WorldWideScience

Sample records for capture therapy application

  1. Neutron capture therapy. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State of the art report on neutron capture therapy. Summarizes the progress made in recent decades. Multidisciplinary approach. Written by the most experienced specialists Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is based on the ability of the non-radioactive isotope boron-10 to capture thermal neutrons with very high probability and immediately to release heavy particles with a path length of one cell diameter. This in principle allows for tumor cell-selective high-LET particle radiotherapy. NCT is exciting scientifically but challenging clinically, and a key factor in success is close collaboration among very different disciplines. This book provides a comprehensive summary of the progress made in NCT in recent years. Individual sections cover all important aspects, including neutron sources, boron chemistry, drugs for NCT, dosimetry, and radiation biology. The use of NCT in a variety of malignancies and also some non-malignant diseases is extensively discussed. NCT is clearly shown to be a promising modality at the threshold of wider clinical application. All of the chapters are written by experienced specialists in language that will be readily understood by all participating disciplines.

  2. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC): application for photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kawabata, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Hao, Erhong; Vicente, M Graça H

    2015-03-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC's applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm(2) ) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 10(12) n/cm(2) ) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37-43 days).

  3. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  5. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior

  6. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  7. Application of HVJ envelope system to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used clinically for the treatment of malignant tumors. Two drugs, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sulfhydral borane (BSH), have been used as boron delivery agents. These drugs seem to be taken up preferentially in solid tumors, but it is uncertain whether therapeutic quantities of boron atoms are taken up by micro-invasive or distant tumor cells. High accumulation and high selective delivery of boron into tumor tissues are the most important requirements to achieve efficient BNCT for malignant tumor. The HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) vector system is a novel fusion-mediated gene delivery system based on inactivated hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus). Although we developed this vector system for gene transfer, it can also deliver proteins, synthetic oligonucleotides, and drugs. HVJ-liposome, which is liposome fused with HVJ-E, has higher boron trapping efficiency than HVJ-E alone. We report the boron delivery into cultured cells with HVJ-liposome systems. The cellular 10B concentration after 60 min incubation with HVJ-E containing BSH was 24.9 μg/g cell pellet for BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and 19.4 μg/g cell pellet for SCC VII cells (murine squamous cell carcinoma). These concentrations are higher than that of 60 min incubated cells with BSH containing (100μg 10B/ml) medium. These results indicate the HVJ-E fused with tumor cell membrane and rapidly delivered boron agents, and that the HVJ-E-mediated delivery system could be applicable to BNCT. Plans are underway to begin neutron radiation experiments in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  8. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-04-07

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are

  9. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are amphiphilic

  10. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  11. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Insights into the use of gadolinium and gadolinium/boron-based agents in imaging-guided neutron capture therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deagostino, Annamaria; Protti, Nicoletta; Alberti, Diego; Boggio, Paolo; Bortolussi, Silva; Altieri, Saverio; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is currently under development as an alternative approach for cancer therapy. All of the clinical experience to date with NCT is done with (10)B, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a binary treatment combining neutron irradiation with the delivery of boron-containing compounds to tumors. Currently, the use of Gd for NCT has been getting more attention because of its highest neutron cross-section. Although Gd-NCT was first proposed many years ago, its development has suffered due to lack of appropriate tumor-selective Gd agents. This review aims to highlight the recent advances for the design, synthesis and biological testing of new Gd- and B-Gd-containing compounds with the task of finding the best systems able to improve the NCT clinical outcome. PMID:27195428

  13. Phantoms with 10BF3 detectors for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two acrylic cube phantoms have been constructed for BNCT applications that allow the depth distribution of neutrons to be measured with miniature 10BF3 detectors in 0.5-cm steps beginning at 1-cm depth. Sizes and weights of the cubes are 14 cm, 3.230 kg, and 11 cm, 1.567 kg. Tests were made with the epithermal neutron beam from the patient treatment port of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. Thermal neutron depth profiles were measured with a bare 10BF3 detector at a reactor power of 50 W, and Cd-covered detector profiles were measured at a reactor power of 1 kW. The resulting plots of counting rate versus depth illustrate the dependence of neutron moderation on the size of the phantom. But more importantly the data can serve as benchmarks for testing the thermal and epithermal neutron profiles obtained with accelerator-based BNCT facilities. Such tests could be made with these phantoms at power levels about five orders of magnitude lower than that required for the treatment of patients with brain tumors. copyright 1998 American Association of Physicists in Medicine

  14. Recent advances in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction to cancer radiotherapy (Neutron Capture therapy, or NCT) has intrigued investigators since the discovery of the neutron. This paper briefly summarizes data describing recently developed boronated compounds with evident tumor specificity and extended biological half-lives. The implication of these compounds to NCT is evaluated in terms of Therapeutic Gain (TG). The optimization of NCT using band-pass filtered beams is described, again in terms of TG, and irradiation times with these less intense beams are estimated. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be u...

  16. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector ...

  17. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    1998-03-01

    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  18. Neutron capture therapy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction to cancer radiotherapy (Neutron Capture therapy, or NCT) has intrigued investigators since shortly after the discovery of the neutron. This paper summarizes data describing recently developed boronated compounds designed to serve as vehicles for boron transport to tumor. Whole-body (mouse) Neutron Capture Radiograms (NCR) of some of the most promising compounds are presented; these graphically demonstrate selective uptake in tumor, at times varying from hours to days post administration. Comparison is made to the ubiquitous distribution of inorganic boron compounds used in the first clinical trials of NCT. Since some compounds are now available that allow physiological targeting of boron to tumor at concentrations adequate for therapy, the NCR technique can be used to evaluate important questions concerning the microdistribution of boron within the tumor. The implication of these compounds to NCT is evaluated in terms of Therapeutic Gain (TG). The optimization of NCT by using band-pass filtered neutron beams is described, again in terms of TG, and irradiation times with these less intense beams are estimated. 35 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  19. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  20. From radiation-induced chromosome damage to cell death: modelling basic mechanisms and applications to boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Altieri, S

    2011-02-01

    Cell death is a crucial endpoint in radiation-induced biological damage: on one side, cell death is a reference endpoint to characterise the action of radiation in biological targets; on the other side, any cancer therapy aims to kill tumour cells. Starting from Lea's target theory, many models have been proposed to interpret radiation-induced cell killing; after briefly discussing some of these models, in this paper, a mechanistic approach based on an experimentally observed link between chromosome aberrations and cell death was presented. More specifically, a model and a Monte Carlo code originally developed for chromosome aberrations were extended to simulate radiation-induced cell death applying an experimentally observed one-to-one relationship between the average number of 'lethal aberrations' (dicentrics, rings and deletions) per cell and -ln S, S being the fraction of surviving cells. Although such observation was related to X rays, in the present work, the approach was also applied to protons and alpha particles. A good agreement between simulation outcomes and literature data provided a model validation for different radiation types. The same approach was then successfully applied to simulate the survival of cells enriched with boron and irradiated with thermal neutrons at the Triga Mark II reactor in Pavia, to mimic a typical treatment for boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:21159746

  1. Gadolinium as a Neutron Capture Therapy Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jing-Luen Allen

    The clinical results of treating brain tumors with boron neutron capture therapy are very encouraging and researchers around the world are once again making efforts to develop this therapeutic modality. Boron-10 is the agent receiving the most attention for neutron capture therapy but ^{157}Gd is a nuclide that also holds interesting properties of being a neutron capture therapy agent. The objective of this study is to evaluate ^{157}Gd as a neutron capture therapy agent. In this study it is determined that tumor concentrations of about 300 mug ^{157}Gd/g tumor can be achieved in brain tumors with some FDA approved MRI contrast agents such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, and up to 628 mug ^{157 }Gd/g tumor can be established in bone tumors with Gd-EDTMP. Monte Carlo calculations show that with only 250 ppm of ^{157}Gd in tumor, neutron capture therapy can deliver 2,000 cGy to a tumor of 2 cm diameter or larger with 5 times 10^{12} n/cm ^2 fluence at the tumor. Dose measurements which were made with films and TLD's in phantoms verified these calculations. More extended Monte Carlo calculations demonstrate that neutron capture therapy with Gd possesses comparable dose distribution to B neutron capture therapy. With 5 times 10^{12 } n/cm^2 thermal neutrons at the tumor, Auger electrons from the Gd produced an optical density enhancement on the films that is similar to the effect caused by about 300 cGy of Gd prompt gamma dose which will further enhance the therapeutic effects. A technique that combines brachytherapy with Gd neutron capture therapy has been evaluated. Monte Carlo calculations show that 5,000 cGy of prompt gamma dose can be delivered to a treatment volume of 40 cm^3 with a 3-plane implant of a total of 9 Gd needles. The tumor to normal tissue advantage of this method is as good as ^{60} Co brachytherapy. Measurements of prompt gamma dose with films and TLD-700's in a lucite phantom verify the Monte Carlo evaluation. A technique which displays the Gd

  2. NIFTI and DISCOS: New concepts for a compact accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses fluoride compounds, such as lead or beryllium fluoride, to efficiently degrade high energy neutrons from the lithium target to the lower energies required for BNCT. The fluoride compounds are in turn encased in an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron filter, which has a deep window in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin (∼ 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films or sheets of discrete droplets--through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is re-accelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator--target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production--resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons--while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current. Parametric trade studies of the NIFTI and DISCOS concepts are described. These include analyses of a broad range of NIFTI designs using the Monte carlo MCNP neutronics code, as well as mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses of various DISCOS designs

  3. Advances in neutron capture therapy 2006. Proceedings of 12th international congress on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Twelfth International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy (ICNCT-12) is being held from October 9th to 13th, 2006 at the Kagawa International Congress Hall in Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan. The main theme of the congress is From the past to the Future'. Five symposiums were organized to accommodate all the contributions from the international scientific committees of the International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy (ISNCT), and two symposiums were added to balance the number of fields of specialties. The seven symposiums for ICNCT-12 are as follows: 1) Clinical Results of BNCT for Brain Tumors, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Treatment Planning system, 4) Drug Delivery System, 5) Biomedical and General Matters, 6) BNCT Systems using Accelerators, 7) New Applications and Protocols for BNCT. There are a total of 195 presentations in this congress: 3 special lectures, 34 symposium presentations, 10 presentations in two special sessions from the recipients of the Ralph G. Fairchild Award, 70 presentations in the oral parallel sessions and 78 presentations in the poster sessions. A compilation of 169 papers are published in this proceedings. The 165 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Conceptual design project: Accelerator complex for nuclear physics studies and boron neutron capture therapy application at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) Yerevan, Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avagyan, R.H.; Kerobyan, I.A.

    2015-07-15

    The final goal of the proposed project is the creation of a Complex of Accelerator Facilities at the Yerevan Physics Institute (CAF YerPhI) for nuclear physics basic researches, as well as for applied programs including boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The CAF will include the following facilities: Cyclotron C70, heavy material (uranium) target/ion source, mass-separator, LINAC1 (0.15–1.5 MeV/u) and LINAC2 (1.5–10 MeV/u). The delivered by C70 proton beams with energy 70 MeV will be used for investigations in the field of basic nuclear physics and with energy 30 MeV for use in applications.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of gadolinium nanostructured materials with potential applications in magnetic resonance imaging, neutron-capture therapy and targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanakis, Dimitrios; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F., E-mail: ghanotakis@chemistry.uoc.g [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    Two Gadolinium nanostructured materials, Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} nanoparticles and Gd(OH){sub 3} nanorods, were synthesized and extensively characterized by various techniques. In addition to the potential use of Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Neutron-capture therapy (NCT) application, it could also be used in targeted drug delivery. An antibiotic (nalidixic acid), two amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid), a fatty acid and a surfactant (SDS) were intercalated in the nanoparticles. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified with folic acid in order to be capable of targeted delivery to folate receptor expressing sites, such as tumor human cells.

  6. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  7. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor efficacy of composite liposomes for neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Tanja; Grunewald, Catrin; Blaickner, Matthias; Ziegner, Markus; Schütz, Christian; Iffland, Dorothee; Hampel, Gabriele; Nawroth, Thomas; Langguth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma has focused mainly on the use of 10B as neutron capture isotope. However, 157Gd offers several advantages over boron, such as higher cross section for thermal neutrons and the possibility to perform magnetic resonance imaging during neutron irradiation, thereby combining therapy and diagnostics. We have developed different liposomal formulations of gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist®) for application in neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma. The f...

  8. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  9. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA ((GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT) or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  10. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  11. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of a 'single' application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-1(Na210B10H10) or (GB-10+BPA) to treat hamster cheek pouch tumors with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a model of precancerous tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies. Employing this model we evaluated the long-term potential inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue and eventual radiotoxicity of a single application of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10+BPA), in the RA-6. The clinical rationale of this study was to search for a BNCT protocol that is therapeutic for tumor, not radio-toxic for the normal tissue that lies in the neutron beam path, and exerts the desired inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors, without exceeding the radio-tolerance of precancerous tissue, the dose limiting tissue in this case. Second primary tumors that arise in precancerous tissue (also called locoregional recurrences) are a frequent cause of therapeutic failure in head and neck tumors. Aim: Evaluate the radiotoxicity and inhibitory effect of a 'double' application of the same BNCT protocols that were proved therapeutically successful for tumor and precancerous tissue, with a long term follow up (8 months). A 'double' application of BNCT is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of tumors, in particular the larger ones, but the cost in terms of side-effects in dose-limiting tissues might preclude its application and requires cautious evaluation. Materials and methods: We performed a double application of 1) BPA-BNCT; 2) (GB- 10+BPA

  12. Development and characteristics of the HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility for applications in the boron neutron capture therapy field

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M S; Jun, B J; Kim, H; Lee, B C; Hwang, Sung-Yul; Jun, Byung-Jin; Kim, Heonil; Kim, Myong-Seop; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility was developed for various applications in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) field, and its characteristics have been investigated. In order to obtain a sufficient thermal neutron flux with a low level contamination of fast neutrons and gamma-rays, a radiation filtering method is adopted. The radiation filter has been designed by using a silicon single crystal cooled by liquid nitrogen and a bismuth crystal. The installation of the main components of the irradiation facility and the irradiation room are finished. Experimental measurements of the neutron beam characteristics have been performed by using bare and cadmium covered gold foils and wires. The in-phantom neutron flux distribution was measured for a flux mapping inside the phantom. The gamma-ray dose was determined by using TLD-700 thermoluminescence dosimeters. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes and the gamma-ray dose were calculated by using the MCNP code, and they were compared with experimenta...

  13. Boron thermal/epithermal neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of various particle beams for radiotherapy represents an attempt to improve dose distribution, and to provide high LET radiations which are less sensitive to ambient physical and radiobiological factors such as oxygen tension, cell cycle, and dose rate. In general, a compromise is necessary as effective RBE is reduced in order to spread the dose distribution over the anticipated tumor volume. The approach of delivering stable non-toxic isotopes to tumor, and then activating these atoms subsequently via an external radiation beam has mator advantages; problems associated with high uptake of these isotopes in competing cell pools are obviated, and the general tumor volume can be included in the treatment field of the activating beam. As long as the normal tissues supporting tumor show a low uptake of the isotope to be activated, and as long as the range of the reaction products is short, dose will be restricted to tumor, with a consequent high therapeutic ratio. Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) is generally carried out by activating boron-10 with low energy neutrons. The range of the high LET, low OER particles from the /sup 10/B(n, ..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction is approx. 10..mu.., or one cell diameter, a situation that is optimal for cell killing. Significant advantages may be gained by using the NCT procedure in conjunction with improved tissue penetration provided with epithermal or filtered beams, and new compounds showing physiological binding to tumor.

  14. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted.

  15. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted

  16. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program

  17. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [{sup 10}B]. Cytotoxic {sup 7}Li nuclei and {alpha}-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 {micro}m, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm {sup 10}B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry.

  18. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  19. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine (10BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina (10BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 106 MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of 10B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R2 = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R2 = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT treatment for each individual

  20. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650, Argentina and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650 (Argentina); Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F. [CIDME, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires 1405 (Argentina); Bortolussi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100 (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect

  1. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy in cancer: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Juvenal, Guilermo J. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Div. of Nuclear Biochemistry; University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). School of Medicine. Dept. of Human Biochemistry

    2007-07-15

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron non-radioactive compounds by a tumor, and the subsequent irradiation of the area with an appropriate neutron beam. {sup 10}B is then activated to {sup 11}B, which will immediately decay releasing alpha particles and {sup 7}Li, of high linear energy transfer (LET) and limited reach. Clinical trials are being performed in patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanoma. We have explored its possible application to UTC. Our results demonstrated that a cell line of human UTC has a selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) both in vitro and after transplantation to nude mice. Treatment of mice by BNCT led to a complete control of growth and cure of 100% of the animals. Moreover dogs with spontaneous UTC also have a selective uptake of BPA. At the present we are studying the biodistribution of BPA in patients with UTC before its application in humans. (author)

  5. Recent progress of basic studies for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Koji [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2001-01-01

    Epi-thermal neutron irradiation for malignant brain tumors is the mainstream of recent studies in boron neutron capture therapy. To improve the depth dose distribution in water phantom, a LiF plate (5 mmt, 6 cm {phi}) is located in the front of center axis of KUR irradiation field. Thermal neutron flux at the center surface of the water phantom is shielded by the LiF plate. The depth and peripheral dose distribution of thermal neutron flux becomes to uniform. The boron dose at 6 cm in the depths of the phantom increases to about 1.71 times greater than the usual irradiation field. Two-kinds of nuclear medicines, Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH(BSH) and Borono Phenyl Alanine (BPA), have been used for boron neutron capture therapy. BPA-ol, a new medicine of modified compound of the BPA can be used effectively on hyperthermia of cancer parts to 42 - 43degC. Cell death and mutagenesis of chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) after pre-incubation with BPA and BSH are investigated for the validity of boron neutron capture therapy. The effects of BSH on the cell death and the mutagenesis are few in comparison with those of BPA. It is thought that the BSH is not accumulated in the cell. The effects of boron neutron capture therapy on sensitivity of intratumor quiescent and total cells are investigated. (Suetake, M.)

  6. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration

  7. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Brownell, G.L. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration.

  8. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.;

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...

  9. Medical and biological requirements for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conventional radiation therapy, tumor doses applied to most solid tumors are limited by the tolerance of normal tissues. The promise of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy lies in its potential to deposit high doses of radiation very specifically to tumor tissue. Theoretically ratios of tumor to normal tissue doses can be achieved significantly higher than conventional radiotherapeutic techniques would allow. Effective dose distributions obtainable are a complex function of the neutron beam characteristics and the macro and micro distributions of boron in tumor and normal tissues. Effective RBE doses are calculated in tumors and normal tissue for thermal, epithermal and 2 keV neutrons

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy; Radioterapia per cattura neutronica del boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattioda, F. [Turin Politecnico, Turin (Italy); Merlone, A. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Burn, K.W.; Tinti, R. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. energia; Capannesi, G.; Rosi, G. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. innovazione; Casali, F.; Nava, E. [Bologna UNiv., Bologna (Italy); Gambarini, G. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    Boron radiotherapy in cancer treatment and the feasibility of using the Tapiro reactor as a neutron source is discussed. In particle, the article aims to focus attention on the possibility using ENEA's (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Tapiro reactor, appropriately modified, as a suitable neutron source for the experimental phase of boron neutron capture therapy in Italy. [Italian] Sono presentati gli studi sulla radioterapia per cattura neutronica del boro nella cura di alcune neoplasie e l'utilizzo del reattore Tapiro come sorgente di neutroni nel progetto italiano di ricerca condotto dall'ENEA.

  11. Basic research of boron neutron-capture therapy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Application of neutron radiography for visualization of boron compound on BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic effects of locally injected 10B-immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with 10B-immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in 10B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared boronated PEG-binding bovine serum albumin (10B-PEG-BSA). 10B concentrations in AsPC-1, human pancreatic cancer cells (2 x 105 /well) obtained 24 hrs after incubation with 10B-PEG-BSA was 13.01 ± 1.74 ppm. The number of 10B atoms delivered to the tumor cells was calculated to be 7.83 x 1011 at 24 hrs after incubation with 10B-PEG-BSA. These data indicated that the 10B-PEG-BSA could deliver a sufficient amount of 10B atoms (more than 109 atoms/cell) to the tumor cells to induce cytotoxic effects after incubation upon thermal neutron irradiation. Neutron capture autoradiography by using an Imaging Plate (IP-NCR) was performed on AsPC-1 tumor-bearing mouse that had been given an intratumoral injection of 10B-PEG BSA or 10B-cationic liposome. We had demonstrated the 10B-PEG BSA or 10B-cationic liposome is taken up by AsPC-1 tumor tissue to a much greater extent than by normal tissues. (J.P.N.)

  12. Basic research of boron neutron-capture therapy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Application of neutron radiography for visualization of boron compound on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Medical Science

    1997-02-01

    The cytotoxic effects of locally injected {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in {sup 10}B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of {sup 10}B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared boronated PEG-binding bovine serum albumin ({sup 10}B-PEG-BSA). {sup 10}B concentrations in AsPC-1, human pancreatic cancer cells (2 x 10{sup 5} /well) obtained 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA was 13.01 {+-} 1.74 ppm. The number of {sup 10}B atoms delivered to the tumor cells was calculated to be 7.83 x 10{sup 11} at 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA. These data indicated that the {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA could deliver a sufficient amount of {sup 10}B atoms (more than 10{sup 9} atoms/cell) to the tumor cells to induce cytotoxic effects after incubation upon thermal neutron irradiation. Neutron capture autoradiography by using an Imaging Plate (IP-NCR) was performed on AsPC-1 tumor-bearing mouse that had been given an intratumoral injection of {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome. We had demonstrated the {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome is taken up by AsPC-1 tumor tissue to a much greater extent than by normal tissues. (J.P.N.)

  13. Selective thermal neutron capture therapy of cancer cells using their specific functional differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory and the history of selective thermal neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma, thermal neutron capture therapy which has been developed by authors, synthesis and effects of 10B-compounds accumulating in melanoma cells and absorbing thermal neutron easily, and many experiments concerning this therapy were reviewed and discussed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. New compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT) and their significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Clearly the most effective tumor therapy would be obtained by the selective targeting of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells. Although many biomolecules are known to be taken up in tumors, the targeting of cytotoxic agents to tumors is limited by the fact that other essential cell pools compete with equal or even greater effectiveness. The approach of delivering stable non-toxic isotopes to tumor, with activation by means of an external radiation beam, is advantageous for two reasons: (1) it obviates problems associated with high uptake of isotopes in normal tissues, as these cell pools can be excluded from the radiation field, and (2) the general tumor area can be included in the activating beam field; thus, the possibility exists that all microscopic tumor extensions can be irradiated. As long as range of reaction products is short, dose will be restricted to the tumor, with a resultant high therapeutic ratio. This method can be accomplished with either photon activation therapy (PAT) or Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), the latter will be emphasized here. The range of the high LET, low OER particles from the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction is approx. 10 ..mu..m, or one cell diameter; hence this reaction is optimal for cell killing. A number of biomolecules have been investigated as possible vehicles for transport of boron to tumors, including phenothiazines, thiouracils, porphyrins, nucleosides, and amino acids. Biodistributions of these compounds show selective concentration in tumor adequate for therapy. The biological halflives are in the order of days, allowing the possibility of fractionated or protracted irradiations. The radiobiological and physical implication of these parameters on NCT are discussed. The possibility of using an approximately-monoenergetic, scandium-filtered beam of about 2 keV, to reduce the dose from background radiations by about 85%, is also discussed. (ERB)

  15. Development of inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To lead proper irradiation condition effectively, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is developing an inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy (NCT-IPS) based on the JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for BNCT. The leading methodology of an optimum condition in the NCT-IPS has been applied spatial channel theory with adjoint flux solution of Botzman transport. By analyzing the results obtained from the adjoint flux calculations according to the theory, optimum incident point of the beam against the patient can be found, and neutron spectrum of the beam which can generate ideal distribution of neutron flux around tumor region can be determined. The conceptual design of the NCT-IPS was investigated, and prototype of NCT-IPS with JCDS is being developed. (author)

  16. Carborane compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using thiouracil as a vehicle for stable nuclei such as 10B for neutron capture therapy (NCT) of melanoma was first discussed by Fairchild and co-workers in 1982. The author's research has been directed towards the design and synthesis of a number of o-carboranyl-thiouracils, the ten boron atoms of the carborane cage having a clear advantage for NCT. The first step was the preparation, previously reported, of thiouracils bearing an alkyl group continuing a triple bond for later elaboration to a carborane. The present paper describes the continuation of this work with the preparation of the carboranes of this series and its extension to the synthesis of a thiouracil in which a carboranylalkyl group is attached to the nitrogen in the 3-position

  17. Physico-technical progress in neutron-capture therapy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes mainly development studies on the determination method of in vivo 10B for the purpose of employment for neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma and other tumors. To darify the efficacy of the neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to determine 10B concentration in the diseased part. This study aimed at in vivo 10B concention determination in living sample to the level of ppm order with 10 % of analytical error within 1 hour, and these determination conditions were satified by prompt γ-ray (478 keV) determination of 10B (n, αγ)7Li reaction. This method required no sample pretreatment. Further, data normalization by γ-ray of H(n, γ)D reaction permitted no disturbance by sample shape or size. Lower limit of detection of the proposed method was estimated in terms of measuring time and statistical error by the equations of 10B concentration and error analysis derived by the authors. As for the effect of prompt γ-rays of 23Na(n, γ)24Na and 6Li(n, γ)7Li reactions, it was clarified that the former showed no disturbance but some correction was necessary in case of less than 0.1 g of smaple size owing to the latter reaction. In vivo sample determination showed the proposed method was practical. In this paper some results of phantom experiment for in vivo non-destructive 10B measurement and related simulation calculation, and examination of effect of (γ, n) reaction in heavy water of biomedical irradiation equipment on radiation quality were also described. (Takagi, S.)

  18. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor efficacy of composite liposomes for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma has focused mainly on the use of 10B as neutron capture isotope. However, 157Gd offers several advantages over boron, such as higher cross section for thermal neutrons and the possibility to perform magnetic resonance imaging during neutron irradiation, thereby combining therapy and diagnostics. We have developed different liposomal formulations of gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist®) for application in neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma. The formulations were characterized physicochemically and tested in vitro in a glioma cell model for their effectiveness. Liposomes entrapping gadolinium-DTPA as neutron capture agent were manufactured via lipid/film-extrusion method and characterized with regard to size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. For neutron irradiation, F98 and LN229 glioma cells were incubated with the newly developed liposomes and subsequently irradiated at the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz. The dose rate derived from neutron irradiation with 157Gd as neutron capturing agent was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations and set in relation to the respective cell survival. The liposomal Gd-DTPA reduced cell survival of F98 and LN229 cells significantly. Differences in liposomal composition of the formulations led to distinctly different outcome in cell survival. The amount of cellular Gd was not at all times proportional to cell survival, indicating that intracellular deposition of formulated Gd has a major influence on cell survival. The majority of the dose contribution arises from photon cross irradiation compared to a very small Gd-related dose. Liposomal gadolinium formulations represent a promising approach for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma cells. The liposome composition determines the uptake and the survival of cells following radiation, presumably due to different uptake pathways of liposomes and intracellular deposition of gadolinium-DTPA. Due to the small range of the

  19. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy. When 10B absorbs thermal neutrons, the alpha and 7Li particles generated by the 10B (n, α) 7Li reaction are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, and carry high kinetic energy (2.34 MeV), and have short ranges (4-9 micron-meters) of approximately one-cell diameter, resulting in a large relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and selective destruction of tumor cells containing 10B. We have, for the first time in the world, used BNCT to treat 11 patients with recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) after a standard primary therapy since 2001. The 11 patients were composed of 6 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 salivary gland tumors and 2 sarcomas. The results of BNCT were as follows. Regression rates (volume %) were complete response (CR): 2 cases, >90%: 5 cases, 73%: 1 case, 54%: 1 case, progressive disease (PD): 1 case, NE (not evaluated): 1 case. The response rate was 82%. Improvement of quality of life (QOL) was recognized, such as disappearance of tumor ulceration and covering with normal skin: relief of severe pain, bleeding, trismus and dyspnea: improvement of performance status (PS) (from 4 to 2) allowing the patients to return to work and elongate his survival period. Survival periods after BNCT were 1-38 months (mean: 8.5 months). The survival rate was 36% (4 cases). There are a few side-effects such as transient mucositis and alopecia less than Grade-2. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach even for a huge or far-advanced HNM. (author)

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions, it is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM). Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. So far for 4 years and 3 months, we have treated with 37 times of BNCT for 21 patients (14 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results are (1) 10B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratio (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 6cases, PR: 11cases, PD: 3cases NE (not evaluated): 1case. Response rate was 81%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-51 months (mean: 9.8 months). 4-year survival rate was 39% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) A few adverse-effects such as transient mucositis, alopecia were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM. (author)

  2. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  3. Final Report: 8th International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) for Cancer, May 15, 1998 - May 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8th International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer (8th ISNCTC) was held in La Jolla, CA on Sept. 13-18, 1998. This biennial meeting of the International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy (ISNCT) was hosted by Society President M.F. Hawthorne (UCLA Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry). The Symposium brought together scientists (300 registrants from 21 countries) from diverse fields to report the latest developments in NCT. Topics of the 275 papers presented (30 plenary lectures, 81 oral presentations, and 164 posters) included the physics of neutron sources, chemistry of tumor-targeting agents, dosimetry, radiobiological studies, and clinical applications

  4. Dosimetric implications of new compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Systemic application of radiolabeled or cytotoxic agents should allow targeting of primary and metastatic neoplasms on a cellular level. In fact, drug uptake in non-target cell pools often exceeds toxic levels before sufficient amounts are delivered to tumor. In addition, at the large concentration of molecules necessary for therapy, effects of saturation are often found. Application of NCT can circumvent problems associated with high uptake in competing non-target cell pools, as the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction is activated only within the radiation field. A comparison with other modes of particle therapy indicated that NCT provides significant advantages. It is however, difficult to obtain vehicles for boron transport which demonstrate both the tumor specificity and concentration requisite for NCT. A number of biomolecules have been investigated which show both the necessary concentration and specificity. These include chlorpromazine, thiouracil, porphyrins, amino acids, and nucleosides. However, these analogs have yet to be made available for NCT. Dosimetric implications of binding sites are considered, as well as alternate neutron sources. (ERB)

  5. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  6. Carboranyl Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-(β-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  7. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  8. A suggestion for B-10 imaging during boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cortesi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Selective accumulation of B-10 compound in tumour tissue is a fundamental condition for the achievement of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), since the effectiveness of therapy irradiation derives just from neutron capture reaction of B-10. Hence, the determination of the B-10 concentration ratio, between tumour and healthy tissue, and a control of this ratio, during the therapy, are essential to optimise the effectiveness of the BNCT, which it is known to be based on the selective uptake ...

  9. Study of characteristics for heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, Danial; Sardari, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors. Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head, patient's body, and treatment room ambient. Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons, the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy. By varying the target thickness, an optimum thickness exists for which, at the given electron energy, maximum photon flux is achievable. If a source of high-energy photons i.e. bremsstrahlung, is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target, a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible. This study consists of two parts. 1. Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data. 2. Ev...

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  11. Isodose Curves and Treatment Planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hungyuan B.

    The development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been progressing in both ^{10 }B compound development and testing and neutron beam delivery. Animal tests are now in progress with several ^{10}B compounds and once the results of these animal tests are promising, patient trials can be initiated. The objective of this study is to create a treatment planning method based on the dose calculations by a Monte Carlo code of a mixed radiation field to provide linkage between phantom dosimetry and patient irradiation. The research started with an overall review of the development of BNCT. Three epithermal neutron facilities are described, including the operating Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) beam, the designed Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) beam, and a designed accelerator based neutron source. The flux and dose distributions in a head model have been calculated for irradiation by these neutron beams. Different beam parameters were inter -compared for effectiveness. Dosimetric measurements in an elliptical lucite phantom and a cylindrical water phantom were made and compared to the MCNP calculations for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Repeated measurements were made and show consistent. To improve the statistical results calculated by MCNP, a neutron source plane was designed to start neutrons at the BMRR irradiation port. The source plane was used with the phantoms for dosimetric calculations. After being verified by different phantom dosimetry and in-air flux measurements at the irradiation port, the source plane was used to calculate the flux and dose distributions in the head model. A treatment planning program was created for use on a PC which uses the MCNP calculated results as input. This program calculates the thermal neutron flux and dose distributions of each component of radiation in the central coronal section of the head model for irradiation by a neutron beam. Different combinations of head orientations and irradiation

  12. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Vujic, J L; Greenspan, E; Guess, S; Karni, Y; Kastenber, W E; Kim, L; Leung, K N; Regev, D; Verbeke, J M; Waldron, W L; Zhu, Y

    2003-01-01

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  13. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly

  14. Optimal Neutron Source & Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Vujic; E. Greenspan; W.E. Kastenber; Y. Karni; D. Regev; J.M. Verbeke, K.N. Leung; D. Chivers; S. Guess; L. Kim; W. Waldron; Y. Zhu

    2003-04-30

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  15. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P.-A.; Lorusso, G. F.; Andres, R.; Van Meir, E. G.; Brunet, J.-F.; Hamou, M.-F.; Suda, T.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Droubay, T. C.; Tonner, B. P.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, M.; DeStasio, Gelsomina

    1998-10-01

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of ? in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case ?, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope à emission de photoélectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy.

  16. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P-A. [Institut de Physique Appliquee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)] [and others

    1998-10-07

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of {sup 10}B in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope a emission de photoelectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy. (author)

  17. Capturing Trust in Social Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, John

    The Social Web constitutes a shift in information flow from the traditional Web. Previously, content was provided by the owners of a website, for consumption by the end-user. Nowadays, these websites are being replaced by Social Web applications which are frameworks for the publication of user-provided content. Traditionally, Web content could be `trusted' to some extent based on the site it originated from. Algorithms such as Google's PageRank were (and still are) used to compute the importance of a website, based on analysis of underlying link topology. In the Social Web, analysis of link topology merely tells us about the importance of the information framework which hosts the content. Consumers of information still need to know about the importance/reliability of the content they are reading, and therefore about the reliability of the producers of that content. Research into trust and reputation of the producers of information in the Social Web is still very much in its infancy. Every day, people are forced to make trusting decisions about strangers on the Web based on a very limited amount of information. For example, purchasing a product from an eBay seller with a `reputation' of 99%, downloading a file from a peer-to-peer application such as Bit-Torrent, or allowing Amazon.com tell you what products you will like. Even something as simple as reading comments on a Web-blog requires the consumer to make a trusting decision about the quality of that information. In all of these example cases, and indeed throughout the Social Web, there is a pressing demand for increased information upon which we can make trusting decisions. This chapter examines the diversity of sources from which trust information can be harnessed within Social Web applications and discusses a high level classification of those sources. Three different techniques for harnessing and using trust from a range of sources are presented. These techniques are deployed in two sample Social Web

  18. Biological models in vivo for boron neutronic capture studies as tumors therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of experimental models for Boron Neutronic Capture studies as Tumors Therapy have as two main objectives: 1) To contribute to the basic knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved to increase the method therapeutical advantage, and 2) To explore the possible application of this therapeutic method to other pathologies. In this frame it was studied the carcinogenesis model of hamster cheek pouch, a type of human buccal cancer. Biodistribution studies of boron compound were performed in tumor, blood and in different precancerous and normal tissues as well as BNCT studies. Results validated this method for BNCT studies and show the capacity of the oral mucosa tumors of selectively concentrate the boron compound, showing a deleterious clear effect on the tumor after 24 hours with BNCT treatment. (author)

  19. Establishment of optimal thermal neutron capture therapy for 5 types of human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies has already germinated in 1972, with a view to establishing the BNCT particularly suited for the treatment of various types of malignant melanoma, and has been succeeded by research teams comprised of multi-disciplinary members. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women, aged from 50 to 85 years) with malignant melanoma have been treated with BNCT; among them, six patients were completely cured, four had extremely reduced tumors, and two were still in the clinical process. The present Progress Report is a compilation of 39 research presentations for the recent two years. In this report, three patients are described. Of these, one patient had deep-seated lesions in right and left lymph nodes. These lesions were cured by the use of D2O that allowed neutron beams to reach them. Application of positron emission tomography to the diagnosis of melanoma is a highlight in this Report. (N.K.)

  20. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  1. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  2. Medical aspects of boron-slow neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier radiations of patients with cerebral tumors disclosed the need: (1) to find a carrier of the boron compound which would leave the blood and concentrate in the tumor, (2) to use a more penetrating neutron beam, and (3) to develop a much faster method for assaying boron in blood and tissue. To some extent number1 has been accomplished in the form of Na2 B12 H11 SH, number2 has yet to be achieved, and number3 has been solved by the measurement of the 478-keV gamma ray when the 10B atom disintegrates following its capture of a slow neutron. The hitherto unreported data in this paper describe through the courtesy of Professor Hiroshi Hatanaka his studies on the pharmacokinetics and quality control of Na2 B12 H11SH based on 96 boron infusions in 86 patients. Simultaneous blood and tumor data are plotted here for 30 patients with glioblastomas (Grade III-IV gliomas), illustrating remarkable variability. Detailed autopsy findings on 18 patients with BNCT showed radiation injury in only 1. Clinical results in 12 of the most favorably situated glioblastomas reveal that 5 are still alive with a 5-year survival rate of 58% and the excellent Karnofsky performance rating of 87%. For the first time evidence is presented that slow-growing astrocytomas may benefit from BNCT. 10 references, 8 figures, 5 tables

  3. Indication and possibility of boron neutron capture therapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a targeted type of radiotherapy that has a number of significant advantages over conventional external beam photon irradiation, especially in that radiation can be selectively delivered to tumor cells. We had, first in the world, treated with BNCT for a patient with recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC) in 2001. Methods : From December, 2001 to February, 2013, we had treated 37 patients with recurrent HNC by means of 54 applications of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). All of them had received standard therapy and subsequently developed recurrent disease for which there were no other treatment options. Results : All of the (1) Regression rates were complete response (CR) : 19 patients (51%), partial response (PR) : 14(38%), progressive disease (PD) : 3(8%), and not evaluated (NE) : 1(3%) patient. (2) The overall patient response rate was 91%, though all the patients had advanced disease. The 4-year and 7-year OS rates were 42% and 36%, respectively. (3) BNCT improved quality of life (QOL), performance status (PS) and survival times. (4) The primary adverse events were brain necrosis, osteomyelitis and transient mucositis and alopecia. Conclusions : Our results indicate that we could make sure that safety and effectiveness of BNCT, and BNCT represents a new and promising treatment modality in patients for whom there are no other treatment options. (author)

  4. Carborane derivatives loaded into liposomes as efficient delivery systems for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, S; Balzi, M; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Ciani, L; Clerici, A M; Faraoni, P; Ferrari, C; Gadan, M A; Panza, L; Pietrangeli, D; Ricciardi, G; Ristori, S

    2009-12-10

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an anticancer therapy based on the incorporation of (10)B in tumors, followed by neutron irradiation. Recently, the synthesis and delivery of new boronated compounds have been recognized as some of the main challenges in BNCT application. Here, we report on the use of liposomes as carriers for BNCT active compounds. Two carborane derivatives, i.e., o-closocarboranyl beta-lactoside (LCOB) and 1-methyl-o-closocarboranyl-2-hexylthioporphyrazine (H(2)PzCOB), were loaded into liposomes bearing different surface charges. The efficacy of these formulations was tested on model cell cultures, that is, DHD/K12/TRb rat colon carcinoma and B16-F10 murine melanoma. These induce liver and lung metastases, respectively, and are used to study the uptake of standard BNCT drugs, including borophenylalanine (BPA). Boron concentration in treated cells was measured by alpha spectrometry at the TRIGA mark II reactor (University of Pavia). Results showed high performance of the proposed formulations. In particular, the use of cationic liposomes increased the cellular concentration of (10)B by at least 30 times more than that achieved by BPA. PMID:19954249

  5. Characteristics of a heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danial Salehi; Dariush Sardari; M.Salehi Jozani

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors.Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head,patient's body,and treatment room ambient.Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons,the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy.By varying the target thickness,an optimum thickness exists for which,at the given electron energy,maximum photon flux is achievable.If a source of high-energy photons i.e.bremsstrahlung,is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target,a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible.This study consists of two parts.1.Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data.2.Evaluation of the heavy water photonuclear source.

