secagem artificial prejudicou drasticamente esta característica. Não se observou relação clara entre a composição química e as características tecnológicas. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Guandu; feijão; ervilha; hidratação; cocção; composição química; atividade antitríptica.

  17. Absorção de N, P e K por espécies de adubos verdes cultivadas em diferentes épocas e densidades num latossolo vermelho-escuro argiloso sob cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Amabile

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Populações específicas de plantas e a época de semeadura podem promover interferências na absorção dos nutrientes. Assim, um experimento foi realizado, no ano agrícola de 1991/92, num Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro argiloso no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos/Embrapa, em Senador Canedo (GO, com o objetivo de determinar os teores e as quantidades absorvidas de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na parte aérea da Crotalaria juncea: l., Crotalaria ochroleuca: G. Don, mucuna preta ( Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy Merr. e guandu cv. Kaki (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., em três épocas de semeadura (início, meados e final da estação chuvosa e em dois espaçamentos entrelinhas (0,5 e 0,4 m. O delineamento experimental, dentro de cada época, foi o de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As espécies diferiram entre si quanto aos teores e quantidades absorvidas de N, P e K. Ao contrário das épocas de semeadura, não houve efeito significativo dos espaçamentos nos teores e quantidades absorvidas de N, P e K. A interação de espécies e épocas de semeadura foi significativa apenas para o nitrogênio e fósforo.

  18. FAUNA DAN TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN POTENSIAL NYAMUK Anopheles spp DI KECAMATAN MAYONG, KABUPATEN JEPARA, JAWA TENGAH

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    Mardiana Mardiana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di beberapa daerah pedesaan di Jawa Tengah. Usaha pemberantasan malaria telah dilakukan oleh program baik secara kimiawi maupun hayati, guna memutuskan rantai penularan. Penelitian fauna dan tempat perindukan potensial nyamuk Anopheles telah dilakukan di Desa Buaran, Kecamatan Mayong I, Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah. Penangkapan nyamuk dengan umpan orang dilakukan di dalam dan di luar rumah pada malam hari dari pukul 18.00-24.00 yang masing-masing dilakukan oleh dua orang kolektor. Penangkapan nyamuk yang istirahat di dalam dan luar rumah (vegetasi pada pagi hari dilakukan pukul 06.00-08.00, yang dilakukan satu bulan 4 kali penangkapan selama 6 bulan. Pengambilan larva dan pupa dilakukan dari pukul 06.00-08.00 pagi di tempat genangan air dan sawah serta tempat yang potensial diduga sebagai perindukan Anopheles. Hasil penangkapan selama 6 bulan, diperoleh 1248 ekor nyamuk Anopheles yang terdiri dari 6 spesies yaitu: An. aconitus 442 ekor (35,42%, An. annularis 69 ekor (5,53% , An. barbirostris 30 ekor (2,4%, An. maculatus 2 ekor (0,16%, An. tesselatus 5 ekor (0,40% dan An. vagus 700 ekor (56,09%. Populasi aconitus ditemukan dari penangkapan di luar rumah, pada bulan Juli (56,40%, Agustus (42,80% dan Oktober (39,50% sedangkan pada bulan Mei (52,9%, Juni (44% dan September (50,40% dari penangkapan di kandang sapi. Pengambilan larva dan pupa Anopheles dilakukan di tempat habitat seperti sawah yang pada bulan Aguslus terbanyak ditemukan sebesar 85 (1.70, di sungai ditemukan hanya 4 (0.08 serta di genangan air bekas telapak kaki/kobokan ditemukan sebesar 6 (0.12. Ternyata tempat perindukan yang potensial larva Anopheles pada musim kemarau, ditemukan pada sungai yang ditanami kangkung oleh masyarakat selempat. Kata kunci: Fauna, tempat perindukan, Anopheles, vector

  19. Rancang Bangun Sistem Penangkap Gambar Radiograf Digital Berbasis Kamera DSLR

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    Susilo -

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan modifikasi sistem penangkap gambar kedap cahaya yang dapat menampilkan langsung citra radiograf digital pada layar monitor PC dan menyimpan file radiograf tersebut sehingga bisa ditampilkan kembali. Penelitian ini bertujuan membangun model prototip sistem penangkap gambar berbasis kamera digital, sehingga hasilnya bisa diproses lebih lanjut menggunakan perangkat lunak pengolah citra berbasis Matlab. Hasil pemotretan dengan sinar-X pada benda uji dan volunteer digunakan untuk menguji keajegan hasil radiograf tersebut, dan diperoleh perbaikan kontras yang signifikan, ditunjukkan dengan tampilan histogram, nilai MSE dan PSNR yang sesuai. Aplikasi perangkat lunak tersebut dalam menganalisis radiograf benda uji, kaki, tangan serta stepwedge menunjukkan juga kenaikan ukuran file, kontras radiograf dan resolusi citra yang meningkat. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa model penangkap gambar yang dilengkapi dengan perangkat lunak berbasis Matlab dapat dikembangkan untuk pemeriksaan radiografi digital yang efektif, efisien dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. It has been modified a system of light-tight image capturing which can display directly digital radiograph image on the monitor screen of PC and save that radiograph digital image for re-displaying it. This research aims to build a prototype of digital camera based-image capturing, so that the result can be processed further using a mathlab based-image processing software. The imaging process using X-ray on the test materials and volunteers are used to investigate its image consistency and find more contrast image, shown on the histogram, appropriate MSE and PSNR values. The application of this software for analyzing test materials, feet, hands and stepwdge showed the file size increase, radiograph constrast, and image resolution. This result shows that a model of image capturing completed by software based-mathlab can be developed to check an effective, efficient and has an economic

