WorldWideScience

Sample records for capture long-distance movement

  1. Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile). Long distance juvenile movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rafael; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Mazzotti, Frank; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    the distance traveled ranged from 0.3 km to 90.2 km. The data showed that the smaller alligators moved greater distance than larger ones (Lance et al. 2011. Southeast Nat. 10:389–398). An ongoing 30 year mark and recapture study for Crocodylus acutus in Florida allowed us to look at long distance movement (>30 km) of juveniles (30km). Initial and most recent captures as a juvenile were used to analyze distances moved (Fig. 1). These distances were measured linearly between capture locations. Maximum linear distances of 76.3 km and 69.6 km were recorded for animals 4838 and 6662. All crocodiles moved from nesting habitat through potentially optimal nursery habitat prior to reaching their recapture locations. These juvenile long distance movements could be due to larger crocodiles facilitating their dispersal from the nest location (Lance et al. 2011. op. cit.). These data (Table 1.) support that there is exchange of individuals among the nesting colonies and our ongoing efforts to monitor this threatened species allow us to make observations of how juvenile crocodiles are moving throughout the landscape in an ecosystem currently undergoing restoration.

  2. Long-Distance Wh-Movement and Long-Distance Wh-Movement Avoidance in L2 English: Evidence from French and Bulgarian Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates spoken productions of complex questions with long-distance wh-movement in the L2 English of speakers whose first language is (Canadian) French or Bulgarian. Long-distance wh-movement is of interest as it can be argued that it poses difficulty in acquisition due to its syntactic complexity and related high processing load.…

  3. Long-distance and frequent movements of the flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus: implications for management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie J Roberts

    Full Text Available Flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are large bats capable of long-distance flight. Many species are threatened; some are considered pests. Effective conservation and management of flying-foxes are constrained by lack of knowledge of their ecology, especially of movement patterns over large spatial scales. Using satellite telemetry, we quantified long-distance movements of the grey-headed flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus among roost sites in eastern Australia. Fourteen adult males were tracked for 2-40 weeks (mean 25 weeks. Collectively, these individuals utilised 77 roost sites in an area spanning 1,075 km by 128 km. Movement patterns varied greatly between individuals, with some travelling long distances. Five individuals travelled cumulative distances >1,000 km over the study period. Five individuals showed net displacements >300 km during one month, including one movement of 500 km within 48 hours. Seasonal movements were consistent with facultative latitudinal migration in part of the population. Flying-foxes shifted roost sites frequently: 64% of roost visits lasted 12 weeks, 10 moved >100 km in one or more weeks. Median cumulative displacement distances over 1, 10 and 30 weeks were 0 km, 260 km and 821 km, respectively. On average, over increasing time-periods, one additional roost site was visited for each additional 100 km travelled. These findings explain why culling and relocation attempts have had limited success in resolving human-bat conflicts in Australia. Flying-foxes are highly mobile between camps and regularly travel long distances. Consequently, local control actions are likely to have only temporary effects on local flying-fox populations. Developing alternative methods to manage these conflicts remains an important challenge that should be informed by a better understanding of the species' movement patterns.

  4. Host-Specific Involvement of the HC Protein in the Long-Distance Movement of Potyviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz, Pilar; Salvador, Beatriz; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Carrington, James C.; García, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the Potyvirus genus that, in nature, infects trees of the Prunus genus. Although PPV infects systemically several species of the Nicotiana genus, such as N. clevelandii and N. benthamiana, and replicates in the inoculated leaves of N. tabacum, it is unable to infect systemically the last host. The long-distance movement defect of PPV was corrected in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the 5"-terminal region of the genome of tobacco etch virus (TEV), a pot...

  5. Age- and season-specific variation in local and long-distance movement behavior of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bloom, Peter H.; Braham, Melissa; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2016-01-01

    Animal movements can determine the population dynamics of wildlife. We used telemetry data to provide insight into the causes and consequences of local and long-distance movements of multiple age classes of conservation-reliant golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the foothills and mountains near Tehachapi, California. We estimated size and habitat-related correlates of 324 monthly 95 % home ranges and 317 monthly 50 % core areas for 25 birds moving locally over 2.5 years. We also calculated daily, hourly, and total distances traveled for the five of these birds that engaged in long-distance movements. Mean (±SD) monthly home-range size was 253.6 ± 429.4 km2 and core-area size was 26.4 ± 49.7 km2. Consistent with expectations, space used by pre-adults increased with age and was season-dependent but, unexpectedly, was not sex-dependent. For all ages and sexes, home ranges and core areas were dominated by both forest & woodland and shrubland & grassland habitat types. When moving long distances, eagles traveled up to 1588.4 km (1-way) in a season at highly variable speeds (63.7 ± 69.0 km/day and 5.2 ± 10.4 km/h) that were dependent on time of day. Patterns of long-distance movements by eagles were determined by age, yet these movements had characteristics of more than one previously described movement category (migration, dispersal, etc.). Our results provide a context for differentiating among types of movement behaviors and their population-level consequences and, thus, have implications for management and conservation of golden eagle populations.

  6. Reciprocal function of movement proteins and complementation of long-distance movement of Cymbidium mosaic virus RNA by Odontoglossum ringspot virus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjikuttira, Prabha; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Wong, Sek-Man

    2005-05-01

    Complementation of movement and coat proteins of the orchid-infecting potexvirus Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and tobamovirus Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) was investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana, which is susceptible to both CymMV and ORSV, was used as a model system. Four transgenic lines, each harbouring one of the movement protein (MP) or coat protein (CP) genes of CymMV or ORSV, were constructed. The MP of CymMV consists of three overlapping open reading frames, together called the triple-gene block (TGB). CymMV and ORSV mutants, each carrying an inactivated MP or CP, were generated from the respective biologically active full-length cDNA clones. Complementation was studied by infecting transgenic plants with in vitro transcripts generated from these mutants. The cell-to-cell movement of a movement-deficient CymMV was restored in transgenic plants carrying the ORSV MP transgene. Similarly, CymMV TGB1 transgenic plants were able to rescue the cell-to-cell movement of a movement-deficient ORSV mutant. ORSV CP transgenic plants supported systemic movement of a CymMV CP-deficient mutant. However, in these plants, neither encapsidation of CymMV RNA with ORSV CP nor CymMV CP expression was detected. Long-distance movement of an ORSV CP-deficient mutant was not supported by CymMV CP. The complementation of MPs and CPs of CymMV and ORSV facilitates movement of these viruses in plants, except for long-distance movement of ORSV RNA by CymMV CP. PMID:15831968

  7. Stomatal movement in response to long distance- communicated signals initiated by heat shock in partial roots of Commelina communis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Songjie; HUANG; Conglin; WU; Zhongyi; HU; Jianfang; LI; Tianzhong; LIU; Shigui

    2006-01-01

    The systematic or long-distance signal transmission plays crucial roles in animal lives. Compared with animals, however, much less is known about the roles of long-distance signal communication in plant lives. Using the model plant Commelina communis L., we have probed the root to shoot communication mediated by heat-shock signals. The results showed that a heat shock of 5 min at 40℃ in partial roots, i.e. half or even 1/4 root system, could lead to a significant decrease in stomatal conductance. The regulation capability depends on both heat shock temperature and the amount of root system, i.e. with higher temperature and more roots stressed, the leaf conductance would decrease more significantly. Interestingly, the stomatal regulation by heat shock signal is in a manner of oscillation: when stomata conductance decreased to the lowest level within about 30 min, it would increase rapidly and sometimes even exceed the initial level, and after several cycles the stomata conductance would be finally stabilized at a lower level. Feeding xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants could lead to a decrease in stomata conductance, suggesting that the heat shock-initiated signal is basically a positive signal. Further studies showed that heat shock was not able to affect ABA content in xylem sap, and also, not able to lead to a decrease in leaf water status, which suggested that the stomatal regulation was neither mediated by ABA nor by a hydraulic signal. Heat shock could lead to an increase in xylem sap H2O2 content, and moreover, the removal of H2O2 by catalase could partially recover the stomatal inhibition by xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants, suggesting that H2O2 might be able to act as one of the root signals to control the stomatal movement. Due to the fact that heat-shock and drought are usually two concomitant stresses, the stomatal regulation by heat-shock signal should be of significance for plant response to stresses. The observation for the

  8. Landscapes of Movement: Exploring a Contemporary Approah to Long-Distance Non-Motorized Backcountry Recreation Trail Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Christopher Monroe

    2015-01-01

    The discipline of long-distance non-motorized backcountry recreation trail planning and design has traditionally been defined by ad hoc, volunteer-based approaches. Despite the notable physical, affective, and cognitive benefits to individuals and populations derived from utilizing such trails, little progress has been made in framing a rigorous and contemporary method for their planning and design. Without such a framework, attempts in the field may fail to engage the advantages associated w...

  9. Plasmodesmata-located protein overexpression negatively impacts the manifestation of systemic acquired resistance and the long-distance movement of Defective in Induced Resistance1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carella, P; Isaacs, M; Cameron, R K

    2015-03-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant defence response that provides immunity to distant uninfected leaves after an initial localised infection. The lipid transfer protein (LTP) Defective in Induced Resistance1 (DIR1) is an essential component of SAR that moves from induced to distant leaves following a SAR-inducing local infection. To understand how DIR1 is transported to distant leaves during SAR, we analysed DIR1 movement in transgenic Arabidopsis lines with reduced cell-to-cell movement caused by the overexpression of Plasmodesmata-Located Proteins PDLP1 and PDLP5. These PDLP-overexpressing lines were defective for SAR, and DIR1 antibody signals were not observed in phloem sap-enriched petiole exudates collected from distant leaves. Our data support the idea that cell-to-cell movement of DIR1 through plasmodesmata is important during long-distance SAR signalling in Arabidopsis. PMID:25296648

  10. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  11. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relat...

  12. Deletions within the 3' Non-Translated Region of Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 Do Not Affect Replication but Significantly Reduce Long-Distance Movement of Chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus

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    Vidadi Yusibov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3' NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg RNA4 (same as of RNA3 and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4 in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. While the Av/A4 mutants were as competent as the wild-type Av/A4 in RNA replication in protoplasts, their encapsidation, long-distance movement and virus accumulation varied significantly in N. benthamiana. These data suggest that the 3' NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation.

  13. Deletions within the 3' non-translated region of Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 do not affect replication but significantly reduce long-distance movement of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gourgopal; Fedorkin, Oleg; Fujiki, Masaaki; Skarjinskaia, Marina; Knapp, Elisabeth; Rabindran, Shailaja; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-07-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3' NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. While the Av/A4 mutants were as competent as the wild-type Av/A4 in RNA replication in protoplasts, their encapsidation, long-distance movement and virus accumulation varied significantly in N. benthamiana. These data suggest that the 3' NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation. PMID:23867804

  14. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities. The...

  15. Capturing Hotspots For Constrained Indoor Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Finding the hotspots in large indoor spaces is very important for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation and guidance. The tracking data coming from indoor tracking are huge in volume and not readily available for finding hotspots. This paper presents a graph-based model for constrained indoor movement that can map the tracking records into mapping records which represent the entry and exit times of an object in a particular location. Then it discusses the...

  16. Emotion capture based on body postures and movements

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Alexis; Nigay, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a preliminary study for designing interactive systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review the literature on the various approaches for defining and characterizing human emotions. After justifying the adopted characterization space for emotions, we then focus on the movement characteristics that must be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions.

  17. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Dilmar A.G.; Ades César

    2004-01-01

    Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense...

  18. Long-Distance Caregiving -- Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caregiver. Even from far away, there are different roles you can take on based on the needs of your family member. Who is a long-distance caregiver? Anyone, anywhere, can be a long-distance caregiver , no matter your gender, income, age, social status, or employment. If you ...

  19. Long distance travel ‘today’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2014-01-01

    per year og which a third is for international destinations, a third is for domestic second homes and a third are other domestic trips. However, 87% of the kilometres are for international destinations and only 4% are for domestic second homes. Travel activity is very uneven distributed with only half...... of the population having had a journey during the last three month. At the other hand 60% have travelled internationally during the last year and only 2% have never travelled abroad. The paper presents among other things how the travel activity is distributed on travel purpose and mode and how the......This paper presents an overview of the Dane’s long distance travel. It is a part of the Drivers and Limits project about long distance travel. Long distance travel is in the project defined as infrequent travel with overnight stay. Danes 15-85 years-old travel in average 5.5 long distance travel...

  20. Modelling long-distance seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Tewlsbury, Joshua, J.; Bolker, Benjamin, M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance seed dispersal is difficult to measure, yet key to understanding plant population dynamics and community composition. 2. We used a spatially explicit model to predict the distribution of seeds dispersed long distances by birds into habitat patches of different shapes. All patches were the same type of habitat and size, but varied in shape. They occurred in eight experimental landscapes, each with five patches of four different shapes, 150 m apart in a matrix of mature forest. The model was parameterized with smallscale movement data collected from field observations of birds. In a previous study we validated the model by testing its predictions against observed patterns of seed dispersal in real landscapes with the same types and spatial configuration of patches as in the model. 3. Here we apply the model more broadly, examining how patch shape influences the probability of seed deposition by birds into patches, how dispersal kernels (distributions of dispersal distances) vary with patch shape and starting location, and how movement of seeds between patches is affected by patch shape. 4. The model predicts that patches with corridors or other narrow extensions receive higher numbers of seeds than patches without corridors or extensions. This pattern is explained by edgefollowing behaviour of birds. Dispersal distances are generally shorter in heterogeneous landscapes (containing patchy habitat) than in homogeneous landscapes, suggesting that patches divert the movement of seed dispersers, ‘holding’ them long enough to increase the probability of seed defecation in the patches. Dispersal kernels for seeds in homogeneous landscapes were smooth, whereas those in heterogenous landscapes were irregular. In both cases, long-distance (> 150 m) dispersal was surprisingly common, usually comprising approximately 50% of all dispersal events. 5. Synthesis . Landscape heterogeneity has a large influence on patterns of long-distance seed dispersal. Our

  1. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.;

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near...

  2. Microbial modification of host long-distance dispersal capacity

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    Hutchings Linda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal plays a key role in shaping biological and ecological processes such as the distribution of spatially-structured populations or the pace and scale of invasion. Here we have studied the relationship between long-distance dispersal behaviour of a pest-controlling money spider, Erigone atra, and the distribution of maternally acquired endosymbionts within the wider meta-population. This spider persists in heterogeneous environments because of its ability to recolonise areas through active long-distance airborne dispersal using silk as a sail, in a process termed 'ballooning'. Results We show that there is spatial heterogeneity in the prevalence of two maternally acquired endosymbiont infections within the wider E. atra meta-population and we demonstrate through several independent approaches a link between the presence of one of these endosymbionts, Rickettsia, and the tendency for long-distance movement. Conclusion This novel finding that particular endosymbionts can influence host dispersal is of broad importance given the extremely widespread occurrence of similar bacteria within arthropod communities. A bacterial phenotype that limits dispersal has the potential not only to reduce gene flow and thus contribute to degrees of reproductive isolation within species, but also to influence species distribution and thus overall community composition.

  3. ADAPTIVELY IMPROVING LONG DISTANCE NETWORK TRANSFERS WITH LOGISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBissoniere, D.; Roche, K.

    2007-01-01

    Long distance data movement is an essential activity of modern computing. However, the congestion control mechanisms in the Internet’s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) severely limit the bandwidth achieved by long distance data transfers. The throughput of such transfers can be improved by applying the logistical technique of breaking a single long distance transfer into multiple shorter transfers. This technique can result in signifi cantly improved throughput while still respecting the shared nature of the Internet by not attempting to circumvent the TCP congestion controls. This technique has been incorporated into an algorithm which attempts to dynamically schedule transfers for optimal throughput. The algorithm couples graph techniques with real-time latency and bandwidth measurements to discover the best path and adaptively respond to network dynamics. The algorithm shows improvements in speed and fl exibility over standard data transfer methods such as FTP. Specifi c transfers tests performed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a destination in Sunnyvale, CA show throughput increases by a factor of two.

  4. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar A.G. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.Chamados de longo alcance são comuns em primatas. Muitas pesquisas enfocaram tais vocalizações em uma única ou em poucas espécies, enquanto poucos estudos lidaram com padrões mais gerais dentro da ordem. As características comuns que geralmente distinguem estas vocalizações são relacionadas com a transmissão de sons a longa distância. As funções propostas para estas vocalizações podem ser divididas entre intragrupais e extragrupais. Funções extragrupais se relacionam com a defesa e atração de parceiros sexuais ou com a defesa de recursos, enquanto as fun

  5. Long distance electron transmission in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    Geochemical observations in marine sediment have recently shown that electric currents may intimately couple spatially separated biogeochemical processes like oxygen reduction at the sediment surface and hydrogen sul-phide oxidation in anoxic layers centimeters below 1. Further experimental studi...... the system. Long distance electron transmission may flourishes in marine sediments exposed to tran-sient oxygen depletion, leaving distinct signatures of such events in the geological record....

  6. Long-distance migration: evolution and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Alerstam, Thomas; Hedenström, Anders; Åkesson, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Long distance migration has evolved in many organisms moving through different media and using various modes of locomotion and transport. Migration continues to evolve or become suppressed as shown by ongoing dynamic and rapid changes of migration patterns. This great evolutionary flexibility may seem surprising for such a complex attribute as migration. Even if migration in most cases has evolved basically as a strategy to maximise fitness in a seasonal environment, its occurrence and extent...

  7. In support of long distance agree

    OpenAIRE

    Alexiadou, Artemis; Anagnostopoulou, Elena; Iordăchioaia, Gianina Nicoleta; Marchis, Mihaela Adriana

    2009-01-01

    In the recent literature the phenomenon of long distance agreement has become the focus of several studies as it seems to violate certain locality conditions which require that agreeing elements in general stand in clause-mate relationships. In particular, it involves a verb agreeing with a constituent which is located in the verb's clausal complement and hence poses a challenge for theories that assume a strictly local relationship for agreement. In this paper we present empirical evidence f...

  8. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.; Ben-David, M.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) prefer to live on Arctic sea ice but may swim between ice floes or between sea ice and land. Although anecdotal observations suggest that polar bears are capable of swimming long distances, no data have been available to describe in detail long distance swimming events or the physiological and reproductive consequences of such behavior. Between an initial capture in late August and a recapture in late October 2008, a radio-collared adult female polar bear in the Beaufort Sea made a continuous swim of 687 km over 9 days and then intermittently swam and walked on the sea ice surface an additional 1,800 km. Measures of movement rate, hourly activity, and subcutaneous and external temperature revealed distinct profiles of swimming and walking. Between captures, this polar bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub. The extraordinary long distance swimming ability of polar bears, which we confirm here, may help them cope with reduced Arctic sea ice. Our observation, however, indicates that long distance swimming in Arctic waters, and travel over deep water pack ice, may result in high energetic costs and compromise reproductive fitness. ?? 2011 US Government.

  9. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E.; Randell, Haley; Wills, Abigail R.; Janvier, Totozafy Eric; Belalahy, Tertius Rodriguez; Sewall, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km) in rural areas; (3) most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought. PMID:26926987

  10. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E Reuter

    Full Text Available Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1 identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2 analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3 examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4 estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns, meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns, and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns. We found that: (1 a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2 wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km in rural areas; (3 most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts, though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4 wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought.

  11. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Randell, Haley; Wills, Abigail R; Janvier, Totozafy Eric; Belalahy, Tertius Rodriguez; Sewall, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (hunting, gifts), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought. PMID:26926987

  12. Homeschooling in America: Capturing and Assessing the Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This book is the definitive study on homeschooling in the United States, delving into a movement that impacts more students nationwide than the entire charter school movement. In 2010, more than 2 million students were homeschooled. This book explores: (1) The history of homeschooling in America; (2) How this movement has grown in credibility and…

  13. Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.

  14. So Far Away: Twenty Questions for Long-Distance Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Long-Distance Caregiving Heath and Aging So Far Away: Twenty Questions and Answers About Long-Distance ... for the family, what could Dave do from far away to help her—and his sister? The ...

  15. Towards long-distance quantum communication: new techniques and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We will describe our efforts to develop new techniques and tools for long-distance quantum communication. Specifically we will discuss recent experimental work towards developing elements for long-distance quantum communication using atomic ensembles. In addition, we will describe a novel approach to long-distance quantum communication that is based on solid-state single photon emitters. (author)

  16. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  17. Long Distance Reactor Antineutrino Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazeley, Steven; Bergevin, Marc; Bernstein, Adam

    2015-10-01

    The feasibility of antineutrino detection as an unambiguous and unshieldable way to detect the presence of distant nuclear reactors has been studied. While KamLAND provided a proof of concept for long distance antineutrino detection, the feasibility of detecting single reactors at distances greater than 100 km has not yet been established. Even larger detectors than KamLAND would be required for such a project. Considerations such as light attenuation, environmental impact and cost, which favor water as a detection medium, become more important as detectors get larger. We have studied both the sensitivity of water based detection media as a monitoring tool, and the scientific impact such detectors might provide. A next generation water based detector may be able to contribute to important questions in neutrino physics, such as supernova neutrinos, sterile neutrino oscillations, and non standard electroweak interactions (using a nearby compact accelerator source), while also providing a highly sensitive, and inherently unshieldable reactor monitoring tool to the non proliferation community. In this talk I will present the predicted performance of an experimental non proliferation and high-energy physics program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-674192.

  18. Albatross Long-Distance Navigation: Comparing Adults And Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Susanne; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2005-09-01

    Albatrosses are known for their extreme navigation performance enabling them to locate isolated breeding islands after long-distance migrations across open seas. Little is known about the migration of young albatrosses and how they reach the adults' navigation and foraging skills during the period of immaturity lasting several years and spent permanently flying across the open ocean. We tracked by satellite telemetry the dispersal and migration of 13 juvenile wandering albatrosses from the Crozet Islands during their first year at sea. The young albatrosses covered an average distance of 184,000 km during the first year, restricting their dispersal movement to the unproductive and low wind subtropical Indian Ocean and Tasman Sea. The juveniles initiated the migration by an innate phase of rapid dispersal encoded as a fixed flight direction assisted by southerly winds towards north and northeast. Thereafter each individual restricted its movement to a particular zone of the ocean that will possibly be used until they start breeding 7 10 years later and return in contact with breeding adults. This dispersal in young birds corresponds well with movements observed for adult non-breeding wandering albatrosses. The results show clearly an inherited ability to navigate back to already visited areas in young wandering albatrosses. The juvenile dispersal behaviour and migration at sea suggest a genetically based migration program, encoding navigation to a destination area used throughout the life.

  19. Population genetics strategies to characterize long-distance dispersal of insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population genetics strategies offer an alternative and powerful approach for obtaining information about long-distance movement, and have been widely used for examining patterns and magnitude of insect dispersal over geographic and temporal scales. Such strategies are based on the principle that ge...

  20. Logistics of long distance FDG supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The short half-life of 18F-FDG (110 mins) presents a logistical problem when transport over long distances is involved. Our facility was presented with such a problem when we were contracted to supply FDG on a regular basis to the Royal Adelaide Hospital over 700 km away. The principal difficulties to be overcome were providing a quick, reliable and efficient transport system, the development of a safe and efficacious transport packaging system, production and supply of sufficient product and the scheduling of the operations of the cyclotron, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy services, so as not to interfere with the existing clinical program of the PET centre. Together with the assistance of Gammasonics, an FDG transport and packaging system was developed which complied with transport regulations and was recyclable. A door-to-door courier system was established which, on average, takes four hours but has occasionally been hampered by the unreliability of the airline service. A schedule for early operation of the cyclotron and radio-chemistry was established to meet with transport schedules. A system of quality control of the FDG was instituted (while the product is in transit) with the QC release results being faxed to the recipient prior to the product's arrival. We have supplied 51 deliveries since mid-September 2000 to the end of February 2001. During this period there have been 6 (11.7%) delayed deliveries of which 2 (3.9%) have been due to cyclotron operational problems and 4 (7.8%) have been due to flight delays beyond our control. There have been no completely failed deliveries. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Validity of Eye Movement Methods and Indices for Capturing Semantic (Associative) Priming Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odekar, Anshula; Hallowell, Brooke; Kruse, Hans; Moates, Danny; Lee, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the usefulness of eye movement methods and indices as a tool for studying priming effects by verifying whether eye movement indices capture semantic (associative) priming effects in a visual cross-format (written word to semantically related picture) priming paradigm. Method: In the…

  2. Long-distance multipartite quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work addresses two long-distance free-space experiments based on multi-photon polarization entanglement. The highlighted measurements were performed between the Canary Islands La Palma and Tenerife, featuring a 143 km horizontal free-space quantum channel. Based on the superposition principle, quantum entanglement constitutes the key building block in quantum information sciences. Its nonclassical correlations lay the ground for exciting new protocols like quantum cryptography, quantum computation or quantum teleportation. Our first experiment targeted on the teleportation of entanglement, also known as entanglement swapping, where the entanglement from two polarization entangled photon pairs 0-1 and 2-3 is swapped onto photons 1-2 and 0-3. This feature constitutes the fundamental resource for so-called quantum repeaters. In the future such devices could be used to subdivide large distances into shorter links and finally extend the entanglement over the whole range by entanglement swapping. In the second experiment we realized four-photon entanglement in the form of a GHZ-state, named after the researchers Daniel Greenberger, Michael Horne and Anton Zeilinger. At the base station on La Palma we employed two sources for polarization-entanglement, generating photon pairs of 808 nm wavelength by spontaneous parametric down-conversion of femtosecond pulsed laser light. In both experiments one of the four photons per pulse was transmitted over a 143 km free-space link to the receiver station on Tenerife, whereas the remaining three photons were measured locally on La Palma. Long term atmospheric turbulences in the near-ground quantum channel were compensated by means of a bi-directional closed-loop tracking of the transceiver telescopes. Despite an average link attenuation of around 30 dB over the 143 km free-space channel, we successfully showed entanglement swapping with a statistical significance of more than 6 standard deviations. Moreover we faithfully

  3. New Long-Distance Bus Terminals in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saxinger; M. Nachtsheim

    2014-01-01

    For many decades long-distance busses were never of great importance in Germany. This part of public transport was almost exclusively provided by railway transportation. Legally, railway transportation was protected from competition. Applications for long-distance bus line concessions had no chance of success.However the amendment of the German Federal Passenger Transportation Act to 1st January 2013 liberalized the German market for long-distance busses significantly. Entrepreneurs still nee...

  4. QA of long distance training courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advancement in high speed digital telecommunication system has enabled unique approaches to transfer of knowledge. In remote areas, where on-site professional personnel is not available, nuclear medicine training courses will be held over long distances in an ever increasing extent. Training activities held in countries far away from the IAEA headquarters would entail the necessity for the teachers (trainers) and students (trainees) to convene at distant geographic locations. The computer network involved is based on a client-server architecture. The server is a Unix system running X windows server with a virtual network computing (VNC) backend to guarantee security and uptime. It is connected to a RAID level 5 storage array of several TBytes. Clients are windows based to assure general accessibility. All communications are based on VNC through SSH (secure shell) tunneling to ensure encryption, e.g. Rivest, Shamir and Adleman encryption (RSA), or digital signature algorithm (DSA) as well as firewall penetration whenever SSH-out is provided. Communication is initiated from within the firewall, using the clients, to enable access to the server. Multiple users that are located at various sites can access the same display session and share their display. The training tool presented here allows sharing of sessions for training or 'read with the experts' over the internet, regardless of the distance of the centres. That means that both the expert and the trainee or trainees can access the same data at the same time, as well as follow the processing steps at both sites in exactly the same way. They can also have the possibility to interact with the processing activity performed by the counterpart (e.g. trainee). The obvious benefit of such a teaching system is that both parties are working in exactly the same environment, assuring: - All applications are set up and used in the same way. This is essential when processing and reading data; - All studies are identical. So

  5. 47 CFR 32.5100 - Long distance message revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long distance message revenue. 32.5100 Section... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5100 Long distance message revenue. This account shall include revenue derived from message services...

  6. Idealization and Communication in Long-Distance Premarital Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Laura; Reske, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Explored the phenomenon of idealization in college premarital long-distance relationships. Analyzed questionnaire responses of 71 college couples. Findings indicated long-distance couples had more restricted communication and were more idealized than their geographically close counterparts. Found an associative pattern between restricted…

  7. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  8. Providing Quality Laboratories to Long-Distance Educational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Tammy; Sutton, John

    2003-01-01

    North Carolina State University (UNC) has been on the forefront of long-distance education by offering a Bachelor of Science in Engineering with a Mechatronics Concentration at its remote campus located at UNC Asheville. The program demonstrates that long-distance laboratories are feasible and should not be a stumbling block to offering…

  9. Faroese long-distance reflexives face off against Icelandic long-distance reflexives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E. Strahan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance reflexives (LDRs in Faroese are often compared to those in Icelandic, and are even considered to have the same distribution (Thráinsson et al., 2004. In this paper I evaluate the extent to which this is true. The results from recent fieldwork show that there are clear differences between the LDR in the two closely related languages, in particular that Faroese speakers often reject LDR sentences that contain a non-third person, and that Faroese LDR is often completely acceptable out of a non-complement clause. In addition, initial findings suggest that there may be dialectal variation with respect to at least these two aspects of LDR in Faroese.

  10. Effects of capture-related injury on postcapture movement of white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechen Quinn, Amy C; Williams, David M; Porter, William F; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hynes, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    Capture-related injuries or deaths of wildlife study subjects pose concerns to researchers, from considerations for animal welfare to inflated project costs and biased data. Capture myopathy (CM) is an injury that can affect an animal's survival ≤ 30 days postrelease, but is often difficult to detect without close monitoring and immediate necropsy. We evaluated the influence of capture and handling on postcapture movement in an attempt to characterize movement rates of animals suffering from CM. We captured and global positioning system-collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006-2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%). We compared postcapture movement rates for juveniles that survived >30 days with those that died ≤ 30 days postcapture. Survivor movement rates (43.74 m/hr, SD = 3.53, n = 28) were significantly higher than rates for deer that died within 30 days (17.70 m/hr, SD = 1.57, n = 6) (Prates of juveniles that died of CM (15.1 m/hr) were 5.1 m/hr lower than those for juveniles that died of other causes ≤ 30 days postcapture (20.2 m/hr), but we were unable to evaluate this statistically because of insufficient sample size. We found no difference in vital rates (temperature, heart rate, respiration rate) during handling between survivors and juveniles that died within 30 days postcapture but observed that survivors were in better body condition at capture. These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals. PMID:24484502

  11. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; António P Veloso; Delp, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic join...

  12. High-precision, three-dimensional tracking of mouse whisker movements with optical motion capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha eRoy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The mystacial vibrissae or whiskers in rodents are sensitive tactile hairs emerging from both sides of the face. Rats and mice actively move these whiskers during exploration. The neuronal mechanisms controlling whisker movements and the sensory representation of whisker tactile information are widely studied as a model for sensorimotor processing in mammals. Studies of the natural whisker movement patterns during exploration and tactile examination are still in their early stages. Tracking the movements of whiskers is technically challenging as they move relatively fast and are very thin, particularly in mice. Existing systems detect light-beam interruptions by the whiskers or use high-speed video to track whisker movements in one or two dimensions. Here we describe a method for tracking the movements of mouse whiskers in 3 dimensions (3D using using optical motion capture technology. Optical motion capture technology tracks the movements of small retro-reflective markers attached to whiskers of a head-fixed mouse with a spatial resolution of <0.5mm in all three dimensions and a temporal resolution of 5msec (200 fps. The system stores the 3D coordinates of the marker’s trajectories onto hard disk allowing a detailed analysis of movement trajectories bilateral coordination.

  13. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Nuno Queiroz; Neil Burnie; Choy Aming; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Mahmood S Shivji

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for...

  14. Distributed temperature monitoring of long distance submarine cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Martin; Christiansen, Willi; Kjær, Søren Valdemar; Hill, Wieland

    2011-05-01

    Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) of long distance power cables is shown to provide valuable information for cable design optimisation and proper operation of wind farms. The long range sensing is enabled by using the Raman-OFDR (optical frequency domain reflectometry) technology in single-mode fibres. Raman-OFDR uses a modulated continuous wave laser for detection. The low peak power minimizes stimulated Raman-scattering in single-mode fibres making accurate temperature sensing over long distances feasible.

  15. Relational Maintenance in Long-Distance Dating Relationships: Staying Close

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffman, Melissa Hope

    1999-01-01

    This study addressed the relational maintenance strategies and the meaning 23 to 35 year old students attributed to their long-distance dating relationships. Ten participants completed in depth interviews exploring the thoughts and feelings individuals held about their current long-distance partner and relationship. Also, commitment and quality of alternatives were addressed including the strengths and weaknesses of the respondent's relationship. Common themes of strong friendship, absolute t...

  16. Long-distance temporal quantum ghost imaging over optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde

    2016-01-01

    Since the first quantum ghost imaging (QGI) experiment in 1995, many QGI schemes have been put forward. However, the position-position or momentum-momentum correlation required in these QGI schemes cannot be distributed over optical fibers, which limits their large-scale geographical applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a scheme for long-distance QGI utilizing frequency correlated photon pairs. In this scheme, the frequency correlation is transformed to the correlation between the illuminating position of one photon and the arrival time of the other photon, by which QGI can be realized in the time domain. Since frequency correlation can be preserved when the photon pairs are distributed over optical fibers, this scheme provides a way to realize long-distance QGI over large geographical scale. In the experiment, long-distance QGI over 50 km optical fibers has been demonstrated. PMID:27194078

  17. Haematological status in elite long-distance runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Kanstrup, I L; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    In 10 female and eight male Danish elite middle- and long-distance runners, haematological status, including blood volume, was examined. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum (s)-ferritin concentrations were all within the normal range. In both men and women, blood volume, plasma volume and erythroc......In 10 female and eight male Danish elite middle- and long-distance runners, haematological status, including blood volume, was examined. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum (s)-ferritin concentrations were all within the normal range. In both men and women, blood volume, plasma volume and...

  18. A long-distance travel demand model for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Jeppe; MABIT, Stefan Lindhard

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, approximately 50% of all passenger kilometres come from trips beyond 100 km according to matrices developed in the TRANSTOOLS project. This accounts for an even larger share of CO2 emissions due to a higher modal share of air transport. Therefore long-distance trips are increasingly relevant from a political and environmental point of view. The paper presents the first tour-based long-distance travel demand model for passenger trips in and between 42 European countries. The model i...