  6. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na210B12H11SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author)

  7. Accelerator-based neutron source for the neutron-capture and fast neutron therapy at hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanov, B. F.; Belov, V. P.; Bender, E. D.; Bokhovko, M. V.; Dimov, G. I.; Kononov, V. N.; Kononov, O. E.; Kuksanov, N. K.; Palchikov, V. E.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Salimov, R. A.; Silvestrov, G. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Soloviov, N. A.; Taskaev, S. Yu.

    The proton accelerator complex for neutron production in lithium target discussed, which can operate in two modes. The first provides a neutron beam kinematically collimated with good forward direction in 25° and average energy of 30 keV, directly applicable for neutron-capture therapy with high efficiency of proton beam use. The proton energy in this mode is 1.883-1.890 MeV that is near the threshold of the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction. In the second mode, at proton energy of 2.5 MeV, the complex-produced neutron beam with maximum energy board of 790 keV which can be used directly for fast neutron therapy and for neutron-capture therapy after moderation. The project of such a neutron source is based on the 2.5 MeV original electrostatic accelerator tandem with vacuum insulation developed at BINP which is supplied with a high-voltage rectifier. The rectifier is produced in BINP as a part of ELV-type industrial accelerator. Design features of the tandem determining its high reliability in operation with a high-current (up to 40 mA) H - ion beam are discussed. They are: the absence of ceramic accelerator columns around the beam passage region, good conditions for pumping out of charge-exchange gaseous target region, strong focusing optics and high acceleration rate minimizing the space charge effects. The possibility of stabilization of protons energy with an accuracy level of 0.1% necessary for operation in the near threshold region is considered. The design description of H - continuous ion source with a current of 40 mA is also performed. To operate with a 100 kW proton beam it is proposed to use liquid-lithium targets. A thin lithium layer on the surface of a tungsten disk cooled intensively by a liquid metal heat carrier is proposed for use in case of the vertical beam, and a flat liquid lithium jet flowing through the narrow nozzle - for the horizontal beam.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using fast neutrons: Effects in two human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results demonstrate that the effect of fast neutrons on cell survival in cell culture can be enhanced by boron neutron capture reaction. Even with lower enhancement ratios, the concept of NCT assisted fast neutron therapy may successfully be applied for tumor treatment with the Essen cyclotron. (orig.)

  9. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Further development of thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  11. To gadolinium using for neutron capture therapy researches at WWR-SM reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of using gadolinium (isotope and natural) for the medical purposes in neutron-capture therapy of cancer diseases is carried out. Results of definition of the epithermal neutron beam irradiation dose for biological objects with gadolinium-containing preparations are presented by using the WWR-SM reactor. (authors)

  12. Neutron capture therapy of ocular melanoma: dosimetry and microdosimetry approaches; Therapie par capture de neutrons des melanomes oculaires: approches dosimetrique et microdosimetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, J.P.; Methlin, G. [Centre Paul Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Abbe, J.C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Stampfler, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Lefebvre, O. [Faculte de Medecine, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Sahel, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1994-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) aims at destroying cancerous cells with the {alpha} and {sup 7}Li particles produced by the neutron capture reaction on {sup 10}B. This note reports on the study of the boron distribution in tissues on an animal model (nude mice) xenografted with a human ocular melanoma after an i.p.injection of 2g/kg of {sup 10}B-BPA and in cells cultured in the presence of 530 {mu}mol/l of {sup 10}B-BPA. A concentration of 64 ppm of {sup 10}B in the active part of the tumour with a ratio of concentrations versus the skin of 3.7 are observed. Investigations on cells reveal the presence of boron in the cytoplasm. The biological, dosimetric and microdosimetric consequences of these findings are discussed. (authors). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A new technology roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications, released today in Beijing, shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed from the energy sector by the middle of the century. This requires a rapid deployment of CCS technologies in various industrial sectors, and across both OECD and non-OECD countries. The roadmap, a joint report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), says that over 1800 industrial-scale projects are required over the next 40 years.

  14. Implications for clinical treatment from the micrometer site dosimetric calculations in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Trent L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States)], E-mail: tnichol2@utk.edu; Kabalka, George W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); Miller, Laurence F. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); McCormack, Michael T. [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, TN 37920 (United States); Johnson, Andrew [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy has now been used for several malignancies. Most clinical trials have addressed its use for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A few trials have focused on the treatment of malignant melanoma with brain metastases. Trial results for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme have been encouraging, but have not achieved the success anticipated. Results of trials for the treatment of malignant melanoma have been very promising, though with too few patients for conclusions to be drawn. Subsequent to these trials, regimens for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, hepatic metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon, and head and neck malignancies have been developed. These tumors have also responded well to boron neutron capture therapy. Glioblastoma is an infiltrative tumor with distant individual tumor cells that might create a mechanism for therapeutic failure though recurrences are often local. The microdosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy can provide an explanation for this observation. Codes written to examine the micrometer scale energy deposition in boron neutron capture therapy have been used to explore the effects of near neighbor cells. Near neighbor cells can contribute a significantly increased dose depending on the geometric relationships. Different geometries demonstrate that tumors which grow by direct extension have a greater near neighbor effect, whereas infiltrative tumors lose this near neighbor dose which can be a significant decrease in dose to the cells that do not achieve optimal boron loading. This understanding helps to explain prior trial results and implies that tumors with small, closely packed cells that grow by direct extension will be the most amenable to boron neutron capture therapy.

  15. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  16. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre...

  17. In-phantom dosimetry using the 13C(d,n)14N reaction for BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the 13 C(d,n)14 N reaction at Ed =1.5 MeV for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy is investigated. The 13 C(d,n)14 N reaction presents the advantages of carbon as a target material and its large cross section. The deuteron beam was produced by a tandem accelerator at MIT's Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications. The resulting neutron spectra were evaluated in terms of RBE-dose rates at different depths inside a water-filled brain phantom using a heavy water moderator and lead reflector assembly. All results were simulated using the code MCNP. (author)

  18. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  19. Role of the Tapiro Fast Research Reactor in Neutron Capture Therapy in Italy Calculations and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal-neutron research reactors are currently the most common source of neutron beams for both research and clinical trials of neutron capture therapy (NCT). Neutron spectra suitable for NCT are typically produced either by beam filtering or spectrum shifting techniques. However, fast-neutron reactors are also being considered for NCT application as it is recognized that they may allow for improved beam quality. TAPIRO is a low power, high flux, highly enriched (93.5% 235U) fast reactor. The power is 5 kW and the maximum neutron flux in the core is 3x1012 cm-2.s-1. Both a thermal and an epithermal column have been designed and constructed, aimed at dosimetry and animal experiments. The configurations of the columns have been designed by means of Monte Carlo calculations. The columns have been characterized by means of measurements performed with activation techniques and thermoluminescence and gel dosimeters. Experimental results have shown good consistency with calculations. Moreover, they have confirmed the good quality of the beams obtainable with such a reactor. An epithermal column for clinical trials of patients with brain gliomas has been designed and is under construction. The treatment planning figures-of-merit in an anthropomorphic phantom look very satisfactory. (author)

  20. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies

  1. Formulation and preliminary evaluation of delivery vehicles for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo; Stich, Theresia; Higgins, Samantha Caroline; Lloyd, Rhiannon Eleanor Iris; Smith, James Richard; Fatouros, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Pilkington, Geoffrey John; Tsibouklis, John

    2015-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue1. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of α-particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 µm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness, assuming 10B can be preferentially located within glioma cells2. Poor selectivity is the main ...

  2. Formulation and preliminary evaluation of delivery vehicles for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo Olajumoke Bolanle

    2015-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of -particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 μm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness, assuming 10B can be preferentially located within glioma cells. Poor selectivity is the main r...

  3. Application of halloysite nanotubes for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Joo-Youp; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-04-01

    Halloysite is a naturally occurring clay, with physical structure represented by halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). We investigated the potential applicability of HNTs for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, using two amine-functionalized HNTs: (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-grafted HNTs and polyethylenimine (PEI)-impregnated HNTs. APTES-HNTs and PEI-HNTs resulted in 5.6 and 30 wt. % (in sorbent) in functionalization onto HNTs, respectively. Capture efficiency was higher in APTES-HNTs at lower temperatures, while it was maximum in PEI-HNTs at 70°C–75 °C. At 75 °C, adsorption/desorption tests showed that 95% of the two reactions occurred within 30 min, and exhibited 0.15 and 0.21 millimole of CO2 adsorption capacity per millimole of amine group for APTES-HNTs and PEI-HNTs, respectively. During 10 cycles of CO2 adsorption/desorption, there was no significant decrease in sorbent weight and adsorption capacity in both HNTs. These results show that inherent structural features of HNTs can be easily tailored for the development of operational condition-specific CO2 capture system.

  4. Initiation of a phase-I trial of neutron capture therapy at the MIT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the New England Medical Center (NEMC), and Boston University Medical Center (BUMC) initiated a phase-1 trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on September 6, 1994, at the 5-MW(thermal) MIT research reactor (MITR). A novel form of experimental cancer therapy, BNCT is being developed for certain types of highly malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and melanoma. The results of the phase-1 trials on patients with tumors in the legs or feet are described

  5. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to γ-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x108 n/cm-2/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for 10B(n, α) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  6. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab

    2001-06-01

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to {gamma}-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup -2}/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  7. Three-dimensional radiation dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that calculation of physically realistic radiation dose distributions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a complex, three-dimensional problem. Traditional one-dimensional (slab) and two-dimensional (cylindrical) models, while useful for neutron beam design and performance analysis, do not provide sufficient accuracy for actual clinical use because the assumed symmetries inherent in such models do not ordinarily exist in the real world. Fortunately, however, it is no longer necessary to make these types of simplifying assumptions. Recent dramatic advances in computing technology have brought full three-dimensional dose distribution calculations for BNCT into the realm of practicality for a wide variety of routine applications. Once a geometric model and the appropriate material compositions have been determined, either stochastic (Monte Carlo) or deterministic calculations of all dose components of interest can now be performed more rapidly and inexpensively for the true three-dimensional geometries typical of actual clinical applications of BNCT. Demonstrations of both Monte Carlo and Deterministic techniques for performing three-dimensional dose distribution analysis for BNCT are provided. Calculated results are presented for a three-dimensional Lucite canine-head phantom irradiated in the epithermal neutron beam available at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The deterministic calculations are performed using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates method. The Monte Carlo calculations employ a novel method for obtaining spatially detailed radiation flux and dose distributions without the use of flux-at-a-point estimators. The calculated results are in good agreement with each other and with thermal neutron flux measurements taken using copper-gold flux wires placed at various locations in the phantom

  8. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy for oral precancer: proof of principle in an experimental animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Monti Hughes; ECC Pozzi; S. Thorp; M. A. Garabalino; R. O. Farias; S. J. Gonzalez; E. M. Heber; M. E. Itoiz; R. F. Aromando; A. J. Molinari; M. Miller; D. W. Nigg; P. Curotto; V. A. Trivillin; A. E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Field-cancerized tissue can give rise to second primary tumours, causing therapeutic failure. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on biological targeting and would serve to treat undetectable foci of malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to optimize BNCT for the integral treatment for oral cancer, with particular emphasis on the inhibitory effect on tumour development originating in precancerous conditions, and radiotoxicity of different BNCT protocols in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model.

  10. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  11. Amine-pillared Nanosheet Adsorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui

    Amine-functionalized solid adsorbents have gained attention within the last decade for their application in carbon dioxide capture, due to their many advantages such as low energy cost for regeneration, tunable structure, elimination of corrosion problems, and additional advantages. However, one of the challenges facing this technology is to accomplish both high CO 2 capture capacity along with high CO2 diffusion rates concurrently. Current amine-based solid sorbents such as porous materials similar to SBA-15 have large pores diffusion entering molecules; however, the pores become clogged upon amine inclusion. To meet this challenge, our group's solution involves the creation of a new type of material which we are calling-amino-pillared nanosheet (APN) adsorbents which are generated from layered nanosheet precursors. These materials are being proposed because of their unique lamellar structure which exhibits ability to be modified by organic or inorganic pillars through consecutive swelling and pillaring steps to form large mesoporous interlayer spaces. After the expansion of the layer space through swelling and pillaring, the large pore space can be functionalized with amine groups. This selective functionalization is possible by the choice of amine group introduced. Our choice, large amine molecules, do not access the micropore within each layer; however, either physically or chemically immobilized onto the surface of the mesoporous interlayer space between each layer. The final goal of the research is to investigate the ability to prepare APN adsorbents from a model nanoporous layered materials including nanosheets precursor material MCM-22(P) and nanoporous layered silicate material AMH-3. MCM-22(P) contains 2-dimensional porous channels, 6 membered rings (MB) openings perpendicular to the layers and 10 MB channels in the plane of the layers. However, the transport limiting openings (6 MB) to the layers is smaller than CO2 gas molecules. In contrast, AMH-3 has

  12. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  13. Antiproliferative effect and apoptosis induction in melanoma treatment by boron neutron capture therapy (BCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo; Arruda-Neto, Joao; Maria, Durvanei [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiotherapy where a compound having {sup 10}B is administered to cancer patients and is accumulated in tumor tissues. Thus, the tumor is irradiated with thermal neutrons, {sup 10}B absorbs and destroys them, producing alpha radiation. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is the agent responsible for delivering boron to the tumor tissue. After BPA administration, BNCT is used as a localized radiotherapy for many tumors treatment, mainly melanoma, which has a high mortality rate among all types of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative and antitumor effects of BNCT application in human melanoma treatment. Materials and Methods: MEWO cells (human melanoma) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of BPA (8.36 to 0.52 mg/ml). After 90 minutes, they were irradiated with thermal neutron flux up to a dose of 8.4 Gy. The parameters analyzed were free radical production, cell cycle progression, cell death signaling pathways, cycling D1, caspase-3 and extracellular matrix synthesis produced, beyond the mitochondrial electric potential analysis. Results: After BNCT treatment, MEWO cells showed an amount of free radical increase about 10 times. Still, there was a significant decrease of cyclin D1, G0/G1 proliferation, synthesis and G2/M cell cycle phases. BNCT induced a mitochondrial electrical potential decrease, as well as fibrillar proteins of extracellular matrix. BNCT had a significant number of dead cell increase, mainly by necrosis. However, BNCT induced phosphorylated caspase 3 increase. Discussion/Conclusion: BNCT induced cell death increase by necrosis, mitochondrial electric potential decrease and free radical production increase. BNCT is cytotoxic to melanoma cells. Besides necrosis, phosphorylated caspase 3 increase was observed, accompanied by a proliferative response decrease regulated by the G1/S checkpoint and matrix extracellular synthesis

  14. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu

    2006-08-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm{sup 2} treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm{sup 2} collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm {sup 10}B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm{sup 2} fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm{sup 2} collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm{sup 2} tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm {sup 10}B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The measured dose enhancement at 5.0-cm depth

  15. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-12-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm2 treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm2 collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm 10B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm2 fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm2 collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm2 tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm 10B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The

  16. Theory and Application of Dissociative Electron Capture in Molecular Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Havey, C D; Jones, T; Voorhees, K J; Laramee, J A; Cody, R B; Clougherty, D P; Eberhart, Mark; Voorhees, Kent J.; Laramee, James A.; Cody, Robert B.; Clougherty, Dennis P.

    2006-01-01

    The coupling of an electron monochromator (EM) to a mass spectrometer (MS) has created a new analytical technique, EM-MS, for the investigation of electrophilic compounds. This method provides a powerful tool for molecular identification of compounds contained in complex matrices, such as environmental samples. EM-MS expands the application and selectivity of traditional MS through the inclusion of a new dimension in the space of molecular characteristics--the electron resonance energy spectrum. However, before this tool can realize its full potential, it will be necessary to create a library of resonance energy scans from standards of the molecules for which EM-MS offers a practical means of detection. Here, an approach supplementing direct measurement with chemical inference and quantum scattering theory is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of directly calculating resonance energy spectra. This approach makes use of the symmetry of the transition-matrix element of the captured electron to discriminat...

  17. A suggestion for B-10 imaging during boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, M

    2007-01-01

    Selective accumulation of B-10 compound in tumour tissue is a fundamental condition for the achievement of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), since the effectiveness of therapy irradiation derives just from neutron capture reaction of B-10. Hence, the determination of the B-10 concentration ratio, between tumour and healthy tissue, and a control of this ratio, during the therapy, are essential to optimise the effectiveness of the BNCT, which it is known to be based on the selective uptake of B-10 compound. In this work, experimental methods are proposed and evaluated for the determination in vivo of B-10 compound in biological samples, in particular based on neutron radiography and gammaray spectroscopy by telescopic system. Measures and Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to investigate the possibility of executing imaging of the 10B distribution, both by radiography with thermal neutrons, using 6LiF/ZnS:Ag scintillator screen and a CCD camera, and by spectroscopy, based on the revelation of gamm...

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiation therapy for cancer. The first component of this treatment is the preferential localization of the stable isotope {sup 10}B in tumor cells by targeting with boronated compounds. The tumor and surrounding tissue is then irradiated with a neutron beam resulting in thermal neutron/{sup 10}B reactions ({sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li) resulting in the production of localized high LET radiation from alpha and {sup 7}Li particles. These products of the neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells, but of short range so that the majority of the ionizing energy released is microscopically confined to the vicinity of the boron-containing compound. In principal it should be possible with BNCT to selectively destroy small nests or even single cancer cells located within normal tissue. It follows that the major improvements in this form of radiation therapy are going to come largely from the development of boron compounds with greater tumor selectivity, although there will certainly be advances made in neutron beam quality as well as the possible development of alternative sources of neutron beams, particularly accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of boronated polyglycerol dendrimers as potential agent for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the polyglycerol dendrimer (PGLD) generation 5 was used to obtain a boronated macromolecule for boron neutron capture therapy. The PGLD dendrimer was synthesized by the ring opening polymerization of deprotonated glycidol using polyglycerol as core functionality in a step-growth processes denominated divergent synthesis. The PGLD dendritic structure was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization techniques. The synthesized dendrimer presented low dispersion in molecular weights (Mw/Mn = 1.05) and a degree of branching of 0.82, which characterize the polymer dendritic structure. Quantitative neutron capture radiography was used to investigate the boron-10 enrichment of the polyglycerol dendrimer. The in vitro cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells of 10B-PGLD dendrimer indicate lower cytotoxicity, suggesting that the macromolecule is a biocompatible material. (author)

  20. Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. 10B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the 10B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the 10B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the 10B(n, α)7Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 μm, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to 10B-loaded cells

  1. Single photon image from position emission tomography with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joo Young; Yoo, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Key Jo [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The BNCT theory and conceptual diagram of our proposed system are shown fig.1. Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlon-particle extende source code. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector.

  2. APPLICATION OF MICROPHONE ARRAYS FOR DISTANT SPEECH CAPTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Stolbov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of microphone arrays and beamforming techniques for speech information collection has significant advantages compared to systems operating with a single microphone. This paper presents a brief overview of microphone array systems for collecting distant speech information. The paper is based on an analysis of publications on the use of microphone arrays for speech information collection tasks, as well as on the author’s experience in the development and practical application of planar microphone arrays. The paper describes the main stages of the development of systems for remote capture of audio information. It provides a review of the main applications of microphone arrays, the basic types of microphone arrays and their features. The bulk of the paper deals with planar microphone arrays. We analyze the work of microphone arrays in different acoustic environments. The paper contains the basic equations for calculating the parameters of equidistant planar microphone arrays. Some methods of designing non-equidistant arrays are also mentioned (a list of references is included. We also provide a list of basic digital signal processing algorithms for planar microphone arrays, as well as a list of references on processing algorithms in the frequency domain. The paper includes a list of foreign companies offering systems based on microphone arrays for a wide range of tasks associated with the processing of speech and audio signals. We describe some state-of-the-art speech information collection systems based on microphone arrays. Some promising directions for the development of speech information collection systems using microphone arrays are described in conclusion. The material of the review is usable in designing of microphone arrays for specific practical applications.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy for advanced and/or recurrent cancers in the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study of 5 patients with advanced and/or recurrent cancer in the oral cavity was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The patients received therapy with the 10B-carrier p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with or without borocaptate sodium (BSH) and irradiation thereafter with epithermal neutrons. All underwent 18F-BPA PET studies before receiving BNCT to determine the accumulation ratios of BPA in tumor and normal tissues. The tumor mass was decreased in size and at minimum a transient partial response was achieved in all cases, though rapid tumor re-growth was observed in 2. Although tentative clinical responses and improvements in quality of life were recognized, obliteration of the tumor was not obtained in any of the cases. Additional studies are required to determine the utility and indication of BNCT for oral cancer. (author)

  4. Dose Determination using alanine detectors in a Mixed Neutron and Gamma Field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Liver Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for liver malignancies is being investigated at the University of Mainz. One important aim is the set-up of a reliable dosimetry system. Alanine dosimeters have previously been applied for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields in antiproton therapy, and may...

  5. Dosimetry and dose planning in boron neutron capture therapy : Monte Carlo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.

    2012-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biologically targeted radiotherapy modality. So far, 249 cancer patients have received BNCT at the Finnish Research Reactor 1 (FiR 1) in Finland. The effectiveness and safety of radiotherapy are dependent on the radiation dose delivered to the tumor and healthy tissues, and on the accuracy of the doses. At FiR 1, patient dose calculations are performed with the Monte Carlo (MC) -based treatmentplanning system (TPS), Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA). Initially, BNCT was applied to head and neck cancer, brain tumors, and malignant melanoma. To evaluate the applicability of the new target tumors for BNCT, calculation dosimetry studies are needed. So far, clinical BNCT has been performed with the neutrons from a nuclear reactor, while an accelerator based neutron sources applicable for hospital operation would be preferable. In this thesis, BNCT patient dose calculation practice in Finland was evaluated against reference calculations and experimental data in several cases. Calculations with two TPSs applied in clinical BNCT were compared. The suitability of the deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction-based compact neutron sources for BNCT were evaluated. In addition, feasibility of BNCT for noninvasive liver tumor treatments was examined. The deviation between SERA and the reference calculations was within 4% in the phantoms studied and in a brain cancer patient model elsewhere, except on the phantom or skin surface, for the boron, nitrogen, and photon dose components. These dose components produce 99% of the tumor dose and > 90% of the healthy tissue dose at points of relevance for treatment at the FiR 1 facility. The reduced voxel cell size ({<=} 0.5 cm) in the SERA edit mesh improved calculation accuracy on the surface. The erratic biased fastneutron run option in SERA led to significant underestimation (up to 30-60%) of the fastneutron dose, while more accurate fast

  6. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 24 in 1992. First, clinical experiences of BNCT in the Kyoto University Research Reactor in 1992 were briefly reported. Then, the killing effects of boron cluster-containing nucleic acid precursors on tumor cells were shown (Chap. 2). The various trials of the optical resolution of B-p-boronophenylalanine for neutron capture therapy were made (Chap. 3). The borate-dextran gel complexes were investigated by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The stability constants of borate complexes were listed, and are useful in the solution chemistry of boron compounds (Chap. 4). The interactions between boron compounds and biological materials were studied by the paper electrophoresis which had been developed by us (Chap. 5). Molecular design of boron-10 carriers and their organic synthesis were reported (Chap. 6). Carborane-containing aziridine boron carriers which were directed to the DNA alkylation were synthesized and their cancer cell killing efficacies were tested (Chap. 7). The solution chemistry of deuterium oxide which is a good neutron moderator was reported, relating to the BNCT (Chap. 8). (author)

  7. A Small-Animal Irradiation Facility for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at the RA-3 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) has constructed a thermal neutron source for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CNEA have jointly conducted some initial neutronic characterization measurements for one particular configuration of this source. The RA-3 reactor (Figure 1) is an open pool type reactor, with 20% enriched uranium plate-type fuel and light water coolant. A graphite thermal column is situated on one side of the reactor as shown. A tunnel penetrating the graphite structure enables the insertion of samples while the reactor is in normal operation. Samples up to 14 cm height and 15 cm width are accommodated

  8. Physical applications of muon catalysis: Muon capture in hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchenkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on capture of negative muons in hydrogen are reported with an emphasis on the accompanying phenomenon of muon catalysis in hydrogen and subtleties of the experimental method. A conclusion is drawn that precise determination of the capture rate is important for refining the standard model.

  9. Gel dosimeters as useful dose and thermal-fluence detectors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Valente, M. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Moss, R.L.; Daquino, G.G.; Nievaart, V.A. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755ZG Petten, The Netherlands (Netherlands); Mariani, M.; Vanossi, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio, 34/3 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [Medical Physics Department, National Cancer Institute, Via Venezian 1, I-20131, Milan (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The dosimetry method based on Fricke-Xylenol-Orange-infused gels in form of layers has shown noticeable potentiality for in-phantom or in-free-beam dose and thermal flux profiling and imaging in the high fluxes of thermal or epithermal neutrons utilised for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Gel-dosimeters in form of layers give the possibility not only of obtaining spatial dose distributions but also of achieving measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields. The discrimination of the various dose components is achieved by means of pixel-to-pixel manipulations of pairs of images obtained with gel-dosimeters having different isotopic composition. It is possible to place large dosimeters, detecting in such a way large dose images, because the layer geometry of dosimeters avoids sensitive variation of neutron transport due to the gel isotopic composition. Some results obtained after the last improvements of the method are reported. (Author)

  10. New concepts for compact accelerator/target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new target concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, that enable a large reduction in the proton beam current needed to produce epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) are described. In the NIFTI concept, high energy neutrons produced by (p, n) reactions of 2.5 MeV protons on Li are down scattered to treatment energies (∼ 20 keV) by relatively thin layers of PbF2 and iron. In the DISCOS concept, treatment energy neutrons are produced directly in a succession of thin (∼ 1 micron) liquid Li films on rotating Be foils. These foils interact with a proton beam that operates just above threshold for the (p, n) reaction, with an applied DC field to re-accelerate the proton beam between the target foils

  11. FiR 1 Reactor in Service for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Although BNCT dominates the current utilization of the reactor, it also has an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics, etc. with isotope produc- tion and activation analysis services. The whole reactor building has been renovated, creating a dedicated clinical BNCT facility at the reactor. Close to 30 patients have been treated since May 1999, when the licence for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. (author)

  12. Accelerator based neutron source for the neutron capture therapy at hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator source of epithermal neutrons for the hospital-based boron neutron capture therapy is proposed and discussed. Kinematically collimated neutrons are produced via near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction at proton energies of 1.883 - 1.9 MeV. Steady-state accelerator current of 40 mA allows to provide therapeutically useful beams with treatment times of tens of minutes. The basic components of the facility are a hydrogen negative ion source, an electrostatic tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation, a sectioned rectifier, and a thin lithium neutron generating target on the surface of tungsten disk cooled by liquid metal heat carrier. Design features of facility components are discussed. The possibility of stabilization of proton energy is considered. At proton energy of 2.5 MeV the neutron beam production for NCT usage after moderation is also considered. (author)

  13. Gel dosimeters as useful dose and thermal-fluence detectors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry method based on Fricke-Xylenol-Orange-infused gels in form of layers has shown noticeable potentiality for in-phantom or in-free-beam dose and thermal flux profiling and imaging in the high fluxes of thermal or epithermal neutrons utilised for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Gel-dosimeters in form of layers give the possibility not only of obtaining spatial dose distributions but also of achieving measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields. The discrimination of the various dose components is achieved by means of pixel-to-pixel manipulations of pairs of images obtained with gel-dosimeters having different isotopic composition. It is possible to place large dosimeters, detecting in such a way large dose images, because the layer geometry of dosimeters avoids sensitive variation of neutron transport due to the gel isotopic composition. Some results obtained after the last improvements of the method are reported. (Author)

  14. Incorporation and characterization of boron neutron capture therapy agents into mesoporous silicon and silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ke; Coffer, Jeffery L. [Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Loni, Armando; Canham, Leigh T. [PSi Medica Ltd., Malvern, Worcestershire, WR14 3SZ (United Kingdom); Intrinsiq Materials Ltd., Malvern, Worcestershire, WR14 3SZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The tunable pore size, biodegradability, and surface chemistry of mesoporous silicon (BioSilicon trademark) are important to a broad spectrum of uses for drug delivery. For the case of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), encapsulation of a given boron-containing drug molecule within a porous BioSilicon trademark microparticle provides a vehicle for a brachytherapy method that avoids the necessity of drug modification. In this work, the loading and characterization of three clinically approved BNCT drugs into mesoporous Si is demonstrated. Because of difficulties associated with light element detection, a method based on a Beer's Law analysis of selected FTIR vibrational bands has been developed to estimate boron-containing drug loading in these materials. As a complementary nanostructural platform, a cathodic deposition process for the surface enriched growth of selected drugs onto the surface of silicon nanowires is also described. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Electroporation increases the effect of borocaptate (10B-BSH) in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The cell membrane permeability of borocaptate (10B-BSH) and its extent of accumulation in cells are controversial. This study was performed to elucidate these points. Methods and Materials: Two different treatments were applied to SCCVII tumor cells. The first group of tumor cells was incubated in culture medium with 10B-BSH or 10B-enriched boric acid, and was exposed to neutrons from the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). More than 99% of neutrons were thermal neutrons at flux base. The second group was pretreated by electroporation in combination with 10B-BSH, and thereafter the cells were irradiated with neutrons. The cell killing effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using BSH were investigated by colony formation assay. Results: Surviving cell fraction decreased exponentially with neutron fluence, and addition of BSH significantly enhanced the cell killing effect of neutron capture therapy (NCT) depending on 10B concentration. The effect of BSH-BNCT also increased with preincubation time of cells in the medium containing BSH. The electroporation of cells with BSH at 10 ppm 10B markedly enhanced BSH-BNCT effects in comparison with that of preincubation alone. The effect of BSH-BNCT with electroporation was equal to that of BNCT using 10B-boric acid at a same 10B concentration (10 ppm). Conclusions: BSH is suggested to penetrate the cells slowly and remained after washing. Electroporation can introduce BSH into the cells very efficiently, and BSH stays in the cells and is not lost by washing. Therefore, if electroporation is applied to tumors after BSH injection, 10B remains in tumors but is cleared from normal tissues, and selective accumulation of 10B in tumors will be achieved after an adequate waiting time

  16. DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy is partially repaired by DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Hirota, Yuki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kinashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo; Ono, Koji

    2016-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle radiation therapy that involves the use of a thermal or epithermal neutron beam in combination with a boron ((10)B)-containing compound that specifically accumulates in tumor. (10)B captures neutrons and the resultant fission reaction produces an alpha ((4)He) particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus ((7)Li). These particles have the characteristics of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and therefore have marked biological effects. High-LET radiation is a potent inducer of DNA damage, specifically of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of DNA ligase IV, a key player in the non-homologous end-joining repair pathway, in the repair of BNCT-induced DSBs. We analyzed the cellular sensitivity of the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines Lig4-/- p53-/- and Lig4+/+ p53-/- to irradiation using a thermal neutron beam in the presence or absence of (10)B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA). The Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line had a higher sensitivity than the Lig4+/+ p53-/-cell line to irradiation with the beam alone or the beam in combination with BPA. In BNCT (with BPA), both cell lines exhibited a reduction of the 50 % survival dose (D 50) by a factor of 1.4 compared with gamma-ray and neutron mixed beam (without BPA). Although it was found that (10)B uptake was higher in the Lig4+/+ p53-/- than in the Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line, the latter showed higher sensitivity than the former, even when compared at an equivalent (10)B concentration. These results indicate that BNCT-induced DNA damage is partially repaired using DNA ligase IV. PMID:26573366

  17. Tomographic image of prompt gamma ray from boron neutron capture therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resulting neutron captures in 10B are used for radiation therapy. The occurrence point of the characteristic 478 keV prompt gamma rays agrees with the neutron capture point. If these prompt gamma rays are detected by external instruments such as a gamma camera or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the therapy region can be monitored during the treatment using images. A feasibility study and analysis of a reconstructed image using many projections (128) were conducted. The optimization of the detection system and a detailed neutron generator simulation were beyond the scope of this study. The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT-SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The quality of the prompt gamma ray SPECT image obtained from BNCT was evaluated quantitatively using three different boron uptake regions and was shown to depend on the location and size relations. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT-SPECT image were also estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multi tumor regions should be treated using the BNCT method, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from SPECT can be provided to the BNCT facilities based on the preceding imaging research. However, because the scope of this research was limited to checking the feasibility of 3D BNCT-SPECT image reconstruction using multiple projections, along with an evaluation of the image, some simulation conditions were taken from previous studies. In the future, a simulation will be conducted that includes optimized conditions for an actual BNCT facility, along with an imaging process for motion correction in BNCT. Although an excessively long simulation time was required to obtain enough events for image reconstruction, the feasibility of acquiring a 3D BNCT-SPECT image using multiple projections was confirmed using a Monte Carlo simulation, and a quantitative image analysis was

  18. The design, construction and performance of a variable collimator for epithermal neutron capture therapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Ali, S. J.; Harling, O. K.

    2004-05-01

    A patient collimator for the fission converter based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) was built for clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A design was optimized by Monte Carlo simulations of the entire beam line and incorporates a modular construction for easy modifications in the future. The device was formed in-house by casting a mixture of lead spheres (7.6 mm diameter) in epoxy resin loaded with either 140 mg cm-3 of boron carbide or 210 mg cm-3 of lithium fluoride (95% enriched in 6Li). The cone shaped collimator allows easy field placement anywhere on the patient and is equipped with a laser indicator of central axis, beam's eye view optics and circular apertures of 80, 100, 120 and 160 mm diameter. Beam profiles and the collateral dose in a half-body phantom were measured for the 160 mm field using fission counters, activation foils as well as tissue equivalent (A-150) and graphite walled ionization chambers. Leakage radiation through the collimator contributes less than 10% to the total collateral dose up to 0.15 m beyond the edge of the aperture and becomes relatively more prominent with lateral displacement. The measured whole body dose equivalent of 24 ± 2 mSv per Gy of therapeutic dose is comparable to doses received during conventional therapy and is due principally (60-80%) to thermal neutron capture reactions with boron. These findings, together with the dose distributions for the primary beam, demonstrate the suitability of this patient collimator for BNCT.

  19. Neutron capture therapy for cancer: development at the National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involves the concurrent presence of a flux of neutrons of adequate energy and Boron 10 as a capture agent. They interact to damage tumor cells but fail to produce significant damage to healthy tissue because the destructive effect occurs mainly in the tumor cells that have selectively accumulated boron. This technique is applied for the treatment of brain tumors of the glioblastoma multiform type and melanoma in different locations. The aim of this project at CNEA is to develop the technological, scientific, clinical know-how and facilities to undertake clinical trials in Argentina. The development of the irradiation facility, the clinical beam and dosimetry was developed at the RA-6 reactor, Bariloche Atomic Center. Treatment planning, instrumentation for the neutron beam, boron measurements, neutron beam for small animal irradiation at the RA-1 reactor and basic research in radiobiology, microdosimetry and autoradiography were developed at Constituyentes Atomic Center. It is also conducted an intense activity in accelerator based BNCT. The infusions to be injected to the patients are prepared at Ezeiza Atomic Center. The clinics of BNCT radiotherapy is developed at the Roffo Institute of Oncology and the neurosurgery at the Argerich Hospital. At present, the project is close to start in the following months to treat melanoma in the limbs, when the authorization procedure is completed. (author)

  20. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy for advanced salivary gland carcinoma in head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a among the radiation treatments known to have a selective lethal effect on tumor cells. This study summarizes the tumor responses and the acute and late adverse effects of BNCT in the treatment of patients with both recurrent and newly diagnosed T4 salivary gland carcinoma. Two patients with recurrent cancer and 3 with newly diagnosed T4 advanced malignancy were registered between October 2003 and September 2007, with the approval of the medical ethics committees of Kawasaki Medical School and Kyoto University. BNCT was performed, in a single fraction using an epithermal beam, at Japan Research Reactor 4. All patients achieved a complete response within 6 months of treatment. The median duration of the complete response was 24.0 months; the median overall survival time was 32.0 months. Three of the 5 patients are still alive; the other 2 died of distant metastatic disease. Open biopsy of the parotid gland after BNCT was performed in 1 patient and revealed no residual viable cancer cells and no serious damage to the normal glandular system. Although mild alopecia, xerostomia, and fatigue occurred in all patients, there were no severe adverse effects of grade 3 or greater. Our preliminary results demonstrate that BNCT is a potential curative therapy for patients with salivary gland carcinoma. The treatment does not cause any serious adverse effects, and may be used regardless of whether the primary tumor has been previously treated. (author)

  2. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  4. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 μg 10B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg 10B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4–6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  5. Analytical applications of neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-rays from thermal induced nuclear reactions have been used to estimate the boron, chlorine and phosphorus contents in industrial and reference materials. A neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy facility for analytical purposes using 252-Cf sources has been designed and calibrated. The facility is principally designed for the measurement of the prompt gamma-ray spectra obtained due to thermal neutron capture by means of the internal target geometry. The capture spectra were recorded using a high resolution Ge(Li) system. The designed facility and the system used in this work are described in detail. A weight of 50 to 100 gm of each sample in a power or liquid form encapsulated in a polyethene container was used. Sensitivity curves using different standard concentration values of B, Cl and P, were constructed. The concentration range was from 0.005 to 30%. (orig.)