  20. 2种条纹乌木木材的构造特征%Structural characteristics of two species of striped ebony wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 陈瑞英

    2016-01-01

    对菲律宾乌木和苏拉威西乌木木材的宏、微观构造和细胞形态进行观察,并测定分析,得出其构造特征。菲律宾乌木和苏拉威西乌木都属散孔材,生长轮不明显,心材为黑白相间条纹;管孔径列,主单复管孔和管孔链,少见管孔团,含树胶,以圆柱形导管为主,导管纹孔为筛状互列纹孔;轴向薄壁组织排列为离管带状,部分含树胶和晶体;木射线为异型单列,多含树胶和晶体。比较菲律宾乌木和苏拉威西乌木的木材构造:前者结构甚细,后者为细;前者木纤维细胞宽度和壁厚较后者大,且前者形态种类多;轴向薄壁细胞前者较后者短粗,前者形态种类多且细胞壁有更多凸凹;木射线密度前者为密,后者为甚密,木射线的直立细胞后者较前者高窄。%The macrostructure, microstructure and all kinds of cell morphology of wood of Diospyros philippensis Gurke and Diospyros celehica Bakh were observed, mensurated and analyzed and their structural characteristics parameters were obtained. Their similarities were as follows. Both of them belong to diffuse porous wood. Their annual rings were not obvious. Heartwood was with black and white stripes. Pores were of radial arrangement, mainly solitary pore and multiple pore, rarely pore cluster, including gum. Vessel shapes were mainly cylindrical. Pore pits were ethmoid alternate pitting. Longitudinal parenchymas were linear and independent of the pores, and the part contained gum and crystal. The type of wood ray was single row of heterogeneous heterocellular ray. Many of broad ray parenchymas included gum and crystal. Meanwhile the differences of wood structural characteristics between the two species of striped ebony wood were as follows. The former texture was very fine, the latter was fine. The thickness and width of wooden fiber cell wall of the former was bigger than those of the latter, and the shapes of wooden

  1. Community structure and floristic composition of Quercus fusiformis and Carya illinoinensis forests of the Northeastern Coastal Plain, Coahuila, Mexico Estructura y composición florística de los bosques de Quercus fusiformis y Carya illinoinensis de la planicie costera del noreste, Coahuila, México

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    Juan Antonio Encina-Domínguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe community structure and richness in oak and walnut forests occurring along the San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido and Arroyo de las Vacas rivers on the Northeastern Coastal Plain (NE Coahuila, Mexico, we established 30 1 000-m² circular plots, where we measured diameter at breast height (DBH and tree heights. Tree regeneration and herb and shrub stratum were assessed in 5 2-m² quadrats per site. A total of 48 species distributed in 29 families were recorded. Families with the largest richness were Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Malvaceae. For the oak forest, tree stratum density and basal area values were 386 stems/ha and 24.36 m²/ha, respectively, whereas for the walnut forest the corresponding values were 302 stems/ha and 21.26 m²/ha. The species with the highest relative importance values were Quercus fusiformis (59.48% and Carya illinoinensis (57.58%. Total tree richness was 14 species, the most common ones being Celtis reticulata and Diospyros texana, followed closely by C. illinoinensis and Q. fusiformis. Anthropogenic impact appears to result in a poor regeneration reflected as a low sapling density, as well as in the reduction and fragmentation of these communities; in turn, this process has led to intrusions of species typical of the xerophytic Tamaulipan Thorn Scrub. Further studies are needed on the regeneration of the dominant species of these forests in order to describe their dynamics and to promote their preservation.Con la finalidad de conocer la estructura y la composición florística de los bosques de encino y nogal situados a lo largo de los ríos San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido y Arroyo de las Vacas en la planicie costera nororiental (NE de Coahuila, México, se establecieron 30 parcelas circulares de 1 000 m² en las que se midió el DAP y la altura de las especies arbóreas; además, se evaluó la regeneración de las especies arbóreas y el estrato herbáceo y arbustivo en 5 cuadros de 2 m² por sitio