  19. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......Longer distance cycling is a commuting mode that contributes to sustainability and public health objectives, but little is known about current long distance cyclist's motives. The paper explores longer distance commuter cyclists, their characteristics, practice and motives. Longer distance...

  20. Evaluation of Macrobend Loss on Long Distance Optical Ground Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. M. Salleh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bend loss is a kind of loss that contributes to the power attenuation which is caused by the bending of optical fiber. For long distance optical fiber, bending might occur at joining point as there are many joining points along the link. Studies related to bend loss always relate the effect of bend radius on bend loss value. There is no study that relates the value of loss that can be affected by other factors like the natural environmental conditions. In this study, the evaluation of bend loss on existing long distance Optical Ground Wire (OPGW was studied since the cable was exposed to any climate condition.

  1. Competitiveness of rail in long-distance passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Knotek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis describes the current state of passenger rail transport and the most important long-distance projects in Europe in the 20th century. It also deals with current changes in the European rail market and its further development. The aim of this master's thesis is to analyze the state of long-distance rail passenger transport in the Czech Republic and abroad, a general view on the high speed rail, which is described in terms of its development, technology, benefits and costs a...

  2. Commitment Predictors: Long-Distance versus Geographically Close Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber; Mosko, Jonathan E.

    2010-01-01

    In this web-based study, the authors examined long-distance relationships (LDRs) and geographically close relationships (GCRs). Two hierarchical multiple regressions (N = 138) indicated that attachment predicted LDR and GCR commitment in Step 1. Final equations indicated that high satisfaction and investments predicted LDR commitment, whereas low…

  3. A long-distance travel demand model for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2012-01-01

    relevant from a political and environmental point of view. The paper presents the first tour-based long-distance travel demand model for passenger trips in and between 42 European countries. The model is part of a new European transport model developed for the European Commission, the TRANSTOOLS II model...

  4. Premaxillary movements in cyprinodontiform fishes: an unusual protrusion mechanism facilitates "picking" prey capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry-Graham, Lara A; Gibb, Alice C; Hernandez, L Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Premaxillary protrusion is hypothesized to confer a number of feeding advantages to teleost fishes; however, most proposed advantages relate to enhanced stealth or suction production during prey capture. Cyprinodontiformes exhibit an unusual form of premaxillary protrusion where the descending process of the premaxilla does not rotate anteriorly to occlude the sides of the open mouth during prey capture. Instead, the premaxilla is protruded such that it gives the impression of a beak during prey capture. We quantified premaxillary kinematics during feeding in four cyprinodontiform taxa and compared them with three percomorph taxa to identify any performance consequences of this protrusion mechanism. Individual prey capture events were recorded using digital high-speed video at 250-500 frames per second (n >or= 4 individuals, >or= 4 strikes per individual). Species differed in the timing of movement and the maximum displacement of the premaxilla during the gape cycle and in the contribution of the premaxilla to jaw closing. Cyprinodontiform taxa produced less premaxillary protrusion than the percomorph taxa, and were consistently slower in the time to maximum gape. Further, it appears cyprinodontiforms can alter the contribution of the premaxilla to mouth closure on an event-specific basis. We were able to demonstrate that, within at least one species, this variability is associated with the location of the prey (bottom vs. water column). Cyprinodontiform upper jaw movements likely reflect increased dexterity associated with a foraging ecology where prey items are "picked" from a variety of locations: the bottom, water column, or surface. We postulate that dexterity requires slow, precisely controlled jaw movements; thus, may be traded off for some aspects of suction-feeding performance, such as protrusion distance and speed. PMID:18619823

  5. Function of YY1 in long-distance DNA interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Atchison

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During B cell development long-distance DNA interactions are needed for V(DJ somatic rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig loci to produce functional Ig genes, and for class switch recombination (CSR needed for antibody maturation. The tissue-specificity and developmental timing of these mechanisms are a subject of active investigation. A small number of factors are implicated in controlling Ig locus long-distance interactions including Pax5, YY1, EZH2, IKAROS, CTCF, cohesin, and condensin proteins. Here we will focus on the role of YY1 in controlling these mechanisms. YY1 is a multifunctional transcription factor involved in transcriptional activation and repression, X chromosome inactivation, Polycomb Group (PcG protein DNA recruitment, and recruitment of proteins required for epigenetic modifications (acetylation, deacetylation, methylation, ubiquitiation, sumoylation etc.. YY1 conditional knock-out indicated that YY1 is required for B cell development, at least in part, by controlling long-distance DNA interactions at the IgH and Igκ loci. Our recent data show that YY1 is also required for CSR. The mechanisms implicated in YY1 control of long-distance DNA interactions include controlling non-coding antisense RNA transcripts, recruitment of PcG proteins to DNA, and interaction with complexes involved in long-distance DNA interactions including the cohesin and condensin complexes. Though common rearrangement mechanisms operate at all Ig loci, their distinct temporal activation along with the ubiquitious nature of YY1 poses challenges for determining the specific mechanisms of YY1 function in these processes, and their regulation at the tissue-specific and B cell stage-specific level. The large numbers of post-translational modifications that control YY1 functions are possible candidates for regulation.

  6. Function of YY1 in Long-Distance DNA Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    During B cell development, long-distance DNA interactions are needed for V(D)J somatic rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci to produce functional Ig genes, and for class switch recombination (CSR) needed for antibody maturation. The tissue-specificity and developmental timing of these mechanisms is a subject of active investigation. A small number of factors are implicated in controlling Ig locus long-distance interactions including Pax5, Yin Yang 1 (YY1), EZH2, IKAROS, CTCF, cohesin, and condensin proteins. Here we will focus on the role of YY1 in controlling these mechanisms. YY1 is a multifunctional transcription factor involved in transcriptional activation and repression, X chromosome inactivation, Polycomb Group (PcG) protein DNA recruitment, and recruitment of proteins required for epigenetic modifications (acetylation, deacetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, etc.). YY1 conditional knock-out indicated that YY1 is required for B cell development, at least in part, by controlling long-distance DNA interactions at the immunoglobulin heavy chain and Igκ loci. Our recent data show that YY1 is also required for CSR. The mechanisms implicated in YY1 control of long-distance DNA interactions include controlling non-coding antisense RNA transcripts, recruitment of PcG proteins to DNA, and interaction with complexes involved in long-distance DNA interactions including the cohesin and condensin complexes. Though common rearrangement mechanisms operate at all Ig loci, their distinct temporal activation along with the ubiquitous nature of YY1 poses challenges for determining the specific mechanisms of YY1 function in these processes, and their regulation at the tissue-specific and B cell stage-specific level. The large numbers of post-translational modifications that control YY1 functions are possible candidates for regulation. PMID:24575094

  7. Route optimisation and solving Zermelo's navigation problem during long distance migration in cross flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Christensen, Asbjørn; Fossette, Sabrina; Schofield, Gail; Talbot, Julian; Mariani, Patrizio

    2014-02-01

    The optimum path to follow when subjected to cross flows was first considered over 80 years ago by the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo, in the context of a boat being displaced by ocean currents, and has become known as the 'Zermelo navigation problem'. However, the ability of migrating animals to solve this problem has received limited consideration, even though wind and ocean currents cause the lateral displacement of flyers and swimmers, respectively, particularly during long-distance journeys of 1000s of kilometres. Here, we examine this problem by combining long-distance, open-ocean marine turtle movements (obtained via long-term GPS tracking of sea turtles moving 1000s of km), with a high resolution basin-wide physical ocean model to estimate ocean currents. We provide a robust mathematical framework to demonstrate that, while turtles eventually arrive at their target site, they do not follow the optimum (Zermelo's) route. Even though adult marine turtles regularly complete incredible long-distance migrations, these vertebrates primarily rely on course corrections when entering neritic waters during the final stages of migration. Our work introduces a new perspective in the analysis of wildlife tracking datasets, with different animal groups potentially exhibiting different levels of complexity in goal attainment during migration. PMID:24304813

  8. Features client-server bus seats reservation technology in the long-distance connection

    OpenAIRE

    Радченко, К. О.; Національний технічний університет України «КПІ»; Ружевський, М. С.; Національний технічний університет України «КПІ»; Шроль, А. Ю.; Національний технічний університет України «КПІ»

    2016-01-01

    There is description of the features of the client-server technology of booking places by a bus driverwith the help of the developed software for mobile devices and tablets based on Android operatingsystem. The application allows the driver of the long-distance connection to send data about theoccupied seats in a salon during the movement of the bus on the MTE server. The application has auser-friendly interface. For client-server communication capabilities Android Studio and AndroidSDK are used

  9. Mouthing off about fish capture: Jaw movement in pinnipeds reveals the real secrets of ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, N.; Wilson, R. P.; Bornemann, H.; Adelung, D.; Plötz, J.

    2007-02-01

    Determination of when and where animals feed and how much they consume is fundamental to understand their ecology and role in ecosystems. However, the lack of reliable data on feeding habits of wild animals, and particularly in marine endotherms, attests to the difficulty in doing this. A promising recent development proposes using a Hall sensor-magnet system, the inter-mandibular angle sensor (IMASEN) attached to animals' jaws to elucidate feeding events. We conducted trials on captive pinnipeds by feeding IMASEN-equipped animals with prey to examine the utility of this system. Most feeding events were clearly distinguishable from other jaw movements; only small prey items might not be resolved adequately. Based on the results of this study we examined feeding events from free-ranging pinnipeds fitted with IMASENs and dead-reckoners and present data on prey capture and ingestion in relation to the three-dimensional movement patterns of the seals.

  10. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancou, Jean; Parsonson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period. PMID:20405409

  11. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Blancou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period.

  12. Turning points in long distance grandparent-grandchild relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Lauren R; Waldron, Vincent R

    2014-04-01

    This study examines changes in long-distance relationships between grandparents and their adolescent grandchildren by identifying relational turning points and trajectories. Qualitative analysis of data collected from interviews with grandparents yielded 100 unique turning points. Constant comparative analysis revealed eight distinct categories of relational turning points; Spending Time Together, Family Relational Dynamics, Geographic Distance, Lack of Relational Investment, Use of Technology, Relational Investment, Lack of Free Time, and Grandchild Gaining Independence. These varied in the degree to which they positively or negatively impacted relational closeness. Application of the Retrospective Interview Technique (RIT) yielded five distinctive relational trajectories: Decrease in Closeness, Increase in Closeness, Multidimensional Changes in Closeness, Minimal Changes in Closeness, and Consistent Relational Closeness. The results expose the communicative challenges faced by long-distance-grandparents, the diversity of these relationships, and the ways in which grandparenting bonds change over time. Implications for an enriched understanding of grandparenting relationships and practical applications for families are explored. PMID:24655676

  13. Ultrafast and fault-tolerant quantum communication across long distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sreraman; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D; Jiang, Liang

    2014-06-27

    Quantum repeaters (QRs) provide a way of enabling long distance quantum communication by establishing entangled qubits between remote locations. In this Letter, we investigate a new approach to QRs in which quantum information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy channel without the use of long distance teleportation, thus eliminating the need to establish remote entangled links. Our approach makes use of small encoding blocks to fault-tolerantly correct both operational and photon loss errors. We describe a way to optimize the resource requirement for these QRs with the aim of the generation of a secure key. Numerical calculations indicate that the number of quantum memory bits at each repeater station required for the generation of one secure key has favorable polylogarithmic scaling with the distance across which the communication is desired. PMID:25014798

  14. Multisensor long distance target detection using support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Yang; Jihong Pei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Multisensor image fusion could improve system performances such as detection, tracking, and identification greatly. In this paper, a long distance target detection approach is presented based on multisensor image features fusion. This method extracts two different features from visual and infrared (IR) image sequences respectively to detect regions of motion information content. Temporal change feature is extracted from the visual image sequence using temporal decomposition based on wavelet, which reflects the dynamical content variation at a pixel at any time. And correlation features between local regions are extracted from IR image sequence to distinguish regions with potential moving targets. All these features are merged into a multi-dimensional space and the support vector machine is trained to select regions that have the potential target at each pixel location. The method is robust and feasible to detect long distance targets in clutter background scene.

  15. Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) depend on sea ice for catching marine mammal prey. Recent sea-ice declines have been linked to reductions in body condition, survival, and population size. Reduced foraging opportunity is hypothesized to be the primary cause of sea-ice-linked declines, but the costs of travel through a deteriorated sea-ice environment also may be a factor. We used movement data from 52 adult female polar bears wearing Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, including some with dependent young, to document long-distance swimming (>50 km) by polar bears in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi seas. During 6 years (2004-2009), we identified 50 long-distance swims by 20 bears. Swim duration and distance ranged from 0.7 to 9.7 days (mean = 3.4 days) and 53.7 to 687.1 km (mean = 154.2 km), respectively. Frequency of swimming appeared to increase over the course of the study. We show that adult female polar bears and their cubs are capable of swimming long distances during periods when extensive areas of open water are present. However, long-distance swimming appears to have higher energetic demands than moving over sea ice. Our observations suggest long-distance swimming is a behavioral response to declining summer sea-ice conditions.

  16. Long Distance Revisions in Drafting and Post-editing

    OpenAIRE

    Carl, Michael; Kay, Martin; Jensen, Kristian T. H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates properties of translation processes, as observed in the translation behaviour of student and professional translators. The translation process can be divided into a gisting, drafting and post-editing phase. We find that student translators have longer gisting phases whereas professional translators have longer post-editing phases. Long-distance revisions, which would typically be expected during post-editing, occur to the same extent during drafting a...

  17. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  18. Acceptability and processing of long-distance dependencies in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Long-distance dependencies have been the object of much theoretical interest in the Scandinavian languages and in general, but the empirical foundation for theorizing has been limited. The present paper investigates extraction from complement and adverbial clauses in Danish using acceptability...... acceptable. It is concluded that under the conditions investigated extraction from adverbial clauses in Danish is associated with a processing cost and very low acceptability ratings, despite semantic cohesion....

  19. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....

  20. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (>5 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....

  1. Long distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    High bit rate, all-optical long-distance transmission could be created through the combined use of loss-compensating gain in erbium-doped fibers and solitons. A detailed analysis of the distributed erbium-doped fiber, including the spectral-gain dependency, is combined with an optimum design of t......-doped fiber with 100-km separation between each pump-power station is shown, with a total bit-rate distance product of 55 Gb/s · Mm...

  2. Quantum Correlations over Long-distances Using Noisy Quantum Repeaters

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Joonwoo; Kim, Jeong San

    2008-01-01

    Quantum correlations as the resource for quantum communication can be distributed over long distances by quantum repeaters. In this Letter, we introduce the notion of a noisy quantum repeater, and examine its role in quantum communication. Quantum correlations shared through noisy quantum repeaters are then characterized and their secrecy properties are studied. Remarkably, noisy quantum repeaters naturally introduce private states in the key distillation scenario, and consequently key distil...

  3. Guided-wave optics for long distance quantum communication

    OpenAIRE

    Alibart, Olivier; Martin, Anthony; Ostrowsky, Daniel Barry; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides (PPLN/W) are nowadays considered to be one of the most useful toolboxes for quantum communication experiments. Thanks to the high optical confinement over longer lengths than in bulk configurations (a few cm in our case), such structures provide highly efficient non-linear interactions, both in down- and up-conversion regimes. Within the framework of long-distance quantum communication at telecom wavelength, PPLN/Ws have therefore been proved to b...

  4. Long-distance Bessel beam propagation through Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Philip; Ituen, Iniabasi; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Free-space optical communication has the potential to transmit information with both high speed and security. However, since it is unguided it suffers from losses due to atmospheric turbulence and diffraction. To overcome the diffraction limits the long-distance propagation of Bessel beams is considered and compared against Gaussian beam properties. Bessel beams are shown to have a number of benefits over Gaussian beams when propagating through atmospheric turbulence. PMID:26560921

  5. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process

  6. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Manoj K., E-mail: manoj.qit@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of Allahabad (India); Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Ahmedabad (India); Prakash, Hari [Physics Department, University of Allahabad (India); Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  7. Distinguishing suspicious actions in long-distance surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebe, Guy; Chen, Eli; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-10-01

    Human action classification distinguishes different human behaviors at a video signal. Suspicious behavior can be defined by the user, and in long distance imaging it may include bending the body during walking or crawling, in contrast to regular walking for instance. When imaging is performed through relatively long distance, some difficulties occur which affect the performances regular action recognition tasks. The degradation sources that include turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere cause blur and spatiotemporal-varying distortions (image dancing). These effects become more significant as the imaging distance increases and as the sizes of the objects of interest in the image are smaller. The process of action recognition is usually a part of surveillance system that naturally includes a detection of the moving objects as a first step, followed by tracking them in the video sequence. In this study, we first detect and track moving objects in long-distance horizontal imaging, and then we examine dynamic spatio-temporal (motion and shape) characteristics of correctly detected moving objects. According to such characteristics. We construct features that characterize different actions for such imaging conditions, and distinguish suspicious from non-suspicious actions, based on these characteristics.

  8. TCP-Adaptive in High Speed Long Distance Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of high performance computing and increasing of network bandwidth, more and more applications require fast data transfer over high-speed long-distance networks. Research shows that the standard TCP Reno cannot fulfill the requirement of fast transfer of massive data due to its conservative congestion control mechanism. Some works have been proposed to improve the TCP throughput performance using more aggressive window increasing tactics and obtain substantial achievements. However, they cannot be strictly proved to be comprehensively suitable for high-speed complex network environments. In this paper, we propose TCP-Adaptive, an adaptive congestion control algorithm adjusting the increasing congestion window dynamically. The algorithm improves logarithmic detection procedure for available bandwidth in the flow path by distinguishing the first detection in congestion avoidance and retransmission timeout. On the other hand, an adaptive control algorithm is proposed to achieve better performance in high-speed long-distance networks. The algorithm uses round trip time (RTT variations to predict the congestion trends to update the increments of congestion window. Simulations verify the property of TCP-Adaptive and show satisfying performance in throughput, RTT fairness aspects over high-speed long-distance networks. Especially in sporadic loss environment, TCP-Adaptive shows a significant adaptability with the variations of link quality

  9. Humans as long-distance dispersers of rural plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G Auffret

    Full Text Available Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24,354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36% are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion.

  10. Welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals — the Animal Transportation Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Harris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and long distance movement of animals is a far larger business than most people imagine. Some reasons are outlined in this paper, along with the history of the AATA (Animal [Air] Transportation Association. This trade association has been involved for over 30 years in developing standards and procedures for the movement of all types of animals. The competence of animal handlers is of paramount importance. Competence of flying grooms is assessed by the AATA. This paper is written from the viewpoint of someone who has been a member since the Association's inception. The subject will be of interest to airlines, transporters, veterinarians, farmers, animal relocators, zoological establishments and legislators.

  11. Evaluation of Macrobend Loss on Long Distance Optical Ground Wire

    OpenAIRE

    M.F.M Salleh; Zakaria, Z

    2015-01-01

    Bend loss is a kind of loss that contributes to the power attenuation which is caused by the bending of optical fiber. For long distance optical fiber, bending might occur at joining point as there are many joining points along the link. Studies related to bend loss always relate the effect of bend radius on bend loss value. There is no study that relates the value of loss that can be affected by other factors like the natural environmental conditions. In this study, the evaluation of bend lo...

  12. Intimacy in Long-Distance Relationships over Video Chat

    OpenAIRE

    Carman Neustaedter; Saul Greenberg

    2011-01-01

    Many couples live a portion of their lives being separated from each other as part of a long-distance relationship (LDR). This includes a large number of dating college students as well as couples who are geographically-separated because of situational demands such as work. We conducted interviews with individuals in LDRs to understand how they make use of video chat systems to maintain their relationships. In particular, we have investigated how couples use video to “hang out” together and e...

  13. Long-distance synchronization of unidirectionally cascaded optomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tan; Zhang, Yan-Lei; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization is of great scientific interest due to the abundant applications in a wide range of systems. We propose a scheme to achieve the controllable long-distance synchronization of two dissimilar optomechanical systems, which are unidirectionally coupled through a fiber with light. Synchronization, unsynchronization, and the dependence of the synchronization on driving laser strength and intrinsic frequency mismatch are studied based on the numerical simulation. Taking the fiber attenuation into account, it's shown that two mechanical resonators can be synchronized over a distance of tens of kilometers. In addition, we also analyze the unidirectional synchronization of three optomechanical systems, demonstrating the scalability of our scheme.

  14. Long distance quantum communication over a noisy channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation of a quantum network is an important goal of quantum information processing. Long distance quantum communication with high fidelity is the main obstacle in achieving this goal. A scheme to transmit qubits without fidelity decrease over the noisy channel is presented. Using the idea of 'time-bin entanglement', the scheme works without any auxiliary particles and there is no resources increase with the length of the channel. A protocol proposed by Kalamidas is suitable to realize our scheme with the current experimental technology

  15. Long-distance transport of natrium in bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Na+-application to a certain zone of the root or after application to the tip or to the base of a primary leaf or along the stem of bean plants, the long-distance transport of Na+ was studied. The age of the plants was 8 d when root application took place, 10 d at the time of leaf application. After application to the root zone, the long-distance transport of Na+ in the direction of the shoot was strongly prevented, and the transport in the direction of the root point could be neglected. Presence of K+ in the ambient nutritive solution led to a strong increase of Na+ efflux from the roots. Within 48 hrs., 30-40% of the Na+ applied to a primary leaf were transported towards the roots. The Na+ efflux to the ambient nutritive solution came from the basal regions; it was mostly more than 10% of the amount recepted through the leaf and was only slightly increased by the presence of K+ in the external solution. In the case of Na+ application through the hypokotyl, this Na+-efflux from the roots was even more than 25% within 12 hrs. Both with leaf and with stem application, only 1% of the Na+ taken up was transported in the direction of the shoot point. The separation of the hypocotyl tissue in the bark and in the central cylinder showed the extremely high Na+ storage capacity of the central cylinder. The transfer of Na+ from the central cylinder into the bark seems to be fast in the hypocotyl, while the escape of Na+ from the phloem of the bark into the central cylinder is rather limited. Long-distance transport of Na+ in the phloem of the bark is highly basispetal and of high efficiency. Low Na+-contents in bean leaves are thus due to several regulation mechanisms: K+-stimulated Na+-efflux in the root, restricted long-distance transport in the xylemadue to high storage capacity of the xylemparenchyma, Na+ influx pumps at the phloem in stem and leaf and strictly basipetal phloem-retransport of Na+ in the root and efflux into the surrounding solution. (orig./MG)

  16. Reach of long-distance radiation emergency inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at the need of radiation emergency inspection, a radiation emergency inspection system is designed in the paper, including: wireless communication network, radiation emergency inspection mobile and command and control center. Utilizing GPS/GIS to locate the radiation accident, and also utilizing the most advanced wireless communication network 3G in order to realize real time data communication, the long distance control and decision-making sustain of command and control center, this system can improve the efficiency of dealing with radiation accident. (authors)

  17. Long-distance oxygen plasma sterilization: Effects and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of electrons, ions and oxygen radicals in long-distance oxygen plasma and the germicidal effect (GE) of Escherichia coli on the surface of medical poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) film were studied. The quantity of protein leakage and the production of lipid peroxide in bacterial suspension as well as the state of DNA were measured after sterilization to analyse the inactivation mechanisms. The results showed that the concentration of electrons and ions decreased rapidly with increasing the distance from the center of induction coil, which approximated to 0 at 30 cm, whereas the concentration of oxygen radicals reduced slowly, i.e. decreased 30% within 40 cm. GE value reached 3.42 in the active discharge zone (0 cm) and exceeded 3.32 within 40 cm when plasma treatment parameters were set as follows: plasma rf power at 100 W, treatment time at 60 s and oxygen flux at 40 cm3/min. Fast etching action on cell membrane by electrons, ions and attacking polyunsaturation fatty acid (PUFA) in cell membrane by oxygen radicals are primary reasons of oxygen plasma sterilization in the active discharge and the afterglow zone, respectively. The GE of UV radiation in long-distance oxygen plasma is feebleness

  18. Long distance laser ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Shin, He-Jin; Chia, Chen Ciang; Dhital, Dipesh; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Huh, Yong-Hak

    2011-12-01

    Wind turbine blade failure is the most prominent and common type of damage occurring in operating wind turbine systems. Conventional nondestructive testing systems are not available for in situ wind turbine blades. We propose a portable long distance ultrasonic propagation imaging (LUPI) system that uses a laser beam targeting and scanning system to excite, from a long distance, acoustic emission sensors installed in the blade. An examination of the beam collimation effect using geometric parameters of a commercial 2 MW wind turbine provided Lamb wave amplitude increases of 41.5 and 23.1 dB at a distance of 40 m for symmetrical and asymmetrical modes, respectively, in a 2 mm-thick stainless steel plate. With this improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, a feasibility study of damage detection was conducted with a 5 mm-thick composite leading edge specimen. To develop a reliable damage evaluation system, the excitation/sensing technology and the associated damage visualization algorithm are equally important. Hence, our results provide a new platform based on anomalous wave propagation imaging (AWPI) methods with adjacent wave subtraction, reference wave subtraction, reference image subtraction, and the variable time window amplitude mapping method. The advantages and disadvantages of AWPI algorithms are reported in terms of reference data requirements, signal-to-noise ratios, and damage evaluation accuracy. The compactness and portability of the proposed UPI system are also important for in-field applications at wind farms.

  19. LONG-DISTANCE RUNNING AS A SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankiewicz Blazej

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the leisure activities that do not require any special qualifications, equipment or talents have gained the greatest popularity. People living in a civilized, urbanized world full of growing problems need a form of escape from the daily routine, and running provides an excellent opportunity for this. Objective. The objective of the present paper was to characterize a small social group going in for recreational long-distance running. Detailed information gained this way might prove helpful when organizing leisure activities for people seeking new forms of recreation. Also, they might be a precious source of information for those who already practice and are looking for new solutions when developing their training loads. Materials and methods. A survey that was carried out included 68 competitors enrolled in the Metropolis marathon Bydgoszcz-Torun and running at the distances of 21,1km and 42,2km. The competitors in the 20 to 60 age bracket were examined. The research method applied was a survey questionnaire. Conclusions. Long-distance running is undoubtedly a developing social phenomenon that attracts more and more followers. The results presented might provide a valuable source of information for those who already practice and are looking for new solutions when developing their training loads.

  20. Effects of Long Distance Transportation on Honey Bee Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiheung Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials in three different states (CA, GA, and MI were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were split into two groups and introduced into a transported (T colony or a stationary (S colony in each trial. Volumes of hypopharyngeal gland acini in T colonies were significantly smaller than S colonies in all three trials. There were no significant differences between S and T colonies in juvenile hormone titers. Protein content in head showed no significant differences between S and T either in 7-day-old or 17-day-old bees of MI trial, but GA trial showed a significant reduction in bees experiencing transportation. Protein content in thorax was only measured in GA trial and was not significantly different between the two groups. Lipid content in abdomen was not significantly different between the S and T colonies in all three trials. This study suggests that bees experiencing transportation have trouble fully developing their food glands and this might affect their ability to nurse the next generation of workers.

  1. Long distance contribution to the KL-KS mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, N H; Sachrajda, C T; Soni, A; Yu, J

    2012-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate techniques needed to compute the long distance contribution to the $K_{L}$-$K_{S}$ mass difference, $\\Delta M_K$, in lattice QCD and carry out a first, exploratory calculation of this fundamental quantity. The calculation is performed on 2+1 flavor, domain wall fermion, $16^3\\times32$ configurations with a 421 MeV pion mass. We include only current-current operators and drop all disconnected and double penguin diagrams. The short distance part of the mass difference in a 2+1 flavor calculation contains a quadratic divergence cut off by the lattice spacing. Here, this quadratic divergence is eliminated through the GIM mechanism by introducing a valence charm quark. The inclusion of the charm quark makes the complete calculation accessible to lattice methods provided the discretization errors associated with the charm quark can be controlled. The long distance effects are discussed for each parity channel separately. While we can see a clear signal in the parity odd channel, the signa...

  2. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Seth

    Full Text Available The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1 elevation and 2 abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3 upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4 internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models.

  3. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P; Delp, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761

  4. Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

  5. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S; Pendergast, Thomas H; Flecker, Alexander S

    2011-11-22

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337-552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700-2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants. PMID:21429923

  6. [MORBIDITY OF SUBMARINE CREW SAILORS IN LONG-DISTANCE CRUISES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Burtsev, N N; Bondarenko N V; Khamidullina, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity among the personnel of a Kola-based (beyond the Arctic circle) atomic (ASM) and diesel-powered (DSM) submarines in the course of long-distance cruises in different waters of the world ocean was studied. Statistics was collected from the reports of submarine medical officers since 1969. Levels and causes of morbidity were analyzed. According to the data of many years' observations, within the structure of primary diseases of military contractors on cruises the leading place has been occupied by respiratory disorders followed by skin and subcutaneous fat problems, and digestive diseases. Incidence of chronic diseases among ASM and DSM personnel was evaluated. The authors raise the issue of dental care quality provided to submariners. PMID:26554134

  7. LIVING LONG-DISTANCE RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almond Pilar N. Aguila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs and their loved ones in thePhilippines manage to have dynamic relationships despite physical distance with Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC or the use of new media (the Internet and cellular phone. Theoretically guided by Marshall McLuhan and Stuart Hall, this paper presents three case studies that depict how individuals mindfully use communication technology to enact their relationships. Such interactions also entail the exchange of new ideas on gender roles, family relations, and dominant-subordinate roles that lead to cultural change. Conclusively, technology has made it easier for OFWs and their loved ones to overcome their aversion to being in long-distance relationships and overseas employment.

  8. Detecting the long-distance structure of the X(3872)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Hidalgo-Duque, Carlos; Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Ozpineci, Altug [Middle East Technical University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Valderrama, Manuel Pavon [Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-05-15

    We study the X(3872) → D{sup 0} anti D{sup 0}π{sup 0} decay within a D anti D* molecular picture for the X(3872) state. This decay mode is more sensitive to the long-distance structure of the X(3872) resonance than its J/ψππ and J/ψ3π decays, which are mainly controlled by the details of the X(3872) wave function at short distances. We show that the D{sup 0} anti D{sup 0} final state interaction can be important, and that a precise measurement of this partial decay width can provide valuable information on the interaction strength between the D{sup (*)} anti D{sup (*)} charm mesons. (orig.)

  9. Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration

    CERN Document Server

    De Riedmatten, H; Tittel, W; Zbinden, H; Collins, D; Gisin, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A long distance quantum teleportation experiment with a fiber-delayed Bell State Measurement (BSM) is reported. The source creating the qubits to be teleported and the source creating the necessary entangled state are connected to the beam splitter realizing the BSM by two 2 km long optical fibers. In addition, the teleported qubits are analyzed after 2,2 km of optical fiber, in another lab separated by 55 m. Time bin qubits carried by photons at 1310 nm are teleported onto photons at 1550 nm. The fidelity is of 77%, above the maximal value obtainable without entanglement. This is the first realization of an elementary quantum relay over significant distances, which will allow an increase in the range of quantum communication and quantum key distribution.

  10. Long-distance quantum key distribution in optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Hiskett, P A; Lita, A E; Miller, A J; Nam, S; Nordholt, J E; Peterson, C G; Rosenberg, D

    2006-01-01

    Use of low-noise detectors can both increase the secret bit rate of long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and dramatically extend the length of a fibre optic link over which secure key can be distributed. Previous work has demonstrated use of ultra-low-noise transition-edge sensors (TESs) in a QKD system with transmission over 50 km. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of the TESs by successfully generating error-corrected, privacy-amplified key over 148.7 km of dark optical fibre at a mean photon number mu = 0.1, or 184.6 km of dark optical fibre at a mean photon number of 0.5. We have also exchanged secret key over 67.5 km that is secure against powerful photon-number-splitting attacks.

  11. Next Generation Large Capacity Long Distance Fiber To The Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. A. Ayad and M. Elazazy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical device technologies for photonic networks, are focusing on integrated optical device technologies for digital coherent optical transmission technologies. With the rapid spread of fiber to the home (FTTH, broadband video services and mobile Internet devices now require a highly functional optical network infrastructure with a large capacity 100-Gbit/s/channel system based on digital coherent technology is considered to be a promising candidate for next-generation large-capacity long-distance optical communication systems. The optical components required for such systems, such as Polarization Division Multiplexed Quadrate Phase Shift Keying (PDM-QPSK optical modulator, integrated receiver, and local light source, are under development. Opto-electrical integration technologies, which enable us to construct small, low-cost, and highly functional optical components, will play an important role in providing cost-effective transmission equipment for future 100-Gbit/s/ch and post-100-Gbit/s/ch optical communications

  12. Long-distance singularities in multi-leg scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; Duhr, Claude

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent completion of the three-loop calculation of the soft anomalous dimension in massless gauge-theory scattering amplitudes. This brings the state-of-the-art knowledge of long-distance singularities in multi-leg QCD amplitudes with any number of massless particles to three loops. The result displays some novel features: this is the first time non-dipole corrections appear, which directly correlate the colour and kinematic degrees of freedom of four coloured partons. We find that non-dipole corrections appear at three loops also for three coloured partons, but these are independent of the kinematics. The final result is remarkably simple when expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms, and it satisfies several non-trivial constraints. In particular, it is consistent with the high-energy limit behaviour and it satisfies the expected factorization properties in two-particle collinear limits.