  6. For boron neutron capture therapy,synthesizing boron-polymer compounds and testing in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to establish a focus point at Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) in the field of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy which is a binary radiotherapy method for brain tumours. Moreover in the scope of the project, a new alternative of 10B-carrier compounds will be synthesized, the neutron source will be determined and the infrastructure to start the clinical trials of BNCT in our country will be established. BNCT is a binary radiotherapy method and the successful of this method is depend on the synthesized boron compounds which have the selective targeting property with tumour cells and neutron optimization. The water-soluble polymer based boron compounds having biochemical and physiological properties will be synthesized and cell culture experiment will be done. In addition, after the neutron source is set up in our country, the infrastructure studies will be started in order to start the clinical trials of BNCT. In this project, there are three different groups as boron compounds, neutron physics and medical group. Neutron physics group is starting the calculations of neutron beam parameters using in BNCT application. But, medical group has no active studies yet. Boron compounds group has been carried out two different experimental studies. In the first experimental study, functional groups have been bound to boron containing polymers to enhance the selectively targeting property and characterized by various analysis methods. Later, cell culture experiment will be done. The first study has been carried out with Hacettepe University. Up to present, completed studies are listed as: -Maleic anhydride oligomer was synthesized and then 2-aminoethyl diphenyl borate (2-AEPB) and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was bound to this oligomer, respectively. Thus, [MAH]n-g1-2-AEPB-g2-PEG was synthesized. -2-AEPB compound were bound to poly(acrylic acid) polymer at different three mole ratio.Then, the selected Poli(Ac)-g1-2-AEPB polymer was

  7. Clinical Application of Photodynamic Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-long; LIU Duan-qi

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy(PDT) is a new medical technology, the study on photodynamic therapy was in full swing in the past two decade. Scientists have made great progress in it. Photosensitizer,oxygen and light source play important role in photodynamic therapy.PDT is a light activated chemotherapy. A photon is adsorbed by a photosensitizer which moves the drug into an excited state. The excited drug can then pass its energy to oxygen to create a chemical radical called "singlet oxygen". Singlet oxygen attacks cellular structures by oxidation. Such oxidative damage might be oxidation of cell membranes or proteins. When the accumulation of oxidative damage exceeds a threshold level,the cell begins to die.Photodynamic therapy allows selective treatment of localized cancer. PDT involves administration of a photosensitizer to the patients, followed by delivery of light to the cancerous region. The light activates the agent which kills the cancer cells. Without light,the agent is harmless.As a new therapy,photodynamic Therapy has great Advantage in treating cancers. 1. PDT avoids systemic treatment. The treatment occurs only where light is delivered, hence the patient does not undergo go needless systemic treatment when treating localized disease. Side-effects are avoided, from losing hair or suffering nausea to more serious complications. 2. PDT is selective. The photosensitizing agent will selectively accumulate in cancer cells and not in surrounding normal tissues.Hence ,there is selective targeting of the cancer and sparing of surrounding tissues.3. when surgery is not possible. PDT kills cancer cells but does not damage collagenous tissue structures,and normal cells will repopulate these structures. Hence,if a patient has cancer in a structure that cannot be removed surgically(eg. ,the upper bronchi of the lung) ,PDT can still treat the site. 4. PDT is repeatable. Unilke radiation therapy, PDT can be used again and again. Hence,it offers a means of longterm management

  8. Selective uptake of p-boronophenylalanine by osteosarcoma cells for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is the most common non-hematologic primary cancer type that develops in bone. Current osteosarcoma treatments combine multiagent chemotherapy with extensive surgical resection, which in some cases makes necessary the amputation of the entire limb. Nevertheless its infiltrative growth leads to a high incidence of local and distant recurrences that reduce the percentage of cured patients to less than 60%. These poor data required to set up a new therapeutic approach aimed to restrict the surgical removal meanwhile performing a radical treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a particular radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions by atoms of 10B, when irradiated with thermal neutrons, could be a valid alternative or integrative option in case of osteosarcoma management, thanks to its peculiarity in selectively destroying neoplastic cells without damaging normal tissues. Aim of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of employing BNCT to treat the limb osteosarcoma. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is used to carry 10B inside the neoplastic cells. As a first step the endocellular BPA uptake is tested in vitro on the UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell line. The results show an adequate accumulation capability. For the in vivo experiments, an animal tumor model is developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by means of an intrafemoral injection of UMR-106 cells at the condyle site. The absolute amounts of boron loading and the tumor to normal tissue 10B ratio are evaluated 2 h after the i.v. administration of BPA. The boron uptake by the neoplastic tissue is almost twice the normal one. However, higher values of boron concentration in tumor are requested before upholding BNCT as a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  9. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  10. Applications of markerless motion capture in gait recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandau, Martin

    2016-03-01

    This thesis is based on four manuscripts where two of them were accepted and two were submitted to peer-reviewed journals. The experimental work behind the thesis was conducted at the Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen. The purpose of the studies was to explore the variability of human gait and to conduct new methods for precise estimation of the kinematic parameters applied in forensic gait analysis. The gait studies were conducted in a custom built gait laboratory designed to obtain optimal conditions for markerless motion analysis. The set-up consisted of eight synchronised cameras located in the corners of the laboratory, which were connected to a single computer. The captured images were processed with stereovision-based algorithms to provide accurate 3D reconstructions of the participants. The 3D reconstructions of the participants were obtained during normal walking and the kinematics were extracted with manual and automatic methods. The kinematic results from the automatic approach were compared to marker-based motion capture to validate the precision. The results showed that the proposed markerless motion capture method had a precision comparable to marker-based methods in the frontal plane and the sagittal plane. Similar markerless motion capture methods could therefore provide the basis for reliable gait recognition based on kinematic parameters. The manual annotations were compared to the actual anthropometric measurements obtained from MRI scans and the intra- and inter-observer variability was also quantified to observe the associated effect on recognition. The results showed not only that the kinematics in the lower extremities were important but also that the kinematics in the shoulders had a high discriminatory power. Likewise, the shank length was also highly discriminatory, which has not been previously reported. However, it is important that the same expert performs all annotations, as the inter

  11. Can epithermal boron neutron capture therapy treat primary and metastatic liver cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.A. [Austin Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg (Australia); Carolan, M.C. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong (Australia); Allen, B.J. [St George Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: The poor prognosis of metastatic cancer to the liver calls for the investigation of alternative treatment modalities. This paper analyses the possible use of epithermal boron neutron capture therapy for the palliative treatment of these cancers. We examine possible treatment planning scenarios for selected tumour to liver boron ratios, and specifically for the epithermal beam at the HFR, Petten. It is required that a therapeutic ratio> 1 be achieved over the entire organ. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP. The geometrical model used a `variable voxel` technique to reconstruct an anthropomorphic phantom from CT scans. Regions of interest such as the liver were modelled to a resolution of a few millimetres, whereas surrounding regions were modelled with lesser detail thereby facilitating faster computation time. Three dimensional dose distributions were calculated for a frontal beam directed at the liver, and found to be in satisfactory agreement with measurements using bare and cadmium covered gold foils, PIN and MOSFET dosimeters for fast neutron and gamma measurements respectively. Dose distributions were calculated for orthogonal epithermal neutron beams to the front and side, using the parameters of the epithermal beam at Petten, and assumed tumour and normal tissue boron-10 concentrations of 30 ppm and 7.5 ppm boron-10 respectively. The therapeutic ratio (i e the dose to the tumour relative to the maximum dose to normal tissue) was found to be about 1.8, reducing to unity for the limiting condition of a tumour in the posterior liver. This result opens up the possibility of palliative therapy for the management of primary and metastatic liver cancer.

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of neutron capture therapy for local advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kumada, H. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Furuya, Y. [Department of Surgery, Satukidai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Local recurrence breast cancer is one of the most difficult conditions to cure and there is a need for new therapy. If sufficient boron compound can be targeted to the tumor, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be applied to local recurrent breast cancer. In this study, we performed a preliminary dosimetry with a phantom model of the mammary gland at Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), and a feasibility dosimetry with JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute. We performed preliminary dosimetry of a phantom model of the mammary gland with thermal neutron irradiation (OO-0011 mode) on LiF collimation at KUR. The thermal neutron flux was 5.16 E+08 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the surface of phantom. The blood boron concentration is estimated to be 30 ppm; tumor boron concentration is also estimated to be 90 ppm according to tumor/blood ratio 3 and skin/blood ratio 1.2. Tumor RBE dose is estimated to be 47 Gy/h, and skin RBE dose is 12.4 Gy/h. In case of advanced breast cancer, we performed the feasibility estimation of 3D construction of tumor according to the MRI imaging of a patient with epithermal neutron mode at JRR4. The blood boron concentration (ppm) and tumor/normal tissue ratio are estimated to be 24 and 3.5, respectively. Skin RBE dose is restricted to 10 Gy/h, the maximum tumor RBE dose, minimum tumor RBE dose, and mean tumor RBE dose are 42.2, 11.3, and 28.9 Gy-Eq, respectively, in half hour irradiation. In this study, we showed the possibility to apply BNCT to local recurrent breast cancer. We can irradiate tumors selectively and as safely as possible, reducing the effects on neighboring healthy tissues.

  13. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  14. Nanodrug applications in photodynamic therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Paszko, Edyta

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has developed over last century and is now becoming a more widely used medical tool having gained regulatory approval for the treatment of various diseases such as cancer and macular degeneration. It is a two-step technique in which the delivery of a photosensitizing drug is followed by the irradiation of light. Activated photosensitizers transfer energy to molecular oxygen which results in the generation of reactive oxygen species which in turn cause cells apoptosis or necrosis. Although this modality has significantly improved the quality of life and survival time for many cancer patients it still offers significant potential for further improvement. In addition to the development of new PDT drugs, the use of nanosized carriers for photosensitizers is a promising approach which might improve the efficiency of photodynamic activity and which can overcome many side effects associated with classic photodynamic therapy. This review aims at highlighting the different types of nanomedical approaches currently used in PDT and outlines future trends and limitations of nanodelivery of photosensitizers.

  15. MEDICINAL VESICULATION THERAPY AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LIU Haijing; SUN Zhanling

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce medicinal vesiculation therapy from its origin, points for attention in clinical application, and their individual experiences. In clinical application, the authors advocate: ① avoid using drugs that are over-irritating in the property, and strictly controlling the dose of drugs end the duration of application,②) in selection of drugs, some factors as patients' conditions, the season, the geographic location, etc. should be taken into account. In the present paper, 3 typical cases of bronchial asthma, tonsil swelling and facial paralysis treated with medicinal vesiculation therapy are introduced. Clinical practice demonsetrates that this therapy is economical,simple and convenient and fairly effective in treatment of some chronic diseases.

  16. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nakagawa, Y; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is...

  17. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material FluentalTM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  18. Accumulation of MRI contrast agents in malignant fibrous histiocytoma for gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan)], E-mail: fujitaku@hp.pref.hyogo.jp; Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fujita, I. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Kishimoto, K.; Hara, H. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Kawamitsu, H. [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Sharma, P.; Brown, S.C.; Moudgil, B.M. [Particle Engineering Research Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32611 (United States); Fujii, M. [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Neutron-capture therapy with gadolinium (Gd-NCT) has therapeutic potential, especially that gadolinium is generally used as a contrast medium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accumulation of gadolinium in a human sarcoma cell line, malignant fibrosis histiocytoma (MFH) Nara-H, was visualized by the MRI system. The commercially available MRI contrast medium Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, dimeglumine gadopentetate aqueous solution) and the biodegradable and highly gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) were prepared as MRI contrast agents. The MFH cells were cultured and collected into three falcon tubes that were set into the 3-tesra MRI system to acquire signal intensities from each pellet by the spin echo method, and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) was calculated. The amount of Gd in the sample was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrography (ICP-AES). The accumulation of gadolinium in cells treated with Gd-nanoCPs was larger than that in cells treated with Gd-DTPA. In contrast, and compared with the control, Gd-DTPA was more effective than Gd-nanoCPs in reducing T1, suggesting that the larger accumulation exerted the adverse effect of lowering the enhancement of MRI. Further studies are warranted to gain insight into the therapeutic potential of Gd-NCT.

  19. Thermal neutron irradiation field design for boron neutron capture therapy of human explanted liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, S; Altieri, S

    2007-12-01

    The selective uptake of boron by tumors compared to that by healthy tissue makes boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an extremely advantageous technique for the treatment of tumors that affect a whole vital organ. An example is represented by colon adenocarcinoma metastases invading the liver, often resulting in a fatal outcome, even if surgical resection of the primary tumor is successful. BNCT can be performed by irradiating the explanted organ in a suitable neutron field. In the thermal column of the Triga Mark II reactor at Pavia University, a facility was created for this purpose and used for the irradiation of explanted human livers. The neutron field distribution inside the organ was studied both experimentally and by means of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP). The liver was modeled as a spherical segment in MCNP and a hepatic-equivalent solution was used as an experimental phantom. In the as-built facility, the ratio between maximum and minimum flux values inside the phantom ((phi(max)/phi(min)) was 3.8; this value can be lowered to 2.3 by rotating the liver during the irradiation. In this study, the authors proposed a new facility configuration to achieve a uniform thermal neutron flux distribution in the liver. They showed that a phi(max)/phi(min) ratio of 1.4 could be obtained without the need for organ rotation. Flux distributions and dose volume histograms were reported for different graphite configurations. PMID:18196797

  20. Improvement of dose distribution by central beam shielding in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji

    2007-12-01

    Since boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beams started at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in June 2002, nearly 200 BNCT treatments have been carried out. The epithermal neutron irradiation significantly improves the dose distribution, compared with the previous irradiation mainly using thermal neutrons. However, the treatable depth limit still remains. One effective technique to improve the limit is the central shield method. Simulations were performed for the incident neutron energies and the annular components of the neutron source. It was clear that thermal neutron flux distribution could be improved by decreasing the lower energy neutron component and the inner annular component of the incident beam. It was found that a central shield of 4-6 cm diameter and 10 mm thickness is effective for the 12 cm diameter irradiation field. In BNCT at KUR, the depth dose distribution can be much improved by the central shield method, resulting in a relative increase of the dose at 8 cm depth by about 30%. In addition to the depth dose distribution, the depth dose profile is also improved. As the dose rate in the central area is reduced by the additional shielding, the necessary irradiation time, however, increases by about 30% compared to normal treatment.

  1. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations

  2. Basic study for development of new tumor specific agents for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New tissue specific agents for neutron capture therapy was studied. Monoclonal labeled gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-MoAb) and porphyrin (ATN-10)-Gd-DTPA (Gd-ATN10) were studied as possible agents by using 9-L experimental brain tumor model. The tissue concentration were analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer. Gd-MoAb showed persistent retention in the tumor on MRI, but tissue gadolinium concentration was not detectable in the tumor by ICP analyzer, while there was high accumulation of Gd-MoAb in the liver. Gd-ATN10 showed prolonged and high accumulation in the tumor up to 48 hours on MRI. Gadolinium concentration reached up to 9 ppm in the tumor by 0.02 mmol/kg administration, but it disappeared within 6 hours after administration. This dissociation between MRI and ICP analysis was due to separation of ATN-10 and Gd-DTPA. As conclusions, the porphyrin compounds are potential agents for delivering gadolinium or boron specific to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrinfic to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrin and Gd-DTPA is needed. (author)

  3. Design of an accelerator-based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy is mainly suited in the treatment of some tumor kinds which revealed ineffective to the traditional radiotherapy. In order to take advantage of such a therapeutic modality in hospital environments, neutron beams of suitable energy and flux levels provided by compact size facilities are needed. The advantages and drawbacks of several neutron beams are here analysed in terms of therapeutic gains. In detail the GEANT-3/MICAP simulations show that high tumor control probability, with sub-lethal dose at healthy tissues, can be achieved by using neutron beams of few keV energy having a flux of about 109 neutrons/(cm2 s). To produce such a neutron beam, the feasibility of a proton accelerator is investigated. In particular an appropriate choice of the radiofrequency parameters (modulation, efficiency of acceleration, phase shift, etc.) allows the development of relatively compact accelerators, having a proton beam current of 30 mA and an energy of 2 MeV, which could eventually lead to setting up of hospital-based neutron facilities.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy outcomes for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively review outcomes of applying boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers. Patients who were treated with BNCT for either local recurrent or newly diagnosed unresectable head or neck cancers between December 2001 and September 2007 were included. Clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrieved from hospital records. Either a combination of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine (BPA) or BPA alone were used as boron compounds. In all the treatment cases, the dose constraint was set to deliver a dose <10–12 Gy-eq to the skin or oral mucosa. There was a patient cohort of 62, with a median follow-up of 18.7 months (range, 0.7–40.8). A total of 87 BNCT procedures were performed. The overall response rate was 58% within 6 months after BNCT. The median survival time was 10.1 months from the time of BNCT. The 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 43.1% and 24.2%, respectively. The major acute Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were hyperamylasemia (38.6%), fatigue (6.5%), mucositis/stomatitis (9.7%) and pain (9.7%), all of which were manageable. Three patients died of treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced carotid artery hemorrhage, two of whom had coexistent infection of the carotid artery. This study confirmed the feasibility of our dose-estimation method and that controlled trials are warranted. (author)

  5. Effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Itsuro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: katoitsu@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujita, Yusei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, Akira [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohmae, Masatoshi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Izimisano Municipal Hospital, Rinku General Hospital, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Environment and Life Science, Osaka prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto (Japan); CEO of Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sakrai, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University of Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Sumi, Tetsuro; Iwai, Soichi; Nakazawa, Mitsuhiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Murata, Isao; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ono, Koji [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) to avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. We have treated with BNCT 42 times for 26 patients (19 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results of (1) {sup 10}B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratios (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 12 cases, PR: 10 cases, PD: 3 cases NE (not evaluated): 1 case. Response rate was 85%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-72 months (mean: 13.6 months). Six-year survival rate was 24% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) Adverse-events were transient mucositis and alopecia in most of the cases; three osteomyelitis and one brain necrosis were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM.

  6. A fundamental study on hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K

    1994-12-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo code 'MCNP-V3' in order to investigate the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e. (i) depth dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, and (ii) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper areas in a living body compared with thermal neutron irradiation. When hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution are incident on a body, the reaction rates of 1/v materials such as 14N, 10B etc are about twice that observed for incident thermal neutrons at 300 K, at a depth of 5 cm. The limit of the treatable depth for tumours having 30 ppm 10B is expected to be about 1.5 cm greater by utilizing hyper-thermal neutrons at 3000 K compared with the incidence of thermal neutrons at 300 K.

  7. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  8. Sonoporation as an enhancing method for boron neutron capture therapy for squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a selective radiotherapy that is dependent on the accumulation of 10B compound in tumors. Low-intensity ultrasound produces a transient pore on cell membranes, sonoporation, which enables extracellular materials to enter cells. The effect of sonoporation on BNCT was examined in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) xenografts in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were administrated boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boronocaptate sodium (BSH) intraperitoneally. Two hours later, tumors were subjected to sonoporation using microbubbles followed by neutron irradiation. The 10B concentration was higher in tumors treated with sonoporation than in untreated tumors, although the difference was not significant in BPA. When tumors in mice that received BPA intraperitoneally were treated with sonoporation followed by exposure to thermal neutrons, tumor volume was markedly reduced and the survival rate was prolonged. Such enhancements by sonoporation were not observed in mice treated with BSH-mediated BNCT. These results indicate that sonoporation enhances the efficiency of BPA-mediated BNCT for oral SCC. Sonoporation may modulate the microlocalization of BPA and BSH in tumors and increase their intracellular levels

  9. A novel reactor concept for boron neutron capture therapy: annular low-low power reactor (ALLPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, B.; Levine, S.H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNC), originally proposed in 50's, has been getting renewed attention over the last {approx}10 years. This is in particular due to its potential for treating deep-seated brain tumors by employing epithermal neutron beams. Large (several MW) research reactors are currently used to obtain epithermal beams for BNCT, but because of cost and licensing issues it is not likely that such high-power reactors can be placed in regular medical centers. This paper describes a novel reactor concept for BNCT devised to overcome this obstacle. The design objective was to produce a beam of epithermal neutrons of sufficient intensity for BNCT at <50 kW using low enriched uranium. It is achieved by the annular reactor design, which is called Annular Low-Low Power Reactor (ALLPR). Preliminary studies using Monte Carlo simulations are summarized in this paper. The ALLPR should be relatively economical to build, and safe and easy to operate. This novel concept may increase the viability of using BNCT in medical centers worldwide. (author)

  10. Modelling collimator of radial beam port Kartini reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the cancer therapy methods is BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). BNCT utilizes neutron nature by 10B deposited on cancer cells. The superiority of BNCT compared to the radiation therapy is the high level of selectivity since its level is within cell. This study was carried out on collimator modelling in radial beam port of reactor Kartini for BNCT. The modelling was conducted by simulation using software of Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP 5). MCNP5 is a package of the programs for both simulating and calculating the problem of particle transport by following the life cycle of a neutron since its birth from fission reaction, transport on materials, until eventually lost due to the absorption reaction or out from the system. The collimator modelling used materials which varied in size in order to generate the value of each of the parameters in accordance with the recommendation of the IAEA, the epithermal neutron flux (ϕepi) > 1.0 x 109n.cm-2s-1, the ratio between the neutron dose rate fast and epithermal neutron flux (Df/ϕepi) < 2.0 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, the ratio of gamma dose rate and epithermal neutron flux (Dγ/ϕepi) < 2.0 X10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, the ratio between the thermal and epithermal neutron flux (ϕTh/ϕepi)< 0.05 and the ratio between the current and flux of the epithermal neutron (J/ϕepi) > 0.7. Based on the results of the optimization of the modeling, the materials and sizes of the collimator construction obtained were 0.75 cm Ni as collimator wall, 22 cm Al as a moderator and 4.5 cm Bi as a gamma shield. The outputs of the radiation beam generated from collimator modeling of the radial beam port were ϕepi = 5.25 x 106 n.cm-2.s-1, Df/ϕepi = 1.17 x 10-13Gy.cm2.n-1, Dγ/ϕepi = 1.70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, ϕTh/ϕepi = 1.51 and J/ϕepi = 0.731. Based on this study, the result of the beam radiation coming out of the radial beam port dis not fully meet the criteria recommended by IAEA so need to continue this study to get the criteria of IAEA

  11. Using smartphone applications as hand therapy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, Lori; Valdes, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    In the hand therapy clinic, smartphones can be used as an educational resource, to view a photo or video of a home exercise program, or as a method of electronically documenting progress related to healing from an injury. Smartphone applications may also serve as appropriate therapy interventions to address deficits often presenting with common hand injuries. For individuals with trapeziometacarpal arthrosis, gaming can encourage radial abduction range of motion and neuromuscular control required for joint stability. People with distal radius fractures may benefit from smartphone applications for range of motion and proprioceptive training. These treatments may assist with addressing client-centered goals and be motivating in the current technology driven times.

  12. Feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis using Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA), a currently available BNCT treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: The BNCT treatment plans were constructed for 3 patients with MPM using the SERA system, with 2 opposed anterior-posterior beams. The 1B concentrations in the tumor and normal lung in this study were assumed to be 84 and 24 ppm, respectively, and were derived from data observed in clinical trials. The maximum, mean, and minimum doses to the tumors and the normal lung were assessed for each plan. The doses delivered to 5% and 95% of the tumor volume, D05 and D95, were adopted as the representative dose for the maximum and minimum dose, respectively. Results: When the D05 to the normal ipsilateral lung was 5 Gy-Eq, the D95 and mean doses delivered to the normal lung were 2.2-3.6 and 3.5-4.2 Gy-Eq, respectively. The mean doses delivered to the tumors were 22.4-27.2 Gy-Eq. The D05 and D95 doses to the tumors were 9.6-15.0 and 31.5-39.5 Gy-Eq, respectively. Conclusions: From a viewpoint of the dose-distribution analysis, BNCT has the possibility to be a promising treatment for MPM patients who are inoperable because of age and other medical illnesses

  13. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction (10B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT, and

  14. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb

  15. The combined effect of electroporation and borocaptate in boron neutron capture therapy for murine solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B-Enriched borocaptate (BSH) was administered intraperitoneally to SCCVII tumor-bearing C3H/He mice. Electroporation (EP) was conducted by using a tweezers-type electrode. The 10B contents in tumors were measured by prompt γ-ray spectrometry. The colony formation assay was applied to investigate the antitumor effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and thereby to estimate the intratumor localization of BSH. The 10B concentrations in tumors decreased with time following BSH administration, falling to 5.4(±0.1) ppm at 3 h, whereas EP treatment (3 repetitions) 15 min after BSH injection delayed the clearance of BSH from tumors, and the 10B level remained at 19.4(±0.9) ppm at 3 h. The effect of BNCT increased with the 10B concentration in tumors, and the combination with EP showed a remarkably large cell killing effect even at 3 h after BSH injection. The effect of BNCT, i.e., slope coefficient of the cell survival curve of tumors, without EP was proportional to tumor 10B level (r=0.982), and that of BSH-BNCT combined with EP lay close to the same correlation line. However, tumors subjected to EP after BSH injection did not show high radiosensitivity when irradiated after conversion to a single cell suspension by enzymatic digestion. This indicates that the increase of the BNCT effect by EP was a consequence of enclosure of BSH in the interstitial space of tumor tissue and not within tumor cells. This is different from a previous in vitro study. The combination of EP and BNCT may be clinically useful, if a procedure to limit EP to the tumor region becomes available or if an alternative similar method is employed. (author)

  16. Growth inhibition of human pancreatic cancer grafts in nude mice by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10B and thermal neutrons to release alpha-particles (4He) and lithium-7 ions (7Li). The 4He kills cells in the range of 10 μm from the site of 4He generation. Therefore, it is theoretically possible to kill tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy tissues, if 10B-compounds could be selectively delivered. We have described that 10B atoms delivered by immunoliposomes exerted cytotoxic effect on human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) in a dose-dependent manner by thermal neutron irradiation in vitro as reported previously. In the present study, the cytotoxic effect of a locally injected 10B compound solution or multilamellar liposomes containing a 10B compound to human pancreatic carcinoma xenograft in nude mice was evaluated after thermal neutron irradiation. AsPC-1 cells (1 x 107) injected subcutaneously into a nude mouse grew to a tumor weighing 100-300 mg after 2 weeks. At this time 200 μg 10B compounds was locally injected in the tumor and irradiated with 2 x 1012 n/cm2 thermal neutron. Tumor growth of 10B-treated groups was suppressed as compared with control group. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in the tumor tissues. For effective tumor destruction, 10B dose more than 60 μg was necessary. The tumor tissue injected with saline only and irradiated showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These data indicate that the accumulation of 10B atoms to the tumor site is mandatory for the cytotoxic effect by thermal neutron irradiation. (author)

  17. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study. PMID:16475772

  19. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Sanatorium Kagawa-Children' s Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kageji, Teruyoshi [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal in the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System which can support to set the patient to an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design of JCDS and functions in several processing, calculation methods, characteristics and performance of JCDS. (author)

  20. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  1. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models

  2. The radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Are ''photon-equivalent'' doses really photon-equivalent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)

  3. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA): A therapeutic agent for boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, C. S.; Prasad, P V; Busse, Paul; L. Tang; Zamenhof, R. G.

    1999-01-01

    Noninvasive in vivo quantitation of boron is necessary for obtaining pharmacokinetic data on candidate boronated delivery agents developed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Such data, in turn, would facilitate the optimization of the temporal sequence of boronated drug infusion and neutron irradiation. Current approaches to obtaining such pharmacokinetic data include: positron emission tomography employing F-18 labeled boronated delivery agents (e.g., p-boronophenylalanine), ex vivo n...

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  5. Comparison of the radiobiological effects of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is an experimental radiotherapeutic modality that uses the capacity of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons leading to the production of 4He and 7Li, particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The aim was to evaluate and compare in vitro the mechanisms of response to the radiation arising of BNCT and conventional gamma therapy. We measured the survival cell fraction as a function of the total physical dose and analyzed the expression of p27/Kip1 and p53 by Western blotting in cells of colon cancer (ARO81-1). Exponentially growing cells were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 3) neutrons alone; 4) gamma-rays. A control group without irradiation for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the RA-3 (flux= 7.5 109 n/cm2 sec) or with 60Co (1Gy/min) during different times in order to obtain total physical dose between 1-5 Gy (±10 %). A decrease in the survival fraction as a function of the physical dose was observed for all the treatments. We also observed that neutrons and neutrons + BOPP did not differ significantly and that BPA was the more effective compound. Protein extracts of irradiated cells (3Gy) were isolated to 24 h and 48 h post radiation exposure. The irradiation with neutrons in presence of 10BPA or 10BOPP produced an increase of p53 at 24 h maintain until 48 h. On the contrary, in the groups irradiated with neutrons alone or gamma the peak was observed at 48 hr. The level of expression of p27/Kip1 showed a reduction of this protein in all the groups irradiated with neutrons (neutrons alone or neutrons plus boron compound), being more marked at 24 h. These preliminary results suggest different radiobiological response for high and low let radiation. Future studies will permit establish the role of cell cycle in the tumor radio sensibility to BNCT. (author)

  6. Dynamic infrared imaging of the skin reaction in melanoma patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) project conducted jointly by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and the oncology institute A. Roffo, Argentina, we have recently started a program designed to investigate the ability of dynamic infrared imaging for following-up our cutaneous melanoma patients. BNCT offers a unique opportunity to study the response of the integumentary system to single fractions and high doses of neutrons and heavy ions, providing information that could be potentially important in radiation accidents for people exposed to these kinds of radiation fields. Medical infrared thermography is a non-invasive and functional imaging method, that provides information on the normal and abnormal status and response of the nervous and vascular systems, as well as the local metabolic rate and inflammatory processes that appear as differences in the skin infrared emission. Although it is highly sensitive, it is unspecific, like other conventional imaging techniques. For this reason, infrared thermography must be employed as an adjunct method to other diagnostic procedures and the clinical observation. An infrared camera is employed, with an uncooled ferroelectric focal plane array of 320x240 detector elements, providing a video signal of the infrared emission in the 8-14 μm wavelength band. After patient preparation and acclimation, a basal study of the irradiated region is performed, including high and low dose areas, as well as normal and tumor tissues, and eventually other detectable structures (e.g. scars and veins). Thereafter, a provocation test (a cold stimulus) is applied and the temperature recovery is registered as a function of time. In addition, a 3D computational dosimetry of the irradiated region is performed, which allows a complete representation of the isodose contours mapped onto the 3D reconstruction representing the skin. This reconstruction permits selecting regions of different doses for studying the local response

  7. Reference dosimetry calculations for neutron capture therapy with comparison of analytical and voxel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorley, J T; Kiger, W S; Zamenhof, R G

    2002-02-01

    As clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) are initiated in the U.S. and other countries, new treatment planning codes are being developed to calculate detailed dose distributions in patient-specific models. The thorough evaluation and comparison of treatment planning codes is a critical step toward the eventual standardization of dosimetry, which, in turn, is an essential element for the rational comparison of clinical results from different institutions. In this paper we report development of a reference suite of computational test problems for NCT dosimetry and discuss common issues encountered in these calculations to facilitate quantitative evaluations and comparisons of NCT treatment planning codes. Specifically, detailed depth-kerma rate curves were calculated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4B for four different representations of the modified Snyder head phantom, an analytic, multishell, ellipsoidal model, and voxel representations of this model with cubic voxel sizes of 16, 8, and 4 mm. Monoenergetic and monodirectional beams of 0.0253 eV, 1, 2, 10, 100, and 1000 keV neutrons, and 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 MeV photons were individually simulated to calculate kerma rates to a statistical uncertainty of neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to epithermal beams currently used or proposed for NCT clinical trials, was computed for all models. The thermal neutron, fast neutron, and photon kerma rates calculated with the 4 and 8 mm voxel models were within 2% and 4%, respectively, of those calculated for the analytical model. The 16 mm voxel model produced unacceptably large discrepancies for all dose components. The effects from different kerma data sets and tissue compositions were evaluated. Updating the kerma data from ICRU 46 to ICRU 63 data produced less than 2% difference in kerma rate profiles. The depth-dose profile data, Monte Carlo code input, kerma factors, and model construction files are available

  8. Design of a plate type fuel based - low power medical reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been renewed for cancer therapy with some indication of its potential efficacy in recent years. To solve the most important problem that thermal neutrons are attenuated rapidly in tissue due to absorption and scattering, thermal neutron beams are replaced by epithermal neutron beams. Thus, epithermal neutron beams are directed towards a patient's head, during their passage through tissue these neutrons rapidly lose energy by elastic scattering until they end up as thermal neutrons in target tumor volume. The thermal neutrons thus formed, are captured by the 10B atoms which become 11B atoms in the excited state for a very short time 10-12 sec. The 11B atoms then decay producing alpha particles, 7Li recoil nuclei and gamma rays. Tumor cells are killed selectively by the energetic alpha particles and 7Li fission products. We propose a 300kW slab type reactor core having thin and large surface areas so that most of the neutrons emerging from the faces and entering moderator region are fission spectrum neutrons to acquire high intense epithermal neutron beam with high quality. All faces of the slab core, East-West region and North-South region, were considered for epithermal neutron beam collimators. Plate-type U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel having high uranium density is very compatible with composing of a slab type core. The reactor core is loaded with 3.89kg U235 and has the dimension of about 23.46cm width, 31.28cm length and 64.8cm height, with 216 locations to place 204 fuel elements, eight control plates and four safety plates. The general-purpose MCNP 4B code was used to carry out the neutron and photon transport computations. Both keff criticality and fixed source problems were computed. We could reduce at least 7 times long computer time (105 to 140 h in a run) needed to initiate enough neutrons in a run ( 6000 to 8000 cycles in a run with 3000 neutrons per cycle) using the PVM (Parallel Virtual

  9. Demonstration of three-dimensional deterministic radiation transport theory dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo stochastic simulation technique has traditionally been the only well-recognized method for computing three-dimensional radiation dose distributions in connection with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) research. A deterministic approach to this problem would offer some advantages over the Monte Carlo method. This paper describes an application of a deterministic method to analytically simulate BNCT treatment of a canine head phantom using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven medical research reactor (BMRR). Calculations were performed with the TORT code from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an implementation of the discrete ordinates, or Sn method. Calculations were from first principles and used no empirical correction factors. The phantom surface was modeled by flat facets of approximately 1 cm2. The phantom interior was homogeneous. Energy-dependent neutron and photon scalar fluxes were calculated on a 32x16x22 mesh structure with 96 discrete directions in angular phase space. The calculation took 670 min on an Apollo DN10000 workstation. The results were subsequently integrated over energy to obtain full three-dimensional dose distributions. Isodose contours and depth-dose curves were plotted for several separate dose components of interest. Phantom measurements were made by measuring neutron activation (and therefore neutron flux) as a function of depth in copper--gold alloy wires that were inserted through catheters placed in holes drilled in the phantom. Measurements agreed with calculations to within about 15%. The calculations took about an order of magnitude longer than comparable Monte Carlo calculations but provided various conveniences, as well as a useful check

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

    This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT

  11. Application of advanced technologies for CO2 capture from industrial sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, M.C. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Anantharaman, R. [SINTEF Energy Research, Sem Saelands vei 11, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Arasto, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Ozcan, D.C.; Ahnd, Hyungwoong [IMP-SEE, The University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Dijkstra, J.W.; Carbo, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Boavida, D. [LNEG - Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22 Edif J, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    The great majority of the research on CO2 capture worldwide is today devoted to the integration of new technologies in power plants, which are responsible for about 80% of the worldwide CO2 emission from large stationary sources. The remaining 20% are emitted from industrial sources, mainly cement production plants ({approx}7% of the total emission), refineries ({approx}6%) and iron and steel industry ({approx}5%). Despite their lower overall contribution, the CO2 concentration in flue gas and the average emission per source can be higher than in power plants. Therefore, application of CO2 capture processes on these sources can be more effective and can lead to competitive cost of the CO2 avoided with respect to power plants. Furthermore, industrial CO2 capture could be an important early-opportunity application, or a facilitate demonstration of capture technology at a relative small scale or in a side stream. This paper results from a collaborative activity carried out within the Joint Programme on Carbon Capture and Storage of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA CCS-JP) and aims at investigating the potentiality of new CO2 technologies in the application on the major industrial emitters.

  12. Tumor growth suppression by gadolinium-neutron capture therapy using gadolinium-entrapped liposome as gadolinium delivery agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Zhu, Haito; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sekino, Masaki; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising non-invasive cancer therapy approach and some recent NCT research has focused on using compounds containing gadolinium as an alternative to currently used boron-10 considering several advantages that gadolinium offers compared to those of boron. In this study, we evaluated gadolinium-entrapped liposome compound as neutron capture therapy agent by in vivo experiment on colon-26 tumor-bearing mice. Gadolinium compound were injected intravenously via tail vein and allowed to accumulate into tumor site. Tumor samples were taken for quantitative analysis by ICP-MS at 2, 12, and 24 h after gadolinium compound injection. Highest gadolinium concentration was observed at about 2 h after gadolinium compound injection with an average of 40.3 μg/g of wet tumor tissue. We performed neutron irradiation at JRR-4 reactor facility of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in Tokaimura with average neutron fluence of 2×10¹² n/cm². The experimental results showed that the tumor growth suppression of gadolinium-injected irradiated group was revealed until about four times higher compared to the control group, and no significant weight loss were observed after treatment suggesting low systemic toxicity of this compound. The gadolinium-entrapped liposome will become one of the candidates for Gd delivery system on NCT.

  13. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  14. A NEW SINGLE-CRYSTAL FILTERED THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Brockman; David W. Nigg; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2008-09-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The calculated and measured thermal neutron flux produced at the irradiation location is on the order of 9.5x108 neutrons/cm2-s, with a measured cadmium ratio (Au foils) of 105, indicating a well-thermalized spectrum.

  15. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  17. SCALABLE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MOTION CAPTURE SYSTEM “MOSCA”: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  18. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yancong; Yang, Jiachen; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-21

    The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems-toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration-are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting.

  19. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yancong; Yang, Jiachen; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems-toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration-are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting. PMID:26308004

  20. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancong Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems—toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration—are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting.

  1. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete. PMID:26803257

  2. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete.

  3. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO2 Capture Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO2 capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO2 sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO2 capture Technologies.

  4. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2012-11-02

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational method

  5. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO{sub 2} Capture Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2014-03-30

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

  6. The relationship between boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle irradiation therapy that is theoretically available for selective radiation of tumor cells. Boronophenylalanine-positron emission tomography (18F-BPA-PET) was used in this study. Boron is used as a tracer compound for the neutron capture reaction and has been particularly useful for the recent noncraniotomy BNCT. In this report, we introduce this type of PET as a principal axis in BNCT and relationship with PET. We calculated the drug accumulation to the tumor before neutron irradiation to individualize the treatment. We decided the indication for BNCT on the basis of a PET study and are now expanding the indications to other systemic cancers, including head and neck, lung, and liver cancers. In addition, other irradiation modalities have developed a radiation plan on the basis of a PET study, and several studies attempted improving the results; however, the lesion is exposed to high radiation doses and appear as high accumulation on BPA-PET during BNCT. We determined the neutron exposure time from the dosage for normal tissue in the actual treatment, but the lesion/normal tissue ratio obtained from BPA-PET is for evaluating the tumor dose and following the treatment plan. We also found that a PET study was useful in the follow-up stage to aid in diagnosis of pathologic conditions such as increase in tumor volume, recurrence, or radiation necrosis and for patients who had already been treated for malignant brain tumor. (author)

  7. Design and preparation of ethyl cellulose microcapsules of gadopentetate dimeglumine for neutron-capture therapy using the Wurster process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H; Tokumitsu, H; Miyamoto, M; Jono, K; Kanamori, R; Akine, Y; Tokita, N

    1993-06-01

    Microcapsules of hygroscopic, highly water-soluble gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA-DM) for use in preliminary in vivo experiments for neutron-capture therapy were designed. They were prepared with such properties as a particle size small enough to be suspended and injected through a syringe, a negligible release of Gd-DTPA-DM, and a high drug content by means of the Wurster process, a spray coating method using a spouted bed with a draft tube. They were composed of lactose cores of 53-63 microm, an undercoat of ethyl cellulose (EC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a drug-layer of Gd-DTPA-DM, EC and PVP, a waterproof coat and a release-sustaining overcoat of EC and cholesterol (1:1), and a surface treated with hydrogenated egg lecithin. By curing at 110 degrees C for 30 min after mixing with 20% pulverized mannitol powder, the 20% overcoating suppressed the release of Gd-DTPA-DM from 75-106 microm microcapsules to less than 10% for the first 20 min, which was the period required to prepare a suspension, inject it and irradiate the neutron. The microcapsules could be used to confirm that the intracellular presence of Gd is not critical in gadolinium neutron-capture therapy. PMID:8370113

  8. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L., E-mail: linda.veldhuizen@wur.nl [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands); Berentsen, P.B.M. [Business Economics group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, I.J.M. de [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries. This method was applied to a Norwegian trawler that targets cod and haddock in the northeast Atlantic. Based on previous research, 13 social sustainability issues were selected. To measure the state of these issues, 17 process and outcome indicators were determined. To interpret indicator values, rubrics were developed for each indicator, using standards set by international conventions or data retrieved from national statistics, industry agreements or scientific publications that explore rubric scales. The indicators and rubrics were subsequently used in a social sustainability assessment of a Norwegian trawler. This assessment indicated that overall, social sustainability of this trawler is relatively high, with high rubric scores, for example, for worker safety, provisions aboard for the crew and companies' salary levels. The assessment also indicated that the trawler could improve on healthy working environment, product freshness and fish welfare during capture. This application demonstrated that our method provides insight into social sustainability at the level of the vessel and can be used to identify potential room for improvement. This method is also promising for social sustainability assessment of other capture fisheries. - Highlights: • A method was developed for social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries. • This method entailed determining outcome and process indicators for important issues. • To interpret indicator values, a rubric was developed for each indicator. • Use of this method gives insight into social sustainability and improvement options. • This method is promising for social

  9. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries. This method was applied to a Norwegian trawler that targets cod and haddock in the northeast Atlantic. Based on previous research, 13 social sustainability issues were selected. To measure the state of these issues, 17 process and outcome indicators were determined. To interpret indicator values, rubrics were developed for each indicator, using standards set by international conventions or data retrieved from national statistics, industry agreements or scientific publications that explore rubric scales. The indicators and rubrics were subsequently used in a social sustainability assessment of a Norwegian trawler. This assessment indicated that overall, social sustainability of this trawler is relatively high, with high rubric scores, for example, for worker safety, provisions aboard for the crew and companies' salary levels. The assessment also indicated that the trawler could improve on healthy working environment, product freshness and fish welfare during capture. This application demonstrated that our method provides insight into social sustainability at the level of the vessel and can be used to identify potential room for improvement. This method is also promising for social sustainability assessment of other capture fisheries. - Highlights: • A method was developed for social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries. • This method entailed determining outcome and process indicators for important issues. • To interpret indicator values, a rubric was developed for each indicator. • Use of this method gives insight into social sustainability and improvement options. • This method is promising for social

  10. Valorisation of spent coffee grounds as CO2 adsorbents for postcombustion capture applications

    OpenAIRE

    González Plaza, Marta; González García, A. Silvia; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    In this work spent coffee grounds from single-use capsules were used as the starting material for producing low-cost activated carbons. The activation conditions were selected and optimised to produce microporous carbons with high CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, thus with potential to be used as adsorbents in postcombustion CO2 capture applications. Two activation methods are compared: physical activation with CO2 and chemical activation with KOH. The first method is considered less ...