  2. Thermal studies on natural polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil B Bothara; Sudarshan Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize thermal property of natural gums obtained from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon(D. melonoxylon) Roxb, Buchanania lanzan (B. lanzan) spreng and Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) (Linn.) P. Royen syn. Methods: Natural gums were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere. Major thermal transitions as well as activation energies of the major decomposition stages were determined. Elemental analysis was performed in order to determine the composition of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. Results: DSC traces indicated a major intense exothermic transition (around 200℃) followed by weaker exotherm(s). Thermogravimetric analysis showed two phase of weight loss. The first phase has minor weight loss in samples is attributed to the loss of adsorbed and structural water of biopolymers or due to desorption of moisture as hydrogen bound water to the saccharide structure. The second weight loss event may be attributed to the polysaccharide decomposition. The initial decomposition temperature (IDT) was calculated from thermograms obtained of TGA, seed Polysaccharide of D. melonoxylon (IDT 221.21℃), B. lanzan (IPDT 170.4℃) and M. zapota (IPDT 178.6℃) were obtained. According to the integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT) values calculated based on the TGA thermograms; D. melonoxylon (IPDT 563.3℃), B. lanzan (IPDT 598.1℃) and M. zapota (IPDT 600.6℃) were obtained respectively. The elemental analysis study shows that the isolated natural Polysaccharides consist of certain percentage of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and hydrogen in all the gums. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation reveal that the natural gums are thermally stable and these gums can be used as release modifiers in various dosage forms.

  3. BIOSORPTION OF CONGO RED BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TREATED TENDU WASTE

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    G. K. Nagda ، V. S. Ghole

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes from agro-industrial operations can be recycled as non-conventional adsorbents if they are inert and harmless and reduce the cost of wastewater treatment. Tendu leaf Diospyros melanoxylon is the second largest forest product in India after timber and is exclusively used in making local cigarette called Bidi. Waste leaf cutting remaining after making cigarette was used in present study as a biosorbent for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution. It was treated with hydrogen peroxide to obtain biosorbent with increased adsorption capacity. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the influence of different parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and dosage of adsorbent on biosorption evaluated. The adsorption occured very fast initially and attains equilibrium within 60 min at pH= 6.2 and the equilibrium attained faster after hydrogen peroxide modification. Kinetic studies showed that the biosorption of Congo red on tendu waste followed pseudo-second-order rate equation. The data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Comparison was done on the extent of biosorption between untreated and treated forms of the tendu waste. The maximum adsorption capacity for untreated tendu waste was found to be 46.95 mg/g, which was enhanced by 2.8 times after hydrogen peroxide treatment and was found to be 134.4 mg/g. The adsorption process was in conformity with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms for Congo red adsorption from aqueous solution. The study demonstrated use of milder chemical treatment of tendu waste to obtain a biosorbent with enhanced dye removal capacity.

  4. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

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    Weerapreeyakul Natthida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P = 0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7 ± 12.3 μg/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79 ± 7.62 μg/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

  5. Forest Structure, Composition and Above Ground Biomass of Tree Community in Tropical Dry Forests of Eastern Ghats, India

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    Sudam Charan SAHU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomass, structure and composition of tropical forests implies also the investigation of forest productivity, protection of biodiversity and removal of CO2 from the atmosphere via C-stocks. The hereby study aimed at understanding the forest structure, composition and above ground biomass (AGB of tropical dry deciduous forests of Eastern Ghats, India, where as a total of 128 sample plots (20 x 20 meters were laid. The study showed the presence of 71 tree species belonging to 57 genera and 30 families. Dominant tree species was Shorea robusta with an importance value index (IVI of 40.72, while Combretaceae had the highest family importance value (FIV of 39.01. Mean stand density was 479 trees ha-1 and a basal area of 15.20 m2 ha-1. Shannon’s diversity index was 2.01 ± 0.22 and Simpson’s index was 0.85 ± 0.03. About 54% individuals were in the size between 10 and 20 cm DBH, indicating growing forests. Mean above ground biomass value was 98.87 ± 68.8 Mg ha-1. Some of the dominant species that contributed to above ground biomass were Shorea robusta (17.2%, Madhuca indica (7.9%, Mangifera indica (6.9%, Terminalia alata (6.9% and Diospyros melanoxylon (4.4%, warranting extra efforts for their conservation. The results suggested that C-stocks of tropical dry forests can be enhanced by in-situ conserving the high C-density species and also by selecting these species for afforestation and stand improvement programs. Correlations were computed to understand the relationship between above ground biomass, diversity indices, density and basal area, which may be helpful for implementation of REDD+ (reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and foster conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks scheme.

  6. Progress and prospects of medicinal plants of Ethnopediatric importance in Mahadevapur Reserve Forest of Karimnagar East Division of (A.P. India

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    Sammaiah D et al

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present studies, we aimed to envisage about twenty of the herbal medicinal plants such as Abrus precatorius, Adhatoda vasica, Alangium salvifolium L Bambus atulda Roxb. Calanthe triplicata Ames. - Cassia siamea Lam. Crotalaria juncia L. Desmodiu mtrifolium (L. Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Elephanto pusscaber L. Gardenia gummifera L. Justiciabe tonica.L. Mangifera indica L, Mimosa pudica L, Oroxylum indicum vent, Pavetta indica L, Solanum surattense .Burm.F, Urena lobata L and Vicoa indica which are specially prescribed for children by local tribal and village medicine men. As the subject Ethno pediatric medicinal plants are very poorly known, therefore the present ethnopediatric information may prove helpful for further scientific studies. In recent years no valuable study has been made out on ethnopediatric medicinal plants. The number of informats such as local traditional medicinal practitioners and knowledgeable elders has provided the information in frequent field visits to this place. Total number of 20 plant species belonging to 15 families has been enumerated with scientific names families; uses and locality of use. The tribals are, by nature, reluctant to go to the hospital and have a great faith and insist on their own traditional system of medicine. Still the tribals use these plants frequently to cure diseases. The knowledge of this traditional medicine is intact in this region and they use this knowledge mostly for their daily requirements, due to lack of modern facilities. The tribals are very conservative in nature and they do not easily mixed up with other communities for exchange or to share their empirical knowledge.