  13. Dynamics of long-distance signaling via plant vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaguchi, Michitaka; Okamoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Plant vascular systems are constructed by specific cell wall modifications through which cells are highly specialized to make conduits for water and nutrients. Xylem vessels are formed by thickened cell walls that remain after programmed cell death, and serve as water conduits from the root to the shoot. In contrast, phloem tissues consist of a complex of living cells, including sieve tube elements and their neighboring companion cells, and translocate photosynthetic assimilates from mature leaves to developing young tissues. Intensive studies on the content of vascular flow fluids have unveiled that plant vascular tissues transport various types of gene product, and the transport of some provides the molecular basis for the long-distance communications. Analysis of xylem sap has demonstrated the presence of proteins in the xylem transpiration stream. Recent studies have revealed that CLE and CEP peptides secreted in the roots are transported to above ground via the xylem in response to plant-microbe interaction and soil nitrogen starvation, respectively. Their leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptors localized in the shoot phloem are required for relaying the signal from the shoot to the root. These findings well-fit to the current scenario of root-to-shoot-to-root feedback signaling, where peptide transport achieves the root-to-shoot signaling, the first half of the signaling process. Meanwhile, it is now well-evidenced that proteins and a range of RNAs are transported via the phloem translocation system, and some of those can exert their physiological functions at their destinations, including roots. Thus, plant vascular systems may serve not only as conduits for the translocation of essential substances but also as long-distance communication pathways that allow plants to adapt to changes in internal and external environments at the whole plant level. PMID:25852714

  14. Dynamics of Long-distance Signaling via Plant Vascular Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michitaka eNotaguchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant vascular systems are constructed by specific cell wall modifications through which cells are highly specialized to make conduits for water and nutrients. Xylem vessels are formed by thickened cell walls that remain after programmed cell death, and serve as water conduits from the root to the shoot. In contrast, phloem tissues consist of a complex of living cells, including sieve tube elements and their neighboring companion cells, and translocate photosynthetic assimilates from mature leaves to developing young tissues. Intensive studies on the content of vascular flow fluids have unveiled that plant vascular tissues transport various types of gene product, and the transport of some provides the molecular basis for the long-distance communications. Analysis of xylem sap has demonstrated the presence of proteins in the xylem transpiration stream. Recent studies have revealed that CLE and CEP peptides secreted in the roots are transported to above ground via the xylem in response to plant-microbe interaction and soil nitrogen starvation, respectively. Their leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptors localized in the shoot phloem are required for relaying the signal from the shoot to the root. These findings well fit to the current scenario of root-to-shoot-to-root feedback signaling, where peptide transport achieves the root-to-shoot signaling, the first half of the signaling process. Meanwhile, it is now well evidenced that proteins and a range of RNAs are transported via the phloem translocation system, and some of those can exert their physiological functions at their destinations, including roots. Thus, plant vascular systems may serve not only as conduits for the translocation of essential substances but also as long-distance communication pathways that allow plants to adapt to changes in internal and external environments at the whole plant level.

  15. Long-distance quantum communication. Decoherence-avoiding mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entanglement is the essence of most quantum information processes. For instance, it is used as a resource for quantum teleportation or perfectly secure classical communication. Unfortunately, inevitable noise in the quantum channel will typically affect the distribution of entanglement. Owing to fundamental principles, common procedures used in classical communication, such as amplification, cannot be applied. Therefore, the fidelity and rate of transmission will be limited by the length of the channel. Quantum repeaters were proposed to avoid the exponential decay with the distance and to permit long-distance quantum communication. Long-distance quantum communication constitutes the framework for the results presented in this thesis. The main question addressed in this thesis is how the performance of quantum repeaters are affected by various sources of decoherence. Moreover, what can be done against decoherence to improve the performance of the repeater. We are especially interested in the so-called hybrid quantum repeater; however, many of the results presented here are sufficiently general and may be applied to other systems as well. First, we present a detailed entanglement generation rate analysis for the quantum repeater. In contrast to what is commonly found in the literature, our analysis is general and analytical. Moreover, various sources of errors are considered, such as imperfect local two-qubit operations and imperfect memories, making it possible to determine the requirements for memory decoherence times. More specifically, we apply our formulae in the context of a hybrid quantum repeater and we show that in a possible experimental scenario, our hybrid system can create near-maximally entangled pairs over a distance of 1280 km at rates of the order of 100 Hz. Furthermore, aiming to protect the system against different types of errors, we analyze the hybrid quantum repeater when supplemented by quantum error correction. We propose a scheme for

  16. Long-distance quantum communication. Decoherence-avoiding mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb Bernardes, Nadja

    2012-12-17

    Entanglement is the essence of most quantum information processes. For instance, it is used as a resource for quantum teleportation or perfectly secure classical communication. Unfortunately, inevitable noise in the quantum channel will typically affect the distribution of entanglement. Owing to fundamental principles, common procedures used in classical communication, such as amplification, cannot be applied. Therefore, the fidelity and rate of transmission will be limited by the length of the channel. Quantum repeaters were proposed to avoid the exponential decay with the distance and to permit long-distance quantum communication. Long-distance quantum communication constitutes the framework for the results presented in this thesis. The main question addressed in this thesis is how the performance of quantum repeaters are affected by various sources of decoherence. Moreover, what can be done against decoherence to improve the performance of the repeater. We are especially interested in the so-called hybrid quantum repeater; however, many of the results presented here are sufficiently general and may be applied to other systems as well. First, we present a detailed entanglement generation rate analysis for the quantum repeater. In contrast to what is commonly found in the literature, our analysis is general and analytical. Moreover, various sources of errors are considered, such as imperfect local two-qubit operations and imperfect memories, making it possible to determine the requirements for memory decoherence times. More specifically, we apply our formulae in the context of a hybrid quantum repeater and we show that in a possible experimental scenario, our hybrid system can create near-maximally entangled pairs over a distance of 1280 km at rates of the order of 100 Hz. Furthermore, aiming to protect the system against different types of errors, we analyze the hybrid quantum repeater when supplemented by quantum error correction. We propose a scheme for

  17. Engineering and performance standards parameters for long distance road transport in the United States: the special case of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L. Stull

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transportation conditions of slaughter horses for human consumption have become a public and regulatory issue in the United States in the last two decades. Federal regulations were developed partially using the results of funded research projects that examined the types of vehicles, characteristics of slaughter horse candidates, types of injuries during transport, duration of transit, stocking densities and other behavioural and physiological indices during long-distance road transport. Additionally, the physiological responses of horses travelling long distances in vans while cross-tied by their halters in individual stalls were also studied. Both engineering- and performance-based standards were developed from the scientific studies and implemented in the federal regulations to ensure the humane movement of equines to slaughter facilities via commercial road transportation.

  18. Evaluation of ultrasonic volume- and underclad indications at long distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis techniques are applied in UT examinations if the standard examination provides unacceptable indications and more exact parameters are required for the fracture mechanics evaluation. The necessity for analysis techniques is particularly great where long distances are involved, i.e. when sensitivity is too limited for crack tip detection or when focusing at the reflector location is insufficient, in order to correct the results of the standard examination, which are often too conservative. There are manual analysis procedures, using focusing transducers or time of flight reconstruction methods, and mechanized, computer-assisted procedures, based on the synthetic aperture principle. ALOK and SAFT measurements were performed by the IzfP (NDE Institute) and KWU on volume flaws and findings near the cladding. The results show that, compared with manual measurements, the computer-assisted methods have the advantage that the complete B-scan representation enables better interpretation of the examination interpretation of the examination results, thereby avoiding evaluation errors in individual cases. ALOK reconstructions have the advantage that they can be interpreted in the same way as a manual analysis, thus facilitating for the UT examiner the transition from the manual to the computer-assisted imaging method. Better image reproduction is a feature of the L SAFT reconstructions. Virtual independence from examination parameters is also advantageous. (orig.)

  19. Long distance two-party quantum cryptography made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2010-01-01

    Any two-party cryptographic primitive can be implemented using quantum communication under the assumption that it is difficult to store a large number of quantum states perfectly. However, achieving reliable quantum communication over long distances remains a difficult problem. Here, we consider a large network of nodes with only neighboring quantum links. We exploit properties of this cloud of nodes to enable any two nodes to achieve security even if they are not directly connected. Our results are based on techniques from classical cryptography and do not resort to technologically difficult procedures like entanglement swapping. More precisely, we show that oblivious transfer can be achieved in such a network if and only if there exists a path in the network between the sender and the receiver along which all nodes are honest. Finally, we show that useful notions of security can still be achieved when we relax the assumption of an honest path. For example, we show that we can combine our protocol for oblivi...

  20. Long-distance quantum communication with neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The architecture proposed by Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) for long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles is analyzed. Its fidelity and throughput in entanglement distribution, entanglement swapping, and quantum teleportation is derived within a framework that accounts for multiple excitations in the ensembles as well as loss and asymmetries in the channel. The DLCZ performance metrics that are obtained are compared to the corresponding results for the trapped-atom quantum communication architecture that has been proposed by a team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Northwestern University (MIT and NU). Both systems are found to be capable of high-fidelity entanglement distribution. However, the DLCZ scheme only provides conditional teleportation and repeater operation, whereas the MIT-NU architecture affords full Bell-state measurements on its trapped atoms. Moreover, it is shown that achieving unity conditional fidelity in DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation requires ideal photon-number resolving detectors. The maximum conditional fidelities for DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation that can be realized with nonresolving detectors are 1/2 and 2/3, respectively

  1. Research of a long distance clock distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrahigh-energy neutrinos with energies in excess of 100 PeV from the GZK effect will be studied using a new detector at the South Pole called the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA). The radiofrequency emission which occurs when these particles interact in the glacial ice is detected by an array of antennas spread out over an enormous area, over 100 km2 and embedded in the ice at depths of 200 m to increase sensitivity. Signals from the antennas are digitized by specialized electronics and must be time synchronized with accuracies of order 50 ps or less for event reconstruction to function properly. A system has been proposed which digitizes the impulse waveforms in situ in the ice and sends the data to the surface using high-speed serial links. This requires distribution of a low-jitter clock to each hole but has substantial advantages in cost and power which drive our development effort to realize this technology. Last year we implemented a first version of a long distance clock synchronization system using electrical signaling over CAT5. This year we have updated our solution to optical fiber using high speed transceiver blocks in Spartan 6 FPGAs. The master clock is embedded into the data stream and distributed to the various holes where a phase-locked derivative is recovered. In this way, we have implemented a 1.25 Gbps data link over a bi-directional communication system fulfilling the requirements of the project. This note describes our efforts on the latter solution: technical details as well as methods of maintaining fixed phase difference between two clocks after power cycle and reset.

  2. Short term effects of capture on movements in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Teräväinen, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Remote monitoring of wild animals by radio-tags and bio-sensors is frequently applied in wildlife research, monitoring and management. These methods require capture and often anaesthesia of animals that in turn may affect post-capture behaviour. Assessment of post-capture effects is needed to avoid biases in the research data due to capture-related effect on behaviour, but also to measure unnecessary discomfort and suffering for the animals. The Scandinavian wolf population has...

  3. Go long! Predictors of positive relationship outcomes in long-distance dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Emma; Blair, Karen L; Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about long-distance dating relationships. This study aimed to investigate differences between long-distance dating relationships and geographically close relationships and to explore predictors of relationship quality. Participants were 474 women and 243 men in long-distance dating relationships and 314 women and 111 men in geographically close relationships. Few differences existed between long-distance dating relationships and geographically close relationships, while individual and relationship characteristics predicted relationship quality. These results indicate that individuals in long-distance dating relationships are not at a disadvantage and that relationship and individual characteristics predict relationship quality. This knowledge could be a powerful tool for helping those in long-distance dating relationships. PMID:24274061

  4. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

  5. On the road : Social aspects of commuting long distances to work

    OpenAIRE

    Sandow, Erika

    2011-01-01

    With its point of departure of increasing numbers of people being engaged in commuting, the aim of this thesis is to reveal prerequisites for and consequences of long-distance commuting in Sweden for the individual and his or her partner. Special attention has been given to prerequisites for long-distance commuting in sparsely populated areas, and to social consequences related to long-distance commuting in terms of gender differences in commuting patterns, earnings and separation. The thesis...

  6. Executive overview: welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Adams; Peter M. Thornber; Gardner Murray

    2008-01-01

    A compendium of papers brings together a range of perspectives on the long distance transportation of animals. The purpose is to assist in the strengthening of global public policies for the protection of animal health and welfare. The audience targeted is the wide range of people involved in shaping sound public policy. Papers cover the history of long distance transportation of animals, the viewpoints of the foremost civil society organisations involved in the long distance transport of ani...

  7. The Influence of the Sustainable Seafood Movement in the US and UK Capture Fisheries Supply Chain and Fisheries Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eGutierrez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, a diverse coalition of actors has come together to develop and promote sustainability initiatives ranging from seafood eco-labels, seafood guides, traceability schemes, and sourcing policies in Western seafood supply chains. Based on a literature review, we trace the development of the Sustainable Seafood Movement, which has been working to reform sustainability practices in the seafood supply chain. Focusing on the US and the UK capture fisheries, we explore the roles of key actors and analyze the dynamics within and between actor groups through a conceptual model derived from semi-structured interviews. We argue that the Sustainable Seafood Movement is different from previous social movements in that, in addition to actors advocating for government reform, it has motivated supply chain actors to participate in non-state market driven governance regime. The movement and its actors have leveraged their legitimacy and authority garnered within the supply chain to increase their legitimacy and authority in public governance processes. As the movement continues to evolve, it will need to address several emerging issues to maintain its position of legitimacy and authority in both the supply chain and public governance processes.

  8. Utilization of the fish ladder at the Engenheiro Sergio Motta Dam, Brazil, by long distance migrating potamodromous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Makrakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the fish ladder installed at the Engenheiro Sergio Motta Dam (also known as Porto Primavera on the Paraná River, Southern Brazil, by long-distance migrating potamodromous species (sampling Protocol I, and ascending and descending movements (Protocol II were evaluated. Three pools along the fish ladder (designated as lower, middle, and upper were sampled monthly between December, 2004 and March, 2005 to determine the abundance of species in the ladder. The ascending and descending movements of the species in the ladder were also analyzed in the same period. In the samples for both protocols, 37 species representing 17 families and 5 orders (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Gymnotiformes, and Myliobatiformes were recorded. Characiformes were represented by 21 species. Long- distance migratory species (11 species predominated in the ladder (60% of the total number of individuals, with high abundance of Rhinelepis aspera (5645 individuals. For protocol I, mean abundance varied greatly among the months and pools, with lowest values in December and March for all pools, and highest in January for the lower pool due to high capture of R. aspera. Fish abundance declined from the lower to the upper pool, especially for R. aspera and Rhaphiodon vulpinus. For Protocol II, 17 species were recorded ascending the ladder, where Astyanax altiparanae and Leporinus friderici were the most abundant species (684 and 111 individuals, respectively. However, 18 species showed descending movements, with high captures of Metynnis maculatus and A. altiparanae (339 and 319 individuals, respectively. Twelve species (52% moved in both directions, and among the seven migratory species sampled, four were recorded ascending and descending, and three species only ascending the ladder. The fish ladder appears to selectively favor species with high swimming capabilities. A discussion is presented on the requirements for future research on attraction to the

  9. 47 CFR 36.214 - Long distance message revenue-Account 5100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long distance message revenue-Account 5100. 36... PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Operating Revenues and Certain Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.214 Long distance message revenue—Account...

  10. High-Precision, Three-Dimensional Tracking of Mouse Whisker Movements with Optical Motion Capture Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Jerí L.; Heck, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    The mystacial vibrissae or whiskers in rodents are sensitive tactile hairs emerging from both sides of the face. Rats and mice actively move these whiskers during exploration. The neuronal mechanisms controlling whisker movements and the sensory representation of whisker tactile information are widely studied as a model for sensorimotor processing in mammals. Studies of the natural whisker movement patterns during exploration and tactile examination are still in their early stages. Tracking t...

  11. A specialized motion capture system for real-time analysis of mandibular movements using infrared cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Daniel Antônio; Pereira, Adriano Alves; Andrade, Adriano de Oliveira; Junior, Douglas Peres Bellomo; Silva, Marlete Ribeiro da

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years, several methods and devices have been proposed to record the human mandibular movements, since they provide quantitative parameters that support the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders. The techniques currently employed suffer from a number of drawbacks including high price, unnatural to use, lack of support for real-time analysis and mandibular movements recording as a pure rotation. In this paper, we propose a specialized optical motion captu...

  12. Why Movement Is Captured by Music, but Less by Speech: Role of Temporal Regularity

    OpenAIRE

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Białuńska, Anita; Sowiński, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Music has a pervasive tendency to rhythmically engage our body. In contrast, synchronization with speech is rare. Music’s superiority over speech in driving movement probably results from isochrony of musical beats, as opposed to irregular speech stresses. Moreover, the presence of regular patterns of embedded periodicities (i.e., meter) may be critical in making music particularly conducive to movement. We investigated these possibilities by asking participants to synchronize with isochronou...

  13. Modeling DC-circuit-breakers for long distance electricity transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Ashutosh; Ebert, Ute; Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2014-10-01

    Modeling a circuit-breaker is a multiple timescale problem which involves a cascade of physical processes from avalanche phase to streamer, spark and post discharge phase, with a transition phase between each pair of processes. In particular, Jin Zhang and Bert van Heesch at Eindhoven University of Technology investigate now whether the conventional SF6 can be replaced by supercritical nitrogen. We focus on modeling space charge effects, gas heating and secondary electron emission from cathode. We develop a two-dimensional drift-diffusion model for streamers coupled to the Euler equations for the gas to study the related phenomena. We perform simulations to capture thermal shocks and induced pressure waves caused by the electrical breakdown of the surrounding gas. We include heat exchange mechanisms between the electrons/ions and the surrounding gas.

  14. Long-Distance Transport of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Is Concomitant with That of Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Jacopo; Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Szydlowski, Nicolas; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Gisler, Alexandra; Bürkle, Lukas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-05-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is ubiquitous and essential for cell energy supply in all organisms as a vital metabolic cofactor, known for over a century. In plants, it is established that biosynthesis de novo is taking place predominantly in green tissues and is furthermore limited to plastids. Therefore, transport mechanisms are required to mediate the movement of this polar metabolite from source to sink tissue to activate key enzymes in cellular energy generating pathways but are currently unknown. Similar to thiamine, polyamines are an essential set of charged molecules required for diverse aspects of growth and development, the homeostasis of which necessitates long-distance transport processes that have remained elusive. Here, a yeast-based screen allowed us to identify Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PUT3 as a thiamine transporter. A combination of biochemical, physiological, and genetic approaches permitted us to show that PUT3 mediates phloem transport of both thiamine and polyamines. Loss of function of PUT3 demonstrated that the tissue distribution of these metabolites is altered with growth and developmental consequences. The pivotal role of PUT3 mediated thiamine and polyamine homeostasis in plants, and its importance for plant fitness is revealed through these findings. PMID:27006489

  15. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2015-06-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks.

  16. The physiology of long-distance migration: extending the limits of endurance metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean-Michel

    2009-03-01

    Long-distance migrants have evolved specific adaptations that make their athletic records possible. Unique mechanisms explaining their amazing capacity for endurance exercise have now been uncovered, particularly with respect to energy storage, mobilization, transport and utilization. Birds are champions of migration because flying offers a key compromise: it allows more rapid movement than swimming, but has a lower cost of transport than running. High efficiency for muscle contraction, pointed wings, low wingloading, travelling in V-formations, storing fuel as energy-dense lipids and atrophy of non-essential organs are some of their strategies to decrease the cost of transport. The ability to process lipids rapidly also emerges as a crucial component of the migrant phenotype. High lipid fluxes are made possible by lipoprotein shuttles and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that accelerate lipid transport and by upgrading the metabolic machinery for lipolysis and lipid oxidation. Preparation for long flights can include natural doping on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) from unique invertebrate diets. Muscle performance is improved by restructuring membrane phospholipids and by activating key genes of lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The physiological secret to long migrations does not depend on a single ;magic' adaptation but on the integration of multiple adjustments in morphology, biomechanics, behavior, nutrition and metabolism. Research on the physiology of migrants improves the fundamental knowledge of exercise biology, but it also has important implications for wildlife conservation, treating obesity and improving the performance of human athletes. PMID:19218508

  17. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  18. Long Distance Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Communication Channel Analysis and Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Linchao

    In this thesis, the characteristics of long-distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) communication channel are studied through experiment and theoretical analysis. The research focuses on the validation of different channel models, long distance NLOS link loss and received signal energy distribution based on outdoor experiment results and numerous simulations. All the previous research on NLOS UV only considered short communication range scenarios, in which turbulence effects were assumed to be negligible. In fact, with the increasing of communication distance, optical turbulence effects may degrade UV communication performance because the fading irradiance significantly deteriorates the received signal in two aspects: received energy fluctuation and extra path loss. In the beginning, the author conducts a comprehensive outdoor channel measurement from several hundreds meters up to four thousand meters. To the best of our knowledge, this experiment represents the most comprehensive examination of the NLOS UV communication channel at such distances. By reporting experimentally collected data, we illustrate two approaches to measuring path loss. In addition to highlighting practical issues, which is death time, that must be considered when performing such measurement , the data provide validation of a previously reported Monte Carlo multiple-scattering channel model. In addition, we examine the distribution of received photon counts for evidence of the effects of turbulence in the NLOS channel. In this case, however, there is less agreement with predictions from existing turbulence models, suggesting the need for additional research on the refinement of turbulence modeling. For this reason, we then propose a MC channel model to capture the multiple scattering channel behavior under turbulence condition. In addition, we present a serial experimental results and study the characteristic of NLOS UV turbulence channel with farthest distances up to 1 km. Through

  19. Extended depth of field system for long distance iris acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Lin; Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Hung, Kuo-En; Yang, Shi-Wen; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2012-10-01

    Using biometric signatures for identity recognition has been practiced for centuries. Recently, iris recognition system attracts much attention due to its high accuracy and high stability. The texture feature of iris provides a signature that is unique for each subject. Currently most commercial iris recognition systems acquire images in less than 50 cm, which is a serious constraint that needs to be broken if we want to use it for airport access or entrance that requires high turn-over rate . In order to capture the iris patterns from a distance, in this study, we developed a telephoto imaging system with image processing techniques. By using the cubic phase mask positioned front of the camera, the point spread function was kept constant over a wide range of defocus. With adequate decoding filter, the blurred image was restored, where the working distance between the subject and the camera can be achieved over 3m associated with 500mm focal length and aperture F/6.3. The simulation and experimental results validated the proposed scheme, where the depth of focus of iris camera was triply extended over the traditional optics, while keeping sufficient recognition accuracy.

  20. Sensory Narratives: Capturing Embodiment in Narratives of Movement, Sport, Leisure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa; Emerald, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Narrative research has been employed by many researchers in the field of physical culture (including movement, play, dance, sport, leisure, physical pursuits, physical activity, physical education and health). From our storied worlds, narrative research reveals complex embodied and emplaced social phenomena within this field. However, there are…

  1. Long-distance entanglement and quantum communication in coupled cavity arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Giampaolo, S M

    2009-01-01

    We introduce quantum spin models that allow for long-distance end-to-end entanglement and long-distance, high-fidelity teleportation, even at moderately high temperatures. We show how these models, that realize an optimal compromise between scalability and resilience to decoherence, can be implemented in simply engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities. We demonstrate how the latter can be used to realize a quasi-deterministic scheme of long-distance quantum communication with high success rate, without direct projection on Bell states and Bell measurements.

  2. Computing the long-distance contribution to the kaon mixing parameter \\epsilon_K

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Norman H

    2012-01-01

    The largest contribution to the CP violating K_L-K_S mixing parameter \\epsilon_K comes from second order weak interactions at short distances and can be accurately determined by a combination of electroweak perturbation theory and the calculation of the parameter B_K from lattice QCD. However, there is an additional long distance contribution to \\epsilon_K which is estimated to be of order 5%. Here recently introduced lattice techniques for computing the long-distance component of the K_L-K_S mass difference are generalized to this long-distance contribution to \\epsilon_K.

  3. Surface modification of poly (vinyl chloride) by long-distance and direct argon RF plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of long- distance and direct argon radio frequency (RF) plasma surface treatment on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films in terms of changes in surface wettability and surface chemistry. The surface properties are characterized by the water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanism is further analyzed and the role of all kinds of active species, e.g. electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification is further evaluated. Results show that the long-distance and direct RF plasma treatments modify the PVC surface in morphology and composition, and both modifications cause surface oxidation of PVC films, in the forming of functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. The effect of the long-distance argon RF plasma is more notable. This suggests that long-distance argon RF plasma could restrain the ion and electron eroding effect and enhance free radical reaction.

  4. Long-distance interactions between optical solitons with an oscillating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, long-distance interactions between optical solitons with an oscillating structure are investigated. Analytic two-soliton solutions for the variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation are obtained. Different from the elastic interactions reported previously, the interaction solitons are accompanied with an oscillating structure during their interactions. Reasons for long-distance interactions are discussed, and influences of the corresponding parameters are analyzed. Those studies may provide a new insight into the soliton interactions. (letter)

  5. Addition of long-distance heart procurement promotes changes in heart transplant waiting list status

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Antibas Atik; Carolina Fatima Couto; Freddy Ponce Tirado; Camila Scatolin Moraes; Renato Bueno Chaves; Vieira, Nubia W.; João Gabbardo Reis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the addition of long-distance heart procurement on a heart transplant program and the status of heart transplant recipients waiting list. Methods: Between September 2006 and October 2012, 72 patients were listed as heart transplant recipients. Heart transplant was performed in 41 (57%), death on the waiting list occurred in 26 (36%) and heart recovery occurred in 5 (7%). Initially, all transplants were performed with local donors. Long-distance, interstate heart procurem...

  6. Do Improvements in Balance Relate to Improvements in Long-Distance Walking Function after Stroke?

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Louis N.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors identify a reduced capacity to walk farther distances as a factor limiting their engagement at home and in community. Previous observational studies have shown that measures of balance ability and balance self-efficacy are strong predictors of long-distance walking function after stroke. Consequently, recommendations to target balance during rehabilitation have been put forth. The purpose of this study was to determine if the changes in balance and long-distance walking funct...

  7. An Analysis among Physiological and Physical Fitness of Middle Distance and Long Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwant Singh; SomanPreet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Present investigation was carried out in order to compare the `Physiological and Physical Fitness among the Middle Distance and Long Distance Runners. A total of 20 Inter-varsity level Runners (i.e. Middle Distance N=10 and Long Distance Runners N=10) age ranged from 18 to 25 yrs were selected from Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior. Through both the critical and allied literature pertaining to the problem under consideration the following Physiological and Physical ...

  8. A Language Model Reflecting Long Distance Dependency Relation%一种体现长距离依赖关系的语言模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春生

    2014-01-01

    The N-gram language model which can capture local dependency relationship between words, is widely used in speech recognition, machine translation and some other fields of nature language process, but there is still the limitation in capturing long distance relations. A dependency syntax tree can reflect semantic relation between the components of a sentence which means it can model the long distance collocations explicitly. Based on the max entropy method, the paper constructs a new language model which can capture the long distance dependency relation between words.%基于N-gram的语言模型广泛应用于语音识别、机器翻译等众多自然语言处理相关领域,捕获的主要是词之间的局部依赖关系,但其本身存在一定的局限性。依存句法树能够反映出句子中各成分之间的语义修饰关系,显式地对词之间的长距离搭配关系进行建模。本文利用最大熵方法整合句子的局部依赖关系和长距离搭配关系,构建一种包含长距离依赖关系的语言模型。

  9. Dissipation Intermittency Increases Long-Distance Dispersal of Heavy Particles in the Canopy Sublayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Tomer; Trakhtenbrot, Ana; Poggi, Davide; Cassiani, Massimo; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion of heavy particles such as seeds within canopies is evaluated using Lagrangian stochastic trajectory models, laboratory, and field experiments. Inclusion of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate intermittency is shown to increase long-distance dispersal (LDD) by contributing to the intermittent ejection of particles to regions of high mean velocity outside the canopy volume. Model evaluation against controlled flume experiments, featuring a dense rod canopy, detailed flow measurements, and imaged trajectories of spherical particles, demonstrates that superimposing a terminal velocity on the fluid velocity is insufficient to determine the particle dispersal kernel. Modifying the trajectory model by adding dissipation intermittency is found to be significant for dispersal predictions along with the addition of inertial and crossing trajectories' effects. Comparison with manual seed-release experiments in a forest using wind-dispersed seeds shows that the model captures most of the measured kernels when accepted uncertainties in plant area index and friction velocity are considered. Unlike the flume experiments, the model modifications for several wind-dispersed seeds have minor effects on short-distance dispersal. A large increase was predicted in LDD when including dissipation intermittency for the forest experiment. The main results suggest that fitting or calibrating models to the `main body' of measured kernels may not offer extrapolating foresight to LDD predictions. As inertial effects were found mostly negligible in the field conditions here, the extended trajectory model requires specifying only the seed's terminal velocity and a constant variance of the normalized dissipation rate. Therefore, the proposed modifications can be readily applied to classical trajectory models so as to improve LDD predictions.

  10. Capturing and testing perceptual-cognitive expertise: a comparison of stationary and movement response methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, André; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2014-03-01

    Numerous methods have been used to study expertise and performance. In the present article, we compare the cognitive thought processes of skilled soccer players when responding to film-based simulations of defensive situations involving two different experimental conditions. Participants either remained stationary in a seated position (n = 10) or were allowed to move (n = 10) in response to life-size film sequences of 11 versus 11 open-play soccer situations viewed from a player's perspective. Response accuracy and retrospective verbal reports of thinking were collected across the two task conditions. In the movement-based response group, participants generated a greater number of verbal report statements, including a higher proportion of evaluation, prediction, and action planning statements, than did participants in the stationary group. Findings suggest that the processing strategies employed during performance differ depending on the nature of the response required of participants. Implications for behavioral methods and experimental design are discussed. PMID:23794270

  11. Quasi-distributed region selectable gas sensing for long distance pipeline maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a novel optical gas tele-monitoring concept is proposed. By following this concept, we construct a long distance region selectable gas sensing system, which can address gases of single and/or different types at multi-locations. This approach is based on optical spectroscopy of selected absorption lines of gas leakage. A gas line spectrum can be addressed from a long distance monitoring center using optical fiber, gas sensing region and region selector. The region selecting technique monitors the selected gas absorption and identifies the location of it simultaneously. The technique has potential to be applied to long distance lightweight fiber optic wide-region gas sensing. A multi-region tele-monitoring experiment using FBG monitor as spectroscopy unit, long propagation fibers, gas cells as leakage sensing regions and FBGs as region selectors is demonstrated. Available numbers and coverage of multi-sensing regions are estimated using loss of sensing unit and propagation. (paper)

  12. Pulsed Frequency Shifted Feedback Laser for Accurate Long Distance Measurements: Beat Order Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Pique, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance measurements (10 m - 1000 m) with an accuracy of 10-7 is a challenge for many applications. We show that it is achievable with Frequency Shifted Feedback (FSF) laser interferometry technique, provided that the determination of the radio frequency beat order be made without ambiguity and on a time scale compatible with atmospheric applications. Using the pulsed-FSF laser that we developed for laser guide star application, we propose and test, up to 240 m, a simple method for measuring the beat order in real time. The moving-comb and Yatsenko models are also discussed. The first of these models fails to interpret our long-distance interferometry results. We show that the accuracy of long-distance measurements depends primarily on the stabilization of the acoustic frequency of the modulator.

  13. Phloem RNA-binding proteins as potential components of the long-distance RNA transport system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICENTE ePALLAS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RNA-binding proteins (RBPs govern a myriad of different essential processes in eukaryotic cells. Recent evidence reveals that apart from playing critical roles in RNA metabolism and RNA transport, RBPs perform a key function in plant adaption to various environmental conditions. Long distance RNA transport occurs in land plants through the phloem, a conducting tissue that integrates the wide range of signalling pathways required to regulate plant development and response to stress processes. The macromolecules in the phloem pathway vary greatly and include defence proteins, transcription factors, chaperones acting in long distance trafficking, and RNAs (mRNAs, siRNAs and miRNAs. How these RNA molecules translocate through the phloem is not well understood, but recent evidence indicates the presence of translocatable RNA-binding proteins in the phloem, which act as potential components of long distance RNA transport system. This review updates our knowledge on the characteristics and functions of RBPs present in the phloem.

  14. Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird

    OpenAIRE

    Both, C; Visser, ME

    2001-01-01

    Spring temperatures in temperate regions have increased over the past 20 years(1), and many organisms have responded to this increase by advancing the date of their growth and reproduction(2-7). Here we show that adaptation to climate change in a long-distance migrant is constrained by the timing of its migratory journey. For long-distance migrants climate change may advance the phenology of their breeding areas, but the timing of some species' spring migration relies on endogenous rhythms th...

  15. Long-distance contribution to the forward-backward asymmetry in decays K+ --> pi+ l+ l-

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Dao-Neng

    2003-01-01

    The long-distance contribution via the two-photon intermediate state to the forward-backward asymmetries in decays K+ --> pi+ l+ l- (l=e and mu) has been studied within the standard model. In order to evaluate the dispersive part of the K+ --> pi+ gamma* gamma* --> pi+ l+ l- amplitude, we employ a phenomenological form factor to soften the ultraviolet behavior of the transition. It is found that, this long-distance transition, although subject to some theoretical uncertainties, can lead to si...

  16. Long-distance contribution to the forward-backward asymmetry in decays K+ --> pi+ l+ l-

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, D N

    2003-01-01

    The long-distance contribution via the two-photon intermediate state to the forward-backward asymmetries in decays K+ --> pi+ l+ l- (l=e and mu) has been studied within the standard model. In order to evaluate the dispersive part of the K+ --> pi+ gamma* gamma* --> pi+ l+ l- amplitude, we employ a phenomenological form factor to soften the ultraviolet behavior of the transition. It is found that, this long-distance transition, although subject to some theoretical uncertainties, can lead to significant contributions to the forward-backward asymmetries, which could be tested in the future high-precise experiments.

  17. Applied systems analysis no. 11: Introduction of nuclear long-distance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of planning for the introduction of new energy technologies requires, together with economic and technical analyses, the quantification and evaluation of the environmental effects of their introduction. It is the goal of this work to determine the environmental impact of individual components of the energy system 'nuclear long distance energy' and to investigate the possible protection of the environment which the energy technology can offer on a regional basis. Results for four areas of environmental damage in North Rhine-Westphalia, Hessen and Rhineland-Pfalz show that nuclear long distance energy can yield a positive benefit to the environment. (orig.)

  18. COMBINED GPS/GLONASS PRECISE POSITIONING FOR LONG-DISTANCE BASELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Combined GPS/GLONASS can increase the accuracy and reliability ofpositioning especially in some applications with many impediments.Due to the atmosphere delay,the commonly used methods for processing short distance baselines can not be implemented in long distance baselines.In this paper,a new data processing strategy for long distance baselines is proposed,which uses the properties of some combination observables of combined GPS/GLONASS and distance baselines may come to the order of 10-8 and combined GPS/GLONASS improves the accuracy over that of GPS-only positioning,which brings benefit to crust deformation monitoring and research on geodynamics.