  11. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reaction can be applied to the therapy and diagnosis about the tumor simultaneously. After the compound labeled with the boron is accumulated at the tumor site, the alpha particle induced by the reaction between the thermal neutron and the boron induces tumor cell death. Also, the 478 keV prompt gamma ray is emitted from the same reaction point. If this single prompt photon is detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the tomographic image of the therapy region can be monitored during the radiation treatment. However, in order to confirm the therapy region using the image during the treatment, the image needs to be provided promptly. Due to a relatively long acquisition time required to get SPECT images, both reduced number of projections and the fast image reconstruction schemes are needed to provide the images during radiation treatment. The computation time for image reconstruction using the GPU with the modified OSEM algorithm was measured and compared with the computation time using CPU. Through the results, we confirmed the feasibility of the image reconstruction for prompt gamma ray image using GPU for the BNCT. In the further study, the development of the algorithm for faster reconstruction of the prompt gamma ray image during the BNCT using the GPU computation will be conducted. Also, the analysis of the target to background level about the reconstructed image will be performed using the extracted image profile

  12. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk [College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reaction can be applied to the therapy and diagnosis about the tumor simultaneously. After the compound labeled with the boron is accumulated at the tumor site, the alpha particle induced by the reaction between the thermal neutron and the boron induces tumor cell death. Also, the 478 keV prompt gamma ray is emitted from the same reaction point. If this single prompt photon is detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the tomographic image of the therapy region can be monitored during the radiation treatment. However, in order to confirm the therapy region using the image during the treatment, the image needs to be provided promptly. Due to a relatively long acquisition time required to get SPECT images, both reduced number of projections and the fast image reconstruction schemes are needed to provide the images during radiation treatment. The computation time for image reconstruction using the GPU with the modified OSEM algorithm was measured and compared with the computation time using CPU. Through the results, we confirmed the feasibility of the image reconstruction for prompt gamma ray image using GPU for the BNCT. In the further study, the development of the algorithm for faster reconstruction of the prompt gamma ray image during the BNCT using the GPU computation will be conducted. Also, the analysis of the target to background level about the reconstructed image will be performed using the extracted image profile.

  13. Determination of boron in biological samples for the needs of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the actual concentration of 10B in a patient's blood is a prerequisite for determining the start and length of patient irradiation. The Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis (PGRA) method enables this nuclide to be determined rapidly and reliably within the region of 1 to 100 ppm. In this method, the characteristic line at 478 keV from the nuclear reaction 10B+n → 7Li+α+γ during sample exposure to thermal neutrons is used to determine boron. The facility which has been built up for this purpose comprises, in particular, a large-volume semiconductor detector for recording gamma rays emerging from the radiative neutron capture on the target

  14. Self-shielding effects in neutron spectra measurements for neutron capture therapy by means of activation foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Józefowicz, Krystyna; Pytel, Beatrycze; Koziel, Alina

    2004-01-01

    The design and optimisation of a neutron beam for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is accompanied by the neutron spectra measurements at the target position. The method of activation detectors was applied for the neutron spectra measurements. Epithermal neutron energy region imposes the resonance structure of activation cross sections resulting in strong self-shielding effects. The neutron self-shielding correction factor was calculated using a simple analytical model of a single absorption event. Such a procedure has been applied to individual cross sections from pointwise ENDF/B-VI library and new corrected activation cross sections were introduced to a spectra unfolding algorithm. The method has been verified experimentally both for isotropic and for parallel neutron beams. Two sets of diluted and non-diluted activation foils covered with cadmium were irradiated in the neutron field. The comparison of activation rates of diluted and non-diluted foils has demonstrated the correctness of the applied self-shielding model.

  15. Functionalization and cellular uptake of boron carbide nanoparticles. The first step toward T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Björkdahl, O; Sørensen, P G; Hansen, T; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present surface modification strategies of boron carbide nanoparticles, which allow for bioconjugation of the transacting transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and fluorescent dyes. Coated nanoparticles can be translocated into murine EL4 thymoma cells and B16 F10 malignant melanoma cells in amounts as high as 0.3 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. Neutron irradiation of a test system consisting of untreated B16 cells mixed with B16 cells loaded with boron carbide nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferative capacity of untreated cells, showing that cells loaded with boron-containing nanoparticles can hinder the growth of neighboring cells upon neutron irradiation. This could provide the first step toward a T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

  16. IMPROVED COMPUTATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart R. Slattery; David W. Nigg; John D. Brockman; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2010-05-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. This is essential for detailed dosimetric studies required for the anticipated research program.

  17. Correlation between radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with gliblastoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Histopathological studies were performed on specimens from 8 patients, 3 had undergone salvage surgery and 5 were autopsied. For histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively. - Highlights: • It is very important to determine the curable BNCT radiation dose on histopathological aspect in BNCT. • Of 23 patients with GBM treated with BNCT, autopsy was performed in 5, salvage surgery in 3, and histopathological study in 8. • To achieve the histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the GTV and CTV was 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively

  18. Experimental and Simulated Characterization of a Beam Shaping Assembly for Accelerator- Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the construction of a Tandem Electrostatic Quadrupole Accelerator facility devoted to the Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a Beam Shaping Assembly has been characterized by means of Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. The neutrons were generated via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by irradiating a thick LiF target with a 2.3 MeV proton beam delivered by the TANDAR accelerator at CNEA. The emerging neutron flux was measured by means of activation foils while the beam quality and directionality was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters show compliance with those suggested by IAEA. Finally, an improvement adding a beam collimator has been evaluated.

  19. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value <0.001) was observed in the rat brain-this may account for neurological and behavioural abnormalities found in mammals drinking highly deuterated water. In addition to characterizing the pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema, this report also estimates the impact of oedema on thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ∼10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema)

  20. Emerging HIFU applications in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ezekiel; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-05-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), is a promising, non-invasive modality for treatment of tumours in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging or diagnostic ultrasound guidance. HIFU is being used increasingly for treatment of prostate cancer and uterine fibroids. Over the last 10 years a growing number of clinical trials have examined HIFU treatment of both benign and malignant tumours of the liver, breast, pancreas, bone, connective tissue, thyroid, parathyroid, kidney and brain. For some of these emerging indications, HIFU is poised to become a serious alternative or adjunct to current standard treatments--including surgery, radiation, gene therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. Current commercially available HIFU devices are marketed for their thermal ablation applications. In the future, lower energy treatments may play a significant role in mediating targeted drug and gene delivery for cancer treatment. In this article we introduce currently available HIFU systems, provide an overview of clinical trials in emerging oncological targets, and briefly discuss selected pre-clinical research that is relevant to future oncological HIFU applications. PMID:25367011

  1. Optimal timing of neutron irradiation for boron neutron capture therapy after intravenous infusion of sodium borocaptate in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A cooperative study in Europe and Japan was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics and boron uptake of sodium borocaptate (BSH: Na2B12H11SH), which has been introduced clinically as a boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy in patients with glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: Data from 56 patients with glioblastoma who received BSH intravenous infusion were retrospectively reviewed. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 50 patients, and boron uptake was investigated in 47 patients. Patients received BSH doses between 12 and 100 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation, the infused boron dose was scaled linearly to 100 mg/kg BSH. Results: In BSH pharmacokinetics, the average value for total body clearance, distribution volume of steady state, and mean residence time was 3.6±1.5 L/h, 223.3±160.7 L, and 68.0±52.5 h, respectively. The average values of the boron concentration in tumor adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, the boron concentration in blood adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, and the tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 37.1±35.8 ppm, 35.2±41.8 ppm, and 1.53±1.43, respectively. A good correlation was found between the logarithmic value of Tadj and the interval from BSH infusion to tumor tissue sampling. About 12-19 h after infusion, the actual values for Tadj and tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 46.2±36.0 ppm and 1.70±1.06, respectively. The dose ratio between tumor and healthy tissue peaked in the same interval. Conclusion: For boron neutron capture therapy using BSH administered by intravenous infusion, this work confirms that neutron irradiation is optimal around 12-19 h after the infusion is started

  2. Dosimetry and stability studies of the boron neutron capture therapy agent F-BPA-Fr using PET and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jonathan Paul

    The treatment of deep seated brain tumors such as glioblastoma Multiforme has been unsuccessful for many patients. Surgical debulking, chemotherapy and standard radiotherapy have met with limited success. Boron neutron capture therapy offers a binary mode brachytherapy based on the following capture reaction that may provide an innovative alternative to standard forms of treatment:10B + n /to/ 11B /to 7Li + 4He + 2.31 MeVBoron is chemically attached to a tumor binding compound creating a non-toxic neutron absorber. A dose of epithermal neutrons provides the catalyst to produce the lithium and alpha particles which destroy any tissue within a length of one cell diameter from the boron compound. This dissertation uses 19F-MRI and 18F-PET to provide answers to the localization and biodistribution questions that arise in such a treatment modality. Practical patient dosimetry and actual treatment planning using the PET data is also examined. Finally, theoretical work done in the areas of compartmental modelling dealing with pharmacokinetic uptake of the PET radiotracer and dose analysis in microdosimetry is also presented.

  3. Development and in vitro testing of liposomal gadolinium-formulations for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the improvement of current neutron capture therapy, several liposomal formulations of neutron capture agent gadolinium were developed and tested in a glioma cell model. Formulations were analyzed regarding physicochemical and biological parameters, such as size, zeta potential, uptake into cancer cells and performance under neutron irradiation. The neutron and photon dose derived from intracellular as well as extracellular Gd was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations and set in correlation with the reduction of cell survival after irradiation. To investigate the suitability of Gd as a radiosensitizer for photon radiation, cells were also irradiated with synchrotron radiation in addition to clinically used photons generated by linear accelerator. Irradiation with neutrons led to significantly lower survival for Gd-liposome-treated F98 and LN229 cells, compared to irradiated control cells and cells treated with non-liposomal Gd-DTPA. Correlation between Gd-content and -dose and respective cell survival displayed proportional relationship for most of the applied formulations. Photon irradiation experiments showed the proof-of-principle for the radiosensitizer approach, although the photon spectra currently used have to be optimized for higher efficiency of the radiosensitizer. In conclusion, the newly developed Gd-liposomes show great potential for the improvement of radiation treatment options for highly malignant glioblastoma.

  4. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  5. Investigation of current status in Europe and USA on boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This report describes on the spot investigation results of current status of medical irradiation in Europe and USA at Feb. 1999. In HFR (Netherlands), the phase 1 study with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EU had been already finished in those days, at the same time, an improvement of medical irradiation field of VTT(Finland) had been finishing and then clinical trial research had been about to start. On the other hand, phase 1 studies by two groups of BNL (Brook heaven National Laboratory) and MIT (Nuclear Engineering of Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in US were now in almost final stage, and they would start on phase 2 study. Either reactors of MIT and BNL were in modification to increase neutron flux, especially that employing fission converter into the irradiation facility and installation of irradiation room were carrying out in the former. In Europe and USA, the accelerator-based BNCT planes are now in progress vigorously, and will have reality. A reform of dynamitron accelerator at University of Birmingham was progressed, and the clinical treatment would be started from September 2000. The accelerator group at MIT has a small type of tandem accelerator, and they were performing basic experiment for BNCS (Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy) with this accelerator. The concept design for an accelerator and a moderator had been finished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of Berkeley. (author)

  6. Investigation of current status in Europe and USA on boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes on the spot investigation results of current status of medical irradiation in Europe and USA at Feb. 1999. In HFR (Netherlands), the phase 1 study with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EU had been already finished in those days, at the same time, an improvement of medical irradiation field of VTT(Finland) had been finishing and then clinical trial research had been about to start. On the other hand, phase 1 studies by two groups of BNL (Brook heaven National Laboratory) and MIT (Nuclear Engineering of Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in US were now in almost final stage, and they would start on phase 2 study. Either reactors of MIT and BNL were in modification to increase neutron flux, especially that employing fission converter into the irradiation facility and installation of irradiation room were carrying out in the former. In Europe and USA, the accelerator-based BNCT planes are now in progress vigorously, and will have reality. A reform of dynamitron accelerator at University of Birmingham was progressed, and the clinical treatment would be started from September 2000. The accelerator group at MIT has a small type of tandem accelerator, and they were performing basic experiment for BNCS (Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy) with this accelerator. The concept design for an accelerator and a moderator had been finished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of Berkeley. (author)

  7. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma

  9. Boron determination in biological samples - Intercomparison of three analytical methods to assist development of a treatment protocol for neoplastic diseases of the liver with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Christian L.

    2012-01-01

    Die Bor-Neuroneneinfang-Therapie (engl.: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT) ist eine indirekte Strahlentherapie, welche durch die gezielte Freisetzung von dicht ionisierender Strahlung Tumorzellen zerstört. Die freigesetzten Ionen sind Spaltfragmente einer Kernreaktion, bei welcher das Isotop 10B ein niederenergetisches (thermisches) Neutron einfängt. Das 10B wird durch ein spezielles Borpräparat in den Tumorzellen angereichert, welches selbst nicht radioaktiv ist. rnAn der Johannes Gutenbe...

  10. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  11. Folate receptor-mediated boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for boron neutron capture therapy of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Congxin; Cai, Feng; Hwang, Kuo Chu; Zhou, Yongmao; Zhang, Zizhu; Liu, Xiaohai; Ma, Sihai; Yang, Yakun; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Bao, Xinjie; Li, Guilin; Wei, Junji; Jiao, Yonghui; Wei, Zhenqing; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi

    2013-02-01

    Invasive nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are difficult to completely resect and often develop tumor recurrence after initial surgery. Currently, no medications are clinically effective in the control of NFPA. Although radiation therapy and radiosurgery are useful to prevent tumor regrowth, they are frequently withheld because of severe complications. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy that selectively and maximally damages tumor cells without harming the surrounding normal tissue. Folate receptor (FR)-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles is a novel boron delivery agent that can be selectively taken up by FR-expressing cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. In this study, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles were selectively taken up by NFPAs cells expressing FR but not other types of non-FR expressing pituitary adenomas. After incubation with boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles and following irradiation with thermal neutrons, the cell viability of NFPAs was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were simultaneously increased. However, cells administered the same dose of FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles without neutron irradiation or received the same neutron irradiation alone did not show significant decrease in cell viability or increase in apoptotic cells. The expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated and the expression of Bax was up-regulated in NFPAs after treatment with FR-mediated BNCT. In conclusion, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles may be an ideal delivery system of boron to NFPAs cells for BNCT. Furthermore, our study also provides a novel insight into therapeutic strategies for invasive NFPA refractory to conventional therapy, while exploring these new applications of BNCT for tumors, especially benign tumors.

  12. Applications of a new pulsed neutron capture log to Middle East reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logging system, the PDK-100, was placed into field operation in the Middle East in 1985. The PDK-100 (Pulse and Decay, 100 channels) is a new microprocessor-controlled version of the Neutron Lifetime Log, the first commercial pulsed neutron system introduced to the industry in 1963. In this paper, basic measurement concepts of the new instrument are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on showing how information available from the PDK-100 has broadened the range of applications of PNC logging. Log examples from the Middle East demonstrate the utility of the PDK-100 for a variety of reservoir conditions

  13. Collimator and shielding design for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry of reactor core, thermal column, collimator and shielding system for BNCT application of TRIGA MARK II Reactor were simulated with MCNP5 code. Neutron particle lethargy and dose were calculated with MCNPX code. Neutron flux in a sample located at the end of collimator after normalized to measured value (Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem, 2007) at 1 MW power was 1.06 x 108 n/ cm2/ s. According to IAEA (2001) flux of 1.00 x 109 n/ cm2/ s requires three hours of treatment. Few modifications were needed to get higher flux. (Author)

  14. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatar Vento, V., E-mail: Vladimir.ThatarVento@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  15. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Sørensen, P. G.; Björkdahl, O.;

    2006-01-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using...

  16. Potential of para-boronophenylalaninol as a boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy, referring to that of its enantiomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the potential of a newly developed 10B-containing alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA), para-boronophenylalaninol (BPAol), as a boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy. C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors and C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. After oral administration of L-BPA or D-BPA, or intraperitoneal injection of L-BPAol or D-BPAol, the tumors were irradiated with reactor thermal neutron beams. For the combination with mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) and/or tirapazamine (TPZ), the tumors were heated at 40 degrees centigrade for 30 minutes right before neutron exposure, and/or TPZ was intraperitoneally injected 30 minutes before irradiation. The tumors were then excised, minced and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling ( = quiescent (Q) cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were used for determining the apoptosis frequency in Q cells. The apoptosis and MN frequency in total (P + Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Without TPZ or MTH, L- and D-BPAol increased both frequencies markedly, especially for total cells. Although not significantly, L-BPA and D-BPAol increased both frequencies slightly more remarkably than D-BPA and L-BPAol, respectively. On combined treatment with both MTH and TPZ, the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was markedly reduced. MTH increased the 10B uptake of all 10B-carriers into both tumor cells to some degree. Both L- and D-BPAol have potential as 10B-carriers in neutron capture therapy, especially when combined with both MTH and TPZ

  17. Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Luebke, David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-03-31

    By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of allowing identification of thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. For a given solid, the first step is to attempt to extract thermodynamic properties from thermodynamic databases and the available literatures. If the thermodynamic properties of the compound of interest are unknown, an ab initio thermodynamic approach is used to calculate them. These properties expressed conveniently as chemical potentials and heat of reactions, which obtained either from databases or from calculations, are further used for computing the thermodynamic reaction equilibrium properties of the CO2 absorption/desorption cycles. Only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are predicted at the desired process conditions are selected as CO2 sorbent candidates and are further considered for experimental validations. Solid sorbents containing alkali and alkaline earth metals have been reported in several previous studies to be good candidates for CO2 sorbent applications due to their high CO2 absorption capacity at moderate working temperatures. In addition to introducing our computational screening procedure, in this presentation we will summarize our results for solid systems composed by alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides, and carbon- ates/bicarbonates to validate our methodology. Additionally, applications of our computational method to mixed solid systems of Li2O with SiO2/ZrO2 with different mixing ratios, our preliminary results showed that increasing the Li2O/SiO2 ratio in

  18. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, R.S. [Inst. of Radio Physics & Electronics, Ashtarack (Argentina); Gasparyan, L.V. [Republican Medical Centre Armenia, Yerevan (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  19. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…

  20. Hirudotherapy /Leech therapy: Applications and Indications in Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaid Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    More recently, HT has found new applications in cancer therapy, hypersensitivity conditions, like asthma, male/female sterility and diabetes. Taking into consideration all the facts, HT efforts should be made in optimizing the success of medicinal leech therapy in clinical and private practice. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(3.000: 172-180

  1. Clinical Application of Heat-Acupuncture Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Zunhui; Wang Xinzhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Heat-acupuncture therapy refers to a therapeutic method with which a GZH heat-acupuncture apparatus is used to warm the needle inserted in the human body, and to keep the needle in a constant temperature. It has been proved by clinical researches over 20 years that the heat-acupuncture therapy can yield a joint therapeutic effect of acupuncture,moxibustion, moxibustion with warming needle and fire needle, thus raising the clinical therapeutic effects in treating certain diseases.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma: preliminary results with the combined use of BPA and BOPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaggi, M. E-mail: viaggi@cnea.gov.ar; Dagrosa, M.A.; Longhino, J.; Blaumann, H.; Calzetta, O.; Kahl, S.B.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    We have shown the selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) by undifferentiated human thyroid cancer (UTC) ARO cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a 50% histologic cure of mice bearing the tumor was observed when the complete boron neutron capture therapy was applied. More recently we have analyzed the biodistribution of BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) and showed that when BOPP was injected 5 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the i.p. injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (38-45 ppm with both compounds vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). Five days post the i.p BOPP injection and 1 h after BPA the ratios were: tumor/blood 3.75; tumor/distal skin 2. Other important ratios were tumor/thyroid 6.65 and tumor/lung 3.8. The present studies were performed in mice transplanted with ARO cells and injected with BOPP and BPA. Only in mice treated with the neutron beam and injected with the boronated compounds we observed a 100% control of tumor growth. Two groups of mice received different total absorbed doses: 3.00 and 6.01 Gy, but no further improvement in the outcome was found compared to the previous results using BPA alone (4.3 Gy)

  3. Stability of high-speed lithium sheet jets for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of high-speed liquid lithium sheet jets was analytically studied for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which makes cancers and tumors curable with cell-level selections and hence high QOL. The object of our research is to realize the thin and high-speed plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum as an accelerator target. Linear analysis approach is made to the stability on thin plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum, and then our analytical results were compared with the previous experimental ones. We proved that the waves of surface tension on thin lithium sheet jets in a high-vacuum are of supercritical flows and neutral stable under about 17.4 m/s in flow velocity and that the fast non-dispersive anti-symmetric waves are more significant than the very slow dispersive symmetric waves. We also formulated the equation of shrinking angle in isosceles-triangularly or isosceles-trapezoidal shrinking sheet jets corresponding to the Mach angle of supersonic gas flows. This formula states universally the physical meaning of Weber number of sheet jets on the wave of surface tension in supercritical flows. We obtained satisfactory prospects (making choice of larger flow velocity U and larger thickness of sheet a) to materialize a liquid target of accelerator in BNCT. (author)

  4. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours. (author)

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy design calculation of a 3H(p,n reaction based BSA for brain cancer setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Elshahat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a promising technique for the treatment of malignant disease targeting organs of the human body. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate optimum design parameters of an accelerator based beam shaping assembly (BSA for BNCT of brain cancer setup.Methods: Epithermal beam of neutrons were obtained through moderation of fast neutrons from 3H(p,n reaction in a high density polyethylene moderator and a graphite reflector. The dimensions of the moderator and the reflector were optimized through optimization of epithermal / fast neutron intensity ratio as a function of geometric parameters of the setup. Results: The results of our calculation showed the capability of our setup to treat the tumor within 4 cm of the head surface. The calculated peak therapeutic ratio for the setup was found to be 2.15. Conclusion: With further improvement in the polyethylene moderator design and brain phantom irradiation arrangement, the setup capabilities can be improved to reach further deep-seated tumor.

  6. Design and preparation of gadolinium-reservoir microcapsules for neutron-capture therapy by means of the Wurster process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M; Ichikawa, H; Fukumori, Y; Akine, Y; Tokuuye, K

    1997-12-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-containing microcapsules designed for neutron-capture therapy (NCT) were prepared by a spouted bed coating process. Microcapsules were designed as a Gd-reservoir. They were prepared with the following properties: particle size was smaller than 50 microns, Gd-content was as high as possible, and release of Gd was suppressed as long as possible. Calcium carbonate (20-32 microns) was selected as a speed particle. As a Gd-source, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) or a synthesized water-insoluble Gd-DTPA derivative, Gd-DTPA-distearylamide (Gd-DTPA-SA), was layered onto the seed particles. The release-suppressing layer was composed of aqueous acrylic latex of 9:9:4 poly(ethyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). In preliminary studies, Gd-DTPA microcapsules with 41-45 microns (mass median diameter) were prepared; they released Gd with a short lag-time and 3h-prolongation. Complete release suppression was, however, difficult to achieve because of high water-solubility of Gd-DTPA. Hence, a hydrophobic derivative, Gd-DTPA-SA, was next used as a Gd source. Gd-DTPA-SA microcapsules could be prepared with a mass median diameter of 52 microns. Gd-DTPA-SA content of the microcapsules was 38% and release of Gd was suppressed to less than 0.2% over 60 d. PMID:9433776

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Hitesh K; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-07-15

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3-4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analog. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5'-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  8. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H

    2002-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to ...

  9. Gamma/neutron dose evaluation using Fricke gel and alanine gel dosimeters to be applied in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiosurgery is a non-invasive surgery carried out by means of directed beams of ionizing radiation. This procedure was developed since there are many diseases for which conventional surgical treatment can not be applied, due to difficult or vital structures being damaged. Neutron radiation from nuclear reactors is used in a kind of radiosurgery called Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of brain tumours which depends on the interaction of slow neutrons with 10B isotope injected in the tumour to produce alpha particles. Gel Dosimetry allows three-dimensional (3D) measurement of absorbed dose in tissueequivalent dosimeter phantoms. The measure technique is based on the transformation of ferrous ions (Fe2+) and ferric ions (Fe3+). The ferric ions concentration can be measured by spectrophotometry technique comparing the two wavelengths, 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions concentration and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration. This work aims to study the gamma/neutron reactor dose relationship to be applied in BNCT using gel dosimeters. The Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) and Alanine Gel (AG) gel solutions produced at IPEN using gelatine 300 bloom were mixed with Na2B4O7 salt containing 19,9% of 10B isotope. This solutions were used to evaluate thermal and epithermal neutrons and gamma doses at an irradiation cell on BH3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN

  10. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of 'hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  11. THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS APPLICATIONS IN RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Anca; Moldoveanu, Sinziana; Manea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This is an example of the use of thermoplastic materials in a high-tech medicine field, oncology radiation therapy, in order to produce the rigid masks for positioning and immobilization of the patient during simulation of the treatment procedure, the imaging verification of position and administration of the indicated radiation dose. Implementation of modern techniques of radiation therapy is possible only if provided with performant equipment (CT simulators, linear accelerators of high energy particles provided with multilamellar collimators and imaging verification systems) and accessories that increase the precision of the treatment (special supports for head-neck, thorax, pelvis, head-neck and thorax immobilization masks, compensating materials like bolus type material). The paper illustrates the main steps in modern radiation therapy service and argues the role of thermoplastics in reducing daily patient positioning errors during treatment. As part of quality assurance of irradiation procedure, using a rigid mask is mandatory when applying 3D conformal radiation therapy techniques, radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation or rotational techninques.

  12. THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS APPLICATIONS IN RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Anca; Moldoveanu, Sinziana; Manea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This is an example of the use of thermoplastic materials in a high-tech medicine field, oncology radiation therapy, in order to produce the rigid masks for positioning and immobilization of the patient during simulation of the treatment procedure, the imaging verification of position and administration of the indicated radiation dose. Implementation of modern techniques of radiation therapy is possible only if provided with performant equipment (CT simulators, linear accelerators of high energy particles provided with multilamellar collimators and imaging verification systems) and accessories that increase the precision of the treatment (special supports for head-neck, thorax, pelvis, head-neck and thorax immobilization masks, compensating materials like bolus type material). The paper illustrates the main steps in modern radiation therapy service and argues the role of thermoplastics in reducing daily patient positioning errors during treatment. As part of quality assurance of irradiation procedure, using a rigid mask is mandatory when applying 3D conformal radiation therapy techniques, radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation or rotational techninques. PMID:27125096

  13. Development of a Smartphone Application to Capture Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Contents of Daily Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouri, Omar; Place, Jerome; Traverso, Magali; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Renard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meal lipids (LIP) and proteins (PRO) may influence the effect of insulin doses based on carbohydrate (CHO) counting in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We developed a smartphone application for CHO, LIP, and PRO counting in daily food and assessed its usability in real-life conditions and potential usefulness. Methods: Ten T1D patients used the android application for 1 week to collect their food intakes. Data included meal composition, premeal and 2-hour postmeal blood glucose, corrections for hypo- or hyperglycemia after meals, and time for entering meals in the application. Meal insulin doses were based on patients’ CHO counting (application in blinded mode). Linear mixed models were used to assess the statistical differences. Results: In all, 187 meals were analyzed. Average computed CHO amount was 74.37 ± 31.78 grams; LIP amount: 20.26 ± 14.28 grams and PRO amount: 25.68 ± 16.68 grams. Average CHO, LIP, and PRO contents were significantly different between breakfast and lunch/dinner. The average time for meal entry in the application moved from 3-4 minutes to 2.5 minutes during the week. No significant impact of LIP and PRO was found on available blood glucose values. Conclusion: Our study shows CHO, LIP, and PRO intakes can be easily captured by an application on smartphone for meal entry used by T1D patients. Although LIP and PRO meal contents did not influence glucose levels when insulin doses were based on CHO in this pilot study, this application could be used for further investigation of this topic, including in closed-loop conditions. PMID:26424241

  14. [Application of music therapy in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, P; Díaz, V

    2001-02-01

    Music therapy is a science that has been applied since many centuries ago, but it has been organized as a profession during the past century. This science studies the therapeutic effects of music in human beings. Professionals who practice this science are called "music therapists" and they must be trained not only in music theory and performance, but also in psychology, anatomy, research techniques, and other subjects. Today, we can find music therapy research in many areas such as the effects of music in children with autism, adults with psychiatric illnesses, elderly with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, people with brain injuries, among others. Numerous studies demonstrate the functionality of music therapy in patients with neurological disorders. These studies show that music helps patients to gain control over their walking patterns after a brain injury, stimulates long and short term memory in patients with Alzheimer disease, and increase self esteem and social interaction in elders. PMID:11351476

  15. [Application of music therapy in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, P; Díaz, V

    2001-02-01

    Music therapy is a science that has been applied since many centuries ago, but it has been organized as a profession during the past century. This science studies the therapeutic effects of music in human beings. Professionals who practice this science are called "music therapists" and they must be trained not only in music theory and performance, but also in psychology, anatomy, research techniques, and other subjects. Today, we can find music therapy research in many areas such as the effects of music in children with autism, adults with psychiatric illnesses, elderly with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, people with brain injuries, among others. Numerous studies demonstrate the functionality of music therapy in patients with neurological disorders. These studies show that music helps patients to gain control over their walking patterns after a brain injury, stimulates long and short term memory in patients with Alzheimer disease, and increase self esteem and social interaction in elders.

  16. Ion beam therapy fundamentals, technology, clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The book provides a detailed, up-to-date account of the basics, the technology, and the clinical use of ion beams for radiation therapy. Theoretical background, technical components, and patient treatment schemes are delineated by the leading experts that helped to develop this field from a research niche to its current highly sophisticated and powerful clinical treatment level used to the benefit of cancer patients worldwide. Rather than being a side-by-side collection of articles, this book consists of related chapters. It is a common achievement by 76 experts from around the world. Their expertise reflects the diversity of the field with radiation therapy, medical and accelerator physics, radiobiology, computer science, engineering, and health economics. The book addresses a similarly broad audience ranging from professionals that need to know more about this novel treatment modality or consider to enter the field of ion beam therapy as a researcher. However, it is also written for the interested public an...

  17. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Vicente, M Graca H; Harling, Otto K; Kiger, W S; Riley, Kent J; Binns, Peter J; Wagner, Franz M; Suzuki, Minoru; Aihara, Teruhito; Kato, Itsuro; Kawabata, Shinji

    2012-08-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or "BPA", and sodium borocaptate or "BSH" (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical trials

  18. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Rolf F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH. In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger

  19. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, the United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical

  20. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Enrico Cappellini; J. Alberto Romero-Navarro; Nathan Wales; J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar; Morten Rasmussen; Fordyce, Sarah L.; Rafael Montiel; Jean-Philippe Vielle-Calzada; Eske Willerslev; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples. We tested the performance of Agilent's SureSelect and Mycroarray's MySelect in-solution capture systems on Illumina sequencing libraries built from ancient maize to identify key factors influencing ...

  1. The clinical applicability of music therapy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    practitioners in all three areas (and beyond) can demonstrate, through previous and current research, that the music therapy service and interventions they provide are relevant and effective (Ansdell, Pavicevic & Proctor, 2004; Gold, Voracek and Wigram, 2004; Vink, 2003; Wigram 2002). Documentation of research...

  2. Application of the GEM Inventory Data Capture Tools for Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Recovery Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrucci, Enrica; Bevington, John; Vicini, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    A set of open-source tools to create building exposure datasets for seismic risk assessment was developed from 2010-13 by the Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT) Risk Global Component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The tools were designed to integrate data derived from remotely-sensed imagery, statistically-sampled in-situ field data of buildings to generate per-building and regional exposure data. A number of software tools were created to aid the development of these data, including mobile data capture tools for in-field structural assessment, and the Spatial Inventory Data Developer (SIDD) for creating "mapping schemes" - statistically-inferred distributions of building stock applied to areas of homogeneous urban land use. These tools were made publically available in January 2014. Exemplar implementations in Europe and Central Asia during the IDCT project highlighted several potential application areas beyond the original scope of the project. These are investigated here. We describe and demonstrate how the GEM-IDCT suite can be used extensively within the framework proposed by the EC-FP7 project SENSUM (Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic vUlnerability and recovery Monitoring). Specifically, applications in the areas of 1) dynamic vulnerability assessment (pre-event), and 2) recovery monitoring and evaluation (post-event) are discussed. Strategies for using the IDC Tools for these purposes are discussed. The results demonstrate the benefits of using advanced technology tools for data capture, especially in a systematic fashion using the taxonomic standards set by GEM. Originally designed for seismic risk assessment, it is clear the IDCT tools have relevance for multi-hazard risk assessment. When combined with a suitable sampling framework and applied to multi-temporal recovery monitoring, data generated from the tools can reveal spatio-temporal patterns in the quality of recovery activities and resilience trends can be

  3. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  4. The application of a NaI(Tl) detector system for measuring neutrons with capturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NaI(Tl) detector and the lead-shielding chamber used to measure neutron with capturing method were introduced. The detector system was applied in the experiment. The γ rays from the capturing foils was measured. The performance of the capturing detector was studied

  5. D Capturing Performances of Low-Cost Range Sensors for Mass-Market Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.; Gonizzi, S.; Micoli, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010), several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i) Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii) F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  6. Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Masunaga, S.; Kinashi, Y.; Kashino, G.; Liu, Y.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Maruhashi, A.; Ono, K.

    2009-06-01

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), 275 clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been performed as of March 2006, and the effectiveness of BNCT has been revealed. In order to further develop BNCT, it is desirable to supply accelerator-based epithermal-neutron sources that can be installed near the hospital. We proposed the method of filtering and moderating fast neutrons, which are emitted from the reaction between a beryllium target and 30-MeV protons accelerated by a cyclotron accelerator, using an optimum moderator system composed of iron, lead, aluminum and calcium fluoride. At present, an epithermal-neutron source is under construction from June 2008. This system consists of a cyclotron accelerator, beam transport system, neutron-yielding target, filter, moderator and irradiation bed. In this article, an overview of this system and the properties of the treatment neutron beam optimized by the MCNPX Monte Carlo neutron transport code are presented. The distribution of biological effect weighted dose in a head phantom compared with that of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is shown. It is confirmed that for the accelerator, the biological effect weighted dose for a deeply situated tumor in the phantom is 18% larger than that for KUR, when the limit dose of the normal brain is 10 Gy-eq. The therapeutic time of the cyclotron-based neutron sources are nearly one-quarter of that of KUR. The cyclotron-based epithermal-neutron source is a promising alternative to reactor-based neutron sources for treatments by BNCT.

  7. Tumor cell killing effect of boronated dipeptide. Boromethylglycylphenylalanine on boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagaki, Masao; Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Toru [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Oda, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Spielvogel, B.F.

    1994-03-01

    The killing effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy; BNCT, is dependant on the boron concentration ratio of tumor to normal brain (T/N ratio), and also that of tumor to blood (T/B ratio). The clinical boron carrier of boro-captate (BSH) showed the large T/N ratio of ca. 8, however the T/B ratio was around 1, which indicated nonselective accumulation into tumor. Indeed high boron concentration of blood restrict the neutron irradiation dose in order to circumvent the normal endothelial damage, especially in the case of deeply seated tumor. Phenylalanine analogue of para borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is an effective boron carrier on BNCT for malignant melanoma. For the BNCT on brain tumors, however, BPA concentration in normal brain was reported to be intolerably high. In order to improve the T/N ratio of BPA in brain, therefore, a dipeptide of boromethylglycylphenylalanine (BMGP) was synthesized deriving from trimethylglycine conjugated with BPA. It is expected to be selectively accumulated into tumor with little uptake into normal brain. Because a dipeptide might not pass through the normal blood brain barrier (BBB). Its killing effect on cultured glioma cell, T98G, and its distribution in rat brain bearing 9L glioma have been investigated in this paper. The BNCT effect of BMGP on cultured cells was nearly triple in comparison with DL-BPA. The neutron dose yielding 1% survival ratio were 7x10{sup 12}nvt for BMGP and 2x10{sup 13}nvt for BPA respectively on BNCT after boron loading for 16 hrs in the same B-10 concentration of 20ppm. Quantitative study of boron concentration via the {alpha}-auto radiography and the prompt gamma ray assay on 9L brain tumor rats revealed that T/N ratio and T/B ratio are 12.0 and 3.0 respectively. Those values are excellent for BNCT use. (author).

  8. Role of p53 mutation in the effect of boron neutron capture therapy on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Ken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a selective radiotherapy, being effective for the treatment of even advanced malignancies in head and neck regions as well as brain tumors and skin melanomas. To clarify the role of p53 gene, the effect of BNCT on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells showing either wild- (SAS/neo or mutant-type (SAS/mp53 p53 was examined. Methods Cells were exposed to neutron beams in the presence of boronophenylalanine (BPA at Kyoto University Research Reactor. Treated cells were monitored for modulations in colony formation, proliferation, cell cycle, and expression of cell cycle-associated proteins. Results When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo compared with SAS/mp53 cells. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint was observed in SAS/neo, but not in SAS/mp53. Apoptotic cells increased from 6 h after BNCT in SAS/neo and 48 h in SAS/mp53 cells. The expression of p21 was induced in SAS/neo only, but G2 arrest-associated proteins including Wee1, cdc2, and cyclin B1 were altered in both cell lines. Conclusion These results indicate that oral SCC cells with mutant-type are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53, and that the lack of G1 arrest and related apoptosis may contribute to the resistance. At a physical dose affecting the cell cycle, BNCT inhibits oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and -independent manners.

  9. Clinical applications of cellular therapy products

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Yanbakan

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell types and have usage about lots of regenerative medicine research fields. Especially bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have a wide range of case presentation. New discoveries about stem cell biology will progress new options about cellular therapy products and isolation of different stem cell types will increase hope for treatment of important illness such as Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, malign brain tumors. It...

  10. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  11. Behavioral data management using Visual Basics for Applications to automate data capture and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Maurice L; Sweeney, Richard E

    2003-09-30

    Many researchers are familiar with the spreadsheet capabilities of Microsoft Excel, but have never explored using customized VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATIONS (VBA) macros embedded in the program. At the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD), the implementation of VBA program code to carry out repetitive operations has resulted in a tremendous savings in both the time and manpower required to reliably capture, analyze, and plot data from research protocols. A set of "template" workbooks was developed and is used to organize data from different types of studies. At the heart of the concept is a "setup information" worksheet onto which the user enters information about the study (i.e. the number of subjects, groups, graphs). Clicking a control button on this worksheet launches the VBA code that creates worksheets for each subject, group and chart specified. A "pairmatch" function allows the user to create groups either randomly or by pair matching based on user-specified variables. Controls are provided that run VBA program code to parse subject data files into the proper worksheets and perform group averages. Charts are updated automatically whenever group averages change so that the researcher always has an up-to-date plot available. The ability to reformat the captured data onto a "statistical output" worksheet allows data to be imported easily to statistical software packages. The concept is being used for several different types of studies at USAMRICD and has significantly reduced not only amount of time spent on data management, but also the number of data entry errors. Readers interested in acquiring an electronic copy of the startle workbook example, which contains the complete VBA code, should send the request to the authors at reseco@erols.com or maurice.sipos@us.army.mil. PMID:12948548

  12. Current status of clinical laser applications in periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Akira; Mizutani, Koji; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi; Sasaki, Katia Miyuki; Nagai, Shigeyuki; Schwarz, Frank; Yoshida, Itaru; Eguro, Toru; Zeredo, Jorge Luis; Izumi, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by bacterial infection. Laser treatment demonstrates specific characteristics that may be valuable in managing periodontal disease. In addition, lasers reduce stress and uncomfortable conditions for patients during and after treatment compared to other conventional tools. This article reviews the literature to describe the current clinical applications of lasers for gingival tissue management-including esthetic treatment, non-surgical and surgical periodontal pocket therapy, osseous surgery, and implant therapy.