  7. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  8. SUSTAINABLE CULINARY TOURISM IN PUNCAK, BOGOR

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    Ismail Saleh

    2014-09-01

    dikategorikan menjadi lima kelompok utama berdasarkan fungsinya: penyedia layanan makanan; pemasok (masyarakat lokal, pedagang, dan koperasi; konsumen akhir (turis dan pelanggan; pemerintahan (pemerintah Kabupaten Bogor, areal koordinator, kompepar, dan perantara (distributor, agen tur. Setidaknya ada lima isu strategis yang terjadi dalam pengembangan pariwisata di daerah Puncak: 1 konversi fungsi lahan; 2 dampak ekonomi dan sosial, 3 partisipasi masyarakat lokal dalam kegiatan pariwisata; 4 lalu lintas dan infrastruktur di daerah Puncak, dan 5 pengelolaan sampah. Ketiga restoran memiliki kriteria keberlanjutan, hasil preferensi pelanggan, dan tiga aspek keberlanjutan (ekonomi, lingkungan, dan sosial. Cimory memiliki nilai yang terbaik dalam kinerja keberlanjutan dan diikuti oleh Melrimba. Pedagang kaki lima, dengan beberapa catatan, mencetak nilai sebagai peringkat terakhir dalam kinerja keberlanjutan.Kata kunci: wisata kuliner, ekowisata, puncak, rantai nilai, wisata berkelanjutan

  9. Aging, female sex, migration, elevated HDL-C, and inflammation are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among African bank employees

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    Gombet T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,31Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, CongoBackground: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001 criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001 criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001 criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin

  10. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  11. Wildland fires and moist deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh, India:di-vergent component assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. H. Kittur; S. L. Swamy; S. S. Bargali; Manoj Kumar Jhariya

    2014-01-01

    We studied moist deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh, India (1) to assess the effect of four levels of historic wildland fire frequency (high, medium, low, and no-fire) on regeneration of seedlings in fire affected areas during pre and post-fire seasons, (2) to evaluate vegetation struc-ture and diversity by layer in the four fire frequency zones, (3) to evalu-ate the impact of fire frequency on the structure of economically impor-tant tree species of the region, and (4) to quantify fuel loads by fire fre-quency level. We classified fire-affected areas into high, medium, low, and no-fire frequency classes based on government records. Tree species were unevenly distributed across fire frequency categories. Shrub density was maximum in zones of high fire frequency and minimum in low-frequency and no-fire zones. Lower tree density after fires indicated that regeneration of seedlings was reduced by fire. The population structure in the high-frequency zone was comprised of seedlings of size class (A) and saplings of size class (B), represented by Diospyros melanoxylon, Dalbergia sissoo, Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis. Younger and older trees were more abundant for Tectona grandis and Dalbargia sis-soo after fire, whereas intermediate-aged trees were more abundant pre-fire, indicating that the latter age-class was thinned by the catastrophic effect of fire. The major contributing components of fuel load included duff litter and small woody branches and twigs on the forest floor. Total fuel load on the forest floor ranged from 2.2 to 3.38 Mg/ha. The net change in fuel load was positive in high- and medium-frequency fire zones and negative under low- and no-fire zones. Repeated fires, how-ever, slowly reduced stand stability. An ecological approach is needed for fire management to restore the no-fire spatial and temporal structure of moist deciduous forests, their species composition and fuel loads. The management approach should incorporate participatory forest manage

  12. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  13. Stemflow variation in Mexico's northeastern forest communities: Its contribution to soil moisture content and aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    2011-09-01