  19. Role of Clay Minerals in Long-Distance Transport of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-runout (> 50 km) subaerial landslides are rare on Earth, but are common features episodically shaping Mars' Valles Marineris (VM) trough system over the past 3.5 billion years. They display two end-member morphologies: a thick-skinned inner zone, characterized by fault-bounded, rotated blocks near their source region, and a thin-skinned, exceptionally long-runout outer zone, characterized by thin sheets spreading over 10s of km across the trough floor. Four decades of studies on the latter have resulted in two main competing hypotheses to explain their long-distance transport: (1) movement of landslides over layers of trapped air or soft materials containing ice or snow, enabling basal lubrication, and (2) fluidization of landslide materials with or without the presence of water and volatiles. To address this issue, we examine the mineralogic composition of landslides across VM using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) near-infrared spectral data analysis coupled with detailed geologic mapping and morphometric analysis of satellite images. Our survey reveals a general correlation between transport distance, significant lateral spreading, and the presence of hydrated silicates among VM landslides. Given that smectite clay absorbs water into its layered crystal structure and can reduce the friction coefficient by a factor of three v. that of dry rocks, these results suggest that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating long-runout landslide transport in VM. We propose that, concurrent with downslope failure and sliding of broken trough-wall rock, frontal landslide masses overrode and entrained hydrated-silicate-bearing trough-floor deposits, lubricating the basal sliding zones and permitting the landslide outer zones to spread laterally while moving forward over the low-friction surface. The key participation of hydrated silicates in episodic, sustained landslide activity throughout the canyon implies that clay minerals

  20. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  1. Robust Scheme for Long-Distance Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A scheme is presented for the long-distance teleportation of an unknown atomic state between two separated cavities. The scheme is based on the Raman coupling and cavity decay. In the scheme, the effective atom-cavity coupling strength is much smaller than the cavity decay rate and thus cavities of high quality factor are unnecesssary.

  2. Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C; Visser, ME

    2001-01-01

    Spring temperatures in temperate regions have increased over the past 20 years(1), and many organisms have responded to this increase by advancing the date of their growth and reproduction(2-7). Here we show that adaptation to climate change in a long-distance migrant is constrained by the timing of

  3. Long distance electron transport in marine sediments: Microbial and geochemical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Larsen, Steffen; Pfeffer, Christian;

    sulfate, and iron sulphides are the major sources for sulfide in the system. Procaryotes with the ability to perform long distance electron transmission may flourishes in marine sediments exposed to transient oxygen depletion, leaving distinct signatures of such events in the geological record....

  4. Transportation of low-grade thermal energy over long distance by ammonia-water absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; WANG RuZhui; LUO LinGai; XIA ZaiZhong; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the importance and the cycle choice for long-distance transportation of low-grade thermal energy, and the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic feasibility of single-effect ammonia-water absorption system for heat or cold transportation over long distance are also involved. A model of a long-distance thermal energy transportation system is built and analyzed, which shows satisfactory and attractive results. When a steam heat source at 12012 is available, the user site can get hot water output at about 55℃ with the thermal COP of about 0.6 and the electric COP of about 100 in winter, and cold water output at about 10~C with the thermal COP of about 0.5 and the electric COP of 50 in summer.A small-size prototype is built to verify the performance analysis. Basically the experimental data show good accordance with the analysis results. The ammonia-water absorption system is a potential prospective solution for the heat or cold transportation over long distance.

  5. Long-distance transport of radionuclides between PET cyclotron and PET radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PreuscheS; Füchtner, F; Steinbach, J; Zessin, J; Krug, H; Neumann, W

    1999-12-01

    At the Rossendorf PET Centre the PET cyclotron and the radiochemical laboratories are 500 m away from each other. The distance is bridged by a radionuclide transport system (RATS) whose details such as layout, technical parameters, control system and radiation protection are described along with our experience in long-distance transport of radionuclides. PMID:10581677

  6. Comparative study for endenergy supply with nuclear district heating and with nuclear long distance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany will be orientated to secure energy carriers. Moreover economical energy consumption and environmental protection will be a force for an increased application of district heating and nuclear long distance energy. The technics of generation, transport and distribution of the two energy carriers will be discussed, besides a short review of application areas and potentials. The cost comparisons by models show that there are special advantages for both systems. Nevertheless the conclusions from the study can be to favour nuclear long distance energy because of its wide application range in the whole heat market. But there is also the competition with combined heat and power generation on fossil basis, as practised in many industrial companies. As a result of a regional analysis of the area Aachen-Moenchengladbach-Koeln, the cost advantages of the nuclear long distance energy as a parameter of current prices are confirmed. Nuclear long distance energy, in combination with the high temperature reactor and a developed technic of catalysts up to temperatures of 900 K, is an energy source which will be independant of regional necessities, secure, non pollutant and economic. (orig.)

  7. Investigations into the long-distance atmospheric transport in Central Europe using Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An measuring network was used to determine the atmospheric Rn-222 content in Central Europe (Northern and Southern Germany, Poland). Rn-222 is to serve as tracer for the long-distance atmospheric transport in central Europe. For several areas, an average Rn-222 flux density was found. The radon source 'continent' and the soil as radon source have been taken into account. (DG)

  8. Long distance root-shoot signalling in plant-insect community interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Erb, M.; Kaplan, I.

    2013-01-01

    Plants mediate interactions between insects, including leaf- and root-feeders; yet the underlying mechanisms and connection with ecological theory remain unresolved. In this review, based on novel insights into long-distance (i.e., leaf-leaf, root-shoot) defence signalling, we explore the role of ph

  9. Predictors of Satisfaction in Geographically Close and Long-Distance Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-yeon; Pistole, M. Carole

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined geographically close (GCRs) and long-distance (LDRs) romantic relationship satisfaction as explained by insecure attachment, self-disclosure, gossip, and idealization. After college student participants (N = 536) completed a Web survey, structural equation modeling (SEM) multigroup analysis revealed that the GCR…

  10. Would You Do It Again? Relationship Skills Gained in a Long-Distance Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzner, Sara; Lin Li-Wen

    2005-01-01

    This study examined if experienced long-distance relationship (LDR) participants would be willing to be involved in a LDR again. In addition, although positive and negative outcomes have been reported in LDRs research, very little research investigated relationship skills gained during a LDR. Students in a Midwestern university completed…

  11. Needs, Coping Strategies and Coping Outcomes Associated with Long-Distance Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Paul A.; Stone, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated needs and coping strategies of 124 university students, five university staff, and five other persons involved in long-distance relationships. Most effective coping strategies appeared to be frequency of visits and quality of verbal communication. Results support the importance of relationship subtypes and frequent visits. (Author/NB)

  12. Long-Distance and Proximal Romantic Relationship Satisfaction: Attachment and Closeness Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amber; Pistole, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction was examined in college student long-distance romantic relationships (LDRRs) and geographically proximal romantic relationships (PRRs). LDRR/PRR attachment style proportions and relationship satisfaction were similar. Multiple regression analyses revealed that low attachment avoidance contributed uniquely to high LDRR…

  13. Do Improvements in Balance Relate to Improvements in Long-Distance Walking Function after Stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis N. Awad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke survivors identify a reduced capacity to walk farther distances as a factor limiting their engagement at home and in community. Previous observational studies have shown that measures of balance ability and balance self-efficacy are strong predictors of long-distance walking function after stroke. Consequently, recommendations to target balance during rehabilitation have been put forth. The purpose of this study was to determine if the changes in balance and long-distance walking function observed following a 12-week poststroke walking rehabilitation program were related. For thirty-one subjects with hemiparesis after stroke, this investigation explored the cross-sectional (i.e., before training and longitudinal (i.e., changes due to intervention relationships between measures of standing balance, walking balance, and balance self-efficacy versus long-distance walking function as measured via the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. A regression model containing all three balance variables accounted for 60.8% of the variance in 6MWT performance (R2=.584; F(3,27=13.931; P.05. For persons after stroke similar to those studied, improving balance may not be sufficient to improve long-distance walking function.

  14. Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: Prevalence and Separation-Related Symptoms in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldner, Gregory T.

    1996-01-01

    College students in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRs; n=164) were compared to 170 students in geographically proximal relationships (PRs) on measures of psychological distress. Those in LDRs reported significantly more symptoms of depression. Also, a prevalence estimate was obtained, and it supported previous research suggesting that 25%…

  15. Scheme for Robust Long-Distance Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Sheng; QUO Guang-Can

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the configuration of phase coding for quantum key distribution with single photon can also be used for continuous variable quantum key distribution. Therefore the robust long-distance high-speed quantum key distribution can be achieved with current technology.

  16. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  17. Long-distance asymptotics of temperature correlators of the impenetrable Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inverse scattering method is applied to the integrable nonlinear system describing temperature correlators of the impenetrable bosons in one space dimension. The corresponding matrix Riemann problems are constructed for two-point as well as for multi-point correlators. Long-distance asymptotics of two-point correlators is calculated. (author). 8 refs

  18. Risk Factors for Near Miss Incident among Long Distance Bus Drivers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Ronaidi NIK MAHDI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accident is a worldwide public health issue that has its highest impact on low and middle income countries including Malaysia. Many previous studies concerned on the causality of the actual accidents and little attention were given to near miss incidents. Hence, the current study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 517 long distance bus drivers. Data were collected using interview-guided translated and validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Manchester Driver Behaviour questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Results: The prevalence of near miss incident among long distance bus drivers was 37.5% (95% CI: 33.5, 41.8. The significant associated factors for near miss incident were younger age group (ORadj : 1.99; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.01, longer distance travelled per day (ORadj : 2.34; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.60, sleep disturbances (ORadj : 1.74; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54 and errors in driving behaviour (ORadj : 1.31; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.39.Conclusion: Self-reported near miss incidents were relatively high among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia. This issue should be taken seriously and preventive action should consider the significant human factors such as younger age group, errors in driving behaviours, sleep disturbances as well as occupational factors like distance travelled per day. Keywords: Road traffic accident, Near miss, Bus drivers, Malaysia 

  19. On the participation in medium- and long-distance travel: a decomposition analysis for the UK and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Limtanakool, N.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Social and economic benefits have accrued from medium- and long-distance travel, but at the expense of the environment. Since the travel behaviour literature tends to concentrate on shortdistance trips or trips within daily urban systems, a better understanding of the factors shaping medium- and long-distance travel is needed. Using the 1998 National Travel Surveys for the UK and the Netherlands, the study reported here characterises medium- and long-distance travellers in terms of socio-econ...

  20. Method for calculating optimal parameters of long-distance heat supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, R.Z.; Dolgina, V.D.

    1985-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the optimal parameters of long-distance twin-pipe heat supply systems. The optimal water temperature for long-distance twin-pipe heat supply systems is found to be less than 126/sup 0/C when the distance to the user is in the 10-30 km range, and 200/sup 0/C for distances of 50 km or more. The findings indicate that the ratio of the calculated heat output of the plant and the heat load of the region in which the heat is consumed is 0.8 for systems in which the water is stored daily in order to cover electrical load peaks.

  1. Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.

  2. Chemical latent heat for transport of nuclear energy over long distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil crisis has made clear the necessity to use nuclear energy to an increasing extent for purposes of energy supply and, particularly, for the supply of non-electric energy market. This purpose is served by the energy supply system 'Nuclear Energy over Long Distances', by which nuclear energy is transported in a converted form and transformed into the applicable forms of energy such as hot water or water vapour and electricity. The energy transport involves the transport of the 'latent heat gas', which by chemical reactions will be absorbing or emitting thermal energy. The latent heat gas 'sythesis gas/methane' presents several substantial advantages. The nuclear heat source of the energy supply system 'Nuclear Energy over Long Distances' is the high-temperature reactor. (author)

  3. Local and long-distance effects of meteor showers in the low ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Boas, J. W. S.; Paes Leme, N. M.; Rizzo Piazza, L.; da Costa, A. M.; Macedo Moura, M. S. S.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of the Geminids and alpha Scorpiids meteor showers in the lower ionosphere have been observed using two different methods. Low ionosphere group heights, measured by a VLF ionosonde located in southern Brazil, indicated significant anomalous lowering of the effective reflection height which was in good correlation with the transit of the alpha Scorpiids stream. The diurnal VLF phase variations over two long-distance propagation paths showed significant phase deviations from the average during the transits of the showers' radiants. Geomagnetic activity during the periods concerned was low and the results obtained using the two different techniques confirm the occurrence of changes in the physical conditions of the low ionosphere produced by meteor showers on local, as well as on long-distance, scales.

  4. Shared everyday decisions and constructive communication: Protective factors in long-distance romantic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens B. Asendorpf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study applied an attachment framework to explore whether shared everyday decisions (SHARED and constructive communication during conflicts serve as protective factors for relationship quality and stability in a sample of 971 individuals in long-distance relationships (LDRs. The behaviors were found to partially and differentially mediate the association between attachment orientations and relationship outcomes. While SHARED was more strongly linked to commitment than to relationship satisfaction, the reverse was found for constructive communication. Only SHARED was found to predict relationship stability over and above attachment when relationship length was controlled for. The findings suggest that attachment anxiety and avoidance influence relationship quality and stability partly through the two communicative behaviors in LDRs, with especially SHARED emerging as a potent protective factor for positive relationship development in long-distance relationships.

  5. IMAGINING THE ABSENT PARTNER - INTIMACY AND IMAGINATION IN LONG-DISTANCE RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Jurkane-Hobein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominant discourse on relationships in modernity argues for the importance of intimacy, including the intimacy of bodies, for the relationship to be continuous. This raises the question as to how couples that cannot meet face-to-face on a regular basis due to geographical distance maintain intimacy during repetitious non-co-presence. In this article, intimacy is seen as a relational quality that is created and maintained by individuals themselves through practices of intimacy (Jamieson, 2011. The study aims to analyse practices of intimacy in long-distance relationships (LDRs that enable long-distance couples to make their relationship continuous beyond face-to-face encounters. The study is based on 19 in-depth interviews with indi Shrani viduals in Latvia with LDR experience, and argues that the intimacy practices in LDRs trigger imagination. Imagination, in its turn, enables practicing four dimensions of intimacy: embodied, emotional, daily and imagined.

  6. The rise of long-distance entanglement within a linear chain of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Thomas; Kajari, Endre; Taketani, Bruno G.; Wolf, Alexander; Busch, Thomas; Morigi, Giovanna

    2012-02-01

    One stumbling block which limits our observation of quantum effects in the macroscopic world is decoherence. For this reason the study of decoherence and dissipation in open quantum systems has attracted a lot of attention. It has been shown that the generation of long distance entanglement is possible between oscillators via a harmonic crystal (Wolf et al, EPL, 95(2011) 60008). The aim of this current work is to propose an experimentally feasible setup to test the possibility of the creation of long distance entanglement. For this purpose we consider an ion chain in a linear Paul trap with two embedded impurities, whose transverse modes resemble the two degrees of freedom that we aim to entangle via the rest of the chain. With the aid of appropriately designed laser fields, the dynamics described in (Wolf et al, EPL, 95(2011) 60008) is reproduced. The resulting entanglement between the transverse modes of the impurities is analysed by means of the logarithmic negativity.

  7. Long distance contributions to the rare kaon decay $K\\to\\pi\\ell^{+}\\ell^{-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Norman; Juttner, Andreas; Lawson, Andrew; Portelli, Antonin; Sachrajda, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The rare decays of a kaon into a pion and a charged lepton/antilepton pair proceed via a flavour changing neutral current and therefore may only be induced beyond tree level in the Standard Model. This natural suppression makes these decays sensitive to the effects of potential New Physics. To discern such New Physics one must be able to control the errors on the Standard Model prediction of the decay amplitude. These particular decay channels however are dominated by a single photon exchange; this involves a sizeable long-distance hadronic contribution which represents the current major source of theoretical uncertainty. Here we outline our methodology for the computation of the long distance contributions to these rare decay amplitudes using lattice QCD, and present the numerical results of some exploratory studies using the Domain Wall Fermion ensembles of the RBC and UKQCD collaborations.

  8. Computing the long-distance contribution to second order weak amplitudes Norman

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Norman H

    2010-01-01

    The calculation of the long-distance contribution to the $K^0-\\bar{K}^0$ mass matrix is divided into three parts: First, the calculation of the matrix element between kaon states of the product of two space-time integrated, $\\Delta S=1$, four-quark weak operators. Second an RI/MOM subtraction to remove the short distance part of this matrix element in a fashion consistent with the calculation of the physical short distance part. Third an application of the Lellouch-Luscher method, generalized to second order in the weak interactions, to control finite volume errors. Such an approach promises to permit accurate lattice calculation of the $K_L$-$K_S$ mass difference and the long-distance contributions to $\\epsilon_K$.

  9. Study on the Technology of Supplying Water Safely by Long-Distance Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanbo; YU Taipin; LIU Junhua; ZHAO Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    The extensively built long-distance water transmission pipelines have become the main water sources for urban areas.To ensure the reliability and safety of the water supply,from the viewpoint of overall management, it would be necessary to establish a system of information management for the pipeline.The monitoring,calculating and analyzing functions of the system serve to give controlling instructions and safe operating rules to the automatic equipment and technician, making sure the resistance coefficient distribution along the pipeline is reasonable;the hydraulic state transition is smooth when operating conditions change or water supply accidents occur,avoiding the damage of water hammer.This paper covered the composition structures of the information management system of long-distance water transmission pipelines and the functions of the subsystems, and finally elaborated on the approaches and steps ofbuilding a mathematics model for the analysis of dynamic hydraulic status.

  10. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Z.; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2014), s. 809-817. ISSN 0020-7128 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : phenology * resident * long-distance migrant * breeding * central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2014

  11. Demand Routing with ASE Impairment Consideration in Long Distance Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui; Yang, Hongchang; Xu, Liang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a heuristic algorithm that considers ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) noise impairment is developed for demand routing in long distance optical networks. Amplifier span constraints, determined by ASE noise impairment, are presented to constrain the maximal transparent reach of a lightpath. Problem formulation and heuristic algorithms are given. Simulation demonstrates that each demand stream is guaranteed to be successfully routed, and network resources (wavelength channels and transceivers) are effectively utilized.

  12. Theoretical Analysis of Tuned HVAC Line for Low Loss Long Distance Bulk Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Ukil, Abhisek

    2015-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the smart grid initiative is to enable bulk power transmission over long distance, with reduced transmission losses. Besides the traditional high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission, with the advancement in power electronics, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission is increasingly becoming important. One of the main factors impacting the transmission line parameters and the losses is the length of the transmission line (overhead). In this pape...

  13. Oceanic long-distance navigation: Do experienced migrants use the Earth's magnetic field?

    OpenAIRE

    Åkesson, Susanne; Luschi, P; Papi, F; Broderick, A. C.; Glen, F.; Godley, B. J.; Hays, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Albatrosses and sea turtles are known to perform extremely long-distance journeys between disparate feeding areas and breeding sites located on small, isolated, oceanic islands or at specific coastal sites. These oceanic journeys, performed mainly over or through apparently featureless mediums, indicate impressive navigational abilities, and the sensory mechanisms used are still largely unknown. This research used three different approaches to investigate whether bi-coordinate navigation base...

  14. Temporal changes in long-distance running performance of Asian children between 1964 and 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Tomkinson, GR; Noi, S; Kim, DY; Hong, R; MacFarlane, D.; Z. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic fitness is considered to be an important marker of current health and even a predictor of future health. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse the available scientific information on temporal changes in maximal long-distance running performance (a widely and long-used marker of aerobic fitness) of Asian children. A systematic review of the scientific literature was undertaken to locate studies explicitly reporting on temporal changes (spanning a minimum of 5 years) in ma...

  15. Modelling and Control of Tidal Energy Conversion Systems with Long Distance Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Sousounis, Marios; Shek, Jonathan; Mueller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimise a tidal energy conversion system operation, maintenance and power generation aspects have to be taken into account. As a result the key focus of this paper is to propose and investigate an alternative method of implementing a tidal energy conversion system using a pitch-regulated turbine and a variable-speed squirrel cage induction generator with long distance converters. The generator power output can be optimised by utilising variable-speed control strategies allowing t...

  16. A business idea for a long-distance bus company in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Linh; Ho, Truc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project was to transform an innovative idea into a practical business plan, and thereafter design the model and framework of a transportation company providing upgraded services for long-distance trip in the Vietnamese market, concentrating mostly on the routes from the central area towards the southern part of Vietnam. The study presents the implementation plan and marketing strategy, and examines the market demand and potential of the business idea. The thesis...

  17. Spatial and scenario analyses of long distance coach transport in Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Beria, Paolo; Grimaldi, Raffaele; Debernardi, Andrea; Ferrara, Emanuele; Laurino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In Italy long distance coach services have long played a significant role in connecting the most dispersed part of the country to major destinations, giving an important contribution to social and geographical inclusion, but remaining limited in absolute numbers and receiving marginal attention by the general public and even policy makers. After years of stability, the industry is going to face radical changes in the next years since its liberalisation process, gradually started in 2007, w...

  18. Long distance coach transport in Italy: state of the art and perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Beria, Paolo; Grimaldi, Raffaele; Laurino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Long distance coach services in Italy represent an almost unknown mode of transport to the general public, often ignored even by policy markers. The industry has been liberalised since 2007, and service regulation is gradually changing from exclusive concessions to non-exclusive authorisations. This paper aims at shedding a light on this sector, underlining its importance, evidencing its specific strengths and weaknesses starting from the results of the first numerical research specifically f...

  19. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Garcés; Victoria Cussen; Hugh Wirth

    2008-01-01

    The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The ...

  20. Shared everyday decisions and constructive communication: Protective factors in long-distance romantic relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jens B. Asendorpf; Jimenez, Fanny V.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied an attachment framework to explore whether shared everyday decisions (SHARED) and constructive communication during conflicts serve as protective factors for relationship quality and stability in a sample of 971 individuals in long-distance relationships (LDRs). The behaviors were found to partially and differentially mediate the association between attachment orientations and relationship outcomes. While SHARED was more strongly linked to commitment than to relationship sa...

  1. The effects of partner togetherness on salivary testosterone in women in long distance relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether testosterone levels are influenced by being with a sexual and romantic partner after a period of sexual abstinence. Women in long distance relationships (n = 15) provided five saliva samples: at least one week before seeing their partner (and at least 2 weeks since their last visit), the day before seeing their partner, when they were with their partner but prior to engaging in sexual activity, the day after their first sexual activity, and three days after ...

  2. I Imagine You Here Now : Relationship Maintenance Strategies in Long-Distance Intimate Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkane-Hobein, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Today, individuals can relatively easily meet and communicate with each other over great distances due to increased mobility and advances in communication technology. This also allows intimate relationships to be maintained over large geographical distances. Despite these developments, long-distance relationships (LDRs), i.e. intimate relationships maintained over geographical distance, remain understudied. The present thesis aims to fill this knowledge gap and investigates how intimate partn...

  3. The Distant Heart: Mediating Long-Distance Relationships through Connected Computational Jewelry

    OpenAIRE

    Silina, Yulia; Haddadi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In the world where increasingly mobility and long-distance relationships with family, friends and loved-ones became commonplace, there exists a gap in intimate interpersonal communication mediated by technology. Considering the advances in the field of mediation of relationships through technology, as well as prevalence of use of jewelry as love-tokens for expressing a wish to be remembered and to evoke the presence of the loved-one, developments in the new field of computational jewelry offe...

  4. Long-distance walking tracks: offering regional tourism in the slow lane

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based destination tourism has witnessed substantial growth in recent years, particularly in Regional Areas. This type of tourism is for people who do not want to merely passively view scenic landscape but to actively immerse themselves within it, for example by undertaking long-distance walks. Many tourism agencies and local governments have responded to such demand by developing, branding and promoting ‘walking products’; overseas examples include the UK’s Pennine Way, the USA’s Appal...

  5. Research on Methods of Nutrition after Middle and Long Distance Runners Training of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the method of literature research, interview, investigation, mathematical statistics and so on, combined with the actual situation in the teaching and training, analyzing the two main factors to affect the adolescent fatigue of muscles and nervous system after the middle distance race training, exploring the methods and measures of the recovery. Through the data access, our country to the adult middle-long-distance athletes training research has a lot of, but for teenage train...

  6. Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Two Seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuoyan; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Soong, Keryea

    2016-01-01

    The wide distribution of many seagrasses may be attributable to exploitation of currents. However, many species have seeds heavier than seawater, limiting surface floating, and thus, deep water becomes a potential barrier between suitable habitats. In this investigation, we studied the dispersal potential of various life history stages of two species of seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis, at Dongsha Atoll and Penghu Islands in Taiwan Strait, west Pacific. The adult plants of both species, often dislodged naturally from substrate by waves, could float, but only that of T. hemprichii could float for months and still remain alive and potentially able to colonize new territories. The seedlings of T. hemprichii could also float for about a month once failing to anchor to substrate of coral sand, but that of H. ovalis could not. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii could both float, but for too short a duration to enable long distance travel; those seeds released from long floating fruits had low germination rates in our tests. Obviously, their seeds are not adaptive for long distance dispersal. Fruits and seeds of H. ovalis do not float. The potential of animals as vectors was tested by feeding fruits and seeds of both species to a goose, a duck, and two fish in the laboratory. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii were digested and could no longer germinate; those of H. ovalis could pass through the digestive tracts and have a much higher germination rates than uningested controls. Therefore, birds could be important vectors for long distance dispersal of H. ovalis. The two seagrasses adopted very different dispersal mechanisms for long distance travel, and both exploited traits originally adaptive for other purposes. PMID:27248695

  7. Work stress and recovery measured by urinary catechlamines and cortisol excretion in long distance coach drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Sluiter, J. K.; van Beek; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coach drivers' work stress during work and in the course of recovery from work by measurement of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. METHODS: The urinary excretion rate of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol of 10 coach drivers was studied during a long distance trip of three days and two consecutive days off. Each driver was asked to provide seven urine samples on the working days and six urine samples on the days off. The second day off was considered as t...

  8. An Analysis among Physiological and Physical Fitness of Middle Distance and Long Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwant Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was carried out in order to compare the `Physiological and Physical Fitness among the Middle Distance and Long Distance Runners. A total of 20 Inter-varsity level Runners (i.e. Middle Distance N=10 and Long Distance Runners N=10 age ranged from 18 to 25 yrs were selected from Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior. Through both the critical and allied literature pertaining to the problem under consideration the following Physiological and Physical Fitness variables were selected- Speed, Agility, Cardio-Respiratory Endurance, Vital Capacity, Resting Respiratory Rate, Resting Pulse Rate, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. The entire analysis has been carried out by using statistical software (SPSS 17 version to address the objectives of the study. To find out the mean difference among the selected variable of Physical and Physiological variables, Multi-Variate Statistical Technique MANOVA was applied, further to find out the critical difference Uni-Variate Statistical technique, One-Way Analysis of Variance was applied in the selected variable, Further to find out the real difference LSD Post hoc test needs to be done. The result indicates that a significant difference was found in all the Physical Variables i.e. Speed, Agility and Endurance of Middle Distance and Long Distance Runners. Also a significant difference was found in some of the Physiological variable i.e. Resting respiratory rate, Resting Pulse rate Whereas an insignificant difference was found in the Vital Capacity and Peak expiratory flow rate of Middle Distance and Long Distance Runners.

  9. Travel demand forecasting with stated choice data. : Swedish domestic long-distance trips.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The travel demand forecasting capability is affected by the model performance and is restricted by the available modes. The Sampers models being used in long distance travel demand forecasting doesn’t deal with nonlinearity and contains no travel service qualitative variables. The RP models can’t forecast the travel demand of the hypothetical mode of the high speed rail. Meanwhile, the value of time which is an important indicator in cost-benefits evaluation needs to be estimated in more spec...

  10. On the relevance of long-distance contributions to CP violation in the K0 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the CP violating parameter epsilon to long-distance contributions to the K0 average K0 mass matrix is estimated on general grounds. Improving the accuracy in the measurement of epsilon'/epsilon by an order of magnitude will unambiguously decide whether the standard model can account for CP violation for msub(t) < or approximately 50 GeV. (Author)

  11. Spectroscopic Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases on Long-Distance Flights

    OpenAIRE

    Dix, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis results of spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric trace gases on long-distance flights are presented. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), bromine oxide (BrO), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) are detected in scattered light spectra by means of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The underlying scientific scope is to gain information on global trace gas distributions, e.g. of BrO, which plays an important role in ozone chemistry or of HONO, which a...

  12. Long-distance behavior of temperature correlation functions in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a Bethe ansatz based method to derive, starting from a multiple integral representation, the long-distance asymptotic behavior at finite temperature of the density-density correlation function in the interacting onedimensional Bose gas. We compute the correlation lengths in terms of solutions of non-linear integral equations of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz type. Finally, we establish a connection between the results obtained in our approach with the correlation lengths stemming from the quantum transfer matrix method. (orig.)

  13. Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal of a recently expanding migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Song, Gang; Navarro, Joan; Zhang, Ruiying; Symes, Craig T; Forero, Manuela G; Lei, Fumin

    2016-06-01

    Long-distance dispersal events and their derivable increases of genetic diversity have been highlighted as important ecological and evolutionary determinants that improve performances of range-expanding species. In the context of global environmental change, specific dispersal strategies have to be understood and foreseen if we like to prevent general biodiversity impoverishment or the spread of allochthonous diseases. We explored the genetic structure and potential population mixing on the recently range-expanding European bee-eater Merops apiaster. In addition, the species is suspected of harbouring and disseminating the most relevant disease for bees and apiculture, Nosema microsporidia. In agreement with complementary ringing recovery data and morphometric measurements, genetic results on two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellites showed a reasonably well-structured population partitioning along its breeding distribution. Microsatellite results indicated that not only did a few birds recently disperse long distance during their return migrations and change their natal breeding areas, but also that a group of allochthonous birds together founded a new colony. Although we did not provide evidence on the direct implication of birds in the widespread of Nosema parasites, our finding on the long-distance dispersal of bird flocks between remote breeding colonies adds concern about the role of European bee-eaters in the spread of such disease at a large, inter-continental scale. PMID:26994943

  14. Anthropometric and functional characteristics of Colombian elite long-distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of elite long-distance runners. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 19 male competitive long-distance runners of national level (age 28.2 ± 6.9 years. A total of 24 anthropometric variables were measured according to the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK statements. The Heath-Carter method and the formula proposed by Siri, Matiegka, Jackson and Pollock were used to calculate the somatotype and the body composition, respectively. Ergospirometry VO (2 max, Vertical Jump Test and the Wingate Test were used as functional indicators. Results: Regarding body composition, we found fat mass percentage 13.3 ± 3.2; muscle mass 47.3 ± 2.5%, and body adiposity index 24.1 ± 3.3. Somatotype profile was the mesomorphic-balanced (3.6-4.0-2.1. Mean values of functional tests with their standard deviations were: VO(2 máx (mL•kg-1•min-1 42.6 ± 8.1; anaerobic power 106.0 ± 31.8 kg•s-1, and anaerobic capacity 6501.0 ± 1831.6 K/jul. Conclusion: These results may provide a profile of long-distance runners that can be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical emphasis.

  15. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in XX spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotropic XX models of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains are investigated with the aim to elucidate the formal structure and the physical properties that allow these systems to act as channels for long-distance, high-fidelity quantum teleportation. We introduce two types of models: (i) open, dimerized XX chains, and (ii) open XX chains with small end bonds. For both models we obtain the exact expressions for the end-to-end correlations and the scaling of the energy gap with the length of the chain. We determine the end-to-end concurrence and show that model (i) supports true long-distance entanglement at zero temperature, while model (ii) supports 'quasi-long-distance' entanglement that slowly falls off with the size of the chain. Due to the different scalings of the gaps, respectively exponential for model (i) and algebraic in model (ii), we demonstrate that the latter allows for efficient qubit teleportation with high fidelity in sufficiently long chains even at moderately low temperatures

  16. Voluntary counseling and willingness to screen among Nigerian long distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Aniebue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is an important preventive strategy in the control of HIV/AIDS and Long distance truck drivers (LDTD have been identified as an important group in the transmission of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to assess knowledge and perception of Nigerian long distance truck drivers on HIV/AIDS, voluntary counseling and testing and their willingness to undergo HIV screening. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety seven LDTD in Enugu, Nigeria were surveyed using pre tested structured questionnaires. Results: Awareness of HIV/AIDS was high (94.9% amongst the drivers and the media was their commonest source of information. Similarly the awareness of VCT was high (94.4%. One hundred and eight (54.8% respondents were willing to undergo HIV screening test if offered freely and 86 (43.7% others have previously been screened. Educational status was a significant determinant of willingness to undergo HIV screening p<0.05. The reasons for screening were mainly doctors′ recommendation (19.3% and voluntary self screening (18.8%. The commonest reasons for not wanting to undergo screening were the feeling of not being at risk (27.9%, fear of a positive result (10.2% and cost of screening test (9.6%. Conclusion: There is a critical need to improve HIV screening participation amongst Long distance drivers in Nigeria.

  17. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Garcés

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The challenge for reform in long distance transportation of animals is to raise community awareness about the issue without invoking the psychological phenomenon of cognitive dissonance, which has the paradoxical effect of reinforcing adverse behaviour. NGO activity in long distance transportation of animals is described for Australia, the United States and the European Union and aspirations elsewhere in the world are discussed. Importantly, animal welfare NGOs are now recognised by and have a voice in the forums of international bodies such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE and the International Finance Corporation. Challenges for the future include the development of partnerships in global markets to replace the trade in live animals with a meat-only trade.