  13. Clinical application of photon activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite small improvements in median survival, high-grade astrocytoma remains a lethal disease with only anecdotal long-term survivors. The Brain Tumor Study Group Protocols have confirmed the value of radiation therapy and have further demonstrated that a dose-response relationship exists with doses of 5000, 5500, and 6000 cGy. However, 6000 cGy remains the upper limit of dose tolerated if external radiation therapy is used. Therefore the authors propose to combine the advantages of brachytherapy and sensitizers with halogenated pyrimidines (IUDR). By using stereotactically placed radiation sources with energies slightly above the K absorption edge of iodine they expect to obtain a significant further increase in therapeutic effect. This is due to enhancement of the physical dose, which is, furthermore, of higher biological effectiveness. Responsible for this effect are Auger electrons created in the process, which deposit their energy within the diameter of the nucleus. The dose delivered by Auger electrons is in many respects comparable with high-LET radiation. Since selective uptake of IUDR in brain tumor cells is assumed, the dose enhancement would localize itself into the tumor. Normal brain tolerance should be little, if at all, affected since normal brain would receive only low-LET radiation from the implanted samarium sources

  14. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a boron neutron capture therapy 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonen, M.

    2010-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy that has mainly been used to treat malignant brain tumours, melanomas, and head and neck cancer. In BNCT, the patient receives an intravenous infusion of a 10B-carrier, which accumulates in the tumour area. The tumour is irradiated with epithermal or thermal neutrons, which result in a boron neutron capture reaction that generates heavy particles to damage tumour cells. In Finland, boronophenylalanine fructose (BPA-F) is used as the 10B-carrier. Currently, the drifting of boron from blood to tumour as well as the spatial and temporal accumulation of boron in the brain, are not precisely known. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) could be used for selective BPA-F detection and quantification as aromatic protons of BPA resonate in the spectrum region, which is clear of brain metabolite signals. This study, which included both phantom and in vivo studies, examined the validity of 1H MRS as a tool for BPA detection. In the phantom study, BPA quantification was studied at 1.5 and 3.0 T with single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T with magnetic resonance imaging (MRSI). The detection limit of BPA was determined in phantom conditions at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T using MRSI. In phantom conditions, BPA quantification accuracy of +- 5% and +- 15% were achieved with single voxel MRS using external or internal (internal water signal) concentration references, respectively. For MRSI, a quantification accuracy of <5% was obtained using an internal concentration reference (creatine). The detection limits of BPA in phantom conditions for the PRESS sequence were 0.7 (3.0 T) and 1.4 mM (1.5 T) mM with 20 x 20 single voxel MRS, and 1.0 mM with acquisition-weighted MRSI, respectively. In the in vivo study, an MRSI or single voxel MRS or both was performed for ten patients (patients 1-10) on the day of BNCT. Three patients had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and five patients had a recurrent or

  15. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Morten; Fordyce, Sarah L.; Montiel, Rafael; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples. We tested the performance of Agilent's SureSelect and Mycroarray's MySelect in-solution capture systems on Illumina sequencing libraries built from ancient maize to identify key factors influencing aDNA capture experiments. High levels of clonality as well as the presence of multiple-copy sequences in the capture targets led to biases in the data regardless of the capture method. Neither method consistently outperformed the other in terms of average target enrichment, and no obvious difference was observed either when two tiling designs were compared. In addition to demonstrating the plausibility of capturing aDNA from ancient plant material, our results also enable us to provide useful recommendations for those planning targeted-sequencing on aDNA. PMID:22355593

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles for application in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, J. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Banobre-Lopez, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pineiro-Redondo, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rivas, B., E-mail: jose.rivas@usc.es [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Quintela, M.A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Magnetic particles play nowadays an important role in different technological areas with potential applications in fields such as electronics, energy and biomedicine. In this report we will focus on the hyperthermia properties of magnetite nanoparticles and the effect of several chemical/physical parameters on their heating properties. We will discuss about the need of searching new smaller magnetic systems in order to fulfill the required physical properties which allow treating tumoral tissues more efficiently by means of magnetically induced heat. Preliminary results will be shown about the effect of a biocompatible shell of core-shell magnetite NPs on the heating properties by application of a RF magnetic field.

  17. Magnetic nanoparticles for application in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic particles play nowadays an important role in different technological areas with potential applications in fields such as electronics, energy and biomedicine. In this report we will focus on the hyperthermia properties of magnetite nanoparticles and the effect of several chemical/physical parameters on their heating properties. We will discuss about the need of searching new smaller magnetic systems in order to fulfill the required physical properties which allow treating tumoral tissues more efficiently by means of magnetically induced heat. Preliminary results will be shown about the effect of a biocompatible shell of core–shell magnetite NPs on the heating properties by application of a RF magnetic field.

  18. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J Alberto;

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples...

  19. Highly controllable near-surface swimming of magnetic Janus nanorods: application to payload capture and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Directed manipulation of nanomaterials has significant implications in the field of nanorobotics, nanobiotechnology, microfluidics and directed assembly. With the goal of highly controllable nanomaterial manipulation in mind, we present a technique for the near-surface manoeuvering of magnetic nanorod swimmers and its application to controlled micromanipulation. We fabricate magnetic Janus nanorods and show that the magnetic rotation of these nanorods near a floor results in predictable translational motion. The nanorod plane of rotation is nearly parallel to the floor, the angle between rod tilt and floor being expressed by θ, where 00 0. Orthogonal magnetic fields control in-plane motion arbitrarily. Our model for translation incorporates symmetry breaking through increased drag at the no-slip surface boundary. Using this method we demonstrate considerable rod steerability. Additionally, we approach, capture, and manipulate a polystyrene microbead as proof of principle. We attach Janus nanorods to the surfaces of cells and utilize these rods to manipulate individual cells, proving the ability to manoeuver payloads with a wide range of sizes.

  20. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  1. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface. PMID:27379462

  2. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface.

  3. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air. PMID:21323309

  4. Nanophotonics for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Conde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Light has always fascinated mankind and since the beginning of recorded history it has been both a subject of research and a tool for investigation of other phenomena. Today, with the advent of nanotechnology, the use of light has reached its own dimension where light-matter interactions take place at wavelength and subwavelength scales and where the physical/chemical nature of nanostructures controls the interactions. This is the field of nanophotonics which allows for the exploration and manipulation of light in and around nanostructures, single molecules, and molecular complexes. What is more is the use of nanophotonics in biomolecular interactions—nanobiophotonics—has prompt for a plethora of molecular diagnostics and therapeutics making use of the remarkable nanoscale properties. In this paper, we shall focus on the uses of nanobiophotonics for molecular diagnostics involving specific sequence characterization of nucleic acids and for gene delivery systems of relevance for therapy strategies. The use of nanobiophotonics for the combined diagnostics/therapeutics (theranostics will also be addressed, with particular focus on those systems enabling the development of safer, more efficient, and specific platforms. Finally, the translation of nanophotonics for theranostics into the clinical setting will be discussed.

  5. Optimising the application of multiple-capture traps for invasive species management using spatial simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Warburton

    Full Text Available Internationally, invasive vertebrate species pose a significant threat to biodiversity, agricultural production and human health. To manage these species a wide range of tools, including traps, are used. In New Zealand, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula, stoats (Mustela ermine, and ship rats (Rattus rattus are invasive and there is an ongoing demand for cost-effective non-toxic methods for controlling these pests. Recently, traps with multiple-capture capability have been developed which, because they do not require regular operator-checking, are purported to be more cost-effective than traditional single-capture traps. However, when pest populations are being maintained at low densities (as is typical of orchestrated pest management programmes it remains uncertain if it is more cost-effective to use fewer multiple-capture traps or more single-capture traps. To address this uncertainty, we used an individual-based spatially explicit modelling approach to determine the likely maximum animal-captures per trap, given stated pest densities and defined times traps are left between checks. In the simulation, single- or multiple-capture traps were spaced according to best practice pest-control guidelines. For possums with maintenance densities set at the lowest level (i.e. 0.5/ha, 98% of all simulated possums were captured with only a single capacity trap set at each site. When possum density was increased to moderate levels of 3/ha, having a capacity of three captures per trap caught 97% of all simulated possums. Results were similar for stoats, although only two potential captures per site were sufficient to capture 99% of simulated stoats. For rats, which were simulated at their typically higher densities, even a six-capture capacity per trap site only resulted in 80% kill. Depending on target species, prevailing density and extent of immigration, the most cost-effective strategy for pest control in New Zealand might be to deploy several

  6. Application of radioisotopes for diagnosis and therapy in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insights into the application of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy of diseases and role of the nuclear medicine in USA are reviewed. Evaluation data on the forecast future demand for 67Cu, 123I, 111In, 103Pd, 188W → 188Re, 117Sn, 127Xe medical isotopes in USA are tabulated. Some medical radionuclides, their application and preparation are demonstrated. Three groups of priority medicine isotopes are listed. Forecast future demand of radionuclides to 2020 is given

  7. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Problem Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to familiarize clinicians with the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for problem anger by describing the application of ACT to a case of a 45-year-old man struggling with anger. ACT is an approach and set of intervention technologies that support acceptance and mindfulness processes linked with commitment and…

  8. Conditioning in Stuttering Therapy: Applications and Limitations. Publication No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, C. Woodruff, Ed.

    Presented are seven papers given at a conference on the application of behavior modification techniques to the treatment of stuttering. An introduction to the papers gives an overview of behavior modification. The two papers of Part I present two approaches to stuttering therapy, one of which is based on operant conditioning and the other on…

  9. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori, E-mail: yosakura@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  10. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  11. Novel microwave applicators for thermal therapy, ablation, and hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Clegg, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Microwave applicators are becoming more prevalent in cancer ablation therapy due to factors of penetration, high power, and shortened treatment time. These applicators create the largest zones of necrosis of available energy sources. Progress has been made both with interstitial applicators for surgical, laparoscopic, or radiological approaches, as well as surface applicators that provide hemostasis or precoagulation prior to resection. Most commonly, the applicators operate at 915 MHz or 2450 MHz, and are well matched to tissue. Surgical applicators are as large as 5.6 mm and have the capability to operate at 100-200 W. With smaller applicators, internal cooling may be required to avoid heating sensitive skin surfaces if used percutaneously or laparoscopically. With the interstitial applicators, animal studies have shown a strong relationship between power and ablation volume, including reaching a steady-state plateau in performance based more on power level and less on time. As shown in-vivo, MW surface applicators are very efficient in surface coagulation for hemostasis or precoagulation and in the treatment of surface breaking lesions. These applicators are also capable of deep penetration as applied from the surface. Characteristic treatment times for interstitial applicators are four minutes and for surface applicators, one minute or less is sufficient. Examples will be shown of multi-organ results with surface coagulation using high-power microwaves. Finally, future trends will be discussed that include treatment planning, multiple applicators, and navigation.

  12. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  13. Genetic correction using engineered nucleases for gene therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Nakano, Takao; Hotta, Akitsu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations in humans are associated with congenital disorders and phenotypic traits. Gene therapy holds the promise to cure such genetic disorders, although it has suffered from several technical limitations for decades. Recent progress in gene editing technology using tailor-made nucleases, such as meganucleases (MNs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) and, more recently, CRISPR/Cas9, has significantly broadened our ability to precisely modify target sites in the human genome. In this review, we summarize recent progress in gene correction approaches of the human genome, with a particular emphasis on the clinical applications of gene therapy.

  14. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  15. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Sørensen, P G; Björkdahl, O; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-03-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and chemical assays and reveal profound changes in surface chemistry and structural characteristics. In vitro thermal neutron irradiation of B16 melanoma cells incubated with sub-100 nm nanoparticles (381.5 microg/g (10)B) induces complete cell death. The nanoparticles alone induce no toxicity.

  16. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Somacal, H.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huck, H.; Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Repetto, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, T. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki University, Kiyotake 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi University, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yayama, K. [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyatake, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Ichikawa, H., E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of {sup 10}B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  18. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  19. [The application of music therapy in maternity nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Chen; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2004-10-01

    Music therapy has been used in the care of patients in a variety of fields, to decrease anxiety and enhance health, and has shown promising results. It is reported that pregnancy and childbirth may result in stressful consequences for some women. This article describes the systematic applications of music therapy to perinatal women and their families. The use of music for the childbearing family is appropriate because it enhances learning, improves the birth experience, and promotes closer relationships. The labor nurses are charged with the tasks of assuring the positive aspects of pregnancy and childbirth and meeting the demands of the women in these stressful situations. In order to create a caring environment, we suggest that music therapy be incorporated into standard maternity care. PMID:15614664

  20. Neutron radiation therapy: application of advanced technology to the treatment of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Maughan, R L; Kota, C; Burmeister, J; Porter, A T; Forman, J D; Blosser, H G; Blosser, E; Blosser, G

    1999-01-01

    The design and construction of a unique superconducting cyclotron for use in fast neutron radiation therapy is described. The clinical results obtained in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with this accelerator are presented. Future use of the boron neutron capture reaction as a means of enhancing fast neutron therapy in the treatment of patients with brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) is also discussed.

  1. Gene therapy imaging in patients for oncological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thus far, traditional methods for evaluating gene transfer and expression have been shown to be of limited value in the clinical arena. Consequently there is a real need to develop new methods that could be repeatedly and safely performed in patients for such purposes. Molecular imaging techniques for gene expression monitoring have been developed and successfully used in animal models, but their sensitivity and reproducibility need to be tested and validated in human studies. In this review, we present the current status of gene therapy-based anticancer strategies and show how molecular imaging, and more specifically radionuclide-based approaches, can be used in gene therapy procedures for oncological applications in humans. The basis of gene expression imaging is described and specific uses of these non-invasive procedures for gene therapy monitoring illustrated. Molecular imaging of transgene expression in humans and evaluation of response to gene-based therapeutic procedures are considered. The advantages of molecular imaging for whole-body monitoring of transgene expression as a way to permit measurement of important parameters in both target and non-target organs are also analyzed. The relevance of this technology for evaluation of the necessary vector dose and how it can be used to improve vector design are also examined. Finally, the advantages of designing a gene therapy-based clinical trial with imaging fully integrated from the very beginning are discussed and future perspectives for the development of these applications outlined. (orig.)

  2. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: halfon@phys.huji.ac.il; Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Steinberg, D. [Biofilm Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah (Israel); Nagler, A.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Polacheck, I. [Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center (Israel); Srebnik, M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)

    2009-07-15

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  3. Activated carbon enhancement with covalent organic polymers: An innovative material for application in water purification and carbon dioxide capture

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil; Hwang, Yuhoon; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    2015-01-01

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) have emerged as one of the leading advanced materials for environmental applications, such as the capture and recovery of carbon dioxide and the removal of contaminants from polluted water.1–4 COPs exhibit many remarkable properties that other leading advanced materials do not all-encompassing possess. Moreover, COPs have proven to be extremely stable in a wide variety of conditions, i.e. extremely high temperatures and boiling water for weeks at a time, which...

  4. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections and Sample Application for ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electron-capture cross sections at energies relevant to ENA modeling (approx. few MeV per nucleon) and for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantummechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  5. Colorimetric characterization of digital cameras with unrestricted capture settings applicable for different illumination circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingyu; Xu, Haisong; Wang, Zhehong; Wu, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    With colorimetric characterization, digital cameras can be used as image-based tristimulus colorimeters for color communication. In order to overcome the restriction of fixed capture settings adopted in the conventional colorimetric characterization procedures, a novel method was proposed considering capture settings. The method calculating colorimetric value of the measured image contains five main steps, including conversion from RGB values to equivalent ones of training settings through factors based on imaging system model so as to build the bridge between different settings, scaling factors involved in preparation steps for transformation mapping to avoid errors resulted from nonlinearity of polynomial mapping for different ranges of illumination levels. The experiment results indicate that the prediction error of the proposed method, which was measured by CIELAB color difference formula, reaches less than 2 CIELAB units under different illumination levels and different correlated color temperatures. This prediction accuracy for different capture settings remains the same level as the conventional method for particular lighting condition.

  6. Study of the interaction of boron-containing amino acids for the neutron capture therapy with biologically interesting compounds by using 'three-spot zone electrophoresis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy, p-borono phenylalanine (BPA) is the boron compound which has been clinically used together with sodium borocaptate. It was found by the electrophoresis behavior that the BPA interacted with organic carboxylic acids in its dissolved state. In this paper, the electrophoresis behavior of general amino acids as seen in three-spot zone electrophoresis and the peculiar interaction of the amino acids having dihydroxyboryl radical are described. Zone electrophoresis has been developed as separation means, and three-spot process excludes the errors due to accidental factors as far as possible. The behaviors of zone electrophoresis of ordinary neutral amino acids, orthoboric acid and p-BPA are reported. For utilizing the features of boron neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to develop the carrier which is singularly taken into cancer cells. There is not a good method for discriminating normal cells and cancer cells. As for the administration of BPA to patients, its solubility is insufficient, therefore, its fructose complex has been used. The research on the biochemical peculiarity of boron is important. (K.I.)

  7. A microdosimetric study of {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.K.C.; Sutton, M.; Evans, T.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Laster, B.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the most interesting cell survival experiment recently performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this experiment, the cells were first treated with a gadolinium (Gd) labeled tumor-seeking boronated porphyrin (Gd-BOPP) or with BOPP alone, and then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The resulting cell-survival curves indicate that the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions are very effective in cell killing. The death of a cell treated with Gd-BOPP was attributed to either the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reactions or the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions (or both). However, the quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell-survival fraction was not clear. This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the BNL experiment based on the measured experimental parameters, and the results clearly suggest a quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction. The results also suggest new research in gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) which may lead to a more practical modality than the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating cancers.

  8. Application of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on production and use of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy of diseases, development of nuclear medicine in Australia are reviewed. HIFAR operation for medicine purposes is noted; characteristics of the nuclear reactor HIFAR and new nuclear reactor under construction are performed. Australian market of radionuclides for medicine and prediction of their consumption are presented. Tendency for application of cyclotron radionuclides in medicine is demonstrated

  9. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess so

  10. Evaluation of the performance of a motion capture system for small displacement recording and a discussion for its application potential in bone deformation in vivo measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Pengfei; Sanno, Maximilian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Rittweger, Jörn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a motion capture system and discuss the application potential of the proposed system in in vivo bone-segment deformation measurements. In this study, the effects of the calibration procedure, camera distance and marker size on the accuracy and precision of the motion capture system have been investigated by comparing the captured movement of the markers with reference movement. The results indicated that the system resolution...

  11. CO2 capture technologies and application%二氧化碳捕集技术及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步学朋

    2014-01-01

    分析了CO2捕集技术及现状。 CO2捕集是CCS的关键技术单元之一,针对不同的CO2气源,国内外研究开发了多种技术。许多CO2捕集技术已经工业化,其中燃烧后烟气中CO2的捕集技术主要是以一乙醇胺( MEA)为基础的胺法;燃烧前的CO2捕集技术主要应用于IGCC电厂,一般需要对煤气中CO进行部分变换,变换后脱碳可采用成熟技术,如Selexol( NHD)等。富氧燃烧则是在中试成功的基础上,进行更大规模的工业示范。国内外大型煤制油化工项目主要采用低温甲醇洗脱除CO2,如果设置CO2产品塔,则可以获得体积分数98%以上的CO2。天然气脱碳主要采用MDEA技术。另外还有低温法、PSA、膜分离等CO2捕集技术及化学链燃烧等一些正在研发的技术。%The CO2 capture technologies and application are briefly analyzed based on literatures.CO2capture technology is one of the key technologies in CCS(carbon capture and storage).For different CO2sources,there are numerous development technologies at home and a-broad.Many kinds of CO2 capture technologies have been commercialized now.At present,MEA is the main method used for post-combus-tion flue gas CO2 capture.For pre-combustion CO2 capture,which is used in IGCC plant,part of CO convert to CO2 and H2 by shifting reac-tion first,then CO2 is captured by mature technologies such as Selexol(NHD) etc.Based on pilot experiment,commercial demonstration is demanded for Oxy-fuel technique.Rectisol is the mature technique used for large-scale CTL and CTC CO2 capture,and the CO2 content will be more than 98% if CO2 column was used in the process. For natural gas CO2 capture,MDEA is often adopted. There are also other CO2 capture technologies such as cryogenic,PSA,membrane etc.Chemical looping combustion and other CO2 capture technologies are still in the research and development phase.

  12. Investigation for the extended application of melanoma Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue is the Part B of the Progress Report (III) which includes our latest research results focusing mainly on the successful treatment of the first human melanoma patient who had metastasis in the scalp region. We also include the subsequent clinical treatment of various types of human primary melanoma lesions and the additional basic investigations necessary to perform the treatment. (J.P.N.)

  13. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  14. Theranostic Applications of Lutetium-177 in Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 has been widely discussed as a radioisotope of choice for targeted radionuclide therapy. The simultaneous emission of imageable gamma photons [208 keV (11%) and 113 keV (6.4%)] along with particulate β(-) emission [β(max) = 497 keV] makes it a theranostically desirable radioisotope. In the present article, the possibility of using two 177Lu-based agents viz. 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-DOTATATE for theranostic applications in metastatic bone pain palliation (MBPP) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), have been explored. In the case of 177Lu-EDTMP, the whole-body images obtained are compared with those recorded using 99mTc-MDP in the same patient. On the other hand, pre-therapy images acquired with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE are compared with similar images obtained with standard agents, such as 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (SPECT) and 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (PET) in the same patient. The advantage of the long physical half-life (T1/2) of 177Lu has been utilized in mapping the pharmacokinetics of two additional agents, 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in radiation synovectomy of knee joints and 177Lu-HA for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of these multiple studies conclusively document the potential of 177Lu as a theranostic radioisotope. PMID:25771364

  15. Application of Laser-Induced Bone Therapy by Carbon Dioxide Laser Irradiation in Implant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Naka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the application of laser-induced bone therapy (LIBT to reduce implant healing time in rat tibia. Twenty 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawlay rats were used. The rats received laser irradiation (laser group or sham operation (control group on either side of the tibia. Five days after invasion, titanium implants were inserted in proximal tibia. Five, 10, and 20 days after implant placement, tibiae were collected. After taking micro-CT and performing a torque test, the tibiae were decalcified and 8-μm-thick sections were prepared. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results. Micro-CT images, removal torque values, and histomorphometric analysis data demonstrated a significantly accelerated bone formation in the laser group earlier in the healing process. Conclusion. The use of laser irradiation was effective in promoting bone formation and acquiring osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rat tibia. LIBT may be suitable for use in implant therapy.

  16. Application of Advanced Technologies for CO2 Capture from Industrial Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Matteo C.; Anantharaman, Rahul; Arasto, Antti; Ozcan, Dursun Can; Ahn, Hyungwoong; Dijkstra, Jan Wilco; Carbo, Michiel; Boavida, Dulce

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of the research on CO2 capture worldwide is today devoted to the integration of new technologies in power plants, which are responsible for about 80% of the worldwide CO2 emission from large stationary sources. The remaining 20% are emitted from industrial sources, mainly cement production plants (∼7% of the total emission), refineries (∼6%) and iron and steel industry (∼5%). Despite their lower overall contribution, the CO2 concentration in flue gas and the average emissio...

  17. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.

  18. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  19. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Yancong Lin; Jiachen Yang; Zhihan Lv; Wei Wei; Houbing Song

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion an...

  20. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO2-N2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO2-CH4 and CO2-N2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  1. Application of probiotics in the xenobiotic detoxification therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many applications of probiotics have been described up to date. In this paper, it is hypothesized that probiotic microorganisms can also be used to decrease the xenobiotics intake in humans. The use of probiotic bacteria (e.g. strains of Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium Sp.) and Yeasts (Saccharomyces sp.) gives the opportunity for detoxification of various elements and compounds, considered as contaminants, directly in the lumen of human intestine. Some of these microorganisms ar known to accumulate cesium, strontium and heavy metals to a great extent and also bind mycotoxins. Certainly, during the up-coming years, their native or genetically modified strains will be a part of treatment protocols in detoxication therapy. The utilization of probiotics, in the both therapy and nutrition of people living in the countries suffering from high food contamination, could result in the reduction of annual xenobiotic dose to be incorporated in their organisms. (author)

  2. Conformal radiation therapy: technical requirements and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal radiation therapy represents a considerable and attractive challenge in oncology. Its aim is mainly to improve local control by increasing the dose with an acceptable rate of complications. This work overviews the world literature on this subject. The technical and theoretical requirements are highlighted. These requirements include a precise definition of the target volume by digital imaging (essentially CT scan), but also clear view of the target volume and the organs at risk, a specific collimation of the beam, 3-D dose calculations, optimization procedures, and a rigid immobilization of the patient with verification of his position. Moreover, the clinical applications of conformal radiation therapy are reviewed and discussed. (authors). 80 refs., 1 tab

  3. Applications of Nanoparticles for MRI Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Blasiak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in nanotechnology, molecular biology, and imaging technology allow the application of nanomaterials for early and specific cancer detection and therapy. As early detection is a prerequisite for successful treatment, this area of research has been rapidly growing. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in production, functionalization, toxicity reduction, and application of nanoparticles to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and treatment monitoring. This review focuses on superparamagnetic nanoparticles used as targeted contrast agents in MRI, but it also describes nanoparticles applied as contrasts in CT and PET. A very recent development of core/shell nanoparticles that promises to provide positive contrast in MRI of cancer is provided. The authors concluded that despite unenviable obstacles, the progress in the area will lead to rapidly approaching applications of nanotechnology to medicine enabling patient-specific diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for nonmusculoskeletal diseases: emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tom K; Ho, Jennifer H; Lee, Oscar K

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are stem/progenitor cells originated from the mesoderm and can different into multiple cell types of the musculoskeletal system. The vast differentiation potential and the relative ease for culture expansion have established mesenchymal stem cells as the building blocks in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications for a variety of musculoskeletal diseases, including repair of fractures and bone defects, cartilage regeneration, treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and correction of genetic diseases such as osteogenesis imperfect. However, research in the past decade has revealed differentiation potentials of mesenchymal stem cells beyond lineages of the mesoderm, suggesting broader applications than originally perceived. In this article, we review the recent developments in mesenchymal stem cell research with respect to their emerging properties and applications in nonmusculoskeletal diseases. PMID:19523328

  5. The Applications of Mixed Metal Oxides to Capture the CO2 and Convert to Syn-Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajan Babhare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The applications of different mixed metal oxides were explored for the capture of CO2 and convert of CO2 to syn-gas. The several samples of the mixed metal oxides were prepared by the sol-gel, solid-solid fusion, precipitation, molten salt and template methods in order to investigate the performance of mixed mtal oxides to the CO2 applications. These samples were calcined for the 3 h in air at 900 oC. The mixed metal oxides samples were characterized by acidity/basicity, surface area, XRD pattern, SEM images and to capture CO2. The basicity and surface area of the samples of mixed metal oxides were found to be in the range from 0.7 to 15.7 mmol.g-1 and 2.24 to 138.76 m2.g-1, respectively. The ob-tained results of prepared mixed metal oxides by different method were compared for the purpose of searching the efficient materials. The temperature profiles of the captured CO2 by the samples of mixed metal oxides were obtained in the range 100 to 800 oC. The captured CO2 was found to be in the range from 7.36 to 26.93 wt.%. The conversions of CO2 by methane were explored to syn-gas over the mixed metal oxides including the calcium iron lanthanum mixed metal oxides and (5 wt.% Pd/Al2O3 at 700 oC with the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 6000 ml.h-1.g-1 of methane, 6000 ml.h-1.g-1 of CO2 and 24000 ml.h-1.g-1 of helium.  © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd September 2014; Revised: 4th February 2015; Accepted: 5th February 2015How to Cite: Babhare, S., Raskar, R., Bobade, K., Gaikwad, A. (2015. The Applications of Mixed Metal Oxides to Capture the CO2 and Convert to Syn-Gas. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 125-142. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7381.125-142Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7381.125-142

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report

  7. Application of Laser-Induced Bone Therapy by Carbon Dioxide Laser Irradiation in Implant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Naka; Satoshi Yokose

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of laser-induced bone therapy (LIBT) to reduce implant healing time in rat tibia. Twenty 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawlay rats were used. The rats received laser irradiation (laser group) or sham operation (control group) on either side of the tibia. Five days after invasion, titanium implants were inserted in proximal tibia. Five, 10, and 20 days after implant placement, tibiae were collected. After taking micro-CT and performing a torque test, the tibia...

  8. Biodistribution of nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivative prepared with a planetary ball mill for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivatives (Gd-nanoGR) were prepared with a wet ball-milling process for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy. Ball-milling of solid mass of gadopentetic acid distearylamide with soybean lecithin as a dispersant in the presence of water and subsequent sonication at 70degC resulted in the Gd-nanoGR with the particle size of 63 nm. Biodistribution study using melanoma-bearing hamsters demonstrated that the i.v. injection of the Gd-nanoGR made a higher gadolinium accumulation in tumor (109 μg Gd/g wet tumor at 6h after administration), when compared with the gadolinium-loaded micellar-like nanoparticles previously reported. (author)

  9. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  10. Potential applications of pharmacogenomics to heart failure therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Kishan S; Ahmad, Tariq; Fiuzat, Mona

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores one drug's varying effects on different patient genotypes. A better understanding of genomic variation's contribution to drug response can impact 4 arenas in heart failure (HF): (1) identification of patients most likely to receive benefit from therapy, (2) risk stratify patients for risk of adverse events, (3) optimize dosing of drugs, and (4) steer future clinical trial design and drug development. In this review, the authors explore the potential applications of pharmacogenomics in patients with HF in the context of these categories.

  11. A Trichotomic Approach to Concept Capture and Representation : With its Application to Library Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, Toshiro; Hirokawa, Sachio; Baba, Kensuke; Amano, Eriko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is twofold. Firstly, we propose a method of specifying the concept that is too hard to describe in an exact way by a word or a phrase, by setting up the “relative distances" from three key concepts; which we call a trichotomic approach to concept capture and representation, or description, in an approximate means. It is important and interesting that we can choose not only the key words but also other three “keys" such as patrons, books, concepts, objects or others. Th...

  12. Iron phthalocyanine modified mesoporous titania nanoparticles for photocatalytic activity and CO2 capture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacharyulu, P V R K; Muhammad, Raeesh; Praveen Kumar, J; Prasad, G K; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2015-10-21

    An iron(II)phthalocyanine (Fepc) modified mesoporous titania (Fepc-TiO2) nanocatalyst with a specific surface area of 215 m(2) g(-1) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Fepc-TiO2 degrades one of the highly toxic chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM), photocatalytically under sunlight with an exposure time of as low as 70 min. Furthermore, the mesoporous Fepc-TiO2 also captured 2.1 mmol g(-1) of CO2 at 273 K and 1 atm.

  13. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  14. Library preparation and multiplex capture for massive parallel sequencing applications made efficient and easy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Neiman

    Full Text Available During the recent years, rapid development of sequencing technologies and a competitive market has enabled researchers to perform massive sequencing projects at a reasonable cost. As the price for the actual sequencing reactions drops, enabling more samples to be sequenced, the relative price for preparing libraries gets larger and the practical laboratory work becomes complex and tedious. We present a cost-effective strategy for simplified library preparation compatible with both whole genome- and targeted sequencing experiments. An optimized enzyme composition and reaction buffer reduces the number of required clean-up steps and allows for usage of bulk enzymes which makes the whole process cheap, efficient and simple. We also present a two-tagging strategy, which allows for multiplex sequencing of targeted regions. To prove our concept, we have prepared libraries for low-pass sequencing from 100 ng DNA, performed 2-, 4- and 8-plex exome capture and a 96-plex capture of a 500 kb region. In all samples we see a high concordance (>99.4% of SNP calls when comparing to commercially available SNP-chip platforms.

  15. Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydra, Robert John

    Despite recent advances, cancer remains the second leading cause of deaths in the United States. Magnetic nanoparticles have found various applications in cancer research as drug delivery platforms, enhanced contrast agents for improved diagnostic imaging, and the delivery of thermal energy as standalone therapy. Iron oxide nanoparticles absorb the energy from an alternating magnetic field and convert it into heat through Brownian and Neel relaxations. To better utilize magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy, surface functionalization is essential for such factors as decreasing cytotoxicity of healthy tissue, extending circulation time, specific targeting of cancer cells, and manage the controlled delivery of therapeutics. In the first study, iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The PEG coating was selected to prevent protein adsorption and thus improve circulation time and minimize host response to the nanoparticles. Thermal therapy application feasibility was demonstrated in vitro with a thermoablation study on lung carcinoma cells. Building on the thermal therapy demonstration with iron oxide nanoparticles, the second area of work focused on intracellular delivery. Nanoparticles can be appropriately tailored to enter the cell and deliver energy on the nanoscale eliminating individual cancer cells. The underlying mechanism of action is still under study, and we were interested in determining the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) catalytically generated from the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles in this measured cytotoxicity. When exposed to an AMF, the nanoscale heating effects are capable of enhancing the Fenton-like generation of ROS determined through a methylene blue degradation assay. To deliver this enhanced ROS effect to cells, monosaccharide coated nanoparticles were developed and successfully internalized by colon cancer cell lines. Upon AMF exposure, there was a measured increase in

  16. Fast-neutron capture cross sections of importance in technological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the capture cross section of the major fertile nuclei, 238U and 232Th, leads to the consideration of these data. The 238U (n,γ) cross section is considered of priority as it is part of the 238U-239Pu cycle. Experimental techniques used in the measurements of these data are considered. Data measured more recently are compared with provisions made for the possible explanations of differing results. It is concluded that the 238U (n,γ) cross section is known with approx. 5% above 10 keV and fulfills the uncertainty limit for this cross section set to achieve design accuracy for k/sub eff/ and the breeding ratio above 500 keV. Below 500 keV, the present uncertainty falls short of the required 1.5 to 3.0% uncertainty. Specific recommendations are made to resolve existing discrepancies and data uncertainties. 84 references

  17. Capturing [11C]CO2 for use in aqueous applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method for trapping [11C]CO2 gas and releasing it into a buffered solution using an ion-exchange cartridge. Sodium hydroxide cartridges captured >99% of [11C]CO2 following NaOH activation. A sodium bicarbonate solution eluted >99% of trapped radioactivity. Trapping [11C]CO2 directly in small volumes of several solutions was less effective than cartridge methods. The recommended methods allow for fast and simple production of highly concentrated carbon-11 containing aqueous solutions for use in filling phantoms, calibrating detectors, or (bio)geochemical experiments. - Highlights: • An ion exchange resin can trap [11C]CO2 gas and release it with saturated bicarbonate. • Elution from cartridge requires as little as 300 µL volume, with eluant at pH=10. • SPE trap-and-release provided better results than trapping in solution

  18. Molecular simulation studies of CO2 adsorption by carbon model compounds for carbon capture and sequestration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Effects of oxygen-containing surface functionalities on the adsorption of mixtures including CO(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/N(2), and CO(2)/H(2)O have been investigated in the current work. Together with Bader charge analysis, electronic structure calculations have provided the initial framework comprising both the geometry and corresponding charge information required to carry out statistical-based molecular simulations. The adsorption isotherms and selectivity of CO(2) from CO(2)/N(2), CO(2)/CH(4), and CO(2)/H(2)O gas mixtures were determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations at temperature/pressure conditions relevant to carbon capture and sequestration applications. The interactions between the surfaces with induced polarity and nonpolar/polar molecules have been investigated. It has been observed that, due to the induced polarity of the surface functionalization, the selectivity of CO(2) over CH(4) increases from approximately 2 to higher than 5, and the selectivity of CO(2) over N(2) increases from approximately 5 to 20, especially in the low-pressure regime. However, water vapor will always preferentially adsorb over CO(2) in carbon-based systems containing oxygen functionalized surfaces at conditions relevant to carbon capture application. Molecular simulation results indicate that the surface chemistry in micropores is tunable thereby influencing the selectivity for enhanced uptake of CO(2).

  19. Posterior Wall Capture and Femoral Artery Stenosis Following Use of StarClose Closing Device: Diagnosis and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir [Medical University of Lodz, First Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Elgalal, Marcin T., E-mail: telgalal@yahoo.co.uk [Medical University of Lodz, Second Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szubert, Wojciech; Grzelak, Piotr [Medical University of Lodz, First Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szopinski, Piotr [Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Vascular Surgery (Poland); Majos, Agata [Medical University of Lodz, Second Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland)

    2013-10-15

    A case of femoral artery obstruction following application of a StarClose type arterial puncture closing device (APCD) is presented. Ultrasonographic and angiographic imaging of this complication was obtained. The posterior wall of the vessel was accidentally caught in the anchoring element of the nitinol clip. This complication was successfully resolved by endovascular treatment and the implantation of a stent.

  20. Peptide-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Anastasia Kruse

    oxide nanoparticles for therapeutic applications, these inherent toxicities were harnessed and utilized to enhance radiation therapy. Therefore, the third application of magnetic nanoparticles was their ability to catalyze reactive oxygen species formation and increase efficacy of radiation. Overall, iron oxide nanoparticles have a variety of cancer therapy applications and are a promising class of materials for increasing efficacy and reducing the side effects of conventional cancer treatments. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, peptides, magnetically mediated hyperthermia, magnetically mediated energy delivery, reactive oxygen species.

  1. Surface modification of oil fly ash and its application in selective capturing of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaumi, Ali L.; Hussien, Ibnelwaleed A.; Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    2013-02-01

    Oil fly ash from power generation plants was activated with 30% NH4OH and used for selective adsorption of carbon dioxide from CO2/N2 mixture. The treated samples were characterized for their surface area, morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition and surface functional groups. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed an increase in the carbon contents from 45 to 73 wt% as a result of leaching out metal oxides. XRD proved that chemical activation of ash resulted in diminishing of major crystalline phases of zeolite, and other alumino-silicates leaving only quartz and mullite. BET analysis showed an increase in surface area from 59 to 318 m2/g after chemical activation and the pore volume increased from 0.0368 to 0.679 cm3/g. This increase in pore volume is supported by the results of SEM, where more micropores were opened with well-defined particle sizes and porous structure. The TGA of the treated fly ash showed stability at higher temperature as the weight loss decreased with increasing temperature. For treated ash, the FTIR displayed new peaks of amine functional group. The treated ash was used for the removal of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture and the maximum adsorption/capturing capacity was found to be 240 mg/g. This capacity increases with increase in initial gas concentration, inlet flow rate and temperature suggesting the endothermic nature of the interaction between the gas molecules and the surface of the ash.

  2. Fast-neutron capture cross sections of importance in technological applications. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the capture cross section of the major fertile nuclei, /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th, leads to the consideration of these data. The /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is considered of priority as it is part of the /sup 238/U-/sup 239/Pu cycle. Experimental techniques used in the measurements of these data are considered. Data measured more recently are compared with provisions made for the possible explanations of differing results. It is concluded that the /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is known with approx. 5% above 10 keV and fulfills the uncertainty limit for this cross section set to achieve design accuracy for k/sub eff/ and the breeding ratio above 500 keV. Below 500 keV, the present uncertainty falls short of the required 1.5 to 3.0% uncertainty. Specific recommendations are made to resolve existing discrepancies and data uncertainties. 84 references.

  3. Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y [NETL

    2013-08-07

    The work reported in this presentation was establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO{sub 2} solid sorbents and provide guidelines to the experimentalists. Our methodology can predict thermodynamic properties of solid materials and their CO{sub 2} capture reactions. Single solid may not satisfy the industrial operating conditions as CO{sub 2} sorbent, however, by mixing two or more solids, the new formed solid may satisfy the industrial needs. By exploring series of lithium silicates with different Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio, we found that with decreasing Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio the corresponding silicate has a lower turnover temperature and vice versa. Compared to pure MgO, the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3} promoted MgO sorbent has a higher turnover T. These results provide guidelines to synthesize sorbent materials by mixing different solids with different ratio.

  4. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint; John K. Hartwell; Elisa M. Heber; Veronica Trivillin; Jorge Castillo; Luis Wentzeis; Patrick Sloan; Charles A. Wemple

    2004-10-01

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  5. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Hartwell, J.K.; Heber, E.M.; Trivillin, V.; Castillo, J.; Wentzeis, L.; Sloan, P.; Wemple, C.A.