    SummaryStemflow hydro-ecological importance was measured in trees and assessed in Mexico's northeast forest stands by answering three basic questions: (a) what are the intra and inter-specific stemflow variations; (b) is the stemflow coefficient constant from tree level to stand scales? and (c) what is the stemflow area and wetted soil volume in individual trees and the stemflow volume discharged at the stand scale in two plant communities of northeastern Mexico? Gross rainfall and stemflow flux measurements were conducted on 78 trees of semi-arid, sub-tropical (31 Diospyros texana; 14 Acacia rigidula; four Bumelia celastrina; five Condalia hookeri; three Cordia bioissieri; three Pithecellobium pallens) and temperate forest communities (six Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. and 12 Quercus spp.). Stemflow was extrapolated from individual trees to the stand scale using 98 inventory plots (1600 m 2 ha -1 each) placed in oak-pine forests and 37 quadrats (5 m × 5 m each) distributed across the Tamaulipan thornscrub forest range. Stemflow infiltration flux and infiltration area measurements assessed the wetted soil volume. Daily measurements were conducted from May of 1997 to November of 1998. Results showed that stemflow coefficients varied between plant communities since they averaged (confidence intervals, α = 0.05) 2.49% (0.57), 0.30% (0.09), and 0.77% (0.27) of the bulk precipitation for Tamaulipan thornscrub, pine, and oak forests, respectively. Intra-specific stemflow variations could not be identified in Tamaulipan although in temperate tree species. Basal diameter explained intra-specific stemflow variation in both plant communities. Stemflow increased threefold since it accounted for by 6.38% and 2.19% of the total bulk rainfall for Tamaulipan thornscrub quadrats and temperate oak-pine inventory plots, respectively. Small shrubs growing underneath large trees, in combination with the presence of small-diameter trees that recorded the largest stemflow coefficients

  14. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

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    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial

  15. Revisão das espécies de Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Revision of the species of Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Benfatti Gonzalez Peronti

    2008-01-01

    écies redescritas: C. agrestis Hempel, 1932; C. cassiae (Chavannes, 1848; C. cirripediformis; C. deodorensis Hempel, 1900; C. diospyros Hempel, 1928; C. floridensis Comstock, 1881; C. flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993; C. formicarius Hempel, 1900; C. formosus Hempel, 1900; C. grandis Hempel, 1900; C. gregarius Hempel, 1932; C. iheringi Cockerell, 1895; C. janeirensis; C. lucidus; C. purpureus Hempel, 1900; C. quadratus Green, 1935; C. speciosus Hempel, 1900; C. stellifer e C. variegatus Hempel, 1900. São designados lectótipos e paralectótipos para C. agrestis, C. deodorensis, C. diospyros, C. formosus, C. purpureus, C. speciosus e C. variegatus e um neótipo para C. cassiae.The species of Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from the state of São Paulo are revised. Thirty-six species are studied, 9 are synonymyzed, 8 new species are described and 19 known species are redescribed. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 and C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866 were not studied because the type material or other specimens were not found. Our studies indicate that C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 and C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 were erroneously cited by Hempel, 1900 as occurruing in the state of São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, currently Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871, is transferred to Ceroplastes as Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871 n. comb. Ceroplastes flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 is recorded for the first time in Brazil and Ceroplastes cassiae (Chavannes, 1848, C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 and C. quadratus Green, 1935 are recorded for the first time for state of São Paulo. The Ceroplastinae is now represented by 31 species in the state of São Paulo, all included in the genus Ceroplastes. Identification key and illustrations for species are included. New synonyms are proposed: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. syn.; C. janeirensis Gray

  16. Kata Pengantar Redaksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redaksi Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi

    2014-04-01

    7.5% dari sampel penelitiandinyatakan positif menderita diabetes. Hal ini terjadi karena pengaruh lingkungan dan pola makandi daerah tersebut. Juga akibat meningkat atau tingginya penghasilan masyarakat di wilayah ini yangkadang membuat mereka mengkonsumsi makanan tinggi lemak yang berlebihan. Kurang tersedianyamakanan sehat yang tinggi serat juga berpengaruh terhadap pola konsumsi masyarakat. Tahun 2011,Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Bali mencatat setidaknya lebih dari 2000 orang terdeteksi menderita diabetesdan penderita terbanyak berumur 20 tahun, dan masih sangat banyak yang tidak terdeteksi.Penyakit kencing manis muncul saat tubuh tidak lagi mampu memproduksi cukup hormon insulinuntuk mengatur kadar gula darah yang normal. Kadar gula yang berlebihan di darah inilah yangmengakibatkan banyak organ tubuh tidak dapat berfungsi secara normal. Dimulai dengan rusaknyapembuluh darah kecil di perifer tubuh diantaranya pada kaki yang menyulitkan pada penyembuhan lukakarena sel darah putih tidak dapat mencapai luka dan membantu dalam proses penyembuhannya. Jikatetap tidak terkontrol baik dengan pola hidup sehat atau obat, kerusakan pembuluh darah ini akan diikutioleh kerusakan pembuluh darah di organ lain dalam tubuh yang dikenal sebagai komplikasi ke mata,jantung, ginjal dan otak. Faktor resiko penyakit ini diantaranya obesitas atau kegemukan, kurangnyaaktivitas fisik, faktor keturunan, mengkonsumsi makanan tinggi lemak dan gula berlebihan, kurangnyamengkonsumsi makanan tinggi serat antara lain buah dan sayuran.Jika Anda bergerak dalam bidang usaha, termasuk usaha perbankan harus memahami GoodCorporate Governance (GCG yaitu prinsip-prinsip yang memberikan arahan dan pedoman bagiperusahaan termasuk perusahaan di sektor perbankan agar mencapai keseimbangan dalam memberikanpertanggungjawabannya baik kepada para shareholders dan stakeholders. Mematuhi prinsip-prinsipGCG atau tata kelola perusahaan yang baik berarti perusahaan sudah berperilaku yang baik sertamempunyai arah menuju