  18. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Leah; Cussen, Victoria; Wirth, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The challenge for reform in long distance transportation of animals is to raise community awareness about the issue without invoking the psychological phenomenon of cognitive dissonance, which has the paradoxical effect of reinforcing adverse behaviour. NGO activity in long distance transportation of animals is described for Australia, the United States and the European Union and aspirations elsewhere in the world are discussed. Importantly, animal welfare NGOs are now recognised by and have a voice in the forums of international bodies such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE) and the International Finance Corporation. Challenges for the future include the development of partnerships in global markets to replace the trade in live animals with a meat-only trade. PMID:20405413

  19. Study on the long-distance target apperception techniques for underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The limited physical size for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV)or unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV)makes it difficult to acquire enough space gain for localizing long-distance targets.A new technique about long-distance target apperception with passive synthetic aperture array for underwater vehicles is presented.First,a synthetic aperture-processing algorithm based on the FFT transform in the beam space(BSSAP)is introduced.Then,the study on the flank array passive long-distance apperception techniques in the frequency scope of 11-18 kHz is implemented from the view of improving array gains,detection probability and augmenting detected range under a certain sea environment.The results show that the BSSAP algorithm can extend the aperture effectively and improve detection probability.Because of the augment of the transmission loss,the detected range has the trend of decline with the increase of frequency under the same target source level.The synthesized array could improve the space gain by nearly 7 dB and SNR is increased by about 5 dB.The detected range is enhanced to nearly 2 km under the condition of 108-118 dB of the target source level for AUV system in measurement interval of nearly 1 s.

  20. Long-distance entanglement in many-body atomic and optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenon of long-distance entanglement in the ground state of quantum spin models, its use in high-fidelity and robust quantum communication, and its realization in many-body systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in arrays of coupled optical cavities. We investigate different patterns of site-dependent interaction couplings, singling out two general settings: Patterns that allow for perfect long-distance entanglement (LDE) in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement remains finite in the thermodynamic limit, and patterns of quasi long-distance entanglement (QLDE) in the ground state of the system, namely, such such that the end-to-end entanglement vanishes with a very slow power-law decay as the length of the spin chain is increased. We discuss physical realizations of these models in ensembles of ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in optical lattices. We show how, using either suitably engineered super-lattice structures or exploiting the presence...

  1. Long distance running and acute effects on plantar foot sensitivity and plantar foot loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfuth, Martin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-09-26

    The plantar surface of the foot senses local pressures during stance and locomotion. These foot loading characteristics may be affected by long distance running. Little is known about the physiological effects of sports-related loading on plantar sensitivity and their relationship with plantar foot loading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of long distance running on plantar sensitivity to touch and their relationship with foot loading characteristics. It was hypothesized that plantar sensation would decrease after long distance running and may be related to foot loading characteristics. In 15 middle-aged runners, sensory detection thresholds to light touch and plantar pressures were measured before and after a 10 km run. After the run, no significant changes in sensory perception thresholds were observed so that correlations between foot sensitivity and foot loading could not be calculated. A significant decrease of force-time integrals and maximum forces was demonstrated in the whole foot (-6.2%, p=0.003; -3.9%, p=0.001) and the heel (-10.5%, p=0.003; -8.5%, p=0.002). Furthermore, maximum force was significantly reduced in the lateral midfoot (-6.4%, p=0.002). In conclusion, a sub-maximal 10 km running exercise appears to have no significant acute effects on plantar sensitivity, plantar pressure distribution and peak forces. PMID:21871535

  2. Epidemiology, ethics and managing risks for physiological and behavioural stability of animals during long distance transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Adams

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms to maintain the physiological and behavioural stability of animals during long distance transport are explored according to the epidemiological concept of the risk factor. The purpose is to consider quality assurance and risk management as two practical means of protecting animal health and welfare during long distance transport. The hierarchy of welfare, health and disease is treated as an indivisible whole to ensure that surveillance for welfare will encompass surveillance for infectious disease and that ethical consideration applies to the totality. Disease can have devastating effects on the well-being of both animals and people. Risk factors and epidemiological methods are explained and promoted for use in managing the health and welfare of animals transported over long distances. A 'one medicine' approach is emphasised and the depiction of stress as the cost of adaptation to stressors or the allostatic load is introduced to illuminate the challenges confronting transported animals. Aspects of heat stress in cattle are explored to illustrate how various sources of information, including inference from general biological knowledge, can assist in characterising risk factors that derive from the constitution of animals themselves.

  3. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying-Chi; Brugge, Martin; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Dekinga, Anne; Porter, Ron; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters and GPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and global tracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliable methods to attach these tracking devices to small migratory birds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2) tags are retained during periods of substantial mass change associated with long-distance migration. We developed a full-body harness to attach tags to Red Knots (Calidris canutus), a medium-sized shorebird (average mass 124 g) that undertakes long-distance migrations. First, we deployed dummy tags on captive birds and monitored them over a complete migratory fattening cycle (February–July 2013) during which time they gained and lost 31–110 g and underwent a pre-alternate moult of body feathers. Using each individual’s previous year fattening and moult data in captivity as controls, we compared individual mass and moult differences between years between the tagged and reference groups, and concluded that the attachment did not impact mass and moult cycles. However, some birds shed feathers under the tags and under the polyester harness line commonly used in avian harnesses. Feather shedding was alleviated by switching to smoothed-bottom tags and monofilament harness lines. To field-trial this design, we deployed 5-g satellite transmitters on ten Red Knots released on 3 October 2013 in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Bird movements and tag performance appeared normal. However, nine tags stopped transmitting 11–170 days post-release which was earlier than expected. We attribute this to bird mortality rather than failure of the attachments or transmitters and suggest that the extra weight and drag caused by the tag and its feather-blocking shield increased the chance of depredation by the locally common Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). Our results demonstrate that species- and place-specific contexts can strongly determine tagging success. While captive trials are an important first

  4. Alteration of long-distance functional connectivity and network topology in patients with supratentorial gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for information regarding functional alterations in patients with brain gliomas is increasing, but little is known about the functional consequences of focal brain tumors throughout the entire brain. Using resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI), this study assessed functional connectivity in patients with supratentorial brain gliomas with possible alterations in long-distance connectivity and network topology. Data from 36 patients with supratentorial brain gliomas and 12 healthy subjects were acquired using rs-fMRI. The functional connectivity matrix (FCM) was created using 32 pairs of cortical seeds on Talairach coordinates in each individual subject. Local and distant connectivity were calculated using z-scores in the individual patient's FCM, and the averaged FCM of patients was compared with that of healthy subjects. Weighted network analysis was performed by calculating local efficiency, global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology, and compared between patients and healthy controls. When comparing the averaged FCM of patients with that of healthy controls, the patients showed decreased long-distance, inter-hemispheric connectivity (0.32 ± 0.16 in patients vs. 0. 42 ± 0.15 in healthy controls, p = 0.04). In network analysis, patients showed increased local efficiency (p < 0.05), but global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology were relatively preserved compared to healthy subjects. Patients with supratentorial brain gliomas showed decreased long-distance connectivity while increased local efficiency and preserved small-world topology. The results of this small case series may provide a better understanding of the alterations of functional connectivity in patients with brain gliomas across the whole brain scale. (orig.)

  5. Long-distance entanglement in many-body atomic and optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the phenomenon of long-distance entanglement (LDE) in the ground state of quantum spin models, its use in high-fidelity and robust quantum communication, and its realization in many-body systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in arrays of coupled optical cavities. We investigate XX quantum spin models on one-dimensional lattices with open ends and different patterns of site-dependent interaction couplings, singling out two general settings: patterns that allow for perfect LDE in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement remains finite in the thermodynamic limit, and patterns of quasi-long-distance entanglement (QLDE) in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement vanishes with a very slow power-law decay as the length of the spin chain is increased. We discuss physical realizations of these models in ensembles of ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in optical lattices. We show how, using either suitably engineered super-lattice structures or exploiting the presence of edge impurities in lattices with single periodicity, it is possible to realize models endowed with nonvanishing LDE or QLDE. We then study how to realize models that optimize the robustness of QLDE at finite temperature and in the presence of imperfections using suitably engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities. For both cases the numerical estimates of the end-to-end entanglement in the actual physical systems are thoroughly compared with the analytical results obtained for the spin model systems. We finally introduce LDE-based schemes of long-distance quantum teleportation in linear arrays of coupled cavities, and show that they allow for high-fidelity and high success rates even at moderately high temperatures.

  6. Alteration of long-distance functional connectivity and network topology in patients with supratentorial gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The need for information regarding functional alterations in patients with brain gliomas is increasing, but little is known about the functional consequences of focal brain tumors throughout the entire brain. Using resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI), this study assessed functional connectivity in patients with supratentorial brain gliomas with possible alterations in long-distance connectivity and network topology. Data from 36 patients with supratentorial brain gliomas and 12 healthy subjects were acquired using rs-fMRI. The functional connectivity matrix (FCM) was created using 32 pairs of cortical seeds on Talairach coordinates in each individual subject. Local and distant connectivity were calculated using z-scores in the individual patient's FCM, and the averaged FCM of patients was compared with that of healthy subjects. Weighted network analysis was performed by calculating local efficiency, global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology, and compared between patients and healthy controls. When comparing the averaged FCM of patients with that of healthy controls, the patients showed decreased long-distance, inter-hemispheric connectivity (0.32 ± 0.16 in patients vs. 0. 42 ± 0.15 in healthy controls, p = 0.04). In network analysis, patients showed increased local efficiency (p < 0.05), but global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology were relatively preserved compared to healthy subjects. Patients with supratentorial brain gliomas showed decreased long-distance connectivity while increased local efficiency and preserved small-world topology. The results of this small case series may provide a better understanding of the alterations of functional connectivity in patients with brain gliomas across the whole brain scale. (orig.)

  7. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  8. Massage therapy decreases pain and perceived fatigue after long-distance Ironman triathlon: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S Nunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Can massage therapy reduce pain and perceived fatigue in the quadriceps of athletes after a long-distance triathlon race (Ironman? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded outcome assessors. Participants: Seventy-four triathlon athletes who completed an entire Ironman triathlon race and whose main complaint was pain in the anterior portion of the thigh. Intervention: The experimental group received massage to the quadriceps, which was aimed at recovery after competition, and the control group rested in sitting. Outcome measures: The outcomes were pain and perceived fatigue, which were reported using a visual analogue scale, and pressure pain threshold at three points over the quadriceps muscle, which was assessed using digital pressure algometry. Results: The experimental group had significantly lower scores than the control group on the visual analogue scale for pain (MD –7 mm, 95% CI –13 to –1 and for perceived fatigue (MD –15 mm, 95% CI –21 to –9. There were no significant between-group differences for the pressure pain threshold at any of the assessment points. Conclusion: Massage therapy was more effective than no intervention on the post-race recovery from pain and perceived fatigue in long-distance triathlon athletes. Trial registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, RBR-4n2sxr. [Nunes GS, Bender PU, de Menezes FS, Yamashitafuji I, Vargas VZ, Wageck B (2016 Massage therapy decreases pain and perceived fatigue after long-distance Ironman triathlon: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 83–87

  9. Long-distance entanglement in many-body atomic and optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)], E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it

    2010-02-15

    We discuss the phenomenon of long-distance entanglement (LDE) in the ground state of quantum spin models, its use in high-fidelity and robust quantum communication, and its realization in many-body systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in arrays of coupled optical cavities. We investigate XX quantum spin models on one-dimensional lattices with open ends and different patterns of site-dependent interaction couplings, singling out two general settings: patterns that allow for perfect LDE in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement remains finite in the thermodynamic limit, and patterns of quasi-long-distance entanglement (QLDE) in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement vanishes with a very slow power-law decay as the length of the spin chain is increased. We discuss physical realizations of these models in ensembles of ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in optical lattices. We show how, using either suitably engineered super-lattice structures or exploiting the presence of edge impurities in lattices with single periodicity, it is possible to realize models endowed with nonvanishing LDE or QLDE. We then study how to realize models that optimize the robustness of QLDE at finite temperature and in the presence of imperfections using suitably engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities. For both cases the numerical estimates of the end-to-end entanglement in the actual physical systems are thoroughly compared with the analytical results obtained for the spin model systems. We finally introduce LDE-based schemes of long-distance quantum teleportation in linear arrays of coupled cavities, and show that they allow for high-fidelity and high success rates even at moderately high temperatures.

  10. Fundamental design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard;

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive theoretical analysis on the design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission has been carried out, using a highly accurate model. The dispersion of the optical fiber as a function of the numerical aperture and the cutoff wavelength is included....... Designs based on a bidirectional pumping scheme are evaluated, taking nonlinearities into account. The optimum value of the numerical aperture will be evaluated for cutoff wavelengths where the propagating pump power is single moded. For distances between each pumping station in the region between 10 and...... 100 km, the optimum ratio of copropagating and counterpropagating pump power will also be evaluated...

  11. Method for hydraulic transport, particularly of ores, coal or other solids over long distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, N.

    1980-08-21

    The process described is used for the hydraulic transport of coal and other solids over long distances. The slurry is filled alternately into pressurized tubular chambers via a low pressure slurry pump, and is then pushed from the tubular chambers into the pipeline by a high pressure pump. When one switches from one tubular chamber to another the slurry pump has clear water supplied to it for a short time. The blocking device fitted at the outlet of the tubular chambers is overridden by high pressure water.

  12. Long-distance nitrate signaling displays cytokinin dependent and independent branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandrine Ruffel; Arthur Poitout; Gabriel Krouk; Gloria M Coruzzi; Benoit Lacombe

    2016-01-01

    Summary The long-distance signaling network allowing a plant to properly develop its root system is crucial to optimize root foraging in areas where nutrients are available. Cytokinin is an essential element of the systemic signaling network leading to the enhancement of lateral root proliferation in areas where nitrate is available. Here, we explore more precisely: (i) which particular traits of lateral root growth (density and length of emerged lateral roots) are the targets of systemic signaling in a context of heterogeneous nitrate supply; and (i ) if the systemic signaling depends only on cytokinin or on a combination of several signalings.

  13. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in XX spin chains

    OpenAIRE

    Venuti, L. Campos; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Zanardi, P.

    2007-01-01

    Isotropic XX models of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains are investigated with the aim to elucidate the formal structure and the physical properties that allow these systems to act as channels for long-distance, high-fidelity quantum teleportation. We introduce two types of models: I) open, dimerized XX chains, and II) open XX chains with small end bonds. For both models we obtain the exact expressions for the end-to-end correlations and the scaling of the energy gap with the length of the chai...

  14. Research on Methods of Nutrition after Middle and Long Distance Runners Training of Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the method of literature research, interview, investigation, mathematical statistics and so on, combined with the actual situation in the teaching and training, analyzing the two main factors to affect the adolescent fatigue of muscles and nervous system after the middle distance race training, exploring the methods and measures of the recovery. Through the data access, our country to the adult middle-long-distance athletes training research has a lot of, but for teenage training, especially (youth physical training methods, characteristics and should pay attention to problem research is less.

  15. Coherent control of long-distance steady state entanglement in lossy resonator arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Angelakis, Dimitris G.; Dai, Li; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    We show that coherent control of the steady-state long-distance entanglement between pairs of cavity-atom systems in an array of lossy and driven coupled resonators is possible. The cavities are doped with atoms and are connected through wave guides, other cavities or fibers depending on the implementation. We find that the steady-state entanglement can be coherently controlled through the tuning of the phase difference between the driving fields. It can also be surprisingly high in spite of ...

  16. Gender difference and age-related changes in performance at the long distance duathlon world championship

    OpenAIRE

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The differences in gender and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e. swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e. running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends, as well as the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the 'Powerman Zofingen' long-distance duathlon (10km run, 150km cycle, and 30km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were...

  17. Disentangling the drivers of reduced long-distance seed dispersal by birds in an experimentally fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, María; Anciães, Marina; da Silva, Mariana T B; Rubim, Paulo; Johnson, Erik; Bruna, Emilio M

    2011-04-01

    of Turdus albicollis, the largest-bodied disperser and the only one to both regurgitate and defecate seeds. This change in Turdus abundance acted together with lower numbers of fruiting plants in small fragments to decrease the probability of long-distance dispersal events from small patches. These findings emphasize the importance of foraging style for seed dispersal and highlight the primacy of habitat size relative to spatial configuration in preserving biotic interactions. PMID:21661555

  18. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hohmann, Peter Reaburn, Kevin Tetsworth, Andreas Imhoff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001, forefoot (p = 0.0001, midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006, hindfoot (p = 0.0001, first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001 and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001. Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance.

  19. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key pointsFatigue does not increase foot pressuresEvery runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favoursFoot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run. PMID:27274662

  20. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system

  1. Analysis of long distance wakes of Horns Rev I using actuator disc approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wake recovery behind the Horns Rev wind farm is analysed to investigate the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) in combination with an actuator disc method (ACD) for farm to farm interaction studies. Periodic boundary conditions on the lateral boundaries are used to model the wind farm (as infinitely wide), using only two columns of turbines. The meteorological conditions of the site are taken into account by introducing wind shear and pre-generated synthetic turbulence to the simulation domain using body forces. Simulations are carried out to study the power production and the velocity deficit in the farm wake. The results are compared to the actual power production as well as to wind measurements at 2 km and 6 km behind the wind farm. The simulated power production inside the farm shows an overall good correlation with the real production, but is slightly overpredicted in the most downstream rows. The simulations overpredict the wake recovery, namely the wind velocity, at long distances behind the farm. Further studies are needed before the presented method can be applied for the simulation of long distance wakes. Suggested parameters to be studied are the development of the turbulence downstream in the domain and the impact of the grid resolution

  2. Analysis of long distance wakes behind a row of turbines – a parameter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the long distance wake behind a row of 10 turbines are conducted to predict wake recovery. The Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys3D is used in combination with the actuator disc concept. Neutral atmospheric conditions are assumed in combination with synthetic turbulence using the Mann method. Both the wind shear profile and turbulence are introduced into the flow field using body forces. Previous simulations using the same simulation method to model the Horns Rev wind farm showed a higher wake recovery at long distances compared to measurements. The current study investigates further the sensitivity to parameters such as the grid resolution, Reynolds number, the turbulence characteristics as well as the impact of using different internal turbine spacings. The clearest impact on the recovery behind the farm could be seen from the turbulence intensity of the incoming flow. The impact of the wind shear on the turbulence intensity in the domain needs further studies. A lower turbulence level gives slower wake recovery as expected. A slower wake recovery can also be seen for a higher grid resolution. The Reynolds number, apart from when using a very low value, has a small impact on the result. The variation of the internal spacing is seen to have a relatively minor impact on the farm wake recovery

  3. Analysis of long distance wakes behind a row of turbines - a parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

    2014-06-01

    Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the long distance wake behind a row of 10 turbines are conducted to predict wake recovery. The Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys3D is used in combination with the actuator disc concept. Neutral atmospheric conditions are assumed in combination with synthetic turbulence using the Mann method. Both the wind shear profile and turbulence are introduced into the flow field using body forces. Previous simulations using the same simulation method to model the Horns Rev wind farm showed a higher wake recovery at long distances compared to measurements. The current study investigates further the sensitivity to parameters such as the grid resolution, Reynolds number, the turbulence characteristics as well as the impact of using different internal turbine spacings. The clearest impact on the recovery behind the farm could be seen from the turbulence intensity of the incoming flow. The impact of the wind shear on the turbulence intensity in the domain needs further studies. A lower turbulence level gives slower wake recovery as expected. A slower wake recovery can also be seen for a higher grid resolution. The Reynolds number, apart from when using a very low value, has a small impact on the result. The variation of the internal spacing is seen to have a relatively minor impact on the farm wake recovery.

  4. Analysis of long distance wakes of Horns Rev I using actuator disc approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, O.; Mikkelsen, R.; Hansen, K. S.; Nilsson, K.; Ivanell, S.

    2014-12-01

    The wake recovery behind the Horns Rev wind farm is analysed to investigate the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) in combination with an actuator disc method (ACD) for farm to farm interaction studies. Periodic boundary conditions on the lateral boundaries are used to model the wind farm (as infinitely wide), using only two columns of turbines. The meteorological conditions of the site are taken into account by introducing wind shear and pre-generated synthetic turbulence to the simulation domain using body forces. Simulations are carried out to study the power production and the velocity deficit in the farm wake. The results are compared to the actual power production as well as to wind measurements at 2 km and 6 km behind the wind farm. The simulated power production inside the farm shows an overall good correlation with the real production, but is slightly overpredicted in the most downstream rows. The simulations overpredict the wake recovery, namely the wind velocity, at long distances behind the farm. Further studies are needed before the presented method can be applied for the simulation of long distance wakes. Suggested parameters to be studied are the development of the turbulence downstream in the domain and the impact of the grid resolution.

  5. A Grounded Theory of Students' Long-Distance Coping With a Family Member's Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, Erin D; Wehrman, Erin C; Delaney, Amy L; McAninch, Kelly G

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we explore how family members cope with one source of stress-cancer diagnosis and treatment. We suggest that coping away from one's family is characterized by constraints that are not common to proximal coping. We conducted six focus groups with college students (N = 21) at a university in the United States to investigate their long-distance coping experiences and used grounded theory methods to develop a model of college students' long-distance coping. Negotiating the tension between being here (at school) and being there (at home) was central to their experiences. Participants described four manifestations of their negotiation between here and there (i.e., expressing/hiding emotion, longing to care for the patient there/avoiding responsibility here, feeling shock at degeneration there/escaping degeneration by being here, and lacking information from there) and three strategies they used to cope (i.e., being here and withdrawing, being here and doing school, and seeking/not seeking support). PMID:25794524

  6. The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuai; Merlin, Christine; Boore, Jeffrey L; Reppert, Steven M

    2011-11-23

    We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16,866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of molecular components for the monarch circadian clockwork; all members of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway whose regulation shows unexpected sexual dimorphism; additional molecular signatures of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant of the sodium/potassium pump that underlies a valuable chemical defense mechanism. The monarch genome enhances our ability to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of long-distance migration. PMID:22118469

  7. Surface analysis of long-distance oxygen plasma sterilized PTFE film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of long-distance oxygen plasma sterilization on surface properties of substrate material, i.e., medical poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), and aging effect of these sterilized PTFE film surfaces were investigated by contact angle measurement, mass loss determination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as bacterial adhesion and platelet adhesion measurements in vitro, respectively. The changes in chemical structure of sterilized PTFE film were followed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As a result of plasma sterilization oxygen-containing functional groups (such as C=O and C=O), especially the C=O group are introduced into PTFE surfaces, and thus pronounced increases of surface free energy and surface wettability are presented when the sample positions are within 0-40 cm. The film surface wettability degrades little as the aging time continued as long as 190 days. At the same time, the minimal surface degradation and damage occur on the sterilized PTFE when the sample position is at 40 cm. Moreover, the antibacterial adhesion and blood compatibility of sterilized PTFE surface are enhanced and the optimal effects are also obtained at 40 cm. The essential reason may be due to the optimal equilibrium between surface wettability and surface damage, which is achieved at 40 cm. Overall, of the surface properties of long-distance oxygen plasma sterilized PTFE analyzed, the sterilization at 40 cm is optimal.

  8. Long-distance plant signaling pathways in response to multiple stressors: the gap in knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Annika E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-03-01

    Plants require the capacity for quick and precise recognition of external stimuli within their environment for survival. Upon exposure to biotic (herbivores and pathogens) or abiotic stressors (environmental conditions), plants can activate hydraulic, chemical, or electrical long-distance signals to initiate systemic stress responses. A plant's stress reactions can be highly precise and orchestrated in response to different stressors or stress combinations. To date, an array of information is available on plant responses to single stressors. However, information on simultaneously occurring stresses that represent either multiple, within, or across abiotic and biotic stress types is nascent. Likewise, the crosstalk between hydraulic, chemical, and electrical signaling pathways and the importance of each individual signaling type requires further investigation in order to be fully understood. The overlapping presence and speed of the signals upon plant exposure to various stressors makes it challenging to identify the signal initiating plant systemic stress/defense responses. Furthermore, it is thought that systemic plant responses are not transmitted by a single pathway, but rather by a combination of signals enabling the transmission of information on the prevailing stressor(s) and its intensity. In this review, we summarize the mode of action of hydraulic, chemical, and electrical long-distance signals, discuss their importance in information transmission to biotic and abiotic stressors, and suggest future research directions. PMID:26944636

  9. High-performance HVDC transmission over long distances; Hochleistungsuebertragung ueber grosse Entfernungen mit hochgespanntem Gleichstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    High-voltage DC transmission is a world-wide established technology for low-cost transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances. Thanks to HVDC transmission, large amounts of electricity can now for the first time also be transmitted over long distances via ocean cable, something that cannot be done with AC power cables. HVDC transmission is independent of grid frequencies and can link grids of different frequency and different quality of frequency. Interconnected grids coupled via DC circuits can exploit additional technical and economic advantages such as mutual supply of power reserves, balancing of peak load, and modulation of active and reactive power. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung (HGUe) ist eine weltweit etablierte Technik zur kostenguenstigen Uebertragung grosser elektrischer Leistungen ueber grosse Entfernungen. Sie schafft erstmals die Moeglichkeit, auch mittels Seekabel grosse Leistungen ueber Entfernungen zu uebertragen, die mit der Drehstromtechnik nicht moeglich sind. HGUeist unabhaengig von den Netzfrequenzen und kann Netze unterschiedlicher Frequenz und Frequenzguete miteinander verbinden. Ueber Gleichstromkreise gekuppelte Verbundnetze koennen zusaetzliche technische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile wie gegenseitige Bereitstellung von Kraftwerksreserven, Spitzenlastausgleich sowie Wirk- und Blindleistungsmodulation nutzt. (orig.)

  10. High-resolution GPS tracking reveals habitat selection and the potential for long-distance seed dispersal by Madagascan flying foxes Pteropus rufus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Oleksy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seed dispersal can be important for the regeneration of forested habitats, especially in regions where deforestation has been severe. Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae have considerable potential for long-distance seed dispersal. We studied the movement patterns and feeding behaviour of the endemic Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus, in Berenty Reserve, southeast Madagascar. Between July and September 2012 (the dry season nine males and six females were tagged with customised GPS loggers which recorded fixes every 2.5 min between 18.00 and 06.00 h. The combined home range of all of the tagged bats during 86 nights exceeded 58,000 ha. Females had larger home ranges and core foraging areas and foraged over longer distances (average 28.1 km; median 26.7 km than males (average 15.4 km; median 9.5 km. Because the study was conducted during the gestation period, the increased energy requirements of females may explain their greater mean foraging area. Compositional analysis revealed that bats show strong preferences for overgrown sisal (Agave sisalana plantations (a mix of shrub, trees and sisal plants and remnant riverside forest patches. Sisal nectar and pollen were abundant food sources during the tracking period and this probably contributed to the selective use of overgrown sisal plantations. The bats also ate large quantities of figs (Ficus grevei during the study, and dispersed seeds of this important pioneer species. The bats flew at an average speed of 9.13 m/s, perhaps to optimise gliding performance. The study confirms that P. rufus has the potential to be a long-distance seed disperser, and is able to fly over a large area, often crossing cleared parts of its habitat. It potentially plays an important role in the regeneration of threatened forest habitats in this biodiversity hotspot.

  11. Effects of Interval Training-Based Glycolytic Capacity on Physical Fitness in Recreational Long-Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Zatoń Marek; Michalik Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 8-week-long interval training (targeting glycolytic capacity) on selected markers of physical fitness in amateur long-distance runners. Methods. The study involved 17 amateur long-distance runners randomly divided into an experimental (n = 8) and control (n = 9) group. The control group performed three or four continuous training sessions per week whereas the experimental group performed two interval running training sessions ...

  12. Protocol: optimisation of a grafting protocol for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for studying long-distance signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Ostendorp, Anna; Pahlow, Steffen; Deke, Jennifer; Thieß, Melanie; Kehr, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Grafting is a well-established technique for studying long-distance transport and signalling processes in higher plants. While oilseed rape has been the subject of comprehensive analyses of xylem and phloem sap to identify macromolecules potentially involved in long-distance information transfer, there is currently no standardised grafting method for this species published. Results We developed a straightforward collar-free grafting protocol for Brassica napus plants with high repr...

  13. Relationships between Training Load, Salivary Cortisol Responses and Performance during Season Training in Middle and Long Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández; Carlos Ma Tejero-González; Juan del Campo-Vecino

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Method Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and sessio...

  14. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard; Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2014-01-01

    Historically there has been a lack of knowledge with respect to long distance travel. Due to the considerable contribution of long distance travel to total travelled kilometres and the related energy consumption from the transport sector and derived impacts on greenhouse emissions, this is problematic. The average travel distance has steadily increased during the latest decades together with the increasing motorisation of daily travel and international aviation. Previously most focus has been...

  15. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    behaviour of these populations. Aims.: The study aimed to uncover the population dynamics, movements and distribution of rats in populations living in sewers. Methods.: We studied rats in a capture–mark–recapture study in two adjacent but separate sewer systems in suburban Copenhagen, Denmark, covering a...... surface area of 30 Ha. Multiple-capture live traps were placed in manholes in public sewers; animals were marked individually and data were collected every fourth week for a period of almost 3 years. Key results.: In total, 332 individual rats were trapped. Approximately one-third were only caught once...... dimensions. Juvenile rats were captured more in the smaller and drier sewer sections. Activity areas of rats of both sexes overlapped partially, and observations of bite wounds were rare, suggesting a high degree of tolerance. The average maximal distance covered by rats was ~200 m for both sexes. Day...

  16. Large-eddy simulations of wind farm production and long distance wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

    2015-06-01

    The future development of offshore wind power will include many wind farms built in the same areas. It is known that wind farms produce long distance wakes, which means that we will see more occasions of farm to farm interaction, namely one wind farm operating in the wake of another wind farm. This study investigates how to perform accurate power predictions on large wind farms and how to assess the long distance wakes generated by these farms. The focus of this paper is the production's and wake's sensitivity to the extension of the grid as well as the turbulence when using Large-eddy simulations (LES) with pregenerated Mann turbulence. The aim is to determine an optimal grid which minimizes blockage effects and ensures constant resolution in the entire wake region at the lowest computational cost. The simulations are first performed in the absence of wind turbines in order to assess how the atmospheric turbulence and wind profile are evolving downstream (up to 12,000 m behind the position where the turbulence is imposed). In the second step, 10 turbines are added in the domain (using an actuator disc method) and their production is analyzed alongside the mean velocities in the domain. The blockage effects are tested using grids with different vertical extents. An equidistant region is used in order to ensure high resolution in the wake region. The importance of covering the entire wake structure inside the equidistant region is analyzed by decreasing the size of this region. In this step, the importance of the lateral size of the Mann turbulence box is also analyzed. In the results it can be seen that the flow is acceptably preserved through the empty domain if a larger turbulence box is used. The relative production is increased (due to blockage effects) for the last turbines using a smaller vertical domain, increased for a lower or narrower equidistant region (due to the smearing of the wake in the stretched area) and decreased when using a smaller turbulence

  17. Toward Long Distance, Sub-diffraction Imaging Using Coherent Camera Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Jason; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Matsuda, Nathan; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Cossairt, Oliver; Veeraraghavan, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose using camera arrays coupled with coherent illumination as an effective method of improving spatial resolution in long distance images by a factor of ten and beyond. Recent advances in ptychography have demonstrated that one can image beyond the diffraction limit of the objective lens in a microscope. We demonstrate a similar imaging system to image beyond the diffraction limit in long range imaging. We emulate a camera array with a single camera attached to an X-Y translation stage. We show that an appropriate phase retrieval based reconstruction algorithm can be used to effectively recover the lost high resolution details from the multiple low resolution acquired images. We analyze the effects of noise, required degree of image overlap, and the effect of increasing synthetic aperture size on the reconstructed image quality. We show that coherent camera arrays have the potential to greatly improve imaging performance. Our simulations show resolution gains of 10x and more are achievabl...

  18. Investigations of a long-distance 1000 MW heat transport system with apros simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a computer model and simulation results for a long-distance heat transport system. The modeled system is designed to transport 1000 MW of heat over a distance of 77 km for district heating purposes. This kind of a nuclear CHP option is being investigated as one option within Fortum's new Loviisa 3 NPP project. The heat produced in Loviisa NPP would be utilized for the district heating of Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. The objective of this study is to carry out simulations to examine the behaviour of such a largescale heat transport system and to perform safety analyses for the purposes of preliminary planning of a heat transport system between Loviisa and Helsinki. The model was created using APROS (Advanced Process Simulation Environment) simulation software

  19. Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential for widespread real-world applications, but no secure long-distance experiment has demonstrated the truly practical operation needed to move QKD from the laboratory to the real world due largely to limitations in synchronization and poor detector performance. Here, we report results obtained using a fully automated, robust QKD system based on the Bennett Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with low-noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) and decoy levels to produce a secret key with unconditional security over a record 140.6 km of optical fibre, an increase of more than a factor of five compared with the previous record for unconditionally secure key generation in a practical QKD system.

  20. Optimum design of 30-km long-distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Liu, Honglin; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Xiangdong; Jin, Yongxing; Kim, Insoo S.; Wu, Xiaobiao

    2005-02-01

    A 30km long distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DOFRTS) system has been made, it use new measuring temperature principle of optical fiber amplified anti-Stokes Raman spontaneous scattering. In the system, 1550nm erbium-doped optical fiber laser, a highness speed data acquisition card and signal processing technique are used. By using these technique, the problem of weak signal detection is resolved and signal to noise ratio is increased. All components of system are put into an intellectualized constant temperature box and work in constant temperature condition. Stability and environment adaptability are improved. By appraisal, performance of the system is listed as follows: length of single mode fiber: 31km, temperature rang:0-100°C (can be expanded), temperature measuring uncertainty:+/-2°C, temperature resolution:0.1°C, measurement time:432s, spatial resolution :3m.

  1. Vascular sap proteomics: providing insight into long-distance signaling during stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eCarella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant vascular system, composed of the xylem and phloem, is important for the transport of water, mineral nutrients, and photosynthate throughout the plant body. The vasculature is also the primary means by which developmental and stress signals move from one organ to another. Due to practical and technological limitations, proteomics analysis of xylem and phloem sap has been understudied in comparison to accessible sample types such as leaves and roots. However, recent advances in sample collection techniques and mass spectrometry technology are making it possible to comprehensively analyze vascular sap proteomes. In this mini-review we discuss the emerging field of vascular sap proteomics, with a focus on recent comparative studies to identify vascular proteins that may play roles in long-distance signaling and other processes during stress responses in plants.