    2004-10-04

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  6. Application of Nanoparticles on Diagnosis and Therapy in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Y. Hernández-Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly diseases that affect humans, and it is characterized by high resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Its median survival is only fourteen months, and this dramatic prognosis has stilled without changes during the last two decades; consequently GBM remains as an unsolved clinical problem. Therefore, alternative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are needed for gliomas. Nanoparticles represent an innovative tool in research and therapies in GBM due to their capacity of self-assembly, small size, increased stability, biocompatibility, tumor-specific targeting using antibodies or ligands, encapsulation and delivery of antineoplastic drugs, and increasing the contact surface between cells and nanomaterials. The active targeting of nanoparticles through conjugation with cell surface markers could enhance the efficacy of nanoparticles for delivering several agents into the tumoral area while significantly reducing toxicity in living systems. Nanoparticles can exploit some biological pathways to achieve specific delivery to cellular and intracellular targets, including transport across the blood-brain barrier, which many anticancer drugs cannot bypass. This review addresses the advancements of nanoparticles in drug delivery, imaging, diagnosis, and therapy in gliomas. The mechanisms of action, potential effects, and therapeutic results of these systems and their future applications in GBM are discussed.

  7. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections: A Space- Physics Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electroncapture cross sections at energies relevant to the modeling of the transport, acceleration, and interaction of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in space (approximately few MeV per nucleon) and especially for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantum-mechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts for apace applications, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  8. Assessing the Potential of Sepiolite-Palygorskite Group Minerals as Materials for CO2 Capture and Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals within ultramafic rocks is one of the most promising routes to CO2 sequestration involving chemical reaction with natural materials. However, in practice the rate of magnesium silicate carbonation is very slow at ambient temperature. Although using smaller magnesium silicate grains with greater reactive surface area can enhance reaction rates, the coherency of ultramafic rock makes crushing the material an energy-consuming task in its own right. Instead of relying on a mineral forming reaction to capture carbon, it has been hypothesized that naturally occuring nanoporous materials may be used to capture and store carbon dioxide. Sepiolite-palygorskite clays are of interest because in addition to being common minerals in marine and lacustrine sediments, they are natural weathering products of ultramafic rocks, and are already used extensively in industrial scale applications. Due to the presence of nanoscopic channel structures in sepiolite-palygorskite clays these materials exhibit extremely high surface areas. However, in the native structure the channels are filled with water. In order for these minerals to act as efficient CO2 storage materials channel water must be displaced and replaced with CO2. Herein we present preliminary findings using molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the thermodynamic driving force for displacing channel bound water with CO2 and assess the feasibility of sepiolite-palygorskite clays to act as CO2 storage materials.

  9. Application of systems engineering techniques to component design - Capturing functionality and linking part 'critical to quality' features to requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systems engineering approach - focusing upon functionality - has predominantly been applied in industry to the design of complex systems with many functional interactions, inputs and outputs, eg the design of a decay heat removal system. This paper presents how systems engineering techniques can be applied to component design, i.e. treating the component as a system in its own right, and using functionality as the 'bridge' between the customer requirements and accepted performance. A pressure relief valve is used as an example to present the techniques of: Functional Modelling to establish the functional requirements and Functional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to establish any emergent functionality to reduce the risk of adverse behaviour. A key aspect of component design is capturing the design intent and establishing the 'Critical to Quality 'features that can critically affect quality and performance. This paper details 'Quality Function Deployment' being applied to a component to capture such features and to establish a clear link to the overarching performance requirements. This approach is particularly useful in ensuring continuity of design understanding throughout the component life cycle, assessing the effects of any proposed changes to the design and the effects of changes in system or customer requirements, or for using the design in a different application. (authors)

  10. Identification of early and distinct glioblastoma response patterns treated by boron neutron capture therapy not predicted by standard radiographic assessment using functional diffusion map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologic response of brain tumors is traditionally assessed according to the Macdonald criteria 10 weeks from the start of therapy. Because glioblastoma (GB) responds in days rather than weeks after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) that is a form of tumor-selective particle radiation, it is inconvenient to use the Macdonald criteria to assess the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by gadolinium-magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI). Our study assessed the utility of functional diffusion map (fDM) for evaluating response patterns in GB treated by BNCT. The fDM is an image assessment using time-dependent changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in tumors on a voxel-by-voxel approach. Other than time-dependent changes of ADC, fDM can automatically assess minimum/maximum ADC, Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), and the volume of enhanced lesions on Gd-MRI over time. We assessed 17 GB patients treated by BNCT using fDM. Additionally, in order to verify our results, we performed a histopathological examination using F98 rat glioma models. Only the volume of tumor with decreased ADC by fDM at 2 days after BNCT was a good predictor for GB patients treated by BNCT (P value = 0.022 by log-rank test and 0.033 by wilcoxon test). In a histopathological examination, brain sections of F98 rat glioma models treated by BNCT showed cell swelling of both the nuclei and the cytoplasm compared with untreated rat glioma models. The fDM could identify response patterns in BNCT-treated GB earlier than a standard radiographic assessment. Early detection of treatment failure can allow a change or supplementation before tumor progression and might lead to an improvement of GB patients’ prognosis

  11. Comparison of numerical predictions with CO2 pipeline release datasets of relevance to carbon capture and storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the correct multi-phase fluid flow behaviour during the discharge process in the near-field of sonic CO2 jets is of particular importance in assessing the risks associated with transport aspects of carbon capture and storage schemes, given the very different hazard profiles of CO2 in the gaseous and solid states. In this paper, we apply our state-of-the-art mathematical model implemented in an efficient computational method to available data. Compared to previous applications, an improved equation of state is used. We also compare to all the available data, rather than just subsets as previously, and demonstrate both the improved performance of the fluid flow model and the variation between the available datasets. The condensed phase fraction at the vent, puncture or rupture release point is revealed to be of key importance in understanding the near-field dispersion of sonic CO2

  12. Comparison of numerical predictions with CO{sub 2} pipeline release datasets of relevance to carbon capture and storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wareing, Christopher J. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fairweather, Michael; Woolley, Robert M. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Falle, S. A. E. G. [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-31

    Predicting the correct multi-phase fluid flow behaviour during the discharge process in the near-field of sonic CO{sub 2} jets is of particular importance in assessing the risks associated with transport aspects of carbon capture and storage schemes, given the very different hazard profiles of CO{sub 2} in the gaseous and solid states. In this paper, we apply our state-of-the-art mathematical model implemented in an efficient computational method to available data. Compared to previous applications, an improved equation of state is used. We also compare to all the available data, rather than just subsets as previously, and demonstrate both the improved performance of the fluid flow model and the variation between the available datasets. The condensed phase fraction at the vent, puncture or rupture release point is revealed to be of key importance in understanding the near-field dispersion of sonic CO{sub 2}.

  13. Triptycene-based microporous polymer with pending tetrazole moieties for CO2 -capture application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Triptycene-based micorporous polymer is functionalized with CO2 -philic tetrazole moieties via ZnCl2 -catalyzed post-polymerization. Gas adsorption experiments indicate that it possesses high CO2 uptake capacity, reaching 134 cm(3) g(-1) (26.5 wt%) at 1.0 bar and 273 K, along with high selectivity towards CO2 over N2 and CH4 . The porous polymeric networks present the promising potentials as efficient adsorbents in clean energy applications.

  14. Utilizing RxNorm to Support Practical Computing Applications: Capturing Medication History in Live Electronic Health Records

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Casey

    2012-01-01

    RxNorm was utilized as the basis for direct-capture of medication history data in a live EHR system deployed in a large, multi-state outpatient behavioral healthcare provider in the United States serving over 75,000 distinct patients each year across 130 clinical locations. This tool incorporated auto-complete search functionality for medications and proper dosage identification assistance. The overarching goal was to understand if and how standardized terminologies like RxNorm can be used to support practical computing applications in live EHR systems. We describe the stages of implementation, approaches used to adapt RxNorm's data structure for the intended EHR application, and the challenges faced. We evaluate the implementation using a four-factor framework addressing flexibility, speed, data integrity, and medication coverage. RxNorm proved to be functional for the intended application, given appropriate adaptations to address high-speed input/output (I/O) requirements of a live EHR and the flexibility r...

  15. Use of boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles with ROS scavenging ability in boron neutron capture therapy to achieve high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenyu; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    A boron delivery system with high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects is crucial for a successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this study, we developed boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles (BNPs) via polyion complex (PIC) formation, using a newly synthesized poly(ethylene glycol)-polyanion (PEG-polyanion, possessing a (10)B-enriched boron cluster as a side chain of one of its segments) and PEG-polycation (possessing a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger as a side chain of one of its segments). The BNPs exhibited high colloidal stability, selective uptake in tumor cells, specific accumulation, and long retention in tumor tissue and ROS scavenging ability. After thermal neutron irradiation, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in the BNP-treated group, with only 5-ppm (10)B in tumor tissues, whereas at least 20-ppm (10)B is generally required for low molecular weight (LMW) (10)B agents. In addition, increased leukocyte levels were observed in the LMW (10)B agent-treated group after thermal neutron irradiation, and not in BNP-treated group, which might be attributed to its ROS scavenging ability. No visual metastasis of tumor cells to other organs was observed 1 month after irradiation in the BNP-treated group. These results suggest that BNPs are promising for enhancing the BNCT performance. PMID:27467416

  16. Neutron capture therapy clinical development in the world%中子俘获疗法临床应用国际进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张紫竹; 金从军; 刘凯; 张国珍; 杨立军

    2012-01-01

    硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)目前在国际上已经临床应用于千余例患者,并取得了较好的治疗效果.主要对BNCT的原理、发展历史及国际BNCT临床进展情况作了主要介绍.对脑胶质瘤、恶性黑色素瘤、复发性头颈部肿瘤及转移性肝癌BNCT临床治疗情况及治疗效果作了较详细的讨论.%Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) method was applied to about one thousand clinical patients and achieved good results internationally. In this paper, the principle of BNCT, the development history and international BNCT clinical progress were mainly introduced. The BNCT clinical treatment situation and evaluation in glioblastoma (GBM) , malignant melanoma, recurrent head and neck cancer and metastatic liver cancer were discussed in detail.

  17. Design calculations of an epithermal neutron beam and development of a treatment planning system for the renovation of thor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsing Hua University was recently granted by National Science Council a five-year project to renovate its Open-Pool reactor (THOR) for boron neutron capture therapy. With this support, the whole graphite blocks in the original thermal column region can be removed for redesigning and constructing a better epithermal neutron beam. THOR is a 1 MW research reactor. The cross section area of the core facing the thermal column is 60 cm x 50 cm. By using 60 cm FLUENTAL plus 10 cm Pb, with cross section area of 70 cm x 60 cm and surrounded by 6 cm thick PbF2 reflector, the epithermal neutron flux at the filter/moderator exit can reach ∼8.5 x 109 n/cm2/s. When the collimator is added, the epithermal neutron beam intensity at the beam exit is reduced to 3 x 109 n/cm2/sec, but is still six times higher than the previous beam. Facing the clinical trials scheduled 3 and half years from now, a preliminary version of treatment planning system is developed. It includes a pre-processor to read CT scan and post-processors to display dose distributions. (author)

  18. Comparison of intracerebral delivery of carboplatin and photon irradiation with an optimized regimen for boron neutron capture therapy of the F98 rat glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rolf F., E-mail: rolf.barth@osumc.edu [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yang Weilian; Huo Tianyao [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Riley, Kent J.; Binns, Peter J. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grecula, John C., E-mail: john.grecula@osumc.edu [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Gupta, Nilendu, E-mail: nilendu.gupta@osumc.edu [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Rousseau, Julia, E-mail: julia.rousseau@yahoo.fr [INSERM, U836, Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Elleaume, Helene, E-mail: h.elleaume@esrf.fr [INSERM, U836, Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-15

    In this report we have summarized our studies to optimize the delivery of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of F98 glioma bearing rats. These results have been compared to a chemoradiotherapeutic approach using the same tumor model. The best survival data from our BNCT studies were obtained using a combination of BPA and sodium borocaptate BSH administered via the internal carotid artery, in combination with blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D). This treatment resulted in a mean survival time (MST) of 140 d with a 25% cure rate. The other approach combined intracerebral administration of carboplatin by either convection enhanced delivery (CED) or Alzet pump infusion, followed by external beam photon irradiation. This resulted in MSTs of 83 d and 112 d, respectively, with a cure rate of 40% for the latter. However, a significant problem that must be solved for both BNCT and this new chemoradiotherapeutic approach is how to improve drug uptake and microdistribution within the tumor.

  19. Effect of the p53 gene status on the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the p53 gene in the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) had not been studied. We examined the effect of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT on oral SCC cells showing either wild-type p53 (SAS/neo) or mutated-type p53 (SAS/mp53). Survival ratio of cells was determined by colony formation. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and nuclear DNA staining. When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo cells as compared with SAS/mp53. The proportion of apoptotic cells with DNA fragmentation was also increased in the cells with functional p53. These results suggest that oral SCC cells with mutated p53 cells are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53. BNCT must inhibit oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. (author)

  20. Boron labeled rabbit anti-rat fibrin and goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin antibodies and their potential for slow neutron capture therapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic effectiveness of slow neutron capture therapy is currently dependent upon achieving a high concentration gradient of boron between tumor and normal tissue. Labeling of anti-tumor or anti-tumor site antibodies with boron containing compounds could provide this high therapeutic value. Anti-rat fibrin antibodies, which show considerable localization at the site of several transplantable rat tumors, were labeled with 4-boronophenylalanine (4-BPA) using the N-carboxy anhydride procedure. Activity of these labeled antibodies was studied by modifying the test for fibrinogen concentration of hemophiliac blood. The number of 4-BPAs bound to each active antibody was determined indirectly using the fluorimetric test for phenylalanine concentration in serum. These tests showed that labeled antibodies retained their activity, and it was possible to add up to fifty 4-BPAs per active antibody. The indirect approach to achieving a high therapeutic value of boron was also investigated. This procedure involves labeling anti-immunoglobulin antibodies that bind to anti-tumor antibodies which are already bound to their respective antigens. Indirect labeling has the potential of increasing the therapeutic value by a factor of ten over the direct approach. Activity of labeled goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin (RGG) antibodies was studied by radial immunodiffusion and passive hemagglutination. The number of 4-BPAs bound to each active antibody was determined indirectly by fluorimetry. These labeled antibodies also retained their activity, and it was possible to add upwards of forty 4-BPAs per active antibody

  1. Neutron capture therapy (NCT) and in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) a new technology on binary targeting radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is finally becoming 'a new option against cancer'. The difficulties for its development progress of that firstly is to improve the performance of boron compounds,secondly, it is the requirements of quantification and accuracy upon radiation dosimetry evaluation in clinical trials. Furthermore, that is long anticipation on hospital base neutron sources. It includes dedicated new NCT reactor, accelerator based neutron sources, and isotope source facilities. In addition to reactors, so far, the technology of other types of sources for clinical trials is not yet completely proven. The In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator specially designed for NCT, based on the MNSR successfully developed by China, can be installed inside or near the hospital and operated directly by doctors. The Irradiator has two neutron beams for respective treatment of the shallow and deep tumors. It is expected to initiate operation in the end of this year. It would provide a safe, low cost, and effective treatment tool for the NCT routine application in near future. (authors)

  2. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma RK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma, Donald J Voelker, Roma Sharma, Hanumanth K ReddyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Medical Center of South Arkansas, El Dorado, AR, USAAbstract: Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: stem cell therapy, stem cell delivery, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy

  3. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

  4. Applicability of thermoluminescent dosimeters in X-ray organ dose determination and in the dosimetry of systemic and boron neutron capture radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main detectors used for clinical dosimetry are ionisation chambers and semiconductors. Thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters are also of interest because of their following advantages: (i) wide useful dose range, (ii) small physical size, (iii) no need for high voltage or cables, i.e. stand alone character, and (iv) tissue equivalence (LiF) for most radiation types. TL detectors can particularly be used for the absorbed dose measurements performed with the aim to investigate cases where dose prediction is difficult and not as part of a routine verification procedure. In this thesis, the applicability of TL detectors was studied in different clinical applications. Particularly, the major phenomena (e.g. energy dependence, sensitivity to high LET radiation, reproducibility) affecting on the precision and accuracy of TL detectors in the dose estimations were considered in this work. In organ dose determinations of diagnostic X-ray examinations, the TL detectors were found to be accurate within 5% (1 S.D.). For in viva studies using internal irradiation source, i.e. for systemic radiation therapy, a method for determining the absorbed doses to organs was introduced. The TL method developed was found to be able to estimate the absorbed doses to those critical organs near the body surface within 50%. In the mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), TL detectors were used for gamma dose and neutron fluence measurements. They were found able to measure the neutron dose component with the accuracy of 16%, and therefore to be a useful addition to the activation foils in BNCT neutron dosimetry. The absorbed gamma doses can be measured with TL detectors within 20% in the mixed neutron-gamma field, which enables in viva measurements at BNCT beams with approximately the same accuracy. In this study, the uncertainties of TL dosimeters were found to be high but not essentially greater than those in other measurement techniques used for clinical dosimetry

  5. Monte-Carlo simulation of primary stochastic effects induced at the cellular level in boron neutron capture therapy; Simulation Monte-Carlo des effets stochastiques primaires induits au niveau cellulaire lors de la therapie par capture de neutrons sur le {sup 10}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P.; Nepveu, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1998-04-01

    A Monte Carlo code is developed to study the action of particles in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Our aim is to calculate the probability of dissipating a lethal dose in cell nuclei. Cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes are considered as non-concentric ellipsoids. All geometrical parameters may be adjusted to fit actual configurations. The reactions {sup 10}B(n,{gamma} {alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 14}N(n,p) {sup 14}C create heavy ions which slow clown losing their energy. Their trajectories can be simulated taking into account path length straggling. The contribution of each reaction to the deposited dose in different cellular compartments can be studied and analysed for any distribution of {sup 10}B. (authors)

  6. From promise to application: root traits for enhanced nutrient capture in rice breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissuwa, Matthias; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Rose, Terry J

    2016-06-01

    Improving nutrient uptake is an objective in crop breeding, especially in tropical areas where infertile soils dominate and farmers may not have the resources to improve soil fertility through fertilizer application. Scientific endeavors to understand the genetic basis of nutrient acquisition have mostly followed reverse genetic approaches. This has undoubtedly led to improved understanding of basic principles in root development and nutrient transport. However, little evidence suggests that the genes identified are actively utilized in breeding programs, and the bottleneck has been the failure to establish links between allelic variation for identified genes and performance in the field. Screening experiments typically reveal large genotypic variation in performance under nutrient deficiency, strongly suggesting the presence of superior alleles for genes controlling root growth and/or nutrient uptake processes. Progress in sequencing technology has enabled characterizations of allelic variation across whole genomes and an international effort has recently culminated in the sequencing of 3000 rice genomes from the International Rice Research Institute genebank. Queries of the 3000 rice sequence database offer immediate possibilities to assess the extent to which allelic variation exists for candidate genes. By selecting subsets of accessions, allelic effects can be tested, diagnostic markers developed, and new donors identified. Technological and conceptual advances in phenotyping of root traits offer improved possibilities to assure that trait-allele associations are established in ways that link to field performance. Genotype-to-phenotype relationships can thus be predicted and tested with unprecedented precision, facilitating the discovery and transfer of beneficial nutrition-related alleles and associated markers into existing breeding pipelines. PMID:27036129

  7. Nondestructive Methods to Characterize Rock Mechanical Properties at Low-Temperature: Applications for Asteroid Capture Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kara A.

    Recent government initiatives and commercial activities have targeted asteroids for in situ material characterization, manipulation, and possible resource extraction. Most of these activities and missions have proposed significant robotic components, given the risks and costs associated with manned missions. To successfully execute these robotic activities, detailed mechanical characteristics of the target space bodies must be known prior to contact, in order to appropriately plan and direct the autonomous robotic protocols. Unfortunately, current estimates of asteroid mechanical properties are based on limited direct information, and significant uncertainty remains specifically concerning internal structures, strengths, and elastic properties of asteroids. One proposed method to elucidate this information is through in situ, nondestructive testing of asteroid material immediately after contact, but prior to any manipulation or resource extraction activities. While numerous nondestructive rock characterization techniques have been widely deployed for terrestrial applications, these methods must be adapted to account for unique properties of asteroid material and environmental conditions of space. For example, asteroid surface temperatures may range from -100°C to 30°C due to diurnal cycling, and these low temperatures are especially noteworthy due to their deleterious influence on non-destructive testing. As a result, this thesis investigates the effect of low temperature on the mechanical characteristics and nondestructive technique responses of rock material. Initially, a novel method to produce low temperature rock samples was developed. Dry ice and methanol cooling baths of specific formulations were used to decrease rock to temperatures ranging from -60°C to 0°C. At these temperatures, shale, chalk, and limestone rock samples were exposed to several nondestructive and conventional mechanical tests, including Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, point

  8. Application of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies for Comorbid Insomnia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia and depression. Included is a discussion of how CBT for insomnia affects depression symptoms and how CBT for depression affects insomnia symptoms. The extant literature is reviewed on ways that depression/insomnia comorbidity moderates CBT response. The article concludes with an introduction to cognitive behavioral social rhythm therapy, a group therapy that integrates tenets of CBT for both disorders.

  9. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head-and-Neck Cancer: Final Analysis of a Phase I/II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Collan, Juhani [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika [Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, Jouni [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vaelimaeki, Petteri [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Maekitie, Antti [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, Marko [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Revitzer, Hannu [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Esopo (Finland); Kouri, Mauri [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.joensuu@hus.fi [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of inoperable head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after conventional photon radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective, single-center Phase I/II study, 30 patients with inoperable, locally recurred head-and-neck cancer (29 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma) were treated with BNCT. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 50 to 98 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed by use of the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and adverse effects by use of the National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria version 3.0. Intravenously administered L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was administered as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Twenty-six patients received BNCT twice; four were treated once. Of the 29 evaluable patients, 22 (76%) responded to BNCT, 6 (21%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.1 and 20.3 months, and 1 (3%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-9.6 months). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 20% and 30%, respectively, and 27% of the patients survived for 2 years without locoregional recurrence. The most common acute Grade 3 adverse effects were mucositis (54% of patients), oral pain (54%), and fatigue (32%). Three patients were diagnosed with osteoradionecrosis (each Grade 3) and one patient with soft-tissue necrosis (Grade 4). Late Grade 3 xerostomia was present in 3 of the 15 evaluable patients (20%). Conclusions: Most patients who have inoperable, locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma that has recurred at a previously irradiated site respond to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT, but cancer recurrence after BNCT remains frequent. Toxicity was

  10. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  11. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  12. Impact of intra-arterial administration of boron compounds on dose-volume histograms in boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head-and-neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of head-and-neck tumors treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and to determine the advantage of the intra-arterial (IA) route over the intravenous (IV) route as a drug delivery system for BNCT. Methods and Materials: Fifteen BNCTs for 12 patients with recurrent head-and-neck tumors were included in the present study. Eight irradiations were done after IV administration of boronophenylalanine and seven after IA administration. The maximal, mean, and minimal doses given to the gross tumor volume were assessed using a BNCT planning system. Results: The results are reported as median values with the interquartile range. In the IA group, the maximal, mean, and minimal dose given to the gross tumor volume was 68.7 Gy-Eq (range, 38.8-79.9), 45.0 Gy-Eq (range, 25.1-51.0), and 13.8 Gy-Eq (range, 4.8-25.3), respectively. In the IV group, the maximal, mean, and minimal dose given to the gross tumor volume was 24.2 Gy-Eq (range, 21.5-29.9), 16.4 Gy-Eq (range, 14.5-20.2), and 7.8 Gy-Eq (range, 6.8-9.5), respectively. Within 1-3 months after BNCT, the responses were assessed. Of the 6 patients in the IV group, 2 had a partial response, 3 no change, and 1 had progressive disease. Of 4 patients in the IA group, 1 achieved a complete response and 3 a partial response. Conclusion: Intra-arterial administration of boronophenylalanine is a promising drug delivery system for head-and-neck BNCT

  13. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  14. Phase II clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray radiotherapy/temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme-Study design and current status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shinji, E-mail: neu046@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Hirota, Yuki; Miyata, Shiro; Takekita, Yoko; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8931 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, 2 Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Recently, we reported our clinical experiences of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The major differences of our protocol from the other past studies were simultaneous use of both sodium borocapate and boronophenylalanine, and combination with fractionated X-ray irradiation. These results showed the efficacy of combination therapy with external beam X-ray irradiation and BNCT. For our future study, we planned the multi-centric phase II clinical study for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients in Japan (OSAKA-TRIBRAIN0902, NCT00974987).

  15. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  16. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Helene Marie Schmitt

    Full Text Available Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12 and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20 were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  17. Thoracoscopic monitoring for pericardial application of local drug or gene therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, RA; Grandjean, JG; Suurmeijer, AJH; van Gilst, WH; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Boven, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular gene therapy is a promising new approach for a variety of diseases. As far as gene therapy aimed at the myocardium is concerned a new transcutaneous delivery method may be into the pericardial sac. Objective: To evaluate the safety and applicability of the percutaneous pericardial del

  18. Novel applications of proton therapy in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaron1, John J; MacDonald, Shannon M; Cahlon, Oren

    2016-08-01

    This review will focus on the indications, clinical experience, and technical considerations of proton beam radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. For patients with early stage disease, proton therapy delivers less dose to non-target breast tissue for patients receiving partial breast irradiation (PBI) therapy, which may result in improved cosmesis but requires further investigation. For patients with locally advanced breast cancer requiring treatment to the regional lymph nodes, proton therapy allows for an improved dosimetric profile compared with conventional photon and electron techniques. Early clinical results demonstrate acceptable toxicity. The possible reduction in cardiopulmonary events as a result of reduced dose to organs at risk will be tested in a randomized control trial of protons vs. photons. PMID:27558253

  19. Development of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Christopher

    The focus of this thesis is the functionalization and tailoring of nanoparticle surfaces to perform specific objectives in a biological environment. The nanoparticles examined include carbon nanotubes (CNTs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocomposites. The unique nanomaterials have been developed to address continued issues in cancer therapy, including cancer diagnosis and efficient drug delivery. CNT surfaces were modified by plasma polymerization, providing functional groups for conjugation. Luminescent amine labeled quantum dots were fixed to the surface of the CNTs to aid in cancer diagnosis by in vivo imaging. Mice, injected with the quantum dot functionalized carbon nanotubes, were imaged displaying the in vivo imaging capability. In addition, the drug loading and drug release capabilities were examined by incorporating the drug paclitaxel into PLGA-coated CNTs, which showed much higher cytotoxicity to PC-3MM2 human prostate carcinoma cells compared to CNTs without paclitaxel. Paclitaxel was loaded at 112.5 microg/mg of PLGA-coated CNTs. Iron oxide nanocomposites were functionalized with quantum dots for diagnosis applications. Because the nanocomposites contain iron oxide, the nanoparticle provides the opportunity for magnetic hyperthermia, creating a unique material for diagnosis and therapy. Mice, injected with the quantum dot functionalized iron oxide nanocomposites, were imaged displaying the in vivo imaging capability. The magnetic hyperthermic property of the quantum dot functionalized nanocomposites was observed with the attainment of temperatures above 50°C during exposure to an alternating magnetic field. Thermoresponsive nanoparticles were prepared by immobilizing a 2 - 3 nm thick phospholipid layer on the surface of superparamagnetic Fe3O 4 nanoparticles via high affinity avidin/biotin interactions. Morphological and physicochemical surface properties were assessed using TEM, confocal laser scanning

  20. Fetal laser therapy: applications in the management of fetal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jérôme; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2015-07-01

    Fetoscopic coagulation of placental anastomoses is the treatment of choice for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In the present day, fetal laser therapy is also used to treat amniotic bands, chorioangiomas, sacrococcygeal teratomas, lower urinary tract obstructions and chest masses, all of which will be reviewed in this article. Amniotic band syndrome can cause limb amputation by impairing downstream blood flow. Large chorioangiomas (>4 cm), sacrococcygeal teratomas or fetal hyperechoic lung lesions can lead to fetal compromise and hydrops by vascular steal phenomenon or compression. Renal damage, bladder dysfunction and lastly death because of pulmonary hypolasia may be the result of megacystis caused by a posterior urethral valve. The prognosis of these pathologies can be dismal, and therapy options are limited, which has brought fetal laser therapy to the forefront. Management options discussed here are laser release of amniotic bands, laser coagulation of the placental or fetal tumor feeding vessels and laser therapy by fetal cystoscopy. This review, largely based on case reports, does not intend to provide a level of evidence supporting laser therapy over other treatment options. Centralized evaluation by specialists using strict selection criteria and long-term follow-up of these rare cases are now needed to prove the value of endoscopic or ultrasound-guided laser therapy.

  1. Application of the capture-recapture method in estimating the size of the active homosexual male population in Hangzhou city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Wei, Ning; Hu, Shaohua; Wei, Erqing; Xu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    The homosexual population is particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted disease because of various high-risk sexual behaviors among them. The authors explored the application of capture-recapture methods in estimating the size of the sexually active homosexual male population in Hangzhou. Homosexual men at 9 activity sites were investigated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The total active homosexual male population of Hangzhou estimated by the capture-recapture method and multiplier method was 2014 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1899-2129) and 2012.5 (95% CI 1925 to 2101), respectively. This study shows that the capture-recapture method can be used to enumerate and provide accurate and reliable estimates of the active homosexual population in any area, provided that certain conditions are controlled.

  2. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  3. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  4. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  5. Telerehabilitation Store and Forward Applications: A Review of Applications and Privacy Considerations in Physical and Occupational Therapy Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Peterson; Valerie Watzlaf

    2015-01-01

    An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forwa...

  6. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 (10B) atoms to individual tumor cells. Cell killing results from the 10B (n, α)7Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of 10B atoms are localized in the tumor cells. Intranuclear 10B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of 10B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumor cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as PET and MRI. In this study, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high grade gliomas, recurrent tumors of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumor cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This suggests that it might be advantageous if patients were placed on a

  7. Laser capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes detailed methods used for laser capture microdissection (LCM) of discrete subpopulations of cells. Topics covered include preparing tissue blocks, cryostat sectioning, processing slides, performing the LCM, and purification of RNA from LCM samples. Notes describe the fine points of each operation, which can often mean the difference between success and failure. PMID:22639264

  8. The FLUKA code for application of Monte Carlo methods to promote high precision ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mairani, A; Paganetti, H; Sommerer, F

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are increasingly being utilized to support several aspects of commissioning and clinical operation of ion beam therapy facilities. In this contribution two emerging areas of MC applications are outlined. The value of MC modeling to promote accurate treatment planning is addressed via examples of application of the FLUKA code to proton and carbon ion therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center in Heidelberg, Germany, and at the Proton Therapy Center of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Boston, USA. These include generation of basic data for input into the treatment planning system (TPS) and validation of the TPS analytical pencil-beam dose computations. Moreover, we review the implementation of PET/CT (Positron-Emission-Tomography / Computed- Tomography) imaging for in-vivo verification of proton therapy at MGH. Here, MC is used to calculate irradiation-induced positron-emitter production in tissue for comparison with the +-activity measurement in order to infer indirect infor...

  9. Application of PEI–K2CO3/AC for capturing CO2 from flue gas after combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel PEI–K2CO3/AC sorbent was prepared with the co-impregnation method. • The coupling characteristics of PEI and K2CO3 in the sorbent are expounded. • Both PEI and K2CO3 contribute to the total CO2 capture capacity of PEI–K2CO3/AC. • PEI–K2CO3/AC presents high CO2 capture capacity and long-term stability. • PEI–K2CO3/AC should be considered as a new option for post-combustion CO2 capture. - Abstract: The capture of CO2 from flue gas after combustion using solid sorbents is one of the efficient options for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. To satisfy the requirement of large quantities flue gas treatment, the CO2 capture capacities of the solid sorbents must be focused on. In order to obtain a sorbent with high CO2 capture capacity, a novel PEI–K2CO3/AC sorbent was prepared by impregnating potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and polyethylenimine (PEI) on activated carbon (AC) in this work. The CO2 capture performance of this sorbent was investigated using a fixed bed reactor system. The CO2 capture capacity of PEI–K2CO3/AC with the total K2CO3 and PEI loadings of 50 wt% was measured as 3.60 mmol CO2/g under the condition of 60 °C, 8% CO2 + 10% H2O. In addition, this sorbent is proved to be regenerable and stable during 5 cycle CO2 sorption–desorption tests. Compared with K2CO3/AC (loading of 58 wt%) and PEI/AC (loading of 43 wt%), PEI–K2CO3/AC presents higher CO2 capture capacity and long-term stability. Therefore, PEI–K2CO3/AC should be considered as a new option for capturing CO2 from flue gas after combustion

  10. Cell therapy medicinal product regulatory framework in Europe and its application for MSC based therapy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis eAncans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs, including cell therapy products, form a new class of medicines in the European Union. Since ATMPs are at the forefront of scientific innovation in medicine, specific regulatory framework has been developed for these medicines and implemented from 2009. The Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT has been established at European Medicines Agency (EMA for centralized classification, certification and evaluation procedures, and other ATMP related tasks. Guidance documents, initiatives and interaction platforms are available to make the new framework more accessible for small and medium-sized enterprises, academia, hospitals and foundations. Good understanding of centralised and national components of the regulatory system is required to plan product development. It is in the best interests of cell therapy developers to utilise provided resources starting with the preclinical stage. Whilst there have not been mesenchymal stem cell (MSC based medicine authorisations in the EU, three MSC products have received marketing approval in other regions since 2011. Information provided on regulatory requirements, procedures and initiatives is aimed to facilitate MSC based medicinal product development and authorisation in the EU.

  11. An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles O.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)

  12. Application of Adaptive Counseling and Therapy to Career Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Z.; Tracey, Terence J.

    1995-01-01

    Adaptive Counseling and Therapy theory predicts that counseling efficacy depends on a match between counselor style and client readiness. Data from 137 females and 54 males showed a negative relationship between client readiness and preference for directive counseling and a curvilinear (inverted U) relationship between readiness and preference for…

  13. Clinical applications of laser therapy on the dental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2004-09-01

    Dental practice consists of a series of laboring procedures which demands the use of several types of equipment and materials. Usually patient"s fears brings additional burden to the Dentists. The use of Lasers for treating and diagnosis in Dentistry is quite new comparing to other medical areas. Initially Laser technology was used as an alternative method for treating dental caries in order to substitute the use of the drill. Lately surgical Lasers have shown themselves very useful for treating several pathologies and began to be used as a powerful tool on the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial complex and later on, the era of the use of Laser therapy began. The advent of the diode Lasers made possible the introduction of small units at the dental office and Laser therapy was used to improve healing and later included also caries diagnosis. This paper discuss the use of Laser therapy on Restorative Dentistry, Periodondology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral implantology and other. Clinical and laboratorial experience has demonstrated that Laser therapy does improve the healing of both mineralized and soft tissues, reduces pain and inflammation, and also reduces both cost and length of the dental treatment.

  14. Application of Nanoscaffolds in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoraishizadeh, Saman; Ghorishizadeh, Afsoon; Ghoraishizadeh, Peyman; Daneshvar, Nasibeh; Boroojerdi, Mohadese Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an alternative solution for organ transplantation. Stem cells and nanoscaffolds are two essential components in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as primary adult stem cells with high proliferation capacity, wide differentiation potential, and immunosuppression properties which make them unique for regenerative medicine and cell therapy. Scaffolds are engineered nanofibers that provide suitable microenvironment for cell signalling whi...

  15. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT): Pediatric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathleen; Garcia, Teressa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe theoretical and research bases for constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), to discuss key features and variations in protocols currently in use with children, and to review the results of studies of efficacy. CIMT has been found to be an effective intervention for increasing functional use of the…

  16. Application of receptive music therapy in internal medicine and cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Cyntia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of receptive music therapy in clinical practice. METHODS: Receptive music therapy was individually applied via musical auditions, including five stages: musical stimulation, sensation, situation, reflection, and behavioral alteration. Following anamnesis and obtainment of consent, patients answered a first questionnaire on health risk evaluation (Q1, and after participating in 16 weekly music therapy sessions, answered a second one (Q2. RESULTS: Two men and 8 women, aged above 18 years, referred to us due to symptoms of stress, emotional suffering, and the need to change lifestyles (health risk behavior were studied between August 1998 and December 1999. Comparison between answers to Q1 and Q2, showed a trend (P=0.059 for reduction of ingestion of cholesterol-rich foods and for increased prospects in life with a tendency towards improvement, and also of increased intake of fiber-rich food (55.6%, increased levels of personal satisfaction (44.5%, and decreased levels of stress (66.7%. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated decreased stress levels and increased personal satisfaction, higher consumption of fiber-rich food, lower cholesterol intake, and a better perspective on life, suggesting that receptive music therapy may be applied in clinical practice as an auxiliary therapeutic intervention for the treatment of behavioral health risks.

  17. The Application of Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alisa R.; Addington, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective treatment for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia yet there are few cognitive therapists in North America who are specialized to work with this patient population. There is a need for further dissemination of CT for schizophrenia in order to increase its…

  18. MR-guided pain therapy: principles and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluoroscopy and computed tomography are frequently used to perform percutaneous interventions in pain therapy. The development of MR-compatible therapy needles now allows these interventions to be performed under MR imaging guidance. MR-guided interventions may be performed using most clinical MR scanners; however, systems with an open configuration are advantageous. Multiplanar pre- and intra-procedural MR imaging provides the interventionalist with essential information, such as evaluation of anatomy and pathology, as well as the planning of the procedure and monitoring of fluid distribution without the use of contrast agents. With the use of non-ionizing radiation, interventional MR imaging is especially suited for the treatment of children and young adults as well as for serial injection therapy. For spinal MR interventions, passive needle visualization is an easily achievable and reliable method. The resulting needle artifact is influenced by several factors such as the alloy of the needle, the strength of the static magnetic field, the sequence type, the spatial orientation of the therapy needle as well as the echo time and may further be optimized during the intervention by alteration of the last three factors. Fast acquisition techniques and image processing allow for continuous, near real-time MR imaging (so-called MR fluoroscopy) and interactive needle navigations, comparable to X-ray fluoroscopy and CT fluoroscopy. The purpose of this review is to illustrate and discuss general concepts of interventional MR imaging. A spectrum of interventional MR imaging procedures in spinal pain therapy is described and illustrated, including procedures such as lumbar facet joint injections, sacroiliac joint injections, lumbar spinal nerve root infiltrations and drug delivery to the lumbar sympathetic chain. (orig.)

  19. First tests of the applicability of $\\gamma$-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Magán, D. L. Pérez; Caballero-Ontanaya, L.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Agramunt-Ros, J.; Albiol, F.; Casanovas, A.; González, A; Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Collaboration, the n_TOF

    2015-01-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using $\\gamma$-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr$_3$ scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive car...

  20. Apoptosis of human melanoma cells induced by boron neutron capture therapy%硼中子俘获疗法促人黑色素瘤细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷; 丁大冬; 李斌; 陈桂林; 韦永新; 谢学顺; 杨天权; 吴庭枫; 周幽心

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)体外杀伤人黑色素瘤细胞的效应及机制.方法 首先检测黑色素瘤细胞A375吸收含硼化合物二羟基苯丙氨酸硼(BPA)的情况,然后采用医院中子照射器(IHNI-1)对含硼(10B)细胞进行照射.克隆存活实验检测细胞的放射敏感性,MTT法检测细胞增殖率,流式细胞术检测凋亡,Western blot检测胞质内细胞色素C表达和caspase-9的激活.结果 BPA孵育24 h,A375细胞10B浓度为(2.884±0.148)μg/107个细胞,达到了BNCT杀伤细胞的要求.富含10B的细胞经中子照射2.1 min后存活分数降低为对照组的58%(t=2.964,P<0.05),细胞经中子照射后24 h增殖率下降为对照组的83%(t=3.286,P<0.05),BNCT组细胞凋亡率达(55.2±7.9)%,明显高于对照组(t =9.754,P<0.05),胞质内细胞色素C水平上升且caspase-9激活程度增加(t=7.625、8.307,P<0.05).结论 BNCT能够杀伤黑色素瘤细胞,其机制可能通过线粒体途径诱导细胞凋亡.%Objective To study the effect and underlying mechanism of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on human melanoma cells.Methods The situation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake of human melanoma cells A375 was detected and then the boron-10 (10B) enriched cells were irradiated by an in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI-1).The radiation sensitivity was measured using clonogenic survival assay,the proliferation was examined by MTT assay,apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry,and the protein expression of cytochrome C in cytosol and activation of caspase-9 was detected by Western blot.Results 10B concentration in A375 cells approached to (2.884 ± 0.148)μg/107 cells after 24 h culture with BPA,which met the requirement of BNCT.At 2.1 min after neutron radiation,the survival fraction of BNCT group was decreased to 58% of control (t =2.964,P < 0.05).At 24 h after BNCT,the cell viability was decreased to 83% of control (t =3.286,P < 0.05),the apoptosis ratio was (55.2 ± 7

  1. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  2. Application of the low-level laser therapy for the treatment of vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeniouk, A. N.; Mikhailov, V. A.