  17. 葡萄柚种子提取物对真菌的抑制作用及其在葡萄和柿子保鲜中的应用%Inhibitory Activity of Grapefruit Seed Extract Against Fungi and Its Application in Preservations of Grape and Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文涛; 黄昆仑; 屈玮; 林希瑾; 邓爱科; 杨加佳; 罗云波

    2008-01-01

    The grapefruit seed extract (GSE), a natural plant extracts from the edible plants used as an extremely potent broadspectrum bactericide, and fungicide should be very effective for the fruit preservation. In this study, Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and persimmon (Diospyris kaki L.) easily undergone deterioration, were selected as model fruits. Eight fungi familiar to the rotting cause of grape and persimmon were used to testify the antifungal activity of GSE. The results of antifungal assay by the agar diffusion method indicated that GSE can efficiently inhibit the growth of tested fungi. The values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) also range from 39.06×10-6 to 625×10-6 as demonstrated by the similar results with the data taken from agar diffusion assay. In the storage application assay of both grape and persimmon, the obvious differences in sensory quality and microorganism indexes between the GSE treated fruits and control fruits support that GSE has both the strong antifungal activity and antioxidative activity. Polyphenolic compounds, rich in GSE used as the main effective antioxidative component,are capable to prevent fungal infection in storage to a large extent and to postpone ripening and aging of fruits effectively by scavenging the free radical and impacting a series of enzyme relating to postharvest physiological metabolism of fruits, particularly in the key parts liking stem and calyx. The obtained results also indicated that GSE can decrease browning and rot ratio,prolong the preservation period, ensure the quality of grape and persimmon and can be used as an effective and safe preservative.%葡萄柚种子提取物是潜在的广谱性细菌、真菌杀菌剂,应该在果蔬保鲜中具有很好的效果.本研究选取比较容易受真菌感染的葡萄和柿子作为模式保鲜材料并且测试了葡萄柚种子提取物对8种与这两种水果腐败相关的真菌的抑制效果.结果表明,这8种真菌的最小抑制浓度分别在39

  18. Ice and Snow Disasters to the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Jiulianshan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China%九连山自然保护区常绿阔叶林冰雪灾害研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 赵秀海; 张春雨; 贾玉; 范娟; 毛双燕; 张自斌; 廖承开

    2011-01-01

    以九连山国家级自然保护区典型常绿阔叶林为对象,研究树木属性、地形因子与冰雪灾害受损程度的关系.结果表明:九连山常绿阔叶林(DBH≥10 cm)以栲属物种占据主要优势.断梢率、腰折率、翻蔸率和平均受损指数(MDI)最高的树种分别为马尾松、米槠、丝栗栲和米槠,最低的树种分别为红楠、丝栗栲、枫香和罗浮柿.断梢率与胸径(DBH)、树高(H)显著正相关(P0.05),坡度30°~ 40°生境中MDI值最高.%The ice and snow damages to the evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China were studied, and the correlations between damage degrees with tree characteristics and topographical factors were analyzed.The results showed: The forest was dominated by Castanopsis species (DBH>10 cm), and Pinus massoniana (PM), C.carlesii (CC), C.fargesil (CF), and CC were found highest for top breakage ratio (TOB), trunk breakage ratio (TRB),uprooting ratio (UR) and mean damage index (MDI); while Machilus thunbergii (MT), CF, Liquidambarjormosana (LF),and Diospyros rnorrisiana (DM) were lowest.The TOB had extremely significantly positive correlation with DBH (P<0.01),H (P<0.01), and extremely significantly negative correlation with H/DBH (P<0.01); TRB had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); UP had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); and MDI was not significantly correlated with DBH, H, and H/DBH (P>0.05).The TOB was the highest under the conditions of DBH≥50 cm, 21≤H<23 m or 20≤H/DBH<40, and the lowest with 10≤DBH<12 cm, 5≤H<7 m or H/DBH≥120; the TRB was the highest under the conditions of 10≤DBH<12 cm, 13≤H<15 m or 100≤H/DBH<110, and the lowest with 42≤DBH<44 cm, 7≤H<9 m or H/DBH ≥120; the UR was the highest under the conditions of 20≤DBH<22 cm, 11≤H<13 m or 90≤H/DBH<100, and the lowest with 36≤DBH<38 cm, DBH≥40

  19. The Discussion on the Condition for Glacier Whether Developed in Guangdong%关于广东有无冰川发育条件的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尚仁; 覃朝锋; 彭华