  2. Vascular Sap Proteomics: Providing Insight into Long-Distance Signaling during Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carella, Philip; Wilson, Daniel C; Kempthorne, Christine J; Cameron, Robin K

    2016-01-01

    The plant vascular system, composed of the xylem and phloem, is important for the transport of water, mineral nutrients, and photosynthate throughout the plant body. The vasculature is also the primary means by which developmental and stress signals move from one organ to another. Due to practical and technological limitations, proteomics analysis of xylem and phloem sap has been understudied in comparison to accessible sample types such as leaves and roots. However, recent advances in sample collection techniques and mass spectrometry technology are making it possible to comprehensively analyze vascular sap proteomes. In this mini-review, we discuss the emerging field of vascular sap proteomics, with a focus on recent comparative studies to identify vascular proteins that may play roles in long-distance signaling and other processes during stress responses in plants. PMID:27242852

  3. Long distance electron transmission couples sulphur, iron, calcium and oxygen cycling in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    Geochemical observations in marine sediment have recently documented that electric currents may intimately couple spatially separated biogeochemical processes (1). When marine sediment rich in iron sulphide was exposed to oxygen we observed how the electric currents resulted in significant...... geochemical alterations in the upper centimetres of the anoxic sediment: Sulphides were oxidized to sulphate in anoxic sediment layers. Electrons from this half-reaction were passed to the oxic layers cm above. In this way the domain of oxygen was extended far beyond it’s physically presence. Bioelectrical...... from iron sulfides was to a large extend deposited in the oxic zone as iron oxides and Ca2+ eventually precipitates at the surface as due to high pH caused by cathodic oxygen reduction. The result show how long distance electron transmission allows oxygen to drive the allocation of important minerals...

  4. Highly Efficient Long-Distance Quantum Communication: a Blueprint for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linshu; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Kim, Jungsang; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail; Jiang, Liang

    2015-03-01

    Quantum repeaters provide a way for long distance quantum communication through optical fiber networks. Transmission losses and operation errors are two major challenges to the implementation of quantum repeaters. At each intermediate repeater station, transmission losses can be overcome using either heralded entanglement generation or quantum error correction, while operation errors can be corrected via entanglement purification or quantum error correction. Depending on the mechanisms used to correct loss and operation errors respectively, three generations of quantum repeaters have been proposed. We present a quantitative comparison of different quantum repeater schemes by evaluating the time- and qubit-resource consumed simultaneously. We can identify the most efficient scheme for given technological capabilities, which are characterized by fiber coupling efficiency, local gate fidelity, and local gate speed. Our work provides a roadmap for high-speed quantum networks across continental distances. Linshu and Sreraman contributed equally to this work.

  5. Historical DNA documents long-distance natal homing in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Sara; Overgaard Therkildsen, Nina; Retzel, Anja; Berg Hedeholm, Rasmus; Pedersen, Martin Waever; Meldrup, Dorte; Pampoulie, Christophe; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Grønkjaer, Peter; Nielsen, Einar Eg

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long-distance natal homing (>1000 km) over more than 60 years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation single-nucleotide polymorphism assay, we demonstrate that the vast majority of cod tagged in West Greenland and recaptured on Icelandic spawning grounds belonged to the Iceland offshore population, strongly supporting a hypothesis of homing. The high degree of natal fidelity observed provides the evolutionary settings for development of locally adapted populations in marine fish and emphasize the need to consider portfolio effects in marine fisheries management strategies. PMID:26859133

  6. Long-distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with coherent-state superpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B

    2014-09-15

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case. PMID:26466295

  7. Long distance contribution to $K_{L}$-$K_{S}$ mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jianglei

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to non-perturbatively determine the long-distance contribution to the $K_{L}$-$K_{S}$ mass difference. The calculation is performed on 2+1 flavor, domain wall fermion, $16^3\\times32$ configurations with a 421 MeV pion mass and a kaon mass of 559 MeV . We include only current-current operators and drop all disconnected diagrams in the calculation. The largest contribution comes from quadratically divergent, short distance lattice artifacts. This quadratic divergence is eliminated through the GIM mechanism by introducing a valence charm quark. The remaining short distance effects are then removed by using RI/MOM technique which allows their exact replacement by the physical short distance part.

  8. Low temperature heat from high temperature reactors by means of nuclear long-distance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic idea of the presented system is to convert the heat from a HTGR by means of a chemical reaction into chemically bound energy and to transport this chemical energy in form of gaseous carriers. By the chemical backreaction the energy can be released for consumption. The theoretical and experimental investigations concentrate on the chemical cycle ''steam reforming of methane - methanation''. Heat is transferred from the coolant gas in the primary circuit of the HTGR to a gaseous mixture of methane and steam, producing reformer gas by catalytic steam reforming reaction and storing the heat in form of chemical binding energy. This energy-rich reformer gas can be transported without problems over long distances as a ''cold gas'' and can be stored if required. The energy may be released in form of heat at the place of energy demand by the catalytic methanation reaction. The produced methane is transported back to the HTGR. (M.S.)

  9. Dominance of long distance effects in the KL-KS mass difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that the asymptotic behavior of the weak matrix elements involving the on-mass-shell ground-state mesons with infinite momenta, which was instrumental in explaining the |ΔI| = 1/2 rule in the K → ππ decays, actually implies the vanishing of the matrix element of the local |ΔS| = 2 quark operator arising from the box diagram, when it is taken between |K0| and |K-bar0| states. In contrast, the long distance contribution, arising from the ππ intermediate states as well as the poles of the vector and pseudoscalar mesons, may alone reproduce the observed KL-KS mass difference, in consistency with the selection rule and the rates of the K → ππ decays, depending on the values of the η-η'- · mixing. (author)

  10. Long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling mediated by glial network facilitates visual function in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Reddig, Keith; Li, Hong-Sheng

    2014-02-18

    Neurons rely on glia to recycle neurotransmitters such as glutamate and histamine for sustained signaling. Both mammalian and insect glia form intercellular gap-junction networks, but their functional significance underlying neurotransmitter recycling is unknown. Using the Drosophila visual system as a genetic model, here we show that a multicellular glial network transports neurotransmitter metabolites between perisynaptic glia and neuronal cell bodies to mediate long-distance recycling of neurotransmitter. In the first visual neuropil (lamina), which contains a multilayer glial network, photoreceptor axons release histamine to hyperpolarize secondary sensory neurons. Subsequently, the released histamine is taken up by perisynaptic epithelial glia and converted into inactive carcinine through conjugation with β-alanine for transport. In contrast to a previous assumption that epithelial glia deliver carcinine directly back to photoreceptor axons for histamine regeneration within the lamina, we detected both carcinine and β-alanine in the fly retina, where they are found in photoreceptor cell bodies and surrounding pigment glial cells. Downregulating Inx2 gap junctions within the laminar glial network causes β-alanine accumulation in retinal pigment cells and impairs carcinine synthesis, leading to reduced histamine levels and photoreceptor synaptic vesicles. Consequently, visual transmission is impaired and the fly is less responsive in a visual alert analysis compared with wild type. Our results suggest that a gap junction-dependent laminar and retinal glial network transports histamine metabolites between perisynaptic glia and photoreceptor cell bodies to mediate a novel, long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling, highlighting the importance of glial networks in the regulation of neuronal functions. PMID:24550312

  11. Optimal energy-utilization ratio for long-distance cruising of a model fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Yu, Yong-Liang; Tong, Bing-Gang

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of total energy utilization and its optimization for long-distance migration of fish have attracted much attention in the past. This paper presents theoretical and computational research, clarifying the above well-known classic questions. Here, we specify the energy-utilization ratio (fη) as a scale of cruising efficiency, which consists of the swimming speed over the sum of the standard metabolic rate and the energy consumption rate of muscle activities per unit mass. Theoretical formulation of the function fη is made and it is shown that based on a basic dimensional analysis, the main dimensionless parameters for our simplified model are the Reynolds number (Re) and the dimensionless quantity of the standard metabolic rate per unit mass (Rpm). The swimming speed and the hydrodynamic power output in various conditions can be computed by solving the coupled Navier-Stokes equations and the fish locomotion dynamic equations. Again, the energy consumption rate of muscle activities can be estimated by the quotient of dividing the hydrodynamic power by the muscle efficiency studied by previous researchers. The present results show the following: (1) When the value of fη attains a maximum, the dimensionless parameter Rpm keeps almost constant for the same fish species in different sizes. (2) In the above cases, the tail beat period is an exponential function of the fish body length when cruising is optimal, e.g., the optimal tail beat period of Sockeye salmon is approximately proportional to the body length to the power of 0.78. Again, the larger fish's ability of long-distance cruising is more excellent than that of smaller fish. (3) The optimal swimming speed we obtained is consistent with previous researchers’ estimations.

  12. Safety of long-distance pipelines. Probabilistic and deterministic aspects; Sicherheit von Rohrfernleitungen. Probabilistik und Deterministik im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaender, Robert [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement

    2013-03-15

    The Committee for Long-Distance Pipelines (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reported on the relation between deterministic and probabilistic approaches in order to contribute to a better understanding of the safety management of long-distance pipelines. The respective strengths and weaknesses as well as the deterministic and probabilistic fundamentals of the safety management are described. The comparison includes fundamental aspects, but is essentially determined by the special character of the technical plant 'long-distance pipeline' as an infrastructure project in the area. This special feature results to special operation conditions and related responsibilities. However, our legal system 'long-distance pipeline' does not grant the same legal position in comparison to other infrastructural facilities such as streets and railways. Thus, the question whether and in what manner the impacts from the land-use in the environment of long-distance pipelines have to be considered is again and again the initial point for the discussion on probabilistic and deterministic approaches.

  13. Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ogueta-Alday

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Las carreras de fondo (comprendidas entre los 5 km hasta la maratón han crecido en España tanto en número como en participación. Esto ha suscitado un gran interés en entrenadores y deportistas, que solicitan información y formación sobre los diferentes factores que afectan al rendimiento. Ante esta demanda, el número de investigaciones ha aumentado notablemente. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica ha sido analizar los factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo desde sus diferentes perspectivas. Para ello, se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica en 3 bases de datos (Medline, SportDiscus y Google Scholar y los factores han sido clasificados en 5 grandes grupos, subdivididos a su vez en diferentes apartados: 1- ambientales (aire/viento, temperatura, humedad, altura y pendiente del terreno, 2- ligados al entrenamiento (entrenamiento de resistencia, fuerza, en ambientes calurosos y en altura, 3- fisiológicos (VO2max, umbrales ventilatorios, economía de carrera, edad, género, tipos de fibras musculares, fatiga y raza, 4- biomecánicos (antropometría, leg-stiffness, flexibilidad, patrón de pisada, calzado, ortesis plantares y parámetros espacio-temporales y 5- psicológicos (estrategias de intervención, dirección de la atención y música. La influencia de algunos de éstos sobre el rendimiento es ampliamente conocida; sin embargo, en el caso de algunos factores psicológicos (dirección de la atención y música y biomecánicos (patrón de pisada y parámetros espacio-temporales el número de estudios es escaso o los resultados poco concluyentes. La realización de más estudios, conjuntamente con el avance de las nuevas tecnologías y sistemas de medición, permitirá un mejor conocimiento sobre la temática. Abstract The number of competitions and participation on long-distance races (from 5 km to the marathon in Spain has grown significantly during the last few years. Due to this popularity, both coaches

  14. Safety culture in activities involving ionizing radiation long-distance courses for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.M.; Ghobril, C.N. [ATOMO - Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/C Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanches, M.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Levy, P.J.; Levy, D.S. [Omiccron Programacao Grafica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A.T.O.M.O. is a firm with long experience in the layout and coordination of Radiological Protection courses and, for this reason, has developed long-distance courses, both in Portuguese and in English, using multi-media resources already available for the areas of Gamma-graphy, Nuclear Gauges, Accelerators and Large Irradiators. On developing this project, we focused companies and their personnel to be trained, aiming avoiding their relocation and providing the comfortable of studying at their more convenient time. O.m.i.c.r.o.m., a multimedia firm, our partner in this project, has been responsible for the course program and design. This work consisted in the adaptation of the traditional material for electronic language, through links, hot words and icons especially developed for additional information. Besides images and graphics from the original handouts, animations were developed at O.m.i.c.r.o.m. studios, explaining the procedures with more details and simplifying the comprehension of more complex subjects. For enhancing the Cd Rom, slides were produced, where the pictures move automatically as the explanations are narrated. The Cd also comprises some videos, where the students may visualize practically the complex procedures, which are extremely important. At the end of each topic, the students evaluate their knowledge through multiple choice tests, which deal with the subject studied in the related chapter. This and other highly updated resources are utilized for assuring a better learning. The Cd is not only an electronic handout, but a long-distance course providing weekly support for the students, through Internet, direct access to the instructors by e-mails or chat, previously arranged, access to a data bank constantly updated for more frequent questions, plus link addresses and pages of interest for radiological protection. The tests are taken at the end of each module, before starting the following one. Each module comprises several chapters, totaling

  15. Safety culture in activities involving ionizing radiation long-distance courses for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T.O.M.O. is a firm with long experience in the layout and coordination of Radiological Protection courses and, for this reason, has developed long-distance courses, both in Portuguese and in English, using multi-media resources already available for the areas of Gamma-graphy, Nuclear Gauges, Accelerators and Large Irradiators. On developing this project, we focused companies and their personnel to be trained, aiming avoiding their relocation and providing the comfortable of studying at their more convenient time. O.m.i.c.r.o.m., a multimedia firm, our partner in this project, has been responsible for the course program and design. This work consisted in the adaptation of the traditional material for electronic language, through links, hot words and icons especially developed for additional information. Besides images and graphics from the original handouts, animations were developed at O.m.i.c.r.o.m. studios, explaining the procedures with more details and simplifying the comprehension of more complex subjects. For enhancing the Cd Rom, slides were produced, where the pictures move automatically as the explanations are narrated. The Cd also comprises some videos, where the students may visualize practically the complex procedures, which are extremely important. At the end of each topic, the students evaluate their knowledge through multiple choice tests, which deal with the subject studied in the related chapter. This and other highly updated resources are utilized for assuring a better learning. The Cd is not only an electronic handout, but a long-distance course providing weekly support for the students, through Internet, direct access to the instructors by e-mails or chat, previously arranged, access to a data bank constantly updated for more frequent questions, plus link addresses and pages of interest for radiological protection. The tests are taken at the end of each module, before starting the following one. Each module comprises several chapters, totaling

  16. Highly efficient data transmission facility through very long distance high-speed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is made of the slides of the presentation. For global collaboration as a large scale scientific project, utilization of very high-speed, long distance internet is essential part of the research infrastructure. By the rapid progress of network technology, such as optical fiber and network switches, very high-speed networks are connecting research institutes all over the world and network bandwidth grows and grows. Currently, 10 Gbps network is commonly used and 40 and 100 Gbps network is coming. As the network bandwidth increase, it becomes more difficult to use network efficiently, especially when we use TCP/IP. Furthermore, parallel TCP/IP streams are known to be much more difficult to utilize than single TCP/IP stream. To tackle with these problems, we developed a middle-hardware approach to take care of network streams with wire-rate speed; a programmable hardware framework on which we can realize a network function by developing a firmware for FPGA. We design a middle-hardware-box consists of 5-port network interface and FPGA with large buffer memories, whose firmware can be changed dynamically for the flexibility. Middle-Hardware-Box can be used as a proxy to be settled at the entrance between LAN and WAN, as well as used as a terminal-node to sends and receives packets from and to the network. One of the important features is, it can handle each stream of TCP separately. As the result, all streams between cluster systems can be handled at the gateway, and are controlled by fine-grained scheduling and placing. Since 2001, we have developed 'Data Reservoir System' to transfer huge amount of data between clusters settled in long distant places using parallel TCP streams. For fast data transfer, the important issues are (1) single stream performance is high and (2) performance of each stream is balanced. At the same time, to improve the performance, network environment is very important both as a test environment, that is, artificial network inside

  17. Highly efficient data transmission facility through very long distance high-speed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For global collaboration as a large scale scientific project, utilization of very high-speed, long distance internet is essential part of the research infrastructure. By the rapid progress of network technology very high-speed networks are connecting research institutes all over the world and network bandwidth grows and grows. Currently, 10 Gbps network is commonly used and 40 and 100 Gbps network is coming. As the network bandwidth increase, it becomes more difficult to use network efficiently, especially when we use TCP/IP. Furthermore, parallel TCP/IP streams are known to be much more difficult to utilize than single TCP/IP stream. To tackle with these problems, we developed a middle-hardware approach to take care of network streams with wire-rate speed; a programmable hardware framework on which we can realize a network function by developing a firmware for FPGA. We design a middle-hardware-box consists of 5-port network interface and FPGA with large buffer memories, whose firmware can be changed dynamically for the flexibility. Middle-Hardware-Box can be used as a proxy to be settled at the entrance between LAN and WAN, as well as used as a terminal-node to sends and receives packets from and to the network. One of the important features is, it can handle each stream of TCP separately. As the result, all streams between cluster systems can be handled at the gateway, and are controlled by fine-grained scheduling and placing. Since 2001, we have developed 'Data Reservoir System' to transfer huge amount of data between clusters settled in long distant places using parallel TCP streams. For fast data transfer, the important issues are (1) single stream performance is high and (2) performance of each stream is balanced. We performed long distance network experiments to evaluate the effect of our approach. We used network path from Tokyo to Seattle, Usa with a 10 Gbps WAN PHY link. The results of experiments show that four TCP/IP streams on a 10 Gbps link are

  18. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  19. Ecological systems as computer networks: Long distance sea dispersal as a communication medium between island plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaa, Adnen; Ben Abid, Samir; Boulila, Abdennacer; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Ben Fadhel, Najeh

    2016-06-01

    Ecological systems are known to exchange genetic material through animal species migration and seed dispersal for plants. Isolated plant populations have developed long distance dispersal as a means of propagation which rely on meteorological such as anemochory and hydrochory for coast, island and river bank dwelling species. Long distance dispersal by water, in particular, in the case of water current bound islands, calls for the analogy with computer networks, where each island and nearby mainland site plays the role of a network node, the water currents play the role of a transmission channel, and water borne seeds as data packets. In this paper we explore this analogy to model long distance dispersal of seeds among island and mainland populations, when traversed with water currents, in order to model and predict their future genetic diversity. The case of Pancratium maritimum L. populations in Tunisia is used as a proof of concept, where their genetic diversity is extrapolated. PMID:27060659

  20. DISTRIBUTED OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR FOR LONG-DISTANCE OIL PIPELINE HEALTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A fully distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for monitoring long-distance oil pipeline health is proposed based on optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is installed along the pipeline acting as a sensor. The experiments show that the cable swells when exposed to oil and induced additional bending losses inside the fiber, and the optical attenuation of the fiber coated by a thin skin with periodical hardness is sensitive to deformation and vibration caused by oil leakage, tampering,or mechanical impact. The region where the additional attenuation occurred is detected and located by DOFS based on OTDR, the types of pipeline accidents are identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power received by an optical power meter. Another prototype of DOFS based on a forward traveling frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) is also proposed to monitor pipeline. The advantages and disadvantages of DOFSs based on OTDR and FMCW are discussed. The experiments show that DOFSs are capable of detecting and locating distant oil pipeline leakages and damages in real time with an estimated precision of ten meters over tens of kilometers.

  1. Long-distance quantum teleportation assisted with free-space entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faithful long-distance quantum teleportation necessitates prior entanglement distribution between two communicated locations. The particle carrying on the unknown quantum information is then combined with one particle of the entangled states for Bell-state measurements, which leads to a transfer of the original quantum information onto the other particle of the entangled states. However in most of the implemented teleportation experiments nowadays, the Bell-state measurements are performed even before successful distribution of entanglement. This leads to an instant collapse of the quantum state for the transmitted particle, which is actually a single-particle transmission thereafter. Thus the true distance for quantum teleportation is, in fact, only in a level of meters. In the present experiment we design a novel scheme which has overcome this limit by utilizing fiber as quantum memory. A complete quantum teleportation is achieved upon successful entanglement distribution over 967 meters in public free space. Active feed-forward control techniques are developed for real-time transfer of quantum information. The overall experimental fidelities for teleported states are better than 89.6%, which signify high-quality teleportation. (rapid communications)

  2. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  3. Mechanistic analytical models for long-distance seed dispersal by wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, G G; Porporato, A; Nathan, R; Siqueira, M; Soons, M B; Poggi, D; Horn, H S; Levin, S A

    2005-09-01

    We introduce an analytical model, the Wald analytical long-distance dispersal (WALD) model, for estimating dispersal kernels of wind-dispersed seeds and their escape probability from the canopy. The model is based on simplifications to well-established three-dimensional Lagrangian stochastic approaches for turbulent scalar transport resulting in a two-parameter Wald (or inverse Gaussian) distribution. Unlike commonly used phenomenological models, WALD's parameters can be estimated from the key factors affecting wind dispersal--wind statistics, seed release height, and seed terminal velocity--determined independently of dispersal data. WALD's asymptotic power-law tail has an exponent of -3/2, a limiting value verified by a meta-analysis for a wide variety of measured dispersal kernels and larger than the exponent of the bivariate Student t-test (2Dt). We tested WALD using three dispersal data sets on forest trees, heathland shrubs, and grassland forbs and compared WALD's performance with that of other analytical mechanistic models (revised versions of the tilted Gaussian Plume model and the advection-diffusion equation), revealing fairest agreement between WALD predictions and measurements. Analytical mechanistic models, such as WALD, combine the advantages of simplicity and mechanistic understanding and are valuable tools for modeling large-scale, long-term plant population dynamics. PMID:16224691

  4. Narratives of Psychosocial Response to Microtrauma Injury among Long-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley C. Russell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with microtrauma or overuse injuries resulting from an accumulation of repeated small forces may differ from athletes with macrotrauma or acute injuries in their psychosocial responses because of the unique challenges presented by these insidious-onset and often chronic injuries. Our purpose was to use narrative inquiry to examine the psychosocial experiences and responses of 10 long-distance runners who had experienced microtrauma injuries. Qualitative data analysis of interview data led to a chronological timeline of the injury experience and an assessment of the meaning attributed to these injury experiences using a variation of Mishler’s core-narrative approach. Participants reported distinct thoughts, feelings, and behaviors during each phase of the injury—pre-injury, injury onset, and outcome. In the pre-injury period, participants indicated specific running-related goals and attributed their injuries to overtraining or a change in training. During the injury onset phase, participants consistently indicated two themes: self-diagnosis and treatment, and not taking time off. Within the outcome phase of injury, participants acknowledged changed training because of the injury, and lessons learned from their injury experiences. The narratives of microtrauma-injured runners revealed psychosocial distress and behavioral tendencies post-injury that have important implications for runners, coaches, and healthcare professionals.

  5. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito-borne virus infections, such as dengue and chikungunya, are continuously expanding their geographical range. The dengue virus, which is known to be a common cause of febrile illness in tropical areas of the Old World, is now widespread in the Americas. In most affected areas, all the four dengue virus serotypes have circulated. Recently, small clusters of dengue have been identified also in Southern Europe during the hot season. The chikungunya virus, initially restricted to Central Africa, where is a common cause of sporadic cases or small outbreaks, and Asia, where it is used to cause large epidemics, has recently invaded new territories. After ravaging Indian Ocean Islands and the Indian subcontinent, CHIKV caused an outbreak in north-eastern Italy. Recently, chikungunya has reached the Caribbean, causing for the first time a large epidemic on the American continent. Although Aedes aegypti is the main vector of both viruses, Aedes albopictus, the Asian 'Tiger' mosquito, is now playing an increasingly important role, contributing to their spread in temperate climate areas. Hereby, we focus the attention on outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya occurring in previously disease-free areas and discuss factors associated with the long-distance spread of the vector-borne infections, such as mutations increasing viral fitness, climate change, urbanization, and globalization of humans and vectors. PMID:25491436

  6. Transmission system of guide-wave for a pipe using a long distance wave guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenshi; Murayama, Riichi; Ushitani, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Nondestructive inspection of a high-temperature structure is required to guarantee its safety. However, there are no useful sensors for high-temperature structures. Some of them cannot work at temperatures over 50°C.Another concern is that it is too expensive to use. Therefore, a sensing system, which can transmit and receive an ultrasonic wave and travel a long distance using a long waveguide, has been studied. This means that an ultrasonic sensor could be driven at atmospheric temperature. We could finally confirm that a guided ultrasonic wave generated by a trial electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) with a thin Ni sheet on the surface of the pipe can travel more than 10m using a thin bar with a 2mm diameter as the waveguide. However, we had difficulty in receiving a reflected ultrasonic wave from the bottom surface of a test specimen. We tried to improve the trial inspection system using an ultrasonic horn. Finally, an experiment in which the temperature of a test block was heated to about 500°C has been done and the reflected ultrasonic wave from the bottom surface of it has been successfully detected using a long waveguide and the wave horn. Finally, we tried to transmit and receive a guided wave in a pipe using the developed system. It was determined that an additional one turn-shaped or wave-shaped waveguide attached to the surface of the pipe in the circumferential direction is useful.

  7. A long distance dispersal hypothesis for the Pandanaceae and the origins of the Pandanus tectorius complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Timothy; Callmander, Martin W; Buerki, Sven; Keeley, Sterling C

    2015-02-01

    Pandanaceae (screwpines) is a monocot family composed of c. 750 species widely distributed in the Paleotropics. It has been proposed that the family may have a Gondwanan origin with an extant Paleotropical distribution resulting from the breakup of that supercontinent. However, fossils supporting that hypothesis have been recently reassigned to other families while new fossil discoveries suggest an alternate hypothesis. In the present study, nuclear and chloroplast sequences were used to resolve relationships among Pandanaceae genera. Two well-supported fossils were used to produce a chronogram to infer whether the age of major intra-familial lineages corresponds with the breakup of Gondwana. The Pandanaceae has a Late Cretaceous origin, and genera on former Gondwanan landmasses began to diverge in the Late Eocene, well after many of the southern hemisphere continents became isolated. The results suggest an extant distribution influenced by long-distance-dispersal. The most widespread group within the family, the Pandanus tectorius species complex, originated in Eastern Queensland within the past six million years and has spread to encompass nearly the entire geographic extent of the family from Africa through Polynesia. The spread of that group is likely due to dispersal via hydrochory as well as a combination of traits such as agamospermy, anemophily, and multi-seeded propagules which can facilitate the establishment of new populations in remote locations. PMID:25463018

  8. Improvement of long-distance atmospheric transfer models Post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, although a tragedy in human terms, provided a valuable opportunity to examine our ability to model the dispersion and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere as they are transported over long distances by the wind. Models of long-range pollutant transport have a variety of uses in the context of accidental releases of radioactivity: in the early stages after or during an incident, they would assist in providing an indication of when and where contamination might be expected to appear in subsequent days and what its severity would be for a postulated (or known) release magnitude. As measurements of contamination become available, models can play a further role in emergency response: if the characteristics of the release, particularly the amounts of various radionuclides, are not known, they could be used to work back from measurements to properties of the release. They also provide a tool for an intelligent interpolation or extrapolation from the measurements to estimates of contamination levels in areas having no data. On a longer time-scale after an accident, they could assist in forming a total view of the situation and in assessing how important various phenomena were in determining the final contamination patterns

  9. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai W.F.BODE; A.Jamie WOOD; Daniel W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    Group navigation is of great importance for many animals,such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish.One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders ("Many-wrongs principle").Here,we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connectious as preferential interactions between individuals.Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion.We use network summary statistics,in particular network motifs,to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements.It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered,but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups.We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2):329-341,2012].

  10. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-01-01

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea. PMID:27615838

  11. P.I.A.F.E project: long distance transport of low energy exotic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the PIAFE project is the long distance (400 m) transport of a low energy radioactive ion beam from the ILL (Institut Laue Langevin) to the ISN (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires) of Grenoble (France). The production, extraction, ionization and mass separation of ions is performed by the ILL, while the transformation of ions into multicharged ions, their stripping and acceleration is carried out at the ISN. Theoretical and experimental studies for a simple an original guidance solution have shown that such a long transport, even delicate, should not encounter any major difficulty. The main objectives of this thesis is the technical realization of a 18 m section of this transport line. The problem of supports and focalizing elements alignment has been solved together with the other problems such as: the central trajectory deviation due to alignment defects and to the Earth's magnetic field; the particle losses due to charge exchange with the residual gas and the emittance increase by Coulomb scattering. It has been demonstrated that a 90% transmission can be obtained using a 25 keV energy and a 10-7 mbar vacuum. Experimental measurements using a rubidium ion source have allowed to validate a theoretical model of emittance increase due to the residual gas-ions interactions. The increase of emittance with respect to the pressure has been measured using four residual gases of different mass. (J.S.). 29 refs., 61 figs., 19 tabs., 8 photos., 4 appends

  12. White Rabbit Precision Time Protocol on Long-Distance Fiber Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierikx, Erik F; Wallin, Anders E; Fordell, Thomas; Myyry, Jani; Koponen, Petri; Merimaa, Mikko; Pinkert, Tjeerd J; Koelemeij, Jeroen C J; Peek, Henk Z; Smets, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The application of White Rabbit precision time protocol (WR-PTP) in long-distance optical fiber links has been investigated. WR-PTP is an implementation of PTP in synchronous Ethernet optical fiber networks, originally intended for synchronization of equipment within a range of 10 km. This paper discusses the results and limitations of two implementations of WR-PTP in the existing communication fiber networks. A 950-km WR-PTP link was realized using unidirectional paths in a fiber pair between Espoo and Kajaani, Finland. The time transfer on this link was compared (after initial calibration) against a clock comparison by GPS precise point positioning (PPP). The agreement between the two methods remained within [Formula: see text] over three months of measurements. Another WR-PTP implementation was realized between Delft and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, by cascading two links of 137 km each. In this case, the WR links were realized as bidirectional paths in single fibers. The measured time offset between the starting and end points of the link was within 5 ns with an uncertainty of 8 ns, mainly due to the estimated delay asymmetry caused by chromatic dispersion. PMID:26780791

  13. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W. F. BODE, A. Jamie WOOD, Daniel W. FRANKS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Group navigation is of great importance for many animals, such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish. One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders (“Many-wrongs principle”. Here, we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connections as preferential interactions between individuals. Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion. We use network summary statistics, in particular network motifs, to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements. It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered, but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups. We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2: 329-341, 2012].

  14. Long-distance dispersal helps germinating mahogany seedlings escape defoliation by a specialist caterpillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norghauer, Julian M; Grogan, James; Malcolm, Jay R; Felfili, Jeanine M

    2010-02-01

    Herbivores and pathogens with acute host specificity may promote high tree diversity in tropical forests by causing distance- and density-dependent mortality of seedlings, but evidence is scarce. Although Lepidoptera larvae are the most abundant and host-specific guild of herbivores in these forests, their impact upon seedling distributions remains largely unknown. A firm test of the mechanism underpinning the Janzen-Connell hypothesis is difficult, even for a single tree species, because it requires more than just manipulating seeds and seedlings and recording their fates. Experimental tests require: (1) an insect herbivore that is identified and highly specialised, (2) linkage to an in situ measure (or prevention) of herbivory, and (3) evaluation and confirmation among many conspecific adult trees across years. Here we present experimental evidence for a spatially explicit interaction between newly germinating seedlings of a Neotropical emergent tree, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae), and caterpillars of a noctuid moth (Steniscadia poliophaea). In the understory of a southeastern Amazon forest, the proportion of attacks, leaf area lost, and seedling mortality due to this specialised herbivore peaked near Swietenia trees, but declined significantly with increasing distance from mature fruiting trees, as predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. We conclude that long-distance dispersal events (>50 m) provided an early survival advantage for Swietenia seedlings, and propose that the role of larval Lepidoptera as Janzen-Connell vectors may be underappreciated in tropical forests. PMID:19885680

  15. Capture of fixation by rotational flow; a deterministic hypothesis regarding scaling and stochasticity in fixational eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Mansel Wilkinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual scan paths exhibit complex, stochastic dynamics. Even during visual fixation, the eye is in constant motion. Fixational drift and tremor are thought to reflect fluctuations in the persistent neural activity of neural integrators in the oculomotor brainstem, which integrate sequences of transient saccadic velocity signals into a short term memory of eye position. Despite intensive research and much progress, the precise mechanisms by which oculomotor posture is maintained remain elusive. Drift exhibits a stochastic statistical profile which has been modelled using random walk formalisms. Tremor is widely dismissed as noise. Here we focus on the dynamical profile of fixational tremor, and argue that tremor may be a signal which usefully reflects the workings of the oculomotor postural control. We identify signatures reminiscent of a certain flavour of transient neurodynamics; toric travelling waves which rotate around a central phase singularity. Spiral waves play an organisational role in dynamical systems at many scales throughout nature, though their potential functional role in brain activity remains a matter of educated speculation. Spiral waves have a repertoire of functionally interesting dynamical properties, including persistence, which suggest that they could in theory contribute to persistent neural activity in the oculomotor postural control system. Whilst speculative, the singularity hypothesis of oculomotor postural control implies testable predictions, and could provide the beginnings of an integrated dynamical framework for eye movements across scales.

  16. Phloem Proteomics Reveals New Aspects of Long-distance Signaling in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urs F.Benning; Banita Tamot; Susanne Hoffmann-Benning

    2012-01-01

    As the world population grows our need for food and fuel increases drastically.Given the additional impact of the global climate change a second "green revolution",however seems unlikely to be achieved by simply adding fertilizer or accessing new land but will need a better understanding of the factors and processes essential for plant growth and development.One of those processes is the adaptation of plants to their environment.Since plants are sessile and cannot move to appropriate hiding places or feeding grounds to escape adverse conditions,they evolved mechanisms to detect changes in their environment,communicate these to different organs,and adjust development accordingly.One of these adaptations,the phloem,serves as a major trafficking pathway for assimilates,viruses,RNA,plant hormones,metabolites,and proteins with functions ranging from synthesis to metabolism to signaling.The study of signaling compounds within the phloem is essential for our understanding of plant communication of environmental cues.Determining the nature of signals and the mechanisms by which they are communicated through the phloem will lead to a more complete understanding of plant development and plant responses to stress and,as a result could lead to the development of plants with increased adaptation to a changed environment.Our analysis of Arabidopsis phloem exudates revealed several lipid-binding proteins as well as lipids.Lipids are not typically expected in the aqueous environment of SEs.Yet the long-distance transport of hydrophobic compounds in aqueous systems is not without precedence in biological systems:In human blood lipids are often bound to proteins and transported for storage,use,modification,or degradation; alternatively,they serve as messengers and modulate transcription factor activity and,as a result,development.It is conceivable that lipids and the respective lipid-binding proteins in the phloem serve similar functions in plants and play an important role in

  17. Innovation design of long-distance pipelines buried under high-filling planned roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshen Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a long-distance gas pipeline is unavoidably buried under a planned high-filling road, the high fill subgrade setting will result in the change of the pipe's mechanical shape and the local stress concentration on the pipe, which will pose threats to the safe operation of the pipeline. Protection culverts are generally adopted to solve this issue, but the construction of protection culverts are difficult and high in cost and usually unable to meet the requirements of construction schedule of the planned road project by the local government. For this reason, the stress on pipelines in high fill subgrade was analyzed and a rectification measure was proposed and its safety and rationality was also calculated. The results show that increasing pipe thickness is a feasible rectification measure. Thus, we analyzed the stability of and stress on the pipe caused by the uneven high fill setting by using the ABAQUS finite element software package, in which the pipe was simulated as the beam element, the backfill above the pipe as the stress load, and the elastic foundation underneath the pipe as the evenly-distributed spring. From the stress cloud charts, we can see the stress concentration on the pipe where a sudden change occurs in high fill setting. Without proper measures, accidents would be inevitable in the end. The analysis results from the ABAQUS also show that the scheme of increasing the pipe thickness will be the most cost-effective and practical way to deal with the stress resulted from the uneven high fill setting above the pipe. But it is pointed out that the pipeline laying route should avoid planned high filling roads as far as possible to ensure its safe operation.