    2000-06-01

    Vaginitis is the most common female infectious disease. Females suffering from this disorder are annually increasing in number. There are a lot of modalities of treatment of vaginitis, but because of drug allergy and microbe's stability to drug the treatment of vaginitis is difficult. Our study compares the efficacy of laser-therapy with drug therapy in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis. Thirty women reci4eed the LLLT by local action with antiseptic liquid daily during ten days, 20 women received metronidazole and fluconozole and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser-therapy is able to remove sights of vaginitis more efficiently and faster than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora, which is the best indicator of recovery, was significantly at a faster rate in laser-therapy group. There were no report of adverse reaction with vaginal laser- therapy, whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects. In conclusion, vaginal aser-therapy with antiseptic liquid is a suitable, effective, safe and chip alternative to drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis.

  3. An overview of the history, applications, advantages, disadvantages and prospects of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarlou, M; Baradaran, B; Saedi, T A; Jafarlou, V; Shanehbandi, D; Maralani, M; Othman, F

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy has become a significant issue in science-related news. The principal concept of gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. Although gene therapy was originally conceived as a way to treat life-threatening disorders (inborn defects, cancers) refractory to conventional treatment, it is now considered for many non–life-threatening conditions, such as those adversely impacting a patient’s quality of life. An extensive range of efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches for developing gene-based interventions for diseases have evolved in the last decade. The lack of suitable treatment has become a rational basis for extending the scope of gene therapy. The aim of this review is to investigate the general methods by which genes are transferred and to give an overview to clinical applications. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. Gene therapy has made substantial progress albeit much slower than was initially predicted. This review also describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various surface disorders and diseases. The conclusion is that, with increased pathobiological understanding and biotechnological improvements, gene therapy will become a standard part of clinical practice. PMID:27358116

  4. Contemporary Animal Models For Human Gene Therapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Chitra; Nathar, Trupti Job; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hickstein, Dennis Durand; Remington Nelson, Everette Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, gene therapy has been making considerable progress as an alternative strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Since 2009, several studies have been reported in humans on the successful treatment of various diseases. Animal models mimicking human disease conditions are very essential at the preclinical stage before embarking on a clinical trial. In gene therapy, for instance, they are useful in the assessment of variables related to the use of viral vectors such as safety, efficacy, dosage and localization of transgene expression. However, choosing a suitable disease-specific model is of paramount importance for successful clinical translation. This review focuses on the animal models that are most commonly used in gene therapy studies, such as murine, canine, non-human primates, rabbits, porcine, and a more recently developed humanized mice. Though small and large animals both have their own pros and cons as disease-specific models, the choice is made largely based on the type and length of study performed. While small animals with a shorter life span could be well-suited for degenerative/aging studies, large animals with longer life span could suit longitudinal studies and also help with dosage adjustments to maximize therapeutic benefit. Recently, humanized mice or mouse-human chimaeras have gained interest in the study of human tissues or cells, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of therapeutic interventions. Thus, animal models are of great importance with regard to testing new vector technologies in vivo for assessing safety and efficacy prior to a gene therapy clinical trial. PMID:26415576

  5. Animal behaviour therapy: the mis-understood application of ABA

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, E. Anne; Bizo, Lewis A.; Redhead, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Animal Behaviour Therapy is an expanding applied area that is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct field of professional development. It refers to animals kept as companions or as working animals, in homes, zoological collections or laboratories. It relates to the prevention and resolution of behaviours that are deemed problematical. Problem behaviours can have a variety of causes and associated motivations. They may have been learned or deliberately trained. They may be related to speci...

  6. Synthesis of amino-rich silica coated magnetic nanoparticles and their application in the capture of DNA for PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic separation has great advantages over traditional bioseparation methods and has become popular in the development of methods for the detection of bacterial pathogens, viruses, and transgenic crops. Functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles is a key factor in allowing efficient capture of t...

  7. Predicting the ultimate potential of natural gas SOFC power cycles with CO2 capture - Part B: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Mastropasqua, Luca; Gazzani, Matteo; Chiesa, Paolo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-09-01

    An important advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as future systems for large scale power generation is the possibility of being efficiently integrated with processes for CO2 capture. Focusing on natural gas power generation, Part A of this work assessed the performances of advanced pressurised and atmospheric plant configurations (SOFC + GT and SOFC + ST, with fuel cell integration within a gas turbine or a steam turbine cycle) without CO2 separation. This Part B paper investigates such kind of power cycles when applied to CO2 capture, proposing two ultra-high efficiency plant configurations based on advanced intermediate-temperature SOFCs with internal reforming and low temperature CO2 separation process. The power plants are simulated at the 100 MW scale with a set of realistic assumptions about FC performances, main components and auxiliaries, and show the capability of exceeding 70% LHV efficiency with high CO2 capture (above 80%) and a low specific primary energy consumption for the CO2 avoided (1.1-2.4 MJ kg-1). Detailed results are presented in terms of energy and material balances, and a sensitivity analysis of plant performance is developed vs. FC voltage and fuel utilisation to investigate possible long-term improvements. Options for further improvement of the CO2 capture efficiency are also addressed.

  8. The neutron capture cross sections of 186;187;188 Os and their application to Re/Os cosmochronometer

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kaori; Mastinu, P; Milazzo, P M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is a fine determination of 186;187;188Os neutron capture cross sections, in order to remove principal nuclear physics uncertainties on the age of the universe determined using the Re/Os cosmochronometer. A general introduction including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear cosmochronometry,available neutron facilities and neutron reaction features is given. Dedicated measurements of the 186;187;188Os capture cross sections have been performed at the CERN neutron time-of- ight facility, n TOF, in the neutron energy range from 1 eV up to 1 MeV. The details of the measurement and the data treatment are reported. Using obtained capture yields, resolved resonance region analysis is completed. Resonance parameters have been extracted from a full R-matrix fit. A statistical analysis has been performed and the related averaged resonance parameters are derived. This information is crucial for a complete understanding and modelling in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model of the capture and ...

  9. Optimal moderator materials at various proton energies considering photon dose rate after irradiation for an accelerator-driven ⁹Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the accelerator beam power and the neutron-induced radioactivity of (9)Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) neutron sources having a MgF2, CaF2, or AlF3 moderator and driven by protons with energy from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. The optimal moderator materials were found to be MgF2 for proton energies less than 10 MeV because of lower required accelerator beam power and CaF2 for higher proton energies because of lower photon dose rate at the treatment position after neutron irradiation.

  10. Mobile Therapy: Case Study Evaluations of a Cell Phone Application for Emotional Self-Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Margaret E; Kathawala, Qusai; Leen, Todd K.; Gorenstein, Ethan E.; Guilak, Farzin; Labhard, Michael; DeLeeuw, William

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional awareness and self-regulation are important skills for improving mental health and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy can teach these skills but is not widely available. Objective This exploratory study examined the potential of mobile phone technologies to broaden access to cognitive behavioral therapy techniques and to provide in-the-moment support. Methods We developed a mobile phone application with touch screen scales for mood r...

  11. Discovering anthroposophical music therapy : an investigation of its origins and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Intveen, Monika Andrea

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed This thesis explores anthroposophical music therapy (AnMt), an approach based on the philosophy of Rudolf Steiner. AnMt is well established in some countries, such as Germany, Switzerland or the Netherlands and is practiced in a wide variety of clinical and rehabilitation contexts. This thesis explores the basic tenets of AnMt including its foundations in anthroposophy, its location in the wider community of mainstream music therapy approaches and the applicability of its met...

  12. A maximum feasible subset algorithm with application to radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman

    1999-01-01

    inequalities. Special classes of this problem are of interest in a variety of areas such as pattern recognition, machine learning, operations research, and medical treatment planning. This problem is generally solvable in exponential time. A heuristic polynomial time algorithm is presented in this paper. The...... algorithm relies on an iterative constraint removal procedure where constraints are eliminated from a set proposed by solutions to minmax linear programs. The method is illustrated by a simulated example of a linear system with double sided bounds and a case from the area of radiation therapy....

  13. Epidermal electronics for electromyography: An application to swallowing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Li, Xinda; Scott, Dylan K; Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Rogers, John A; Rieger, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment alters the anatomy and physiology of patients. Resulting swallowing difficulties can lead to serious health concerns. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to swallowing therapy exercises. sEMG signal collected from the area under the chin provides visual biofeedback from muscle contractions and is used to help patients perform exercises correctly. However, conventional sEMG adhesive pads are relatively thick and difficult to effectively adhere to a patient's altered chin anatomy, potentially leading to poor signal acquisition in this population. Here, the emerging technology of epidermal electronics is introduced, where ultra-thin geometry allows for close contouring of the chin. The two objectives of this study were to (1) assess the potential of epidermal electronics technology for use with swallowing therapy and (2) assess the significance of the reference electrode placement. This study showed comparative signals between the new epidermal sEMG patch and the conventional adhesive patches used by clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated reference yielded optimal signal for clinical use; this configuration was more robust to head movements than when an external reference was used. Improvements for future iterations of epidermal sEMG patches specific to day-to-day clinical use are suggested.

  14. Antibody phage display applications for nuclear medicine imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winthrop, M.D.; Denardo, G.L.; Denardo, S.J. [Sacramento Univ. of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Radiodiagnosis and Terapy

    2000-09-01

    Antibody-based constructs genetically engineered from genes of diverse origin provide a remarkable opportunity to develop functional molecular imaging techniques and specific molecular targeted radionuclide therapies. Phage display libraries of antibody fragment genes can be used to select antibody-based constructs that bind any chosen epitope. A large naive human antibody-based library was used to illustrate binding of antibody constructs to a variety of common and unique antigens. Antibody-based libraries from hybridoma cells, lymphocytes from immunized humans or from mice and human antibody repertoires produced in transgenic mice have also been described. Several orders of magnitude of affinity enhancement can be achieved by random or site specific mutations of the selected binding peptide domains of the scFv. Affinities (K{sub d}) as high as 10{sup -}11 M (10 pM) for affinity-matured scFv have been documented. Such gene libraries thus offer an almost limitless variety of antibody-based molecular binding peptide modules that can be used in creative ways for the construction of new targeting agents for functional or molecular imaging and therapy.

  15. Epidermal electronics for electromyography: An application to swallowing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Li, Xinda; Scott, Dylan K; Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Rogers, John A; Rieger, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment alters the anatomy and physiology of patients. Resulting swallowing difficulties can lead to serious health concerns. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to swallowing therapy exercises. sEMG signal collected from the area under the chin provides visual biofeedback from muscle contractions and is used to help patients perform exercises correctly. However, conventional sEMG adhesive pads are relatively thick and difficult to effectively adhere to a patient's altered chin anatomy, potentially leading to poor signal acquisition in this population. Here, the emerging technology of epidermal electronics is introduced, where ultra-thin geometry allows for close contouring of the chin. The two objectives of this study were to (1) assess the potential of epidermal electronics technology for use with swallowing therapy and (2) assess the significance of the reference electrode placement. This study showed comparative signals between the new epidermal sEMG patch and the conventional adhesive patches used by clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated reference yielded optimal signal for clinical use; this configuration was more robust to head movements than when an external reference was used. Improvements for future iterations of epidermal sEMG patches specific to day-to-day clinical use are suggested. PMID:27255865

  16. [Application of therapy in negative pressure complex wounds in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Sánchez, Rosario; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been widely used in the adult patient, contrary to what happens in children, with just a few long series papers. NPWT avoids long and expensive hospital admissions, reducing the hospital costs; it also decreases the family dynamics and allows for an early return to everyday activities. In this article, we present three clinical cases consisting of a toddler, a child and a teenager with complex wounds treated with NPWT in the pediatric surgery department of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada. The results were excellent, with a good adherence to treatment in all cases, achieving a complete closure in two cases; the third case needed a deferred surgical closure after surgical site preparation, and showed a decrease of the wound size after the NPWT. Moreover, successful pain management was achieved during the wound cleansing, which was done under an ambulatory regime. No general anesthesia was needed. From our experience, we propose the NPWT as an alternative therapy to the classic surgical approach for this type of complex lesions in children, which offers the same advantages and results than in adults. PMID:27297175

  17. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-01

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  18. The theory and methodology of capturing and representing the design process and its application to the task of rapid redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Kendall M.

    The paradigm under which engineering design is being performed in the Aerospace industry is changing. There is an increased emphasis on a "faster, better, and cheaper" way of doing business. Designers are tasked with developing a better product, in a shorter time, with less money. Engineers are continually trying to improve their products, lower their costs, and reduce their schedules. So at first glance, it might seem difficult if not impossible to perform these three tasks simultaneously and attempt to achieve order of magnitude improvements in each area. Indeed it might well be impossible for an engineer using only traditional tools and techniques. However, there is a new tool, known as design capture, available to the designer. A design capture system, can aid the designer in a variety of ways. One specific use for a design capture system is to aid the designer in performing rapid redesign. This thesis presents a new methodology for a Design Capture System (DCS) which can aid the designer with performing rapid redesign. The Design Capture for Rapid Redesign (DCARRD) method facilitates rapid redesign in three ways: it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing an initial requirement, it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing a decision, and it enhances the ability of the designer to assess the impact of a completely new requirement. The DCARRD method was implemented into an html-based design capture system accessible through a Web browser. This implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the DCARRD method. The most important features of DCARRD are that it is focused an performing rapid redesign, it places the design decisions within the framework of the design process, it is simple to use and implement, and it has the ability to track subsystem baselines. The many complex issues surrounding testing of design tools in general, and DCARRD in particular, are discussed at length. There are a number of complex issues which must be addressed

  19. Effect of endothelial progenitor cells in neovascularization and their application in tumor therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Fang; HA Xiao-qin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the effect of endothelial progenitor cells in neovascularization as well as their application to the therapy of tumors.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1997 to 2009. The search term was "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles regarding the role of endothelial progenitor cells in neovascularization and their application to the therapy of tumors were selected.Results Endothelial progenitor cells isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood can proliferate, mobilize and differentiate into mature endothelial cells. Experiments suggest endothelial progenitor cells take part in forming the tumor vascular through a variety of mechanisms related to vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases, chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 and its receptor C-X-C receptor-4, erythropoietin, Notchsignal pathway and so on. Evidence demonstrates that the number and function change of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood can be used as a biomarker of the response of cancer patients to anti-tumor therapy and predict the prognosis and recurrence. In addition, irradiation temporarily increased endothelial cells number and decreased the endothelial progenitor cell counts in animal models. Meanwhile, in preclinical experiments, therapeutic gene-modified endothelial progenitor cells have been approved to attenuate tumor growth and offer a novel strategy for cell therapy and gene therapy of cancer.Conclusions Endothelial progenitor cells play a particular role in neovascularization and have attractively potential prognostic and therapeutic applications to malignant tumors. However, a series of problems, such as the definitive biomarkers of endothelial progenitor cells, their interrelationship with radiotherapy and their application in cell therapy and gene therapy of tumors, need further investigation.

  20. Clinical application of dendritic cells in cancer vaccination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Soot, Mette Line; Buus, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    for large-scale generation of dendritic cells for clinical applications has made possible phase I/II studies designed to analyze the toxicity, feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In clinical trials, DC-based vaccination of patients with advanced cancer has in many cases led to immunity...

  1. SU-D-304-07: Application of Proton Boron Fusion Reaction to Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J; Yoon, D; Shin, H; Kim, M; Suh, T [The Catholic University Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: we present the introduction of a therapy method using the proton boron fusion reaction. The purpose of this study is to verify the theoretical validity of proton boron fusion therapy using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton’s maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton’s maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton’s maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region (BUR). In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. Conclusion: This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment.

  2. The History, Mechanism, and Clinical Application of Auricular Therapy in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Wei Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular therapy includes acupuncture, electroacupuncture, acupressure, lasering, cauterization, moxibustion, and bloodletting in the auricle. For 2500 years, people have employed auricular therapy for treating diseases, but the methods have been limited to bloodletting and cauterization. Only after 1957, the international scientific community became aware that the map of the ear resembles an inverted fetus, its introduction has led to auricular acupuncture (AA becoming a more systemic approach, and, following the identification and standardization of more precise points, AA has been employed in clinical applications. The mechanisms of AA are considered to have a close relationship with the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, neuroimmunological factors, neuroinflammation, and neural reflex, as well as antioxidation. Auricular therapy has been applied, for example, for pain relief, for the treatment of epilepsy, anxiety, and obesity, and for improving sleep quality. However, the mechanisms and evidence for auricular therapy warrant further study.

  3. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  4. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia. PMID:17004208

  5. Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Kazuo; Yoshida, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Hidenori; Sekine, Joji; Michael, B.P.; Inokuchi, Tsugio (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry); Goto, Shinichi; Sumikawa, Koji

    1994-11-01

    Five cases of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). In four cases, sequestrectomy in combination with HBO was performed. Furthermore, one of these cases underwent iliac bone grafting and HBO to correct mandibular discontinuity. One case underwent HBO after insertion of an implant into the irradiated mandible. Primary sites, with the histological diagnosis of the tumor and irradiation dose were: tonsil-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Linac X-ray 60 Gy; hard palate-malignant pleomorphic adenoma, Tele [sup 60]Co 50 Gy; floor of the mouth-SCC, Tele [sup 60]Co 38 Gy and [sup 198]Au grain 98 Gy; tonsil-SCC, Tele [sup 60]Co 60 Gy; tongue-SCC, Linac X-ray 40 Gy. ORN appeared in these five cases 3 years, 24 years, 8 months, 1.5 years and 10 years after irradiation, respectively. HBO was performed under the condition of 2.8 ATA for 60 minutes and the patients were given pure oxygen (51/min) using a reservoir mask. All five cases were successfully treated. Otitis, one of the side effects of HBO, occurred in one case. It was managed by puncture of the tympanic membrane. As ORN is caused by hypoxia of the bone and surrounding tissues, HBO is considered to be one of the basic treatment methods for this condition. (author).

  6. Application of long-circulating liposomes to cancer photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, N; Saito, N; Namba, Y; Tsukada, H; Dolphin, D; Okada, S

    1997-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a cancer treatment is notable for its quite low side effects in comparison with those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the accumulation of porphyrin derivatives used in PDT into tumor tissues is rather low. Since long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively into tumor tissues, we liposomalized a porphyrin derivative, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), and used these liposomes to investigate the usefulness of PDT for tumor-bearing mice. BPD-MA was liposomalized into glucuronate-modified liposomes, which are known to be long-circulating. These liposomes were injected i.v. into Balb/c mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and tumor regression and survival time were monitored after irradiation with laser light. Tumor regression and complete curing of tumor (80% cure rate by the treatment with 6 mg/kg BPD-MA) were observed when long circulating liposomalized BPD-MA was injected and laser-irradiated. In contrast, only a 20% cure rate was obtained when the animals were treated with BPD-MA solution or BPD-MA entrapped in conventional liposomes. These results suggest that a long-circulating liposomal formulation of photo-sensitive agents is useful for PDT. PMID:9212988

  7. Nuclear physics applications in diagnostics and cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Only 1% of the 18,000 world accelerators are devoted to the production of radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. In fact at present about 85% of all the medical examinations use /sup 99m/Tc produced in nuclear reactors. But the development of Positron Emission Tomography and of its combination with Computer Tomography will boost the hospital use of cyclotrons. Much more general is the use of electron linacs in cancer therapy about 40% of the world accelerators are used for this so called "conventional" radiotherapy. In the developed countries every 10 million inhabitants about 20,000 oncological patients are irradiated every year with high-energy photons (called X-rays by radiotherapists) produced by electron linacs. Much less used is "hadrontherapy", the radiotherapy technique that employs protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions are 'heavy' charged particles: they assure a more 'conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues allowing a larger dose and thus a...

  8. Medical application of neutron capture γ-ray spectroscopy: measurement of cadmium and nitrogen in living human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vivo measurement of small quantities of Cd is possible due to the high radiative neutron-capture cross-section of 113Cd (12.3%, 20000 b). Under slow neutron capture in 113Cd, the excited 114Cd decays by prompt emission of cascade of gamma-rays of which the most intense is the 559 keV transition from the first excited state to the ground state. For a total kidney or liver dose of 670 mrem, the detection limits are 2.5 mg or 1.5 μg/g respectively. A table shows the results of a study on normal subjects with smoking and non-smoking history. The study indicates higher cadmium levels in the group of smokers. The method of measuring body N utilizes the 14N(n,γ)15N reaction. The total energy available on slow neutron capture is 10.83 MeV and approximately 15% of the de-excitations take place directly to the ground state of 15N. The irradiation facility is basically the same as that described for measurement of Cd. The Cd collimator, however is replaced by a second collimator designed to provide a wide beam 13 x 60 cm at the level of the bed. During the irradiation the subject lies on a motorized bed which moves across the neutron beam. The precision or reproducibility of the measurements was performed using an Alderson phantom. For a standard 70 kg man having 2000 g of N, the accuracy of the measurement is +-2% with an error of 1.3% for reproducibility, based on several measurements over a 6-month period. The total radiation dose for a bilateral irradiation is 45 mrem. Initial clinical studies will concentrate on sequential measurements of body N

  9. Guest gas enclathration in tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) semiclathrates: Potential application to natural gas storage and CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TBAC forms semiclathrates with CH4 and CO2. • The highest stabilization of TBAC semiclathrates was observed at 3.3 mol%. • The inclusion of CH4 and CO2 in semiclathrates was examined via spectroscopic methods. • TBAC semiclathrates can be applied to gas storage and CO2 capture. - Abstract: The enclathration of guest gases such as CH4 and CO2 in tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) semiclathrates and their potential application to natural gas storage and CO2 capture were examined with a primary focus on stability condition measurements and cage filling characteristics. The phase behaviors clearly demonstrated that the double CH4 (or CO2) + TBAC semiclathrates yielded a significantly enhanced thermodynamic stability. In particular, the highest stabilization occurred at 3.3 mol%, the stoichiometric concentration of TBAC·29.7H2O. The cage-dependent 13C NMR chemical shift identified CH4 molecules enclathrated in the small 512 cages of the double TBAC semiclathrates. CO2 inclusion in the double TBAC semiclathrate was also confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the dissociation enthalpy and the dissociation temperature of the TBAC semiclathrate under atmospheric pressure were measured to be 204.8 ± 1.7 J/g and 288.0 K, respectively, by a differential scanning calorimeter. The experimental results demonstrate that TBAC semiclathrates can potentially be used for gas storage and CO2 capture due to their high thermodynamic stability and favorable enclathration characteristics of guest gases

  10. Selection, characterization and application of nucleic acid aptamers for the capture and detection of human norovirus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca I Escudero-Abarca

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoV are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis and an important cause of foodborne disease. Despite their public health significance, routine detection of HuNoV in community settings, or food and environmental samples, is limited, and there is a need to develop alternative HuNoV diagnostic reagents to complement existing ones. The purpose of this study was to select and characterize single-stranded (ssDNA aptamers with binding affinity to HuNoV. The utility of these aptamers was demonstrated in their use for capture and detection of HuNoV in outbreak-derived fecal samples and a representative food matrix. SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment was used to isolate ssDNA aptamer sequences with broad reactivity to the prototype GII.2 HuNoV strain, Snow Mountain Virus (SMV. Four aptamer candidates (designated 19, 21, 25 and 26 were identified and screened for binding affinity to 14 different virus-like particles (VLPs corresponding to various GI and GII HuNoV strains using an Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Sorbant Assay (ELASA. Collectively, aptamers 21 and 25 showed affinity to 13 of the 14 VLPs tested, with strongest binding to GII.2 (SMV and GII.4 VLPs. Aptamer 25 was chosen for further study. Its binding affinity to SMV-VLPs was equivalent to that of a commercial antibody within a range of 1 to 5 µg/ml. Aptamer 25 also showed binding to representative HuNoV strains present in stool specimens obtained from naturally infected individuals. Lastly, an aptamer magnetic capture (AMC method using aptamer 25 coupled with RT-qPCR was developed for recovery and detection of HuNoV in artificially contaminated lettuce. The capture efficiency of the AMC was 2.5-36% with an assay detection limit of 10 RNA copies per lettuce sample. These ssDNA aptamer candidates show promise as broadly reactive reagents for use in HuNoV capture and detection assays in various sample types.

  11. Biomedical application of electroporation: electrochemotherapy and electrogene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Čemažar, Maja; Todorović, Vesna; Meulenberg, Cecil W.; Tešić, Nataša; Cor, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation refers to exposure of cells to external electric field thatresults in transiently or permanently increased permeability of cell membranes. Cancer treatment, where local application of electroporation to tumor nodules is combined with chemotherapeutic drugs bleomycin or cisplatin is called electrochemotherapy. The antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy is primarily based on direct killing of tumor cells due to the increased chemotherapeutic drug uptake, but other mechan...

  12. Ruthenium-106 ophthalmic applicators for radiation therapy of malignant choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations performed at the Radioisotope Centre POLATOM were aimed at manufacturing ophthalmic applicators for irradiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Electrochemical plating technique was applied both for ruthenium-106 deposition on the concave surface of the applicators and also for the primary sealing of the sources. The method and results of the dose rate measurements are discussed. Surface dose rate distribution and dose rate as a function of the distance from the centre of the applicator are presented. Tests for tightness and mechanical resistance have been performed. The design and advantages of applicators thus prepared in comparison with actually imported by others manufacturers are described. (author)

  13. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Electron Capture Cross-Sections in Ion-Ion Collisions at few MeV's/nucleon: Application to ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electron-capture cross sections at energies relevant to energetic neutral atom (ENA) modeling (approx few MeV per nucleon) and for multi-electron ions must rely on first-principles approaches and/or detailed quantum-mechanical simulation of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach offers a middle-ground, elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. We shall present a sample application and current progress in applying and extending Kuang's formalism to ENA modeling.

  14. Convolution/deconvolution of generalized Gaussian kernels with applications to proton/photon physics and electron capture of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, W.

    2013-02-01

    Scatter processes of photons lead to blurring of images produced by CT (computed tomography) or CBCT (cone beam computed tomography). Multiple scatter is described by, at least, one Gaussian kernel. In various tasks, this approximation is crude; we need two/three Gaussian kernels to account for long-range tails (Landau tails), which appear in Molière scatter of protons, energy straggling and electron capture of charged particles passing through matter and Compton scatter. The ideal image (source function) is subjected to Gaussian convolution to yield a blurred image. The inverse problem is to obtain the source image from a detected image. Deconvolution methods of linear combinations of two/three Gaussian kernels with different parameters s0, s1, s2 can be derived via an inhomogeneous Fredholm integral equation of second kind (IFIE2) and Liouville - Neumann series (LNS) to provide the source function ρ. Scatter functions s0, s1, s2 are best determined by Monte-Carlo. An advantage of LNS is given, if the scatter functions s0, s1, s2 depend on coordinates. The convergence criterion can always be satisfied with regard to the above mentioned cases. A generalization is given by an analysis of the Dirac equation and Fermi-Dirac statistics leading to Landau tails applied to Bethe-Bloch equation (BBE) of charged particles and electron capture.

  15. E-learning-based speech therapy: a web application for speech training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer, L.J.; Rietveld, T.C.; Beers, M.M. van; Slangen, R.M.; Heuvel, H. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In The Netherlands, a web application for speech training, E-learning-based speech therapy (EST), has been developed for patients with dysarthria, a speech disorder resulting from acquired neurological impairments such as stroke or Parkinson's disease. In this report, the EST infrastructure

  16. Applications in radiation therapy of a scintillating screen viewed by a CCD camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, J.M.; Boon, S.N.; van Luijk, P.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry system has been designed for position-sensitive dose-measurement applications in modem radiation therapy. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd2O2S:Tb), observed by a low-noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The system allows reliable and accura

  17. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high

  18. L-Phenylalanine preloading reduces the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li dose to the normal brain by inhibiting the uptake of boronophenylalanine in boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. Previously, high doses of one of the boron compounds used for BNCT, L-BPA, were found to reduce the boron-derived irradiation dose to the central nervous system. However, injection with a high dose of L-BPA is not feasible in clinical settings. We aimed to find an alternative method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy. We examined the effects of oral preloading with various analogues of L-BPA in a xenograft tumour model and found that high-dose L-phenylalanine reduced the accumulation of L-BPA in the normal brain relative to tumour tissue. As a result, the maximum irradiation dose in the normal brain was 19.2% lower in the L-phenylalanine group relative to the control group. This study provides a simple strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional boron compounds for BNCT for brain tumours and the possibility to widen the indication of BNCT to various kinds of other tumours.

  19. Application of laser therapy for the treatment of dentinal hyperesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was carried out, to evaluate the effectiveness of the low - power laser combined with fluoride varnish to 2% (Profilac) in the treatment of the Dentinal Hyperesthesia in patients attended to in the Stomatology Clinic of Ciro Redondo in the period from October 2007 to January 2008. The universe of study was constituted by 75 patients diagnosed with dentinal hyperesthesia in the period of time indicated above, being conformed the sample by those 25 who fulfilled the pre-established criteria for the study. With the application of the laser combined with Lacquer Fluorine (Profilac), a remission of the pain was observed that increased gradually with the treatment sessions, having been obtained to almost eliminate in the totality of the cases the group of symptoms when finalizing it, evaluating the treatment of effective in 100% of the cases. We only found a recidivism after a year of treatment

  20. The application of Toll like receptors for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Young So, Toru Ouchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR proteins play key roles in immune responses against infection. Using TLR proteins, host can recognize the conserved molecular structures found in pathogens called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. At the same time, some TLRs are able to detect specific host molecules, such as high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1 and heat shock proteins (hsp, and lead to inflammatory responses. Thus, it has been suggested that TLRs are involved in the development of many pathogenic conditions. Recent advances in TLR-related research not only provide us with scientific information, but also show the therapeutic potential against diseases, such as autoimmune disease and cancer. In this mini review, we demonstrate how TLRs pathways could be involved in cancer development and their therapeutic application, and discuss recent patentable subjects, in particular, that are targeting this unique pathway.

  1. Image Processing for Capturing Motions of Crowd and Its Application to Pedestrian-Induced Lateral Vibration of a Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An image processing technique to capture motions of crowds is proposed and it is applied to understanding pedestrian-induced lateral vibration in a footbridge. Firstly, an outline of recording sequential images of vibration in the bridge is described and, then an image processing for human-head recognition from a single image of crowd is developed. In this method, conventional template matching techniques with human-head templates are extended by employing some selected templates, an updated search-algorithm and a classifier for clustering. Consequently, more than 50% of human-heads could be identified by the proposed method. Then, motions of detected human-heads, together with the bridge response, are tracked. Finally, interaction between the motions of pedestrians and the vibration of the bridge is discussed, with the emphasis on synchronization between the responses of the pedestrians and the bridge.

  2. Approaches to capture variance differences in rest fMRI networks in the spatial geometric features: Application to schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti eGopal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functionally connected regions while at rest has been at the forefront of research focusing on understanding interactions between different brain regions. Studies have utilized a variety of approaches including seed based as well as data-driven approaches to identifying such networks. Most such techniques involve differentiating groups based on group mean measures. There has been little work focused on differences in spatial characteristics of resting fMRI data. We present a method to identify between group differences in the variability in the cluster characteristics of network regions within components estimated via independent vector analysis (IVA. IVA is a blind source separation approach shown to perform well in capturing individual subject variability within a group model. We evaluate performance of the approach using simulations and then apply to a relatively large schizophrenia data set (82 schizophrenia patients and 89 healthy controls. We postulate that group differences in the intra-network distributional characteristics of resting state network voxel intensities might indirectly capture important distinctions between the brain function of healthy and clinical populations. Results demonstrate that specific areas of the brain, superior and middle temporal gyrus that are involved in language and recognition of emotions, show greater component level variance in amplitude weights for schizophrenia patients than healthy controls. Statistically significant correlation between component level spatial variance and component volume was observed in 19 of the 27 non-artifactual components implying an evident relationship between the two parameters. Additionally, the greater spread in the distance of the cluster peak of a component from the centroid in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls was observed for seven components. These results indicate that there is hidden potential in exploring variance and possibly

  3. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of CO2 capture by hydrate crystallization: application on a CO2-CH4 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CO2 capture using gas hydrate crystallisation is a rupture technology to recover CO2 from gas emitted by industry. The goal is to find cheaper energy solutions to sequester CO2 than conventional processes (amine absorption and TSA / PSA processes). The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of a process to capture CO2 by the formation of gas hydrates. Gas hydrates have properties of selectivity and a large storage capacity for a separation of gas. The thermodynamic aspects were to determine the phase diagrams to see the feasibility of this technique. We showed that the operating pressures may be important in cases where the liquid phase is only made up of water. To reduce compression costs, we used the TBAB (Tetra-Butyl-Ammonium-Bromide) as an additive. The use of this additive can reduce considerably the operating pressures by 16. However, this pressure gain is accompanied by a loss of storage capacity. We also showed that the model of Van der Waals and Platteeuw is able to describe the phase diagrams obtained. The effect of TBAB on the gas solubility is also determined with different behaviours depending of the gas. For the kinetic part, we showed experimentally a preferential consumption of CO2 in the first moments of the crystallization. A kinetic model based on material and population balances adapted for gas mixtures is proposed. The model describes well the evolution of total gas consumption and the phenomenon of preferential consumption of CO2 at the beginning of the crystallization. This model with good kinetic parameters is able to monitor the size of crystals which is an important feature for transportation aspects of gas hydrates. (author)

  4. The combined application of biological therapy and methotrexate in case of escape phenomenon progressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponich E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study of the efficacy of methotrexate in patients with the "escape effect" during the ustekinumab therapy. Materials and Methods. The results of methotrexate at a dose of 15-20mg/week in treatment of 4 patients receiving biologic and developed "escape effect". Ustekinumab is used as a hypodermic injection at a dose of 45 mg for a body weight of a patient no more than 100 kg, and 90 mg of body weight over 100 kg, at the zero week, the 4th week and then every 12 weeks. Patients control meets the standard management of patients in biological therapy. Results. The study shows that in the case of the resistance progressing when applying preparations of biological therapy, methotrexate is useful at a dose of 15-20mg/week for up to 6 months. The combined use of biologic therapy and methotrexate in the treatment of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, "escape effect" contributes to the marked regression of clinical symptoms and allows to control the process long enough, which is confirmed by the dynamics of the index PASI, BRS and DLQI. The combined method is highly safe, as evidenced by the lack of inhibition of hematopoiesis, the normal level of hepatic transaminases and serum creatinine, which greatly improves patient compliance in this type of therapy. Conclusion. The article presents the data of the combined application of biological medication therapy (ustekinumab and methotrexate for the treatment of patients with the common form of psoriasis vulgaris. In the case of the development of resistance of biological therapy recommended the appointment of methotrexate. The combined use of methotrexate and biologic therapy in the treatment of patients with psoriasis vulgaris contributes to marked regression of clinical symptoms and allows to control the process for a long time.

  5. New development and application of ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction in gene therapy and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Qiu, Ri-Xiang; Jiang, Lan; Zhou, Xing-Xing; Yu, Jiang-Xiu

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasound is a common used technique for clinical imaging. In recent years, with the advances in preparation technology of microbubbles and the innovations in ultrasound imaging, ultrasound is no longer confined to detection of tissue perfusion, but extends to specific ultrasound molecular imaging and target therapy gradually. With the development of research, ultrasound molecular imaging and target therapy have made great progresses. Targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging are achieved by binding target molecules, specific antibody or ligand to the surface of microbubbles to obtain specific imaging by attaching to target tissues. Meanwhile, it can also achieve targeting gene therapy or drug delivery by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) mediating genes or drugs to specific target sites. UTMD has a number of advantages, such as target-specific, highly effective, non-invasivity, relatively low-cost and no radiation, and has broad application prospects, which is regarded as one hot spot in medical studies. We reviewed the new development and application of UTMD in gene therapy and drug delivery in this paper. With further development of technology and research, the gene or drug delivery system and related methods will be widely used in application and researches.

  6. The Application of Nanoparticles in Gene Therapy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERRANZ, FERNANDO; ALMARZA, ELENA; RODRÍGUEZ, IGNACIO; SALINAS, BEATRIZ; ROSELL, YAMILKA; DESCO, MANUEL; BULTE, JEFF W.; RUIZ-CABELLO, JESÚS

    2012-01-01

    The combination of nanoparticles, gene therapy, and medical imaging has given rise to a new field known as gene theranostics, in which a nanobioconjugate is used to diagnose and treat the disease. The process generally involves binding between a vector carrying the genetic information and a nanoparticle, which provides the signal for imaging. The synthesis of this probe generates a synergic effect, enhancing the efficiency of gene transduction and imaging contrast. We discuss the latest approaches in the synthesis of nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging, gene therapy strategies, and their conjugation and in vivo application. PMID:21484943

  7. Exploration and Application of Dissolution Approaches for Belief Conflicts in Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Otera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author attempts to clarify the structure of belief conflicts for different approaches in music therapy by presenting a typical thinking process that can be applied by music therapists. Dissolution Approaches for Belief Conflicts (DAB is a methodology that consists of a group of methods and theories that were specifically created for the dissolution of belief conflicts. This article demonstrated the application of this approach to develop an effective attitude and method of thinking for music therapists. In addition, this approach can promote mutual understanding in the field of music therapy and help prevent future belief conflicts over the differences in clinical and research approaches.

  8. Ion therapy of prostate cancer: daily rectal dose reduction by application of spacer gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam therapy represents a promising approach to treat prostate cancer, mainly due to its high conformity and radiobiological effectiveness. However, the presence of prostate motion, patient positioning and range uncertainties may deteriorate target dose and increase exposure of organs at risk. Spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum may increase the safety of prostate cancer (PC) radiation therapy by separating the rectum from the target dose field. The dosimetric impact of the application of spacer gel for scanned carbon ion therapy of PC has been analyzed at Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). The robustness of ion therapy treatment plans was investigated by comparison of two data sets of patients treated with and without spacer gel. A research treatment planning system for ion therapy was used for treatment plan optimization and calculation of daily dose distributions on 2 to 9 Computed Tomography (CT) studies available for each of the 19 patients. Planning and daily dose distributions were analyzed with respect to target coverage, maximal dose to the rectum (excluding 1 ml of the greatest dose; Dmax-1 ml) and the rectal volume receiving dose greater than 90% of prescribed target dose (V90Rectum), respectively. The application of spacer gel did substantially diminish rectum dose. Dmax-1 ml on the treatment planning CT was on average reduced from 100.0 ± 1.0% to 90.2 ± 4.8%, when spacer gel was applied. The robustness analysis performed with daily CT studies demonstrated for all analyzed patient cases that application of spacer gel results in a decrease of the daily V90Rectum index, which calculated over all patient cases and CT studies was 10.2 ± 10.4 [ml] and 1.1 ± 2.1 [ml] for patients without and with spacer gel, respectively. The dosimetric benefit of increasing the distance between prostate and rectum using spacer gel for PC treatment with carbon ion beams has been quantified. Application of spacer gel substantially reduced rectal

  9. Design and application of 3D-printed stepless beam modulators in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C.; Kumlin, J.; Martinez, D. M.; Jirasek, A.; Hoehr, C.

    2016-06-01

    A new method for the design of stepless beam modulators for proton therapy is described and verified. Simulations of the classic designs are compared against the stepless method for various modulation widths which are clinically applicable in proton eye therapy. Three modulator wheels were printed using a Stratasys Objet30 3D printer. The resulting depth dose distributions showed improved uniformity over the classic stepped designs. Simulated results imply a possible improvement in distal penumbra width; however, more accurate measurements are needed to fully verify this effect. Lastly, simulations were done to model bio-equivalence to Co-60 cell kill. A wheel was successfully designed to flatten this metric.