    2000-01-01

    因为“冰臼”一词尚未得到地学界认可,建议继续用“冰川壶穴”来替代“冰臼”。由于生成冰臼(冰川壶穴)与壶穴的水动力条件和地貌形态相似,所以单从形态难以区分广东河床上的壶穴或冰臼,只有确定广东是否发育过第四纪冰川之后,才可能确定广东是否有冰臼。本文从气候、地貌和生物角度证实广东未出现过第四纪冰川环境,并认为所谓:①水应力集中一点生成冰臼;②花岗岩坚硬不能生成壶穴;③二、三百万年前生成冰臼等冰臼论观点是不成立的。%After tens dictionaries of Chinese and Chinese-foreign language are looked up, there is not nearly the“bingjiu” ①term in it, it is reflected that the term is still not approved by most geonomist, to substitute“bingchuan huxue”① for “bingjiu” continually is proposed. Owing to waterpower condition and geomorphologicshape growing moulin and pothole are similar, so from form only distinguishing the pothole or moulin on theriverbed are difficult, only if fixing there is glacier in Guangdong, the moulin can just be fixed in Guangdong. Itis confirmed that environment of Quaternary glacier in Guangdong appeared not from following angles of cli-mate, landform and organisms etc.: Inferred annual mean temperature was higher than 63 in glacial epoch atthe highest peak-Shikengkong its elevation was 1902m in Guangdong, the coldest annual mean temperature was13℃ + in the glacial epoch inferred by sporopollen data in Jiexi and Fengshun; there is not the glacial landformin the middle-low mountains of Guangdong and there is not the document report on established palaeo-glaeier re-mains; the plant fossil in Early Pleistocene Zhanjiang Fm. is Bauhinia-Diospyros-Myrica-phyllites-Rhus combi-nation, today there are still a large number relict flora. The following moulin theory on mechanism for the for-mation and conservation of moulin is untenable: (1) moulin grows

  20. Effect of Close-to-Nature management on the natural regeneration and species diversity in a masson pine plantation%马尾松人工林近自然化改造对植物自然更新及物种多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗应华; 孙冬婧; 林建勇; 郭文福; 卢立华; 温远光

    2013-01-01

    中国人工林面积居世界第一位,而马尾松是中国人工林面积较大的树种之一,广泛分布于中国的亚热带区域.马尾松适应能力强,耐干旱、瘠薄,是南方低山丘陵区群落演替的先锋树种,也是荒山绿化造林的主要树种,马尾松人工林对生态防护、生态治理有着重大的意义.但是,绝大部分马尾松人工林为人工纯林,生态系统比较脆弱,生态服务功能较差.人工林的近自然改造对于增加林地生物多样性,提升人工林的生态服务功能具有重要意义.2005年,对中国林业科学院热带林业试验中心1993年造林的马尾松人工林进行4种不同强度(50%、40%、30%、20%)间伐后,套种大叶栎(Castan加psis fissa、米老排(Mytilarialaosensis)、润楠(Machilus pingii)、红锥(C.hystrix)4个乡土阔叶树种,各种套种密度皆为120彬hm2.分别于间伐前(2004年)及2010年对群落生物多样性及人工套种树种生态情况进行调查,结果表明:(1)间伐处理后,自然更新至乔木层的物种种类和数量都有显著的增加,600 m2的样方中,物种数由(2.75±2.56)种增加到(11.17±4.32)种,个体数由(5.75±4.31)株增加到(32.17±19.09)株,群落中乔木亚层的优势种变化不大,主要有南酸枣(Choerospondias axillaris)、水锦树(Wendlandia uvariifolia),枫香(Liuidambar formosana)、破布木(Cordia dichotoma)、白背桐(Mallotus paniculatus)等.新增加到乔木层的物种大都为之前群落中灌木层的种类,主要有三桠苦(Evodia lepta)、鸭脚木(Schefflera minutistellata)、白花龙(Styrax faberi、中平树(Macararangadenticulata)、黄毛榕(Ficus esquiroliana)、华南毛柃(Eurya ciliata)、罗浮柿(Diospyros morrisiana)、猴耳环(Pithecellobiumclypearia)、木姜子(Litseapungens)、毛黄肉楠(Actinodaphne pilosa)等.(2)间伐处理前,600 m2样方中出现的灌草种类数量为(24.63±4.24)种,间伐处理后,600 m2样方中出现的灌草种类数量为(27.58

  1. VEGETATION,PALEOCLIMITE AND VEGETATION USE DURING LONGSHAN ERA:CASE STUDIES OF ANTHRACOLOGY OF WADIAN SITE IN HENAN PROVINCE%龙山时代的植被、古气候及植物利用——以河南瓦店遗址的木炭分析为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树芝; 方燕明; 赵志军