  18. Relaxed Molecular Clock Provides Evidence for Long-Distance Dispersal of Nothofagus (Southern Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Michael

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  19. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  20. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases on CARIBIC long-distance flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dix

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was implemented and operated onboard a long-distance passenger aircraft within the framework of the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container. The instrument was designed to keep weight, size and power consumption low and to comply with civil aviation regulations. It records spectra of scattered light from three viewing directions (nadir, 10° above and below horizon using a miniaturized telescope system. The telescopes are integrated in the main pylon of the inlet system which is mounted at the belly of the aircraft. Fibre bundles transmit light from the telescopes to spectrograph-detector units inside the DOAS container instrument. The latter is part of the removable CARIBIC instrument container, which is installed monthly on the aircraft for a series of measurement flights.

    During 30 flight operations within three years, measurements of HCHO, HONO, NO2, BrO, O3 and the oxygen dimer O4 were conducted. All of these trace gases except BrO could be analysed with a 30 s time resolution. HONO was detected for the first time in a deep convective cloud over central Asia, while BrO, NO2 and O3 could be observed in tropopause fold regions. Biomass burning signatures over South America could be seen and measurements during ascent and descent provided information on boundary layer trace gas profiles (e.g. NO2 or HCHO.

  1. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N Louise

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as "greenbeard" genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one's own type, resulting in cooperation between

  2. Using task dynamics to quantify the affordances of throwing for long distance and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Weightman, Andrew; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Zhu, Qin

    2016-07-01

    In 2 experiments, the current study explored how affordances structure throwing for long distance and accuracy. In Experiment 1, 10 expert throwers (from baseball, softball, and cricket) threw regulation tennis balls to hit a vertically oriented 4 ft × 4 ft target placed at each of 9 locations (3 distances × 3 heights). We measured their release parameters (angle, speed, and height) and showed that they scaled their throws in response to changes in the target's location. We then simulated the projectile motion of the ball and identified a continuous subspace of release parameters that produce hits to each target location. Each subspace describes the affordance of our target to be hit by a tennis ball moving in a projectile motion to the relevant location. The simulated affordance spaces showed how the release parameter combinations required for hits changed with changes in the target location. The experts tracked these changes in their performance and were successful in hitting the targets. We next tested unusual (horizontal) targets that generated correspondingly different affordance subspaces to determine whether the experts would track the affordance to generate successful hits. Do the experts perceive the affordance? They do. In Experiment 2, 5 cricketers threw to hit either vertically or horizontally oriented targets and successfully hit both, exhibiting release parameters located within the requisite affordance subspaces. We advocate a task dynamical approach to the study of affordances as properties of objects and events in the context of tasks as the future of research in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766510

  3. The fate of organic micropollutants during long-term/long-distance river bank filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Enrico; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; Greskowiak, Janek; Timmer, Harrie; Massmann, Gudrun

    2016-03-01

    The fate of organic micropollutants during long-term/long-distance river bank filtration (RBF) at a temporal scale of several years was investigated along a row of monitoring wells perpendicular to the Lek River (the Netherlands). Out of 247 compounds, which were irregularly analyzed in the period 1999-2013, only 15 were detected in both the river and river bank observation wells. Out of these, 10 compounds (1,4-dioxan, 1,5-naphthalene disulfonate (1,5-NDS), 2-amino-1,5-NDS, 3-amino-1,5-NDS, AOX, carbamazepine, EDTA, MTBE, toluene and triphenylphosphine oxide) showed fully persistent behavior (showing no concentration decrease at all), even after 3.6 years transit time. The remaining 5 compounds (1,3,5-naphthalene trisulfonate (1,3,5-NTS), 1,3,6-NTS, diglyme, iopamidol, triglyme) were partially removed. Their reactive transport parameters (removal rate constants/half-lives, retardation coefficients) were inferred from numerical modeling. In addition, maximum half-lives for 14 of the fully removed compounds, for which the data availability was sufficient to deduce 100% removal during sub-surface passage, were approximated based on travel times to the nearest well. The study is one of very few reporting on the long-term field-scale behavior of organic micropollutants. It highlights the efficiency of RBF for water quality improvement as a pre-treatment step for drinking water production. However, it also shows the very persistent behavior of various compounds in groundwater. PMID:26766391

  4. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases on CARIBIC long-distance flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was implemented and operated onboard a long-distance passenger aircraft within the framework of the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container. The instrument was designed to keep weight, size and power consumption low and to comply with civil aviation regulations. It records spectra of scattered light from three viewing directions (nadir, 10° above and below horizon using a miniaturized telescope system. The telescopes are integrated in the main pylon of the inlet system which is mounted at the belly of the aircraft. Fibre bundles transmit light from the telescopes to spectrograph-detector units inside the DOAS container instrument. The latter is part of the removable CARIBIC instrument container, which is installed monthly on the aircraft for a series of measurement flights.

    During 30 flight operations within three years, measurements of HCHO, HONO, NO2, BrO, O3 and the oxygen dimer O4 were conducted. All of these trace gases except BrO could be analysed with a 30 s time resolution. HONO was detected for the first time in a deep convective cloud over central Asia. BrO, NO2 and O3 could be observed in tropopause fold regions, biomass burning signatures over South America could be seen and measurements during ascent and descent provided information on boundary layer trace gas profiles (e.g. NO2 or HCHO.

  5. Valuation of travel time for international long-distance travel - results from the Fehmarn Belt stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Rich, Jeppe; Burge, Peter; Potoglou, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    be justified due to the number of travellers it cannot be justified when looking at the mileage consumption and its resulting environmental impacts. In this paper, we investigate international long-distance travel preferences related to travel between Scandinavia and Central Europe with particular...

  6. Intact plant magnetic resonance imaging to study dynamics in long-distance sap flow and flow-conducting surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Heemskerk, A.M.; As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fragile pressure gradients present in the xylem and phloem, methods to study sap flow must be minimally invasive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) meets this condition. A dedicated MRI method to study sap flow has been applied to quantify long-distance xylem flow and hydraulics in an inta

  7. Intact plant magnetic resonance imaging to study dynamics in long-distance sap flow and flow-conducting surface area.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Heemskerk, A.M.; As, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fragile pressure gradients present in the xylem and phloem, methods to study sap flow must be minimally invasive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) meets this condition. A dedicated MRI method to study sap flow has been applied to quantify long-distance xylem flow and hydraulics in an inta

  8. Fuel use and metabolic response to endurance exercise : a wind tunnel study of a long-distance migrant shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas; Kvist, Anders; Lindström, Åke; Piersma, Theunis; Visser, G. Henk

    2002-01-01

    This study examines fuel use and metabolism in a group of long-distance migrating birds, red knots Calidris canutus (Scolopacidae), flying under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel for up to 10 h. Data are compared with values for resting birds fasting for the same time. Plasma levels of free fat

  9. When Distance Is Problematic: Communication, Coping, and Relational Satisfaction in Female College Students' Long-Distance Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Katheryn C.; Kinney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to gain an in-depth understanding of the situations in which long-distance dating relationships (LDDRs) are distressing for female college students, and to examine the associations between the perceived helpfulness of various communication coping strategies and relational satisfaction in both high and low distress…

  10. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Historically there has been a lack of knowledge with respect to long distance travel. Due to the considerable contribution of long distance travel to total travelled kilometres and the related energy consumption from the transport sector and derived impacts on greenhouse emissions, this is proble......Historically there has been a lack of knowledge with respect to long distance travel. Due to the considerable contribution of long distance travel to total travelled kilometres and the related energy consumption from the transport sector and derived impacts on greenhouse emissions......, this is problematic. The average travel distance has steadily increased during the latest decades together with the increasing motorisation of daily travel and international aviation. Previously most focus has been on domestic daily travel activities, but globalisation has, together with changes in price structures...... and increasing income, emphasised a travel type segment with significant impact on the total level of travelling. International travel has increased its market shares considerably, and the strong relation with income changes suggests a travel type segment of significant importance regarding future travel...

  11. On the participation in medium- and long-distance travel: a decomposition analysis for the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limtanakool, N.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Social and economic benefits have accrued from medium- and long-distance travel, but at the expense of the environment. Since the travel behaviour literature tends to concentrate on shortdistance trips or trips within daily urban systems, a better understanding of the factors shaping medium- and lon

  12. Travelling on a budget : predictions and ecological evidence for bottlenecks in the annual cycle of long-distance migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2008-01-01

    Long-distance migration, and the study of the migrants who undertake these journeys, has fascinated generations of biologists. However, many aspects of the annual cycles of these migrants remain a mystery as do many of the driving forces behind the evolution and maintenance of the migrations themsel

  13. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  14. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  15. The evolutionary history of Eryngium (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): rapid radiations, long distance dispersals, and hybridizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Carolina I; Martínez, Susana G; Downie, Stephen R

    2008-03-01

    /or morphological or ecological traits. Evidence from branch lengths and low sequence divergence estimates suggests a rapid radiation at the base of each of these lineages. Conflict between chloroplast and nuclear data sets is weak, but the disagreements found are suggestive that hybrid speciation in Eryngium might have been a cause, but also a consequence, of the different rapid radiations observed. Dispersal-vicariance analysis indicates that Eryngium and its two subgenera originated from western Mediterranean ancestors and that the present-day distribution of the genus is explained by several dispersal events, including one trans-Atlantic dispersal. In general, these dispersals coincide with the polytomies observed, suggesting that they played key roles in the diversification of the genus. The evolution of Eryngium combines a history of long distance dispersals, rapid radiations, and hybridization, culminating in the taxonomic complexity observed today in the genus. PMID:18178486

  16. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  17. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  18. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  19. Sudden death during long distance air travel in an Hb S/C disease patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Nagaratnam, M

    2001-09-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder and individuals who are homozygous for the sickle cell gene (HbS/S) show the clinical manifestations of the disease. The individuals who are heterozygous for the sickle cell gene (HbA/S) are referred to as sickle cell trait. In these people, under normal circumstances, symptoms are usually absent or mild. However, thorough investigation of the latter condition is also important, because sickling could occur under certain situations, such as prolonged hypoxia. The level of haemoglobin S(HbS), the ratio of HbS to haemoglobin A (HbA) and the presence of variants such as haemoglobin C (HbC) can alter the entire course of the condition. An unexpected sudden death in a 41-year-old Nigerian, who was apparently in good health and was on a long duration flight, is presented. According to available evidence he was previously diagnosed to be suffering from sickle cell trait. Based on medical advice oxygen was supplied to him throughout the flight. Two hours prior to landing at the international airport in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia he suddenly became breathless and died shortly after. Autopsy revealed that the immediate cause of death was pulmonary thrombo-embolism originating from calf vein thrombosis. It was also established that the thrombus in the calf vein was not pre-existing. Histology revealed that there was extensive and generalized sickling. Haemoglobin electrophoresis on the postmortem sample of blood confirmed that the deceased had Hb S/C disease and not sickle cell trait. The presence of HbC together with the long hours of flight and associated inactivity had probably complicated the case. Various aspects of the sickle-cell condition are highlighted. Allegations of negligence were made against the airline and the doctor who cleared the deceased in Nigeria (the deceased was employed in a well-known multinational company) for long distance non-stop air travel. Various medico-legal issues pertaining to the cause and mode of

  20. Potential benefits of long-distance electricity transmission in China for air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Yuan, J.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    China is expanding west-to-east long-distance electricity transmission capacity with the aim of reducing eastern coal power production and resulting air pollution. In addition to coal power, this new grid capacity can be used to transport renewable-generated electricity with resulting climate co-benefits. Here we use an integrated assessment to evaluate the air quality and climate benefits of twelve proposed transmission lines in China, and compare two energy-by-wire strategies that transmit 1) only coal power (Coal-by-wire, CbW) or 2) combined renewable plus coal power (Renewable and coal-by-wire, (RE+C)bW), with 3) the current practice of transporting coal by rail for conversion to electricity near eastern demand centers (Coal-by-rail, CbR). Based on a regional atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-Chem, electricity transmission through the proposed lines leads to 2-3 μg/m3 (2-7%) reduction in the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the eastern provinces relative to 2010 levels, roughly ~1 μg/m3 greater than the reduction achieved in CbR where dirty coal units are locally replaced with efficient ones. Although the eastern air quality improvement is similar irrespective of the fuel source to power the lines, adding coal generation results in up to 3% increase in annual mean PM2.5 levels in some exporting provinces, whereas such increase is not observed when most added capacity is renewable-based. Counting both the economic value of reduced carbon emissions and the health-related air quality benefits can significantly improve the cost-effectiveness of transmitting both renewable and coal power. Comparing (RE+C)bW with the two coal-based options, we find not only 20% larger reduction in air-pollution-related deaths, but also three times greater reduction in CO2 emissions. Our study hence demonstrates the significance of coordinating renewable energy planning with transmission planning to simultaneously tackle air pollution and climate

  1. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Heger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA, free PSA (fPSA and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively, lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L. It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL. Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine. Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA.

  2. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49-57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0-0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa-sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  3. Foreword—welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Murray

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long distance transport of animals within countries, between countries, across regions and across continents is increasing significantly and is also changing in nature. Statistics from the International Trade Centre of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization show that the value of world trade in live animals soared from US$8.7 billion in 2000 to US$12.1 billion in 2005. This enormous figure would be even greater if zoo animals, wildlife and illicit traffic were included.The history of animal transportation goes back thousands of years. It remains a legitimate practice to this day provided proper measures are taken to protect animal well-being and health. What has made circumstances different in the 21st century is the nature of transport (land, sea and air, the volume of traffic and a public awareness of welfare issues with demands that animals be treated humanely and in accordance with best contemporary practices. This increased volume of transport creates an unprecedented risk for disseminating infectious diseases, including those that may affect people.Key public concerns about animal welfare relate to factors such as a lack of infrastructure and investment in training, research and standards development, as well as indifference and neglect. The live animal transportation industries are threatened when these deficiencies are not corrected.Fortunately, a number of countries foresaw these problems and introduced a series of activities to support good animal welfare practices. Many recognised the clear connection between animal welfare, health and husbandry practice, and established policy settings to include these activities under a veterinary public and animal health umbrella. Recognising its critical importance, the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE in its IVth Strategic plan (points a to b, identified animal welfare as a key issue and launched a

  4. Challenges related to storage and transfer of solar energy with a case study on long distance power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Kvernevik, Eirik Bøhn

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that will be discussed in this thesis are two-fold; the problems related to trans- mission of power over long distances, and the need for energy storage, especially at night. Both of the issues are accentuated by solar power where the distance between production cite and consumer may become large. The need for storage is a consequence of the intermittent nature of solar power, which relies upon the presence of the sunlight. These two concerns differ clearly from ...

  5. Adiabatic quantum simulation with a segmented ion trap: Application to long-distance entanglement in quantum spin systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zippilli, S.; Johanning, M.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Wunderlich, Ch.; Illuminati, F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate theoretically systems of ions in segmented linear Paul traps for the quantum simulation of quantum spin models with tunable interactions. The scheme is entirely general and can be applied to the realization of arbitrary spin-spin interactions. As a specific application we discuss in detail the quantum simulation of models that exhibit long-distance entanglement in the ground state. We show how tailoring of the axial trapping potential allows for generating spin-spin coupling pa...

  6. Research on the Relationship between Dietary Intervention and Game Performance of Middle-and-long Distance Race Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tingjun Wang

    2015-01-01

    The supply of dietary nutrition is an important guarantee for athletes to deliver a good performance in training and games and a foundation to maintain a good economic status and it plays a vital promoting role in eliminating post-training and post-game fatigue. Currently constant improvements are witnessed in skills and achievements of middle and long distance running and one of the measures is the employment of science in athlete training. Then a question arises whether a rational dietary i...

  7. Migrating songbirds on stopover prepare for, and recover from, oxidative challenges posed by long-distance flight

    OpenAIRE

    Skrip, Megan M; Bauchinger, Ulf; Goymann, Wolfgang; Fusani, Leonida; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Alan, Rebecca R; Scott R McWilliams

    2015-01-01

    Managing oxidative stress is an important physiological function for all aerobic organisms, particularly during periods of prolonged high metabolic activity, such as long-distance migration across ecological barriers. However, no previous study has investigated the oxidative status of birds at different stages of migration and whether that oxidative status depends on the condition of the birds. In this study, we compared (1) energy stores and circulating oxidative status measures in (a) two s...

  8. Simultaneous Vehicle and Crew Routing and Scheduling for Partial- and Full-Load Long-Distance Road Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Drexl; Julia Rieck; Thomas Sigl; Bettina Press

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies a simultaneous vehicle and crew routing and scheduling problem arising in long-distance road transport in Europe: Pickup-and-delivery requests have to be fulfilled over a multi-period planning horizon by a heterogeneous fleet of trucks and drivers. Typically, in the vehicle routing literature, a fixed assignment of a driver to a truck is assumed. In our approach, we abandon this assumption and allow truck/driver changes at geographically dispersed relay stations. This offer...

  9. Effects of Interval Training-Based Glycolytic Capacity on Physical Fitness in Recreational Long-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatoń Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 8-week-long interval training (targeting glycolytic capacity on selected markers of physical fitness in amateur long-distance runners. Methods. The study involved 17 amateur long-distance runners randomly divided into an experimental (n = 8 and control (n = 9 group. The control group performed three or four continuous training sessions per week whereas the experimental group performed two interval running training sessions and one continuous running training session. A graded treadmill exercise test and the 12-min Cooper test were performed pre- and post-training. Results. O2max and the rate of recovery increased in the experimental group. Relative oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and heart rate speed decreased in low- (6 km/h and medium-intensity (12 km/h running. Conclusions. Both training modalities showed similar results. However, the significant differences in training volume (4-8 min interval training vs. 40-150 min continuous training indicates that the modalities targeting glycolytic capacity may be more efficient for amateur runners prepare for long-distance events.

  10. HIV prevalence and risk in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bello, Braimoh; Kinross, Peter; Oliff, Monique; Chersich, Matthew; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rees, Helen

    2014-05-01

    We estimated the prevalence of HIV and assessed correlates of HIV infection in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa. Between October 2003 and July 2004, 1900 long-distance truck drivers aged ≥18 years consented to interview and for testing for HIV. Participants were selected from a 10% stratified random sample of registered truck depots. A proximate-determinants framework was used to assess the hierarchical relationship between risk factors and HIV infection using logistic regression. HIV prevalence was 26% (95% confidence interval 24% to 28%). In multivariate analyses, HIV infection was associated with spending 2-4 weeks on the road (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.9). There was modest evidence of a dose-response relationship between time on the road and HIV risk. Mobility increased risk by creating conditions for unsafe sex and reducing access to health services. Targeted HIV interventions for long-distance truck drivers are needed. PMID:24352131

  11. The importance of long-distance seed dispersal for the demography and distribution of a canopy tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlin, T Trevor; Ferguson, Jake M; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Levey, Douglas J

    2014-04-01

    Long-distance seed dispersal (LDD) is considered a crucial determinant of tree distributions, but its effects depend on demographic processes that enable seeds to establish into adults and that remain poorly understood at large spatial scales. We estimated rates of seed arrival, germination, and survival and growth for a canopy tree species (Miliusa horsfieldii), in a landscape ranging from evergreen forest, where the species' abundance is high, to deciduous forest, where it is extremely low. We then used an individual-based model (IBM) to predict sapling establishment and to compare the relative importance of seed arrival and establishment in explaining the observed distribution of seedlings. Individuals in deciduous forest, far from the source population, experienced multiple benefits (e.g., increased germination rate and seedling survival and growth) from being in a habitat where conspecifics were almost absent. The net effect of these spatial differences in demographic processes was significantly higher estimated sapling establishment probabilities for seeds dispersed long distances into deciduous forest. Despite the high rate of establishment in this habitat, Miliusa is rare in the deciduous forest because the arrival of seeds at long distances from the source population is extremely low. Across the entire landscape, the spatial pattern of seed arrival is much more important than the spatial pattern of establishment for explaining observed seedling distributions. By using dynamic models to link demographic data to spatial patterns, we show that LDD plays a pivotal role in the distribution of this tree in its native habitat. PMID:24933814

  12. The Major Roles Of Long Distance Bus Transport In Developing Countries With Emphasis On Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassa Fekadu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major roles of long distance bus transport that radiates from Addis Ababa to the hinterland. The purpose is to assess and identify the major roles of Long Distance Bus Transport in Addis Ababa. The methodology is focused on both primary and secondary sources. The primary informants, who were principally distinguished from the passengers, operators, and key government officials from the transport office, include the head of bus terminal and Association, and selected experts. In terms of analysis, the qualitative approach was used by applying a thick description of the issue. The findings revealed that the availability of towns comes mainly because of the routes which give access and distribution of road passenger transport. The LDB (Long Distance Bus along the line has played a great role in the making of metropolitan linkage. The presence of these routes contributes more to the rise of urbanization and it has also played a role in the creation of towns and rural areas found around certain radius at the two sides of highways. Thus, it has a high probability for the expansion of urban sprawl and formation of conurbation in the future. The prescription for this study is to work with stakeholders to reduce the congestion of passengers in the terminals and the association also should serve the society 24/7 or 18/7.

  13. Landscape epidemiology and control of pathogens with cryptic and long-distance dispersal: sudden oak death in northern Californian forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A N Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens and pests threaten ecosystem service, biodiversity, and crop security globally. If an invasive agent can disperse asymptomatically over long distances, multiple spatial and temporal scales interplay, making identification of effective strategies to regulate, monitor, and control disease extremely difficult. The management of outbreaks is also challenged by limited data on the actual area infested and the dynamics of spatial spread, due to financial, technological, or social constraints. We examine principles of landscape epidemiology important in designing policy to prevent or slow invasion by such organisms, and use Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to illustrate how shortfalls in their understanding can render management applications inappropriate. This pathogen has invaded forests in coastal California, USA, and an isolated but fast-growing epidemic focus in northern California (Humboldt County has the potential for extensive spread. The risk of spread is enhanced by the pathogen's generalist nature and survival. Additionally, the extent of cryptic infection is unknown due to limited surveying resources and access to private land. Here, we use an epidemiological model for transmission in heterogeneous landscapes and Bayesian Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo inference to estimate dispersal and life-cycle parameters of P. ramorum and forecast the distribution of infection and speed of the epidemic front in Humboldt County. We assess the viability of management options for containing the pathogen's northern spread and local impacts. Implementing a stand-alone host-free "barrier" had limited efficacy due to long-distance dispersal, but combining curative with preventive treatments ahead of the front reduced local damage and contained spread. While the large size of this focus makes effective control expensive, early synchronous treatment in newly-identified disease foci should be more cost-effective. We show how the

  14. Assessing factors causing severe injuries in crashes of high-deck buses in long-distance driving on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Chung

    2014-01-01

    High-deck buses that have a higher center of gravity traveling at an excessive speed have a higher likelihood of causing serious and fatal accidents when drivers lose control of the vehicle. In addition, drivers who suffer from fatigue in long-distance driving increase the likelihood of serious accident. This paper examines the effects of risk factors contributing to severe crashes associated with high-deck buses used for long-distance driving on freeways. An ordered logit and latent class models are used to examine significant factors on the severity of injuries in crashes related to high-deck buses. Driver fatigue, drivers or passengers not wearing a seat belt, reckless driving, drunk driving, crashes occurred between midnight and dawn, and crashes occurred at interchange ramps were found to significantly affect the severity of injuries in crashes involving high-deck buses. Safety policies to prevent severe injuries in crashes involving high deck buses used for long-distance runs on freeways include: (1) restricting drivers from exceeding the limit of daily driving hours and mandating sufficient rest breaks; (2) installing an automatic sleep-warning device in the vehicle; (3) drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or sleep disorders should be tested and treated before they are allowed to perform long hours of driving tasks; (4) educating the public or even amending the seatbelt legislation to require all passengers to wear a seat belt and thus reduce the chance of ejection from a high-deck bus and prevent serious injuries in a crash while traveling at a higher speed on freeways. PMID:24144498

  15. Phylogenetic evidence of long distance dispersal and transmission of piscine reovirus (PRV between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Helen Garseth

    Full Text Available The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L. was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon.

  16. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Litton, Creighton M; Hess, Steven C; Kellner, James R; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities. PMID:25807275

  17. Long distance transport of irradiated male Glossina palpalis gambiensis pupae and its impact on sterile male yield

    OpenAIRE

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Vreysen, Marc JB; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Fall, Assane Gueye; Bassene, Mireille; Sidibé, Issa; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Belem, Adrien MG; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires mass-production of sterile males of good biological quality. The size of the project area will in most cases determine whether it is more cost effective to produce the sterile flies locally (and invest in a mass-rearing facility) or import the sterile flies from a mass-rearing facility that is located in another country. This study aimed at assessing the effect of long distance transport of sterile male Glossina palpali...

  18. MicroRNA399 is a long-distance signal for the regulation of plant phosphate homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Datt Pant, Bikram; Buhtz, Anja; Kehr, Julia; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    The presence of microRNA species in plant phloem sap suggests potential signaling roles by long-distance lregulation of gene expression. Proof for such a role for a phloem-mobile microRNA is lacking. Here we show lthat phosphate (Pi) starvation-induced microRNA399 (miR399) is present in the phloem sap of two diverse lplant species, rapeseed and pumpkin, and levels are strongly and specifically increased in phloem sap during Pi ldeprivation. By performing micro-grafting experiments using Arabi...

  19. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  20. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  1. Inspection and assessment of damage of long-time lying long-distance heating canals consisting of concrete components; Inspektion und Schadensbeurteilung langliegender Fernwaermekanaele aus Betonfertigteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausewald, Juergen; Schmidt, Antje [IAB - Institut fuer Angewandte Bauforschung Weimar gGmbH, Weimar (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Long-distance heating and local heating generated by a cogeneration of heat and electricity using renewable energy sources as well as their energy efficient distribution represent one of the highly promising ways for the attainment of the climate objectives of the Federal Republic of Germany. Based on historical aspects, the contribution under consideration reports on the condition of long-distance heating channels by means of actual questionnaires. The condition of these long-distance channels are compared with the results of the inspection controls with the new inspection vehicle.

  2. A study of health effects of long-distance ocean voyages on seamen using a data classification approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhennan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-distance ocean voyages may have substantial impacts on seamen's health, possibly causing malnutrition and other illness. Measures can possibly be taken to prevent such problems from happening through preparing special diet and making special precautions prior or during the sailing if a detailed understanding can be gained about what specific health effects such voyages may have on the seamen. Methods We present a computational study on 200 seamen using 41 chemistry indicators measured on their blood samples collected before and after the sailing. Our computational study is done using a data classification approach with a support vector machine-based classifier in conjunction with feature selections using a recursive feature elimination procedure. Results Our analysis results suggest that among the 41 blood chemistry measures, nine are most likely to be affected during the sailing, which provide important clues about the specific effects of ocean voyage on seamen's health. Conclusions The identification of the nine blood chemistry measures provides important clues about the effects of long-distance voyage on seamen's health. These findings will prove to be useful to guide in improving the living and working environment, as well as food preparation on ships.

  3. Meteor showers effects in the low terrestrial ionosphere detected at VLF ionosonde and long distance propagation paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Paesleme, N. M.; Piazza, L. R.; Macedomoura, M. S. S.

    1984-08-01

    The effect of Geminids and eta Aquarids meteor showers in the lower ionosphere were observed using two different methods. Low ionosphere group heights measured by a very low frequency ionosonde located south of Brazil indicated an anomalous lowering of the effective reflection height and presented night-time 5 sigma deviation in good correlation with Eta Aquarids stream transit. The group reflection coefficients present a very pronounced variation reaching values 3 sigma below the normal values. Diurnal very low frequency phase variations in two long-distance propagation paths present night-time 7 sigma and 4 sigma phase deviations from the average during the Eta Aquarids shower transit. The Geminids shower effect in the lower ionosphere was detected in two different long distance very low frequency propagation paths: NAA, Culter, U.S.A. - Atibaia, S.P., Brazil presented 5 sigma phase deviation and ARG, Argentina - Atibaia, S.P., Brasil presented 3.5 sigma phase deviation from the average. The geomagnetic activity in the periods covered by this investigation was low and the results obtained are a confirmation through two different techniques of changes in the physical conditions of the low ionosphere by meteor shower.

  4. Long-distance super-exchange and quantum magnetic relaxation in a hybrid metal-organic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Tian; Shipeng, Shen; Junzhuang, Cong; Liqin, Yan; Yisheng, Chai; Young, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid metal-organic framework [(CH3)2NH2]Fe(HCOO)3 with a perovskite-like structure exhibits a variety of unusual magnetic behaviors at low temperatures. While the long-distance super-exchange through the Fe-O-CH-O-Fe exchange path leads to a canted antiferromagnetic ordering at TN ˜ 19 K, a second transition of magnetic blocking develops at TB ˜ 9 K. The stair-shaped magnetization hysteresis loops below TB resemble the behaviors of resonant quantum tunneling of magnetization in single-molecular quantum magnets. Moreover, the magnetic relaxation also exhibits several features of resonant quantum relaxation, such as the exponential law with a single characteristic relaxation time, and the nonmonotonic dependence of relaxation rate on the applied magnetic field with a much faster relaxation around the resonant fields. The origin of quantum tunneling behaviors in the [(CH3)2NH2]Fe(HCOO)3 metal-organic framework is discussed in terms of magnetic phase separation due to the modification of hydrogen bonding on the long-distance super-exchange interaction. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11227405, 51371192, and 51371193) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030200).

  5. Possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance using the noisy reflected THz pulse under real conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    We show possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance (several metres, for example) using the THz pulse reflected from the object under the real conditions: at room temperature and humidity of about 70%. The main feature of this report consists in a demonstration of the detection and identification of substance using the computer processing of the noisy THz pulse. Amplitude of the useful signal is less than the amplitude of a noise. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect "fingerprint" frequencies of substance if these frequencies are known and the SDA method is used together with new assessments for probability estimation for presence of detected frequencies. Essential restrictions of the commonly used THz TDS method for the detection and identification under real conditions (at long distance about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) are demonstrated using the physical experiment with chocolate bar and thick paper bag. We show also that the THz TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even in the THz signals measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); the n-Si and p-Si semiconductors were used as neutral substances. However, the integral correlation and likeness criteria, based on SDA method, allow us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the samples. Current results show feasibility of using the discussed method of the THz pulsed spectroscopy for the counter-terrorism problem.

  6. Acoustic Repertoire of the Philippine Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta fraterculus and Individual Variation of Long-Distance Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Řeháková-Petrů

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the spectrographic description of the vocal repertoire of the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta fraterculus, a solitary living nocturnal primate for which a very limited information about acoustic communication exists to date. The majority of vocalizations were performed around sunset and, less frequently, at sunrise. We identified eight call types. Five calls recorded during communication between adults included three long-distance calls—loud call, smack-whistle, and whistle—then a soft locust-like chirp and a bird-like trill. Two other calls—cheep and twitter—were recorded during mother-infant communication. One distress call was emitted by adults during handling. All calls were performed in the 9752 Hz to more than 22 kHz frequency range. This study provides the first evidence of individual variation in the long-distance calls performed by tarsiers. Moreover, our study provides a basis for future comparison within as well as between tarsier species taxonomy. Bioacoustic methods can be used in monitoring of these cryptic species and determining their distribution range. Thus, bioacoustic studies can help to improve conservation strategies of different population/species.

  7. Effects of plyometric training on endurance and explosive strength performance in competitive middle- and long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Baez, Eduardo B; Martínez, Cristian; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training. Also, the combined standardized performance (CSP) in the endurance and explosive strength test was analyzed. After intervention, the CG did not show any significant change in performance, whereas the TG showed a significant reduction in 2.4-km endurance run time (-3.9%) and 20-m sprint time (-2.3%) and an increase in CMJA (+8.9%), DJ20 (+12.7%), and DJ40 (16.7%) explosive performance. Strength training group also exhibited a significant increase in CSP, although the CG showed significant reduction. We conclude that properly programmed concurrent explosive strength and endurance training could be advantageous for middle- and long-distance runners in their competitive performance, especially in events characterized by sprinting actions with small time differences at the end of the race. PMID:23838975

  8. A novel method for weak signal demodulation in long-distance optical fiber Sagnac interferometer sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G. Z.; Gao, X.; Chang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A novel demodulation method for weak signal of fiber sagnac interferometer is proposed, by which we obtained a simple long distance optical fiber sensor system with positioning accuracy less than 1 km. In our work, we expanded one channel of interference signal in a Taylor series, and the weak phase difference of interference signal could be obtained by a weak signal approximation theory from the Taylor series, then the approximate phase difference was used to demodulate the weak signal and locate the fiber vibration. By using the proposed method, there was no need to use phase amplification technology such as the phase generated carrier modulation or phase-locked amplification technology for weak signal demodulation, whereas, we just need one channel to demodulate the phase, therefore it simplified the system structure and demodulation algorithm, and cut down the cost. Based on this new demodulation theory, the strong signal could also be demodulated; it just need choose a weak part from the strong signal. This proposed method was demonstrated in a long-distance fiber sagnac interferometer sensor system with length of 50 km. The positioning accuracy was less than 1 km in the length of 10, 20, 30 and 40 km. We believe the accuracy could be enhanced with the help of signal processing technology such as signal filter and signal denoising.