  10. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

  11. Transcultural diabetes nutrition therapy algorithm: the Asian Indian application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shashank R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Marchetti, Albert

    2012-04-01

    India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India-coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures-has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant India-specific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs.

  12. Dendritic Cells as Vectors for Immunotherapy of Tumor and Its Application for Gastric Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YugangWu; LiangWang; YanyunZhang

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the ability to stimulate naive resting T cells and initiate primary immune responses. DCs are poised to capture antigen (Ag),migrate to draining lymphoid organs, and, after a process of maturation, select Ag-specific lymphocytes to which they present the processed Ag, thereby inducing immune responses. Numerous studies indicated that immunotherapies utilizing DC-presenting tumor-associated antigens can safely be administered to cancer patients and induce significant immunologic and clinical responses. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that DCs are related to clinical stage, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer. DC-based tumor vaccines become a new effective immunoadjuvant therapy for gastric cancer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(5):351-356.

  13. Dendritic Cells as Vectors for Immunotherapy of Tumor and Its Application for Gastric Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yugang Wu; Liang Wang; Yanyun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the ability to stimulate na(i)ve resting T cells and initiate primary immune responses. DCs are poised to capture antigen (Ag),migrate to draining lymphoid organs, and, after a process of maturation, select Ag-specific lymphocytes to which they present the processed Ag, thereby inducing immune responses. Numerous studies indicated that immunotherapies utilizing DC-presenting tumor-associated antigens can safely be administered to cancer patients and induce significant immunologic and clinical responses. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that DCs are related to clinical stage, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer. DC-based tumor vaccines become a new effective immunoadjuvant therapy for gastric cancer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(5):351-356.

  14. Computerized axial tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scan follow-up of two patients after boron neutron capture therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.R.; Spickard, J.H.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Using computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we are following a 30-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white male, both with biopsy-proven Glioblastoma Multiforme, from their preoperative through post-operative stages and pre- and post-BNCT treatment. The images visually demonstrate the evolving changes in the tumor and surrounding cortex. These patients were treated by Hiroshi Hatanaka of Teikyo University, at the Musashi Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor which is a 100 kW Triga-II facility that has been used by Hatanaka for many years for BNCT therapy. 10 figs.

  15. Computerized axial tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scan follow-up of two patients after boron neutron capture therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.R.; Spickard, J.H.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we are following a 30-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white male, both with biopsy-proven Glioblastoma Multiforme, from their preoperative through post-operative stages and pre- and post-BNCT treatment. The images visually demonstrate the evolving changes in the tumor and surrounding cortex. These patients were treated by Hiroshi Hatanaka of Teikyo University, at the Musashi Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor is a 100 kW Triga-II facility that has been used by Hatanaka for many years for BNCT therapy. 7 figs.

  16. One-step synthesis of soy protein/graphene nanocomposites and their application in photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuejiao; Li, Zhao; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal therapy, due to its security and effectiveness, has recently become a promising cancer treatment after surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy. In this article, soy protein isolate/reduced graphene oxide (SPI/rGO) nanocomposites are prepared via a simple and green process. That is, GO is reduced in situ and stabilized by SPI, an abundant, low-cost, sustainable natural material, and simultaneously forms SPI/rGO nanocomposites. The resulting SPI/rGO nanocomposites disperse in water very well and exhibit good biocompatibility due to the attachment of SPI to the surface of rGO. Such SPI/rGO nanocomposites demonstrate an excellent photothermal capacity and are able to kill HeLa cells efficiently with near-infrared irradiation (808nm). The results in this work suggest that such a SPI/rGO hybrid material could be a promising candidate for future applications of photothermal therapy. PMID:27524082

  17. Convolution/deconvolution of generalized Gaussian kernels with applications to proton/photon physics and electron capture of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, W

    2012-01-01

    Scatter processes of photons lead to blurring of images produced by CT (computed tomography) or CBCT (cone beam computed tomography) in the KV domain or portal imaging in the MV domain (KV: kilovolt age, MV: megavoltage). Multiple scatter is described by, at least, one Gaussian kernel. In various situations, this approximation is crude, and we need two/three Gaussian kernels to account for the long-range tails (Landau tails), which appear in the Moli\\`ere scatter of protons, energy straggling and electron capture of charged particles passing through matter and Compton scatter of photons. The ideal image (source function) is subjected to Gaussian convolutions to yield a blurred image recorded by a detector array. The inverse problem is to obtain the ideal source image from measured image. Deconvolution methods of linear combinations of two/three Gaussian kernels with different parameters s0, s1, s2 can be derived via an inhomogeneous Fredholm integral equation of second kind (IFIE2) and Liouville - Neumann ser...

  18. Treatment of verruca of hands and feet with 32P application therapy and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study and compare the clinical curative effect of extremity verruca with 32P and laser as well as their application values, 229 patients with extremity verruca were chosen by random from outpatient. Out of them, 83 patients were male and 146 were female, with the average age of 34.6 ± 19.5 (x-bar ± s) years. They were randomly divided into two groups: for the laser treatment group consisting of 127 individuals, the wart bodies were eliminated by CO2 laser under local anaesthetization, if there were a lot of locus, the wart bodies were treated in turn. 102 individuals were treated with 32P application therapy. The liquid containing radionuclide 32P was dropped on filter papers, dried and then fixed on the corresponding focus surface for application therapy, applying 4-8 hours continuously (the absorbed dose at the lesion surface reaching 984-1968 cGy) each time and once a week until the lesion recovered. The clinical reaction and curative effect were observed. The clinical effective rate, cure rate, recurrence rate, side effective rate occurrence rate and complication occurrence rate for the laser treatment group are 100%, 55.9%, 44.1%, 17.3% and 25.2%, respectively while they are 100%, 91.2%, 5.9%, 19.6% and 7.8% respectively for the group of 32P application therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of extremity verruca with 32P application therapy is a simple and effective method with features such as safety, little pain, notable curative effect, lower recurrence rate, less side effect and complication. (authors)

  19. Application of proton boron fusion reaction to radiation therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk, E-mail: suhsanta@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-01

    Three alpha particles are emitted from the point of reaction between a proton and boron. The alpha particles are effective in inducing the death of a tumor cell. After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton's maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here, we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton's maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton's maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region. In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment.

  20. Quantitative models of in vitro bacteriophage-host dynamics and their application to phage therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Cairns

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage therapy is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents for the control of pathogenic and other problem bacteria. It has previously been argued that successful application of phage therapy requires a good understanding of the non-linear kinetics of phage-bacteria interactions. Here we combine experimental and modelling approaches to make a detailed examination of such kinetics for the important food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and a suitable virulent phage in an in vitro system. Phage-insensitive populations of C. jejuni arise readily, and as far as we are aware this is the first phage therapy study to test, against in vitro data, models for phage-bacteria interactions incorporating phage-insensitive or resistant bacteria. We find that even an apparently simplistic model fits the data surprisingly well, and we confirm that the so-called inundation and proliferation thresholds are likely to be of considerable practical importance to phage therapy. We fit the model to time series data in order to estimate thresholds and rate constants directly. A comparison of the fit for each culture reveals density-dependent features of phage infectivity that are worthy of further investigation. Our results illustrate how insight from empirical studies can be greatly enhanced by the use of kinetic models: such combined studies of in vitro systems are likely to be an essential precursor to building a meaningful picture of the kinetic properties of in vivo phage therapy.

  1. The current clinical revolution. Applications of gene therapy in treatment of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, M

    1994-05-01

    A major technological revolution is on the horizon that promises cures for inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, leukocyte-adhesion deficiency, and Gaucher's disease. This revolutionary technology also promises effective treatments for acquired diseases such as cancer and AIDS. The technique is gene therapy and it has already been used in humans. Some applications raise ethical considerations that not only affect the individual who is treated but have implications for future generations as well. PMID:10134065

  2. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan P; Choi DK

    2016-01-01

    Palanivel Ganesan,1,2 Dong-Kug Choi1,2 1Department of Applied Life Science, Nanotechnology Research Center, 2Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower pene...

  3. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  4. Anti-interleukin-6 therapy through application of a monogenic protein inhibitor via gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Dieter; Braun, Gerald S; Maruta, Yuichi; Djudjaj, Sonja; van Roeyen, Claudia R; Martin, Ina V; Küster, Andrea; Schmitz-Van de Leur, Hildegard; Scheller, Jürgen; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Anti-cytokine therapies have substantially improved the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cytokine-targeting drugs are usually biologics such as antibodies or other engineered proteins. Production of biologics, however, is complex and intricate and therefore expensive which might limit therapeutic application. To overcome this limitation we developed a strategy that involves the design of an optimized, monogenic cytokine inhibitor and the protein producing capacity of the host. Here, we engineered and characterized a receptor fusion protein, mIL-6-RFP-Fc, for the inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-established target in anti-cytokine therapy. Upon application in mice mIL-6-RFP-Fc inhibited IL-6-induced activation of the transcription factor STAT3 and ERK1/2 kinases in liver and kidney. mIL-6-RFP-Fc is encoded by a single gene and therefore most relevant for gene transfer approaches. Gene transfer through hydrodynamic plasmid delivery in mice resulted in hepatic production and secretion of mIL-6-RFP-Fc into the blood in considerable amounts, blocked hepatic acute phase protein synthesis and improved kidney function in an ischemia and reperfusion injury model. Our study establishes receptor fusion proteins as promising agents in anti-cytokine therapies through gene therapeutic approaches for future targeted and cost-effective treatments. The strategy described here is applicable for many cytokines involved in inflammatory and other diseases. PMID:26423228

  5. [Antioxidative properties of vitamin E as a new approach to its applications in therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof; Chojnacki, Jan; Kedziora, Józef

    2006-05-01

    The article presents current state of knowledge about antioxidative action of vitamin E, enabling significant broadening of its possible application in medicine. Mechanisms are discussed due to which it takes a very important part in protection of an organism against effects of oxidative stress. Followed from here consequences of this vitamin deficiencies were indicated. Detailed review was made of its role in counteracting diseases of the largest social significance: cancer and cardiovascular system diseases. Attention was paid to observed controversies and discrepancies in therapeutic effects. Unfavourable effects that could appear with application of large doses of vitamin E, typical for antioxidative therapy, were characterised. PMID:16875174

  6. Tratamiento del cáncer por captura neutrónica de boro: Su aplicación al carcinoma indiferenciado de tiroides Boron neutron capture therapy applied to undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Pisarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides es un tumor muy agresivo, de muy mal pronóstico y sin tratamiento efectivo. La terapia por captura neutrónica de boro (BNCT podría ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Se basa en la captación selectiva de boro por el tumor y su activación por un haz de neutrones. El boro activado libera un núcleo de litio-7 y una partícula alfa, las cuales tienen una alta transmisión linear de energía (linear energy transfer, LET y un alcance de 5-9 µm, destruyendo el tumor. En estudios previos hemos mostrado que la línea celular humana de cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides (ARO tiene una captación selectiva de borofenilalanina (10BPA tanto in vitro como después de ser implantada en ratones NIH nude. También demostramos en estos animales inyectados con BPA e irradiados con un haz de neutrones térmicos, un 100% de control sobre el crecimiento tumoral y un 50% de cura histológica. En trabajos posteriores mostramos que la porfirina 10BOPP tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester de 2,4-bis-(a,b-dihydroxyethyl-deutero-porphyrin IX cuando es inyectada 5-7 días antes que el BPA se obtiene una concentración tumoral de boro de aproximadamente el doble que el BPA solo (45-38 ppm vs. 20 ppm. La posterior irradiación con neutrones mostró un 100% de remisión completa en animales con tumores cuyo volumen pre-tratamiento era de 50 mm³ o menor. Los perros padecen CIT espontáneo, con un comportamiento biológico similar al humano, y una captación selectiva de BPA, abriendo la posibilidad de su tratamiento por BNCT.Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis due to the lack of an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is based on the selective uptake of boron by the tumor and its activation by a neutron beam, releasing lithium-7 and an alpha particle that will kill the tumor cells by their high linear energy transfer (LET. In previous

  7. First tests of the applicability of $\\gamma$-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Magán, D L Pérez; Domingo-Pardo, C; Agramunt-Ros, J; Albiol, F; Casanovas, A; González, A; Guerrero, C; Lerendegui-Marco, J; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using $\\gamma$-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr$_3$ scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a $^{197}$Au sample have been carried out at n\\_TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of 2 in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  8. First tests of the applicability of γ-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Magán, D. L.; Caballero, L.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Agramunt-Ros, J.; Albiol, F.; Casanovas, A.; González, A.; Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using γ-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr3 scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a 197Au sample have been carried out at n_TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of two in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  9. Using permalloy based planar hall effect sensors to capture and detect superparamagnetic beads for lab on a chip applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volmer, Marius, E-mail: volmerm@unitbv.ro [Transilvania University of Brasov, Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department. Eroilor 29, Brasov 500036 (Romania); Avram, Marioara [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, Str. Erou Iancu Nicolae 32B, 72996 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out on planar Hall effect (PHE) sensors used to detect magnetic nanoparticles employed as labels for biodetection applications. Disk shaped sensors, 1 mm diameter, were structured on Permalloy film, 20 nm thick. To control the sensor magnetisation state and thus the field sensitivity and linearity, a DC biasing field has been applied parallel to the driving current. Maghemite nanoparticles (10 nm) functionalised with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were immobilised over the sensor surface using particular magnetisation state and applied magnetic fields. In order to obtain a higher response from the magnetic nanoparticles, it was used a detection setup which allows the application of magnetic fields larger than 100 Oe but avoiding saturation of the PHE signal. Based on this setup, two field scanning methods are presented in this paper. During our experiments, low magnetic moments, of about 1.87×10{sup −5} emu, have been easily detected. This value corresponds to a mass of 9.35 µg of maghemite nanoparticles functionalised with PEG 6000. The results suggest that this type of structure is feasible for building low cost micrometer sized PHE sensors to be used for high-resolution bio sensing applications. - Highlights: • Disk-shaped Permalloy planar Hall effect sensors have been obtained and tested. • Two field scanning methods have been proposed. • The magnetic nanoparticles can be trapped on the sensor surface. • High detection sensitivity has been obtained.

  10. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  11. Biomedical Application of Electroporation: Electrochemotherapy and Electrogene Therapy in Treatment of Cutaneous and Deep Seated Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several novel tumor-targeting and drug delivery approaches in cancer treatment are currently undergoing intensive investigation in order to increase the therapeutic index - among them physical approaches such as tissue electroporation. Electroporation of tissue increases the membrane permeability of cells, specifically in the area that is exposed to the applied electric pulses. Electroporation-based cancer treatment approaches are currently undergoing intensive investigation in the field of drug (electrochemo-therapy) and gene (electrogene therapy) delivery. Electrochemotherapy, since its beginnings in the late 1980s, has evolved into a clinically verified treatment approach for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor nodules. It is defined as a local treatment which, via cell membrane permeabilising electric pulses, potentiates the cytotoxicity of non-permeant or poorly permeant anticancer drugs with high intrinsic cytotoxicity at the site of electric pulse application. Suitable candidates for electrochemotherapy are limited to those drugs that are hydrophilic and lack transport system in the membrane. Up to date two drugs have been identified as potential candidates for electrochemotherapy: bleomycin, which cytotoxicity in vitro can be potentiated up to several-1000-fold by electroporation of cells, and cisplatin whose cytotoxicity increased by up to 80-fold due to electroporation. High antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy was demonstrated on fibrosarcomas, melanoma, and carcinomas in mice, rats and rabbits; good clinical results were also obtained in veterinary medicine on cats, dogs and horses. In these studies it was demonstrated that with drug doses that have minimal or no antitumor effectiveness, high (up to 75 %) complete responses of the electrochemotherapy-treated tumors were obtained. The drug doses used were so low that they had no systemic toxicity. Also the application of electric pulses to the tumors had no antitumor effectiveness and no systemic

  12. Activated carbon enhancement with covalent organic polymers: An innovative material for application in water purification and carbon dioxide capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil;

    solvent uptake in concentrated streams to metal and organic pollutant adsorption in contaminated waters.2 However, given the nanoscale structure of these COPs, real-world application has yet remained elusive for these materials. By creating a material large and robust enough to be used in a full...... the COP matrix, these columns can subsequently degrade organic contaminants, e.g. halogenated solvents, azo dyes, antibiotics, etc., during the water treatment process as a flow-through water treatment column that can syngergistically adsorb and degrade various pollutants in various water sources. A first...

  13. Overview of Clinical Application of Chiropractic Therapy in the Past ten Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Er-chun

    2004-01-01

    捏脊疗法是推拿常用手法之一,这一疗法具有简、便、验、廉的特点.近年来捏脊疗法临床应用的范围不断扩大,用于治疗的疾病已达数十种.遍及内科、妇科、儿科等各科及预防、保健、美容等方面,临床报道很多.本文收集近十年有关捏脊疗法的文献21篇,在分析了这些文献的基础上从捏脊疗法临床运用的角度进行归纳总结.%Chiropractic therapy is a common massage method of simplicity, convenience, efficacy and low cost. In the past years, chiropractic therapy is increasingly used to treat many diseases in relation to internal medicine, gynecology, pediatrics, medical prevention, healthcare and cosmetology, etc.This paper collects 21 articles concerning chiropractic therapy in the past 10 years, and then sums up the clinical application of chiropractic therapy.

  14. Prospects in the Application of Photodynamic Therapy in Oral Cancer and Premalignant Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajan; Lee, Nathan V; Liu, Kelly Y P; Poh, Catherine F

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a global health burden with significantly poor survival, especially when the diagnosis is at its late stage. Despite advances in current treatment modalities, there has been minimal improvement in survival rates over the last five decades. The development of local recurrence, regional failure, and the formation of second primary tumors accounts for this poor outcome. For survivors, cosmetic and functional compromises resulting from treatment are often devastating. These statistics underscore the need for novel approaches in the management of this deadly disease. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that involves administration of a light-sensitive drug, known as a photosensitizer, followed by light irradiation of an appropriate wavelength that corresponds to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of tissue oxygen, cytotoxic free radicals that are produced cause direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature, and induction of inflammatory reactions at the target sites. PDT offers a prospective new approach in controlling this disease at its various stages either as a stand-alone therapy for early lesions or as an adjuvant therapy for advanced cases. In this review, we aim to explore the applications of PDT in oral cancer therapy and to present an overview of the recent advances in PDT that can potentially reposition its utility for oral cancer treatment. PMID:27598202

  15. Translational applications of molecular imaging in cardiovascular disease and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Tao, Hongyan; Zhao, Shihua; He, Zuo-Xiang; Li, Zongjin

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Molecular imaging techniques provide valuable information at cellular and molecular level, as opposed to anatomical and structural layers acquired from traditional imaging modalities. More specifically, molecular imaging employs imaging probes which interact with specific molecular targets and therefore makes it possible to visualize biological processes in vivo. Molecular imaging technology is now progressing towards preclinical and clinical application that gives an integral and comprehensive guidance for the investigation of cardiovascular disease. In addition, cardiac stem cell therapy holds great promise for clinical translation. Undoubtedly, combining stem cell therapy with molecular imaging technology will bring a broad prospect for the study and treatment of cardiac disease. This review will focus on the progresses of molecular imaging strategies in cardiovascular disease and cardiac stem cell therapy. Furthermore, the perspective on the future role of molecular imaging in clinical translation and potential strategies in defining safety and efficacy of cardiac stem cell therapies will be discussed.

  16. Community therapy application in intervention with adolescents: new strategies for prevention and promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Zago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents vulnerability facing transformations and resistances, the group work used by Occupational Therapy through techniques and dynamics favors expression, anxiety control and biopsychosocial maturity in intervention. Currently, one strategy used with teenagers is Community Therapy (CT, because it provides a welcoming environment where all are equal and can share their sufferings, anxieties and affinities. Thus, this study examined the effectiveness of group activities used in occupational therapy as warm up strategies in Community Therapy circles. Eleven teenagers aged 12 to 14 years old participated in the research. The study was carried out in a social institution that aims to support children and youth in the municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. Video and photo images and handwritten records were used as data collection instruments during the application of the 12 strategies, divided into three categories: competition, cooperation, and self-knowledge/self-esteem, applied for warming up the CT circles. Data were analyzed and presented through the use of a chart for better visualization and understanding of the adolescents’ behavior during the warm up CT circles. The results obtained showed dispute, unrest, lack of attention and sociability; behaviors that are inherent to adolescence due to the several changes, emotional alterations and search for identity that these subjects experience. Based on the survey results, it was possible observe that the behaviors have triggered direct-indirect relationship with the strategies used as facilitators in the discussion development regarding the issues addressed in the CT circles.

  17. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single 7LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 (6LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% 6Li) and TLD-700 (7LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% 7LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom, with representative

  18. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  19. Single-Cell Sequencing Technology in Oncology: Applications for Clinical Therapies and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixin Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular heterogeneity is a fundamental characteristic of many cancers. A lack of cellular homogeneity contributes to difficulty in designing targeted oncological therapies. Therefore, the development of novel methods to determine and characterize oncologic cellular heterogeneity is a critical next step in the development of novel cancer therapies. Single-cell sequencing (SCS technology has been recently employed for analyzing the genetic polymorphisms of individual cells at the genome-wide level. SCS requires (1 precise isolation of the single cell of interest; (2 isolation and amplification of genetic material; and (3 descriptive analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic data. In addition to targeted analysis of single cells isolated from tumor biopsies, SCS technology may be applied to circulating tumor cells, which may aid in predicting tumor progression and metastasis. In this paper, we provide an overview of SCS technology and review the current literature on the potential application of SCS to clinical oncology and research.

  20. [POSSIBILITIES OF VACUUM THERAPY APPLICATION IN DISORDERS OF VENOUS OUTFLOW IN ISLET GRAFTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyul, P O; Samoylenko, G E; Nor, N M; Slesarenko, K S

    2015-07-01

    The experience of "distressed" (problematic) flaps application in 33 patients with soft tissue defects over 2010-2014 years were analysed. It was proposed to use the local negative pressure for the prevention and treatment of complications associated with venous insufficiency or trombosis in using of plastics with vascularised complexes of tissues. Vacuum-therapy was conducted with the help of negative pressure apparatus "AGATE-Dnepr" (Ukraine) by attaching silver-containing polyurethane sponge on the operating zone, covering the flap with the surrounding skin netting band "Grassolind". The recommended standard of negative pressure of 75-125 mm Hg, both in impulse and in continuous mode was used. The high efficiency of vacuum-therapy for survival of grafts has been demonstrated. Thus, it might be considered as an effective element of prevention and treatment of complications associated with venous insufficiency or trombosis using of vascularised tissue complex plastics of defects.

  1. Occupational therapy students' learning styles and application to professional academic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titiloye, Victoria Moji; Scott, Anne Hiller

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY Methods of optimizing students' learning have been a major concern of educators over time. If occupational therapy educators know the students' learning styles at the onset of their training, teaching can be designed to enhance students' optimal learning throughout their education. This study determined learning styles of 201 junior students (age range = 18-57, mean age = 30.9), enrolled in an urban occupational therapy program from 1990 to 1999. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, a 12-item questionnaire, was administered to the students in the spring of their junior years. Their learning styles were determined using Kolb's criteria. Results yielded: variations in students' preferred learning styles in each class from year to year; higher percentage of convergers (mean = 35%), fewer divergers (mean = 18%). Overall, students were mostly convergers (mean = 35%) and assimilators (mean = 25%). Applications of the findings to teaching students are discussed. PMID:23944342

  2. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Yellow Fever Virus and Application in Antigen Detection and IgM Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adungo, Ferdinard; Kamau, David; Inoue, Shingo; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Sang, Rosemary; Mwau, Matilu

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute hemorrhagic viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and South America. The major challenge in YF disease detection and confirmation of outbreaks in Africa is the limited availability of reference laboratories and the persistent lack of access to diagnostic tests. We used wild-type YF virus sequences to generate recombinant envelope protein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Both the recombinant protein and sucrose gradient-purified YF vaccine virus 17D (YF-17D) were used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Eight MAbs were established and systematically characterized by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The established MAbs showed strong reactivity with wild-type YF virus and recombinant protein with no detectable cross-reactivity to dengue virus or Japanese encephalitis virus. Epitope mapping showed strong binding of three MAbs to amino acid positions 1 to 51, while two MAbs mapped to amino acid positions 52 to 135 of the envelope protein. The remaining three MAbs did not show reactivity to envelope fragments. The established MAbs exert no neutralization against wild-type YF and 17D viruses (titer of <10 for both strains). The applicability of MAbs 8H3 and 3F4 was further evaluated using IgM capture ELISA. A total of 49 serum samples were analyzed, among which 12 positive patient and vaccinee samples were correctly identified. Using serum samples that were 2-fold serially diluted, the IgM capture ELISA was able to detect all YF-positive samples. Furthermore, MAb-based antigen detection ELISA enabled the detection of virus in culture supernatants containing titers of about 1,000 focus-forming units. PMID:27307452

  3. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  4. Biodistribution and subcellular localization of an unnatural boron-containing amino acid (cis-ABCPC by imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for neutron capture therapy of melanomas and gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra

    Full Text Available The development of new boron-delivery agents is a high priority for improving the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy. In the present study, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC as a mixture of its L- and D-enantiomers was evaluated in vivo using the B16 melanoma model for the human tumor and the F98 rat glioma as a model for human gliomas. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS based imaging instrument, CAMECA IMS 3F SIMS Ion Microscope, was used for quantitative imaging of boron at 500 nm spatial resolution. Both in vivo and in vitro studies in melanoma models demonstrated that boron was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclei with some cell-to-cell variability. Uptake of cis-ABCPC in B16 cells was time dependent with a 7.5:1 partitioning ratio of boron between cell nuclei and the nutrient medium after 4 hrs. incubation. Furthermore, cis-ABCPC delivered boron to cells in all phases of the cell cycle, including S-phase. In vivo SIMS studies using the F98 rat glioma model revealed an 8:1 boron partitioning ratio between the main tumor mass and normal brain tissue with a 5:1 ratio between infiltrating tumor cells and contiguous normal brain. Since cis-ABCPC is water soluble and can cross the blood-brain-barrier via the L-type amino acid transporters (LAT, it may accumulate preferentially in infiltrating tumor cells in normal brain due to up-regulation of LAT in high grade gliomas. Once trapped inside the tumor cell, cis-ABCPC cannot be metabolized and remains either in a free pool or bound to cell matrix components. The significant improvement in boron uptake by both the main tumor mass and infiltrating tumor cells compared to those reported in animal and clinical studies of p-boronophenylalanine strongly suggest that cis-ABCPC has the potential to become a novel new boron delivery agent for neutron capture therapy of gliomas and melanomas.

  5. Capturing Crop Response to Climate and Management Variability in Models: Evaluation Using FLUXNET Data with Applications at the Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulate the response of ecosystems to environmental drivers at multiple time scales (e.g., a fast response to diurnal variations in radiation and a slower response to interannual variations in climate). Until recently, these models only represented natural ecosystems, which neglected the approximately 30% of Earth’s land surface covered by managed ecosystems. We have incorporated the representation of four major crops of the United States (i.e., maize, soybean, spring wheat, and winter wheat) into the Agro-IBIS DGVM and have tested the model at the site level and regional scale. Here we present results of an evaluation of carbon, energy, and water fluxes from a multi-year simulation of maize and soybean at FLUXNET sites in Minnesota and Illinois. These two sites are not only located along a climate gradient, allowing evaluation of model sensitivity to climate variation, they also have different land use histories and are currently under different tillage management. As an application of the model at the regional scale, we examined the relationship of temperature and precipitation trends to net primary productivity (NPP) changes from 1982-2002 over both natural and managed ecosystems across the central and eastern U.S. In order to isolate the vegetation growth response to climate trends, we minimized the representation of management for agroecosystems and forested ecosystems by removing nitrogen stress and irrigation from the model. Maize had the largest NPP trend of 6.43 g C m-2 yr-2, followed by soybean, spring wheat, deciduous forest, then grassland. Winter wheat had a trend of -0.64 g C m-2 yr-2 and evergreen needleleaf forest had a negligible NPP trend. We found that 19% of maize and 11% of soybean NPP trends could be explained by temperature trends while 23% of corn and 44% of soybean trends could be explained by precipitation trends. Our results provide further evidence supporting observational results that suggest

  6. Design criteria for a high energy Compton Camera and possible application to targeted cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed research focuses on the design criteria for a Compton Camera with high spatial resolution and sensitivity, operating at high gamma energies and its possible application for molecular imaging. This application is mainly on the detection and visualization of the pharmacokinetics of tumor targeting substances specific for particular cancer sites. Expected high resolution (< 0.5 mm) permits monitoring the pharmacokinetics of labeled gene constructs in vivo in small animals with a human tumor xenograft which is one of the first steps in evaluating the potential utility of a candidate gene. The additional benefit of high sensitivity detection will be improved cancer treatment strategies in patients based on the use of specific molecules binding to cancer sites for early detection of tumors and identifying metastasis, monitoring drug delivery and radionuclide therapy for optimum cell killing at the tumor site. This new technology can provide high resolution, high sensitivity imaging of a wide range of gamma energies and will significantly extend the range of radiotracers that can be investigated and used clinically. The small and compact construction of the proposed camera system allows flexible application which will be particularly useful for monitoring residual tumor around the resection site during surgery. It is also envisaged as able to test the performance of new drug/gene-based therapies in vitro and in vivo for tumor targeting efficacy using automatic large scale screening methods

  7. Applications in radiation therapy of a scintillating screen viewed by a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, J M; Luijk, P V

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry system has been designed for position-sensitive dose-measurement applications in modern radiation therapy. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S : Tb), observed by a low-noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The system allows reliable and accurate simultaneous 2D imaging of therapeutic dose distributions in the scintillator with sub millimeter spatial resolution. This system has been applied successfully at different applications in radiation therapy. Results of dose measurements in a treatment modality using a scanning proton beam are reported. It is shown that a quick and reliable measurement can be done. The screen+CCD system has proven to perform accurate dosimetry in applications where beams with a small (1-5 mm) diameter are used and where absolute dosimetry by means of standard ionization chambers is not possible due to their relatively large size. For the routine measurements of the alignment of therapeutic beams with respect to the...

  8. Application of Spatial and Closed Capture-Recapture Models on Known Population of the Western Derby Eland (Taurotragus derbianus derbianus) in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Jůnek; Pavla Jůnková Vymyslická; Kateřina Hozdecká; Pavla Hejcmanová

    2015-01-01

    Camera trapping with capture-recapture analyses has provided estimates of the abundances of elusive species over the last two decades. Closed capture-recapture models (CR) based on the recognition of individuals and incorporating natural heterogeneity in capture probabilities are considered robust tools; however, closure assumption is often questionable and the use of an Mh jackknife estimator may fail in estimations of real abundance when the heterogeneity is high and data is sparse. A novel...

  9. Engineering of gadofluoroprobes: Broad-spectrum applications from cancer diagnosis to therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Ranu A., E-mail: ranu.dutta16@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sharma, Prashant K. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India); Tiwari, Vandana [Department of Pathology, KGMU, Lucknow (India); Tiwari, Vivek; Patel, Anant B. [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad (India); Pandey, Ravindra [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Michigan 49931-1295 (United States); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (India)

    2014-01-13

    The engineering of the Gadolinium based nanostructures have been demonstrated in this paper. Nanostructures of α-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} exhibit a unique transition between ferromagnetic state and paramagnetic state of the system. It was demonstrated that their properties could be tuned for a wide range of applications ranging from hyperthermia to Magnetic Resonance Imaging, owing to their magnetic moments and large relaxivities. Metallic Gd nanoparticles obtained by reduction method were employed for cancer imaging in mice. The Gd nanoparticles were coated with Curcumin and their biomedical implications in the field of simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer and related diseases has been discussed.

  10. Synthesis of nanoscale titanium dioxide and its application in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Zhiguo; Yang, Shiping

    2015-01-01

    As an important inorganic material,titanium dioxide gets more and more attention and is used in various fields,especially in the biomedical field.This paper summarizes the main synthesis methods of titanium dioxide nanomaterial and its applications in cancer therapy area.The titanium dioxide nanomaterial can be prepared by gas,liquid and solid phase methods.Among them,we mainly introduce liquid phase methods including sol-gel method,hydrothermal method,solvothermal,and microemulsion method.We...

  11. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower penetration and high compound instability of various cosmetic products for sustained and enhanced compound delivery to the beauty-based skin therapy. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in cosmeceutical sectors and products. Nanosizing of phytocompounds enhances the aseptic feel in various cosmeceutical products with sustained delivery and enhanced skin protecting activities. Solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes are some of the emerging nanotechnologies currently in use for their enhanced delivery of phytocompounds in skin care. Aloe vera, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, vitamins C and E, genistein, and green tea catechins were successfully nanosized using various delivery technologies and incorporated in various gels, lotions, and creams for skin, lip, and hair care for their sustained effects. However, certain delivery agents such as carbon nanotubes need to be studied for their roles in toxicity. This review broadly focuses on the usage of phytocompounds in various cosmeceutical products, nanodelivery technologies used in the delivery of phytocompounds to various cosmeceuticals, and various nanosized phytocompounds used in the development of novel nanocosmeceuticals to enhance skin-based therapy. PMID:27274231

  12. Light-oxygen effect in cells and its potential applications in tumour therapy (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light-oxygen effect (POE) represents damage (and at low optical doses, activation) of cells by photogeneration of molecular singlet oxygen from O2 dissolved in cells, in accordance with the reaction: 3O2+hν→1O2→ biological effect. The phases of evolution of the LOE are similar to the phases, observed in cell experiments, of the photodynamic effect (PDE) the mechanism of which is the basis of the familiar method of photodynamic cancer therapy. The reported proofs of the occurrence of the LOE are in the form of detailed spectra of the biological action of optical radiation on cells recorded in four spectral intervals with the aid of tunable lasers. Allowances are made for the relationships governing a new type of cell excitation, associated with reversible structural transitions in the biomembrane. A demonstration is reported of the same efficiency of cw and pulsed irradiation. An analysis is made of the reasons why the optical doses initiating the PDE and the LOE are comparable. The results are given of the first experimental applications of the LOE in tumour therapy. Identification of the primary photoacceptor (O2) in cell biostimulation and photodestruction provides a scientific basis for the development of low-intensity laser light-oxygen cancer therapy methods. (lasers in medicine)

  13. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  14. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower penetration and high compound instability of various cosmetic products for sustained and enhanced compound delivery to the beauty-based skin therapy. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in cosmeceutical sectors and products. Nanosizing of phytocompounds enhances the aseptic feel in various cosmeceutical products with sustained delivery and enhanced skin protecting activities. Solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes are some of the emerging nanotechnologies currently in use for their enhanced delivery of phytocompounds in skin care. Aloe vera, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, vitamins C and E, genistein, and green tea catechins were successfully nanosized using various delivery technologies and incorporated in various gels, lotions, and creams for skin, lip, and hair care for their sustained effects. However, certain delivery agents such as carbon nanotubes need to be studied for their roles in toxicity. This review broadly focuses on the usage of phytocompounds in various cosmeceutical products, nanodelivery technologies used in the delivery of phytocompounds to various cosmeceuticals, and various nanosized phytocompounds used in the development of novel nanocosmeceuticals to enhance skin-based therapy.

  15. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower penetration and high compound instability of various cosmetic products for sustained and enhanced compound delivery to the beauty-based skin therapy. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in cosmeceutical sectors and products. Nanosizing of phytocompounds enhances the aseptic feel in various cosmeceutical products with sustained delivery and enhanced skin protecting activities. Solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes are some of the emerging nanotechnologies currently in use for their enhanced delivery of phytocompounds in skin care. Aloe vera, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, vitamins C and E, genistein, and green tea catechins were successfully nanosized using various delivery technologies and incorporated in various gels, lotions, and creams for skin, lip, and hair care for their sustained effects. However, certain delivery agents such as carbon nanotubes need to be studied for their roles in toxicity. This review broadly focuses on the usage of phytocompounds in various cosmeceutical products, nanodelivery technologies used in the delivery of phytocompounds to various cosmeceuticals, and various nanosized phytocompounds used in the development of novel nanocosmeceuticals to enhance skin-based therapy. PMID:27274231

  16. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  17. Impacts of equations of state (EOS) and impurities on the volume calculation of CO2 mixtures in the applications of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume property is the necessary thermodynamic property in the design and operation of the CO2 capture and storage system (CCS). Because of their simple structures, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to be applied in predicting volumes for engineering applications. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of seven cubic EOS, including PR, PT, RK, SRK, MPR, MSRK and ISRK for predicting volumes of binary CO2 mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, Ar and N2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that for calculations on the volume properties of binary CO2 mixtures, PR and PT are generally superior to others for all of the studied mixtures. In addition, it was found that the binary interaction parameter has clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the volume calculations of CO2 mixtures. In order to improve the accuracy, kij was calibrated for all of the EOS regarding the gas and liquid phases of all the studied binary CO2 mixtures, respectively.

  18. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  19. Effect of applicator diameter on lesion size from high temperature interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature ultrasound thermal therapy using interstitial and external approaches is becoming increasingly acceptable as a minimally invasive clinical treatment for cancerous and benign disease. The diameter of an interstitial applicator can influence its clinical practicality and effectiveness as well as application site. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of larger ultrasound transducers and the inherent increase in applicator size could be justified by potentially producing larger lesion diameters. Four applicator configurations and sizes were studied using ex vivo tissue experiments in liver and beef and using acoustic and biothermal simulations. Catheter-cooled and internally cooled applicators with outer diameters between 2.2 and 4.0 mm produced 3.5 to 5.0 cm diameter lesions in ex vivo liver and 3.0 to 3.5 cm lesions in ex vivo beef muscle with 20-40 W/cm applied for 10 min. Larger applicators produced lesions with radial penetration depths superior to their smaller counterparts at power levels in the 20-40 W/cm range. The higher cooling rates along the outer surface of the larger diameter applicators due to their greater surface area was a dominant factor in increasing lesion size. The higher cooling rates pushed the maximum temperature farther from the applicator surface and reduced the formation of high acoustic attenuation tissue zones. Applicator configuration and frequency (6.7-8.2 MHz) had less influence on lesion size than diameter in the ranges studied. Acoustic and biothermal simulations matched the experimental data well and were applied to model these applicators within sites of clinical interest such as prostate, uterine fibroid, brain, and normal liver. Lesions of 3.9 to 4.7 cm diameter were predicted for moderately perfused tissues such as prostate and fibroid and 2.8 to 3.2 cm for highly perfused tissues such as normal liver. In sites such as uterine fibroid where larger applicators placed using an endoscopic

  20. Evaluation of multielement catheter-cooled interstitial ultrasound applicators for high-temperature thermal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catheter-cooled (CC) interstitial ultrasound applicators were evaluated for their use in high-temperature coagulative thermal therapy of tissue. Studies in ex vivo beef muscle were conducted to determine the influences of applied electrical power levels (5-20 W per element), catheter flow rate (20-60 ml min-1), circulating water temperature (7-40 deg. C), and frequency (7-9 MHz) on temperature distribution and thermal lesion geometry. The feasibility of using multiple interstitial applicators to thermally coagulate a predetermined volume of tissue was also investigated. Results of these studies revealed that the directional shape of the thermal lesions is maintained with increasing time and power. Radial depths of the thermal lesions ranged from 10.7±0.7 mm after heating for 4 min with an applied power level of 5 W, to 16.2±1.4 mm with 20 W. The axial length of the thermal lesions is controlled tightly by the number of active transducers. A catheter flow rate of 20 to 40 ml min-1 (52.2±5.5 kPa at 40 ml min-1) with 22 deg. C water was determined to provide sufficient cooling of the transducers for power levels used in this study. In vivo temperatures measured in the center of a 3-cm-diam peripheral implant of four applicators in pig thigh muscle reached 89.3 deg. C after 4 min of heating, with boundaries of coagulation clearly defined by applicator position and directivity. Conformability of heating in a clinically relevant model was demonstrated by inserting two directional CC applicators with a 2 cm separation within an in vivo canine prostate, and generating a thermal lesion measuring 3.8 cmx2.2 cm in cross section while directing energy away from, and protecting the rectum. Maximum measured temperatures at midgland exceeded 90 deg. C within 20 min of heating. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of single or multiple CC applicators for conformal thermal coagulation and high temperature thermal therapy, with potential for clinical applications in