    2012-01-01

    Wadian Site is located in the eastern and north-western platform of Wadian Country, Huolong Township, Yuzhou City(34°11'N,113°25'E). Yinghe River is to the north of the site,flowing from northwest to east. The date of Wadian Longshan culture is 2255 ~ 1755BC. According to archaeological investigation and a large scale of drilling, it is found that the remained area is more than one million square meters with building stead, ring ditches and ritual remains. Artifacts such as polished black pottery,white pottery,jade and large oracle bones were found. The location of Yangdi or Juntai where Yu and Qi lived was in Yuzhou according to the literature.Charcoals were collected from pits, houses, ditches and cultural layer during the excavation of Wadian Site both in 2007 and 2008. One thousand and thirty charcoals were identified and one thousand and nine charcoals belonged to 26 genera,including Quercus sp. (3 genus) ,Zizyphus sp., Zelkova sp., Ulmus sp., Malus sp., Armeniaca sp., Fraxinus sp., Diospyros sp., Acer sp., Castanea sp., Cudrania sp., Rhus sp., Populus sp., Cyclobalanopsis sp., Platycladus orientalis, Bambusoideae and 8 tree species and 23 charcoals were skulls of spine date and cupules.According to the statistic results,the oak was dominant,the percentage was 79.5%; the second was bamboo, accounting for 3. 4% ; the third was glauca, accounting for 3. 1% ; the fourth was the date, accounting for 2. 6% ; the fifth is unknown species, accounting for 2. 2% ; the sixth was beech, accounting for 1. 3% ; the seventh was unknown genus, accounting for 1. 1 % ; and the rest was a small proportion of other species, of which only one kind of conifer was Chinese arborvitae, accounting for 0.2%. Oak deciduous forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, bamboo, other trees and fruit trees were distributed around the Wadian Site.Oak charcoals scattered in the cultural layer were dominant, the percentage was 68. 2%; the second was glauca, accounting for 6. 9

  2. 基于德尔菲专家咨询法对哮喘异常黑胆质病证异常体液成熟、清除标准的研究%Syndrome Characteristics Criteria of Matured and Removed Abnormal Hilit of Abnormal Savda Type Asthma in Uyghur Medicine Based on Delphi Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈木拉提·吾甫尔; 吾尔古丽·阿卜杜来海提; 阿衣努尔·买提斯迪克

    2012-01-01

    The two-stage expert consulting research is carried out to set up the diagnostic criteria for the abnormal hilit matured and removed from the body on the abnormal savda type asthma in traditional Uighur medicine based on the Delphi method. In the first stage, an enquiry form is formulated to include key syndrome characteristics identified from the past research results of our research group, and is sent to 30 experts in this field from all around the Xinjiang province. One round Delphi technique is conducted in this stage. Then, 11 kinds of syndrome characteristics, such as the gradual improvement of the mental color, the clear urine in large amount, thick and (or) wavy pulse, are selected as the diagnostic criteria for the abnormal hilit matured on the abnormal savda type asthma and 10 kinds ofsyndrome characteristics, such as the significant improvement of the sleep quality, the tongue moisture and restore the state of originaltemperament, a little black and rusl-colored stool first, then pale yellow or kaki, are selected as the diagnostic criteria for the abnormal hilit removed from the body on the abnormal savda type asthma in accordance with a high expert consensus of frequency greater than 70% (21 out of 30 experts). In the second stage, a new enquiry form is formulated based on the screened results of the first stage, and the weight coefficients of the selected syndrome characteristics are studied, and the two-round Delphi technique is used in this stage. 30 copies of valid questionnaires were responded each round. The expert authority coefficient is 0.87 on average, which would be considered as a high authority degree. By analyzing the weight coefficients of each selected syndrome characteristics, 6 kinds of syndrome characteristics are considered as the chief symptoms and other 5 kino's of syndrome characteristics are considered as the subsequent symptoms for diagnosing the abnormal savda type asthma abnormal hilit (matured or not). 5 kinds of the chief

  3. Rodrigues Island: Hope thrives at the François Leguat Giant Tortoise and Cave Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Burney

    2011-06-01

    here, and working wonderfully. Tortoises pull the weeds, apply the fertilizer, and germinate the seeds. Regarding the latter, recently published experiments2 show that passing through the slow digestive system of a giant tortoise is just what some of these hard - to - germinate seeds of rare native plants have been waiting for. The authors show conclusively that the highly endangered, large - seeded native ebony tree (Diospyros egrettarum is germinating and thriving on the remarkable 25-hectare Ile aux Aigrettes Reserve, a small island off Mahebourg, Mauritius, thanks to the Aldabra tortoises reintroduced there by the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation. At the Leguat Reserve on Rodrigues, guides lead thousands of visitors per year through huge spectacular limestone caves that have yielded the fossils of giant tortoises, Solitaires, and the other extinct biota of Rodrigues. Their tour, and the excellent museum on the Reserve, make that wonderful connection between the fossils of a remarkable extinct fauna, and the rare plants and surviving fauna of large handsome fruit bats, rare land snails, nesting White - tailed Tropicbirds, and the surviving cousins of the native giant tortoises now roaming the canyons and plateaus of the Reserve. What am I doing here? To begin with, my wife Lida Pigott Burney and I have in recent years started our own similar rewilding project on the island of Kaua`i, in the Hawaiian Islands. We likewise have a cave system, full of fossils of the extinct animals, as a centerpiece for restorations on worn - out farmland that feature thousands of native plants, some quite rare. Our big fossil herbivores, giant flightless ducks and geese, are all extinct, and alas, tortoises never reached Hawaii. So we laboriously pull the weeds, tons of them, with the help of the school children of Kaua`i and hundreds of volunteers. The current question I and my colleagues are asking is, could giant tortoises give us a hand, serving as ecological surrogates for the lost