  9. First exploratory calculation of the long-distance contributions to the rare kaon decays $K\\to\\pi\\ell^+\\ell^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Norman H; Juttner, Andreas; Lawson, Andrew; Portelli, Antonin; Sachrajda, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    The rare decays of a kaon into a pion and a charged lepton/antilepton pair proceed via a flavour changing neutral current and therefore may only be induced beyond tree level in the Standard Model. This natural suppression makes these decays sensitive to the effects of potential New Physics. The CP conserving $K\\to\\pi \\ell^+\\ell^-$ decay channels however are dominated by a single photon exchange; this involves a sizeable long-distance hadronic contribution which represents the current major source of theoretical uncertainty. Here we outline our methodology for the computation of the long-distance contributions to these rare decay amplitudes using lattice QCD and present the numerical results of the first exploratory studies of these decays in which all but the disconnected diagrams are evaluated. The domain wall fermion ensembles of the RBC and UKQCD collaborations are used, with a pion mass of $M_{\\pi}\\sim 430\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$ and a kaon mass of $M_{K}\\sim 625\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$. In particular we determine the form...

  10. Transformative learning in midlife: a study of the transformative learning of Hong Kong men taking up long distance running in midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Po Ki Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Long distance running has become increasingly popular in Hong Kong and some middle-aged men take up running in midlife. This research studies the transformative learning that occurs when they practise long distance running in midlife and how it contributes to midlife transition. At the beginning of the study, four hypotheses were developed based on researcher’s observations and literature review. Thirteen middle-aged Hong Kong male runners were then interviewed in a semi-structured way....

  11. Migrating songbirds on stopover prepare for, and recover from, oxidative challenges posed by long-distance flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrip, Megan M; Bauchinger, Ulf; Goymann, Wolfgang; Fusani, Leonida; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Alan, Rebecca R; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-08-01

    Managing oxidative stress is an important physiological function for all aerobic organisms, particularly during periods of prolonged high metabolic activity, such as long-distance migration across ecological barriers. However, no previous study has investigated the oxidative status of birds at different stages of migration and whether that oxidative status depends on the condition of the birds. In this study, we compared (1) energy stores and circulating oxidative status measures in (a) two species of Neotropical migrants with differing migration strategies that were sampled at an autumn stopover site before an ecological barrier; and (b) a species of trans-Saharan migrant sampled at a spring stopover site after crossing an ecological barrier; and (2) circulating oxidative measures and indicators of fat metabolism in a trans-Saharan migrant after stopovers of varying duration (0-8 nights), based on recapture records. We found fat stores to be positively correlated with circulating antioxidant capacity in Blackpoll Warblers and Red-eyed Vireos preparing for fall migration on Block Island, USA, but uncorrelated in Garden Warblers on the island of Ponza, Italy, after a spring crossing of the Sahara Desert and Mediterranean Sea. In all circumstances, fat stores were positively correlated with circulating lipid oxidation levels. Among Garden Warblers on the island of Ponza, fat anabolism increased with stopover duration while oxidative damage levels decreased. Our study provides evidence that birds build antioxidant capacity as they build fat stores at stopover sites before long flights, but does not support the idea that antioxidant stores remain elevated in birds with high fuel levels after an ecological barrier. Our results further suggest that lipid oxidation may be an inescapable hazard of using fats as the primary fuel for flight. Yet, we also show that birds on stopover are capable of recovering from the oxidative damage they have accrued during migration, as

  12. Criterions and Measures of Route Selection of Shallowly Embedded Long-Distance Oil and Gas Pipeline in Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghua; MA Qingwen; KONG Jiming; CHEN Zefu; LI Xiuzhen

    2006-01-01

    According to the engineering investigation of long-distance oil and gas pipelines, the criterions and measures of route selection are drawn as follows: the flat landform is the first choice in route alignment. The foot of mountain is the first choice when the route passes by the valley. The route should pass by but the shady and deposited slope and not in sunny and erosive slope as possible as it can. The pipeline should be vertical to contour climbing and descending the mountain except steep slope. Tunnel can be used in crossing foothill. Perpendicularly traversing the river is better than beveling; the worst choice is to put the pipeline along the river. Bypass is the best choice in karsts area. The order of route selection should be pre-choosing, investigation, optimization and adjustment.

  13. Valuation of travel time for international long-distance travel - results from the Fehmarn Belt stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Rich, Jeppe; Burge, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    estimate the value of travel time savings (VTTS). The final model, which was formulated as a nested logit model and included Box–Cox transformed travel time and cost attributes, revealed several interesting findings. Firstly, we found damping effects in both cost and time – most strongly in cost. Secondly......, we found significant interactions among travel cost and time, and journey characteristics, such as distance and duration. This had direct impact on the VTTS, which was shown to decrease with distance and duration. Thirdly, we found that air travel implies a higher average VTTS, which is to be......The geographical scope of travel varies from short distances in urban areas to long distances across cities and countries. While urban travel has been widely analysed in the literature, travel over longer distances and particularly across countries, has received much less attention. While this may...

  14. Acoustic-sounder investigation of the effects of boundary-layer decoupling on long-distance polutant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the nocturnal surface temperature inversion results in a decrease in vertical momentum transfer which, in turn, is accompanied by an associated reduction in the transfer of pollutants from the atmosphere to surface sinks, thus decoupling the surface layer from the layer above the inversion. The diurnal oscillation in the surface temperature profiles may therefore have a significant effect upon the transport of atmospheric pollutants over long distances. Flights of a large manned balloon with a diverse array of chemical and meteorological instrumentation aboard, known as Project de Vinci, provided a unique opportunity to combine acoustic-sounder observations of qualitative temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer with the chemical measurements necessary to gain increased understanding of this decoupling process and its consequences for pollutant transport. The data collected on ozone on the balloon and the grounds are reported

  15. The use of social networking sites for relationship maintenance in long-distance and geographically close romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billedo, Cherrie Joy; Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship. An online survey was conducted among predominantly young adult Facebook users who were in a romantic relationship (N=272). Results showed that participants who were in a LDRR reported higher levels of relational maintenance behaviors through SNS than participants who were in a GCRR. Also, as compared to participants who were in a GCRR, participants who were in a LDRR used SNS more for partner surveillance and experienced higher levels of SNS jealousy. PMID:25751046

  16. Structure and agency in long-distance truck drivers' lived experiences of condom use for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Condom promotion has emerged as a mainstay of targeted HIV prevention interventions in India, with its emphasis on individual behaviour change and personal responsibility. However, such approaches often do not account for marginalised populations' structural vulnerability to HIV, arising from social, economic and political factors in the lived environment. In this paper, I use a critical health communication framework to analyse how structure and agency interact in influencing condom use among long-distance truck drivers in India. Drawing on an abductive discourse analysis of condom-use discourses among truckers and peer educators in two Indian cities, findings reveal that while truckers understand the biomedical logic of condoms as barriers, they also express anxiety about condom breakage and experience structural barriers to condom use. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention to structural vulnerabilities in future HIV prevention efforts with truck drivers. PMID:26490032

  17. Design of long distance localization and monitoring system of radiotherapy with heavy ion on HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to fulfill the requirement of monitoring and long distance control of patients lesion location information during the shallow and deep radiotherapy with heavy ion on the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), the corresponding software and visual monitoring interface were developed, the integration of ion beam transport system and therapy equipment were completed. The embedded real-time control system was constructed by FPGA technology. The PCI bus and ADLINK's industrial control computer of PXI 3800 were used as communication interface and host computer respectively. The algorithm of the point by point comparison motion control was selected to achieve the position control. Through the test on the spot, the system is robust and reliable, and satisfies the design requirement. (authors)

  18. Long-distance behaviour of the surface-atom Casimir-Polder forces out of thermal equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-distance behaviour of the Casimir-Polder-Lifshitz force between an atom and the surface of a substrate is investigated. When the temperatures of the substrate and the environment are different, the new decay law 1/z3 of the force at large distances is discovered, which is slower than at thermal equilibrium. The force is of a quantum nature and attractive or repulsive depending on whether the temperature of the substrate is higher or lower than that of the environment. A transparent derivation of this law is presented. It is based on a picture of evanescent waves, created in vacuum by the black-body radiation impinging on the surface near the angle of total reflection. Some new experimental possibilities of the measurement of the forces are discussed: oscillations of a Bose-Einstein condensate near the surface, Bloch oscillations of fermions in an optical lattice and phase evolution of a BEC in a double-well trap

  19. Confinement: Understanding the relation between the Wilson loop and dual theories of long distance Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we express the velocity-dependent, spin-dependent heavy quark potential Vqbarq in QCD in terms of a Wilson loop W(Γ) determined by pure Yang-Mills theory. We use an effective dual theory of long-distance Yang-Mills theory to calculate W(Γ) for large loops, i.e., for loops of size R approx-gt RFT. [RFT is the flux tube radius, fixed by the value of the Higgs (monopole) mass of the dual theory, which is a concrete realization of the Mandelstam-close-quote t Hooft dual superconductor mechanism of confinement.] We replace W(Γ) by Weff(Γ), given by a functional integral over the dual variables, which for R approx-gt RFT can be evaluated by a semiclassical expansion, since the dual theory is weakly coupled at these distances. The classical approximation gives the leading contribution to Weff(Γ) and yields a velocity-dependent heavy quark potential that for large R becomes linear in R, and that for small R approaches lowest-order perturbative QCD. This latter fact means that these results should remain applicable down to distances where radiative corrections giving rise to a running coupling constant become important. The spin dependence of the potential at long range as well as at short range reflects the vector coupling of quarks in QCD combined with the dual treatment of long-distance Yang-Mills theory. The methods developed here should be applicable to any realization of the dual superconductor mechanism. They give an expression determining Weff(Γ) independent of the classical approximation, but semiclassical corrections due to fluctuations of the flux tube are not worked out in this paper. Taking these into account should lead to an effective string theory free from the conformal anomaly. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Historical isolation versus recent long-distance connections between Europe and Africa in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes, which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnL(UAG and trnK-matK were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region.

  1. Relationships between training load, salivary cortisol responses and performance during season training in middle and long distance runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

    Full Text Available Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners.Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3±5.1 yrs were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE (daily, countermovement jump (CMJ and salivary free cortisol (weekly for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season. Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions.Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r = -0.777 and RPE (r = 0.551. Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r = -0.426, distance run (r = -0.593, p<0.001 and training zone (r = 0.437, p<0.05. Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g = 0.65 and the RPE (-17.6%, g = 0.94 measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season's worst competition performance.Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way.

  2. Health care coverage among long-distance truckers in India: an evaluation based on the Tanahashi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Varun Sharma,1 Niranjan Saggurti,2 Shalini Bharat11School of Health Systems Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India; 2HIV AIDS Program, Population Council, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Long-distance truckers (LDTDs are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections due to the nature of their work, working environment, and frequent mobility. This paper examines and comments on the health care coverage provisioned under “Kavach” Project. Data from the Integrated Behavioural and Biological Survey, National Highway gathered from 2,066 LDTDs in Round 1 and 2,085 LDTDs in Round 2, who traveled in four extreme road corridors travelled by LDTDs in India, were used for analysis. Analysis reveals that service capacity in terms of socially marketed condoms per thousand LDTDs has increased from Round 1 to Round 2 (4,430 to 6,876, respectively. Accessibility coverage in terms of knowledge about the Khushi clinic has significantly decreased between Rounds 1 and 2 (60.9% to 54.6%; P<0.001. Acceptability coverage has increased between the two rounds (13.8% to 50.6%; P<0.001. Contact coverage has also increased between the rounds (12.7% to 22.3%; P<0.001. Effectiveness coverage for preventive and curative care has also increased significantly. This paper comments on the gaps in accessibility and acceptability of health care coverage and emphasizes the need for further studies to assess the contextual factors that influence the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions designed to address access barriers and to identify what combination of interventions may generate the best possible outcome.Keywords: HIV, long-distance truck drivers, mobility, national highways, Tanahashi framework, India

  3. Lack of sex-specific movement patterns in an alien species at its invasion front - consequences for invasion speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfindal, Ivar; Melis, Claudia; Åhlén, Per-Arne; Dahl, Fredrik

    2016-08-01

    Efficient targeting of actions to reduce the spread of invasive alien species relies on understanding the spatial, temporal, and individual variation of movement, in particular related to dispersal. Such patterns may differ between individuals at the invasion front compared to individuals in established and dense populations due to differences in environmental and ecological conditions such as abundance of conspecifics or sex-specific dispersal affecting the encounter rate of potential mates. We assessed seasonal and diurnal variation in movement pattern (step length and turning angle) of adult male and female raccoon dog at their invasion front in northern Sweden using data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked adult individuals and assessed whether male and female raccoon dog differed in their movement behavior. There were few consistent sex differences in movement. The rate of dispersal was rather similar over the months, suggesting that both male and female raccoon dog disperse during most of the year, but with higher speed during spring and summer. There were diurnal movement patterns in both sexes with more directional and faster movement during the dark hours. However, the short summer nights may limit such movement patterns, and long-distance displacement was best explained by fine-scale movement patterns from 18:00 to 05:00, rather than by movement patterns only from twilight and night. Simulation of dispersing raccoon dogs suggested a higher frequency of male-female encounters that were further away from the source population for the empirical data compared to a scenario with sex differences in movement pattern. The lack of sex differences in movement pattern at the invasion front results in an increased likelihood for reproductive events far from the source population. Animals outside the source population should be considered potential reproducing individuals, and a high effort to capture such individuals is needed throughout the year to prevent

  4. The use anesthetic agents to promote welfare in anemonefish aquaculture: Case study to handling and long-distance transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three anaesthetic agents (80 to 110 mg/L of MS-222, 10 to 30 mg/L of clove oil and 100 to 350 mg/L of 2-phenoxyethanol in anaesthesia and the success of use different clove oil concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mg/L on water quality and survival of an ornamental anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, during long-distance transport in closed system for 48 hours. The lowest effective concentrations based on the efficacy criteria of complete anaesthetic induction within 180s, recovery within 300s and survival when exposed 30 min to anaesthetic was 15 mg/l for clove oil, 200 µl/L for 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 mg/L for MS-222. Above the concentrations of 30 mg/L, 300 µl/L and 100 mg/L of clove oil, 2-phenoxyethanol and MS-222 respectively, fish did not recovery when exposed to anaesthetic during 30min. During long-distance transport, clove oil slowed the increase on the ammonia concentration and the decrease on oxygen level, but did not affect the pH and only at concentration of 10 mg/L increase de mortality at 36 and 48 hours after packed. All concentrations showed a significance increase on water quality, reducing total ammonia from 9.31 ± 0.58 mg/L (control group to 5.43 ± 0.56 mg/L (1mg/L, 4.97 ± 0.59 mg/L (3mg/L and 3.88 ± 0.14 mg/L (10mg/L. This study showed that all anaesthetic agents under study can be used in anaesthesia of percula clownfish with optimal doses varied according to the anaesthetic, 15 to 25 mg/L of clove oil, 200 to 250 of 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 to 90 mg/L of MS-222, but clove oil was the anaesthetic agent more effectiveness and with major margin of safety for percula clownfish, and this anaesthesic (clove oil can be used in ornamental fish transportation, reducing the deterioration in water quality and ensuring a better transport environment and reduced stress for the fish. However must be careful related the dose in use, because an excess anesthesic may reduce dissolved oxygen and cause high

  5. Evaluation of cracks identified in ultrasonic tests of long-distance pipelines; Bewertung von Rissanzeigen bei der Ultraschallpruefung von Fernrohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christoph; Willems, Herbert; Barbian, Otto Alfred [NDT Systems and Services AG, Stutensee (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Long-distance pipelines are the safest and most economical option for transporting large volumes of gases or liquids over long distances. However, damage from corrosion or cracking may cause premature failure, with potentially catastrophic consequences for humans and the environment. On the other hand, many pipelines are in excellent condition even at the end of their design service life, so that safe operation is still possible. Non-destructive inspection methods provide input variables for assessing the pipeline condition, e.g. type and size of existing defects if any. Ultrasonic testing was first introduced about 15 years ago and is commonly applied for routine inspections of liquid pipelines by many operators across the world. Tests are carried out using 45 degree transversal waves in pulsed echo operation, with high inspection sensitivity. While the length of defects is obtained accuracy, depth measurements have only limited validity. For all evaluations, also the relevant material properties and load conditions must be considered in addition to the defect dimensions. The contribution outlines the evaluation methods and presents examples to show how the results of the evaluations depend on the input variables and their measured tolerances. Further, Monte Carlo simulations are used to show how the failure probability can be estimated by probabilistic methods if the defect situation is known. [German] Fernrohrleitungen gelten als die sicherste und wirtschaftlichste Methode, um grosse Mengen von Gas oder Fluessigkeiten ueber lange Strecken zu transportieren. Werkstoffschaedigungen z.B. aufgrund von Korrosion oder Rissbildung koennen allerdings unter unguenstigen Umstaenden zum vorzeitigen Versagen mit potentiell katastrophalen Folgen fuer Mensch und Umwelt fuehren. Andererseits sind viele Leitungen auch am Ende ihrer Auslegungsdauer durchaus in gutem Zustand, so dass ein sicherer Betrieb weiterhin moeglich ist. Fuer die zuverlaessige Beurteilung der

  6. GPR measurements for the distribution of thixotropic slurry behind segments in large diameter and long distance pipe-jacking construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao

    2013-04-01

    It is very important to form an integrated ring of thixotropic slurry around the pipe segments to reduce resistance during large diameter and long distance pipe jacking. Furthermore, the integrated slurry ring between the pipe and the excavated soil can effectively reduce the soil disturbance caused by the pipes, and minimize ground settlement. It is necessary to real-time monitor the spatial distribution of the thixotripic slurry during jacking process. The traditional solution to estimate the outlines of slurry ring is the jacking load and the injecting pressure. If the jacking load increases, which means more slurry should be injected to reduce the jacking load. However, this solution couldn't provide the distribution of the slurry beneath pipe segments, and locate the zones which need to be injected enough slurry. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used to detect the thickness of the grouting behind the shield tunnel segments in last several years. An important factor is the dielectric difference between grouting and soil. Similarly, the interface between the liquid slurry with high relative electric permittivity and surrounding soil, should be recognized from GPR image due to the distinct dielectric difference. Here, GPR experiment has been conducted on a sewage pipe jacking engineering. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the distribution of the thixotropic slurry through GPR image. In this sewage jacking engineering, the width and the thickness of each pipe segments is 200 cm and 30 cm, respectively. Considering the resolution and propagation range of radar wave, ground coupled bowtie antenna of 900 MHz frequency has been selected for GPR data acquisition. A series of circular GPR data have been collected along the inner surface of pipe segments. In addition, sampling of slurry has been performed on four different segments. The relative electric permittivity and conductivity of the thixotropic slurry have been measured by using time

  7. 天然气长输管道运行优化%Operations of long-distance natural gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东

    2015-01-01

    天然气管道运输由于较长的运输距离,面临着复杂的环境因素,要想确保燃气安全运输,必须加强管道的运行管理。如果天然气长输管道运行管理不当,不仅可能导致管道失效、介质泄漏,造成环境污染和经济损失,影响用气单位和天然气用户的正常生产生活;其潜在可能发生的燃烧爆炸事故具有更大的危险性。因此,必须采取相应措施减小安全隐患发生的可能性,加强天然气长输管道运行优化,保证管道的安全平稳运行。本文分析了天然气管道运输运行中的隐患问题,提出了天然气长输管道运行优化措施,以供参考。%Due to the long transport distances,natural gas pipeline faces complex environmental factors. In order to ensure the safe transport,it needs to strengthen the management of pipeline operation. If the long-distance gas pipeline is not properly managed,it may cause pipeline failure,and media leaks. And it will also cause environmental pollution and economic losses,which affects the normal production of gas units and gas users. Therefore,it must take appropriate measures to reduce the likelihood of the occurrence of a security risk,to optimize long-distance gas pipeline management,and to ensure pipeline running smoothly and safely. This paper will analyze the natural gas pipeline running problems,and come up with measures oflong-distance gas pipeline operation optimization.

  8. Simultaneous Vehicle and Crew Routing and Scheduling for Partial- and Full-Load Long-Distance Road Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drexl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a simultaneous vehicle and crew routing and scheduling problem arising in long-distance road transport in Europe: Pickup-and-delivery requests have to be fulfilled over a multi-period planning horizon by a heterogeneous fleet of trucks and drivers. Typically, in the vehicle routing literature, a fixed assignment of a driver to a truck is assumed. In our approach, we abandon this assumption and allow truck/driver changes at geographically dispersed relay stations. This offers greater planning flexibility and allows a better utilization of trucks, but also creates intricate interdependencies between trucks and drivers and requires the synchronization of their routes. A solution heuristic based on a two-stage decomposition of the problem is developed, taking into account European Union social legislation for drivers, and computational experiments using real-world data provided by a major German forwarder are presented and analyzed. The obtained results suggest that for the vehicle and driver cost structure prevalent in Western Europe and for transport requests that are not systematically acquired to complement one another, no cost savings are possible through simultaneous vehicle and crew routing and scheduling, although no formal proof of this fact is possible.

  9. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  10. Stable long-distance propagation and on-off switching of colliding soliton sequences with dissipative interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Debananda; Jung, Jae-Hun

    2013-01-01

    We study propagation and on-off switching of two colliding soliton sequences in the presence of second-order dispersion, Kerr nonlinearity, linear loss, cubic gain, and quintic loss. Employing a Lotka-Volterra (LV) model for dynamics of soliton amplitudes along with simulations with two perturbed coupled nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equations, we show that stable long-distance propagation can be achieved for a wide range of the gain-loss coefficients, including values that are outside of the perturbative regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate robust on-off and off-on switching of one of the sequences by an abrupt change in the ratio of cubic gain and quintic loss coefficients, and extend the results to pulse sequences with periodically alternating phases. Our study significantly strengthens the recently found relation between collision dynamics of sequences of NLS solitons and population dynamics in LV models, and indicates that the relation might be further extended to solitary waves of the cubic-quintic Ginzb...

  11. Stable long-distance propagation and on-off switching of colliding soliton sequences with dissipative interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debananda; Peleg, Avner; Jung, Jae-Hun

    2013-08-01

    We study propagation and on-off switching of two colliding soliton sequences in the presence of second-order dispersion, Kerr nonlinearity, linear loss, cubic gain, and quintic loss. Employing a Lotka-Volterra (LV) model for dynamics of soliton amplitudes along with simulations with two perturbed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations, we show that stable long-distance propagation can be achieved for a wide range of the gain-loss coefficients, including values that are outside of the perturbative regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate robust on-off and off-on switching of one of the sequences by an abrupt change in the ratio of cubic gain and quintic loss coefficients, and extend the results to pulse sequences with periodically alternating phases. Our study significantly strengthens the recently found relation between collision dynamics of sequences of NLS solitons and population dynamics in LV models, and indicates that the relation might be further extended to solitary waves of the cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  12. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Flint

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94% while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.

  13. Rice nitrate transporter OsNPF2.4 functions in low-affinity acquisition and long-distance transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiudong; Fan, Xiaorong; Wei, Jia; Feng, Huimin; Qu, Hongye; Xie, Dan; Miller, Anthony J; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteins belonging to the NPF (formerly NRT1/PTR) family are well represented in every genome and function in transporting a wide variety of substrates. In this study, we showed that rice OsNPF2.4 is located in the plasma membrane and is expressed mainly in the epidermis, xylem parenchyma, and phloem companion cells. Functional analysis in oocytes showed that OsNPF2.4 is a pH-dependent, low-affinity NO₃⁻ transporter. Short-term (¹⁵NO₃⁻) influx rate, long-term NO₃⁻ acquisition by root, and upward transfer from root to shoot were decreased by disruption of OsNPF2.4 and increased by OsNPF2.4 overexpression under high NO₃⁻ supply. Moreover, the redistribution of NO₃⁻ in the mutants in comparison with the wild type from the oldest leaf to other organs, particularly to N-starved roots, was dramatically changed. Knockout of OsNPF2.4 decreased rice growth and potassium (K) concentration in xylem sap, root, culm, and sheath, but increased the shoot:root ratio of tissue K under higher NO₃⁻. We conclude that OsNPF2.4 functions in acquisition and long-distance transport of NO₃⁻ , and that altering its expression has an indirect effect on K recycling between the root and shoot. PMID:25332358

  14. Cloacal Microbiome Structure in a Long-Distance Migratory Bird Assessed Using Deep 16sRNA Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Čížková, Dagmar; Kropáčková, Lucie; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Effects of vertebrate-associated microbiota on physiology and health are of significant interest in current biological research. Most previous studies have focused on host-microbiota interactions in captive-bred mammalian models. These interactions and their outcomes are still relatively understudied, however, in wild populations and non-mammalian taxa. Using deep pyrosequencing, we described the cloacal microbiome (CM) composition in free living barn swallows Hirundo rustica, a long-distance migratory passerine bird. Barn swallow CM was dominated by bacteria of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. Bacteroidetes, which represent an important proportion of the digestive tract microbiome in many vertebrate species, was relatively rare in barn swallow CM (< 5%). CM composition did not differ between males and females. A significant correlation of CM within breeding pair members is consistent with the hypothesis that cloacal contact during within-pair copulation may promote transfer of bacterial assemblages. This effect on CM composition had a relatively low effect size, however, possibly due to the species’ high level of sexual promiscuity. PMID:26360776

  15. Humid microclimates within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) can potentially facilitate long distance dispersal of propagules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Neil E.; Kelly, Tom C.; Davenport, John; Jansen, Marcel A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Birds as carriers of propagules are major agents in the dispersal of plants, animals, fungi and microbes. However, there is a lack of empirical data in relation to bird-mediated, epizoochorous dispersal. The microclimate found within the plumage likely plays a pivotal role in survival during flight conditions. To investigate the potential of epizoochory, we have analysed the microclimatic conditions within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Under similar ambient conditions of humidity and temperature, a sample of mallards showed a consistent microclimatic regime with variation across the body surface. The highest (mean) temperature and specific humidity occurred between feathers of the postpatagium. The lowest humidity was found between feathers of the centre back and the lowest temperature in the crissum. Observed differences in plumage depth and density, and distance from the skin, are all likely to be determining factors of microclimate condition. Specific humidity found within the plumage was on average 1.8-3.5 times greater than ambient specific humidity. Thus, the plumage can supply a microclimate buffered from that of the exterior environment. Extrapolating survival data for Lemna minor desiccation at various temperature and humidity levels to the measured plumage microclimatic conditions of living birds, survival for up to 6 h can be anticipated, especially in crissum, crural and breast plumage. The results are discussed in the context of potential long distance epizoochorous dispersal by A. platyrhynchos and similar species.

  16. How scientific evidence is used in Australia to inform public policy on the long distance transportation of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Thornber

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Most Australian livestock are transported at some stage in their lives and the attendant risks must be managed. Like other countries, Australia has location-specific challenges for the land transport of animals that derive from general geography and history, quality of the road and rail systems, design of vehicles and handling facilities, competency and experience of drivers and livestock handlers, and pre- and post-journey management of animals. Australia is a large and sparsely populated country and requires a risk-based approach which builds on equivalent outcomes and performance criteria to ensure good welfare for animals during long distance transport. There are shared responsibilities by owners and service providers along the transport chain. Governments work closely with livestock industries, transporters, stock agents, sale yard operators, abattoir owners, feedlot owners and animal welfare organisations to develop and then apply sustainable animal welfare standards and appropriate regulations. The Australian Animal Welfare Strategy sets out a broad and inclusive forum for this to occur in a consultative and cooperative manner and with the necessary input from science. Animal welfare is protected through a combination of codes of practice, appropriate transport standards, industry quality assurance programmes and the enforcement of laws and regulations.

  17. Advanced autumn migration of sparrowhawk has increased the predation risk of long-distance migrants in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi Lehikoinen

    Full Text Available Predation affects life history traits of nearly all organisms and the population consequences of predator avoidance are often larger than predation itself. Climate change has been shown to cause phenological changes. These changes are not necessarily similar between species and may cause mismatches between prey and predator. Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, the main predator of passerines, has advanced its autumn phenology by about ten days in 30 years due to climate change. However, we do not know if sparrowhawk migrate earlier in response to earlier migration by its prey or if earlier sparrowhawk migration results in changes to predation risk on its prey. By using the median departure date of 41 passerine species I was able to show that early migrating passerines tend to advance, and late migrating species delay their departure, but none of the species have advanced their departure times as much as the sparrowhawk. This has lead to a situation of increased predation risk on early migrating long-distance migrants (LDM and decreased the overlap of migration season with later departing short-distance migrants (SDM. Findings highlight the growing list of problems of declining LDM populations caused by climate change. On the other hand it seems that the autumn migration may become safer for SDM whose populations are growing. Results demonstrate that passerines show very conservative response in autumn phenology to climate change, and thus phenological mismatches caused by global warming are not necessarily increasing towards the higher trophic levels.

  18. Material Independent Long Distance Pulling, Trapping, and Rotation of Fully Immersed Multiple Objects with a Single Optical Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Md Masudur; Mahdy, Mahdy Rahman Chowdhury; Haque, Md Ehsanul; Islam, Rakibul; Chowdhury, S Tanvir-ur-Rahman; Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel; Matin, Md Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Optical pulling with tractor beams is so far highly dependent on (i) the property of embedding background or the particle itself , (ii) the number of the particles and/or (iii) the manual ramping of beam phase. A necessary theoretical solution of these problems is proposed here. This article demonstrates a novel active tractor beam for multiple fully immersed objects with its additional abilities of yielding a controlled rotation and a desired 3D trapping. Continuous and stable long distance levitation, controlled rotation and 3D trapping are demonstrated with a single optical set-up by using two coaxial, or even non-coaxial, superimposed non-diffracting higher order Bessel beams of reverse helical nature and different frequencies. The superimposed beam has periodic intensity variations both along and around the beam-axis because of the difference in longitudinal wave-vectors and beam orders, respectively. The difference in frequencies of two laser beams makes the intensity pattern move along and around the b...

  19. The effects of a harness safety system during maximal treadmill run testing in collegiate middle- and long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermier, Christine M; Zuhl, Micah N; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Beam, Jason R; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Beverly, J Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study compared the results of graded maximal treadmill testing with and without a safety harness (SH) spotting system among collegiate middle- and long-distance runners. Thirteen (n = 8 men, n = 5 women) collegiate runners completed 2 randomly selected maximal treadmill tests. One trial used an SH, and one trial used no harness. All tests were separated by at least 48 hours. The subjects began the test at a velocity of 14.5 or 12 km · h with 1% grade for men and women, respectively, and increased 0.80 kilometers/hr per stage. During each trial, metabolic data and running speed values were recorded along with the completion of a safety questionnaire. No significant difference was found for maximal oxygen consumption (60.84 ± 8.89 vs. 60.733 ± 9.38 ml · kg · min) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (5.33 ± 0.62 vs. 5.24 ± 0.57 m · s) between the no harness and harness trials, respectively. Test time was found to be significantly longer in the no harness trial (611.06 ± 119.34 vs. 537.38 ± 91.83 seconds, p < 0.05). The results of the safety questionnaire demonstrated that the runners felt significantly more comfortable during the SH trial (p < 0.05). PMID:23442275

  20. Models of long-distance transport: how is carrier-dependent auxin transport regulated in the stem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Michael; Hanan, Jim; Ferguson, Brett J; Beveridge, Christine A

    2012-05-01

    • This paper presents two models of carrier-dependent long-distance auxin transport in stems that represent the process at different scales. • A simple compartment model using a single constant auxin transfer rate produced similar data to those observed in biological experiments. The effects of different underlying biological assumptions were tested in a more detailed model representing cellular and intracellular processes that enabled discussion of different patterns of carrier-dependent auxin transport and signalling. • The output that best fits the biological data is produced by a model where polar auxin transport is not limited by the number of transporters/carriers and hence supports biological data showing that stems have considerable excess capacity to transport auxin. • All results support the conclusion that auxin depletion following apical decapitation in pea (Pisum sativum) occurs too slowly to be the initial cause of bud outgrowth. Consequently, changes in auxin content in the main stem and changes in polar auxin transport/carrier abundance in the main stem are not correlated with axillary bud outgrowth. PMID:22443265

  1. Phylogeography of the Rock Shell Thais clavigera (Mollusca: Evidence for Long-Distance Dispersal in the Northwestern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Guo

    Full Text Available The present-day genetic structure of a species reflects both historical demography and patterns of contemporary gene flow among populations. To precisely understand how these factors shape current population structure of the northwestern (NW Pacific marine gastropod, Thais clavigera, we determined the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene for 602 individuals sampled from 29 localities spanning almost the whole distribution of T. clavigera in the NW Pacific Ocean (~3,700 km. Results from population genetic and demographic analyses (AMOVA, ΦST-statistics, haplotype networks, Tajima's D, Fu's FS, mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots revealed a lack of genealogical branches or geographical clusters, and a high level of genetic (haplotype diversity within each of studied population. Nevertheless, low but significant genetic structuring was detected among some geographical populations separated by the Changjiang River, suggesting the presence of geographical barriers to larval dispersal around this region. Several lines of evidence including significant negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS statistics values, the unimodally shaped mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots suggest a population expansion at marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11; 400 ka, the longest and warmest interglacial interval during the Pleistocene epoch. The lack of genetic structure among the great majority of the NW Pacific T. clavigera populations may be attributable to high gene flow by current-driven long-distance dispersal of prolonged planktonic larval phase of this species.

  2. Health care coverage among long-distance truckers in India: an evaluation based on the Tanahashi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Saggurti, Niranjan; Bharat, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance truckers (LDTDs) are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections due to the nature of their work, working environment, and frequent mobility. This paper examines and comments on the health care coverage provisioned under “Kavach” Project. Data from the Integrated Behavioural and Biological Survey, National Highway gathered from 2,066 LDTDs in Round 1 and 2,085 LDTDs in Round 2, who traveled in four extreme road corridors travelled by LDTDs in India, were used for analysis. Analysis reveals that service capacity in terms of socially marketed condoms per thousand LDTDs has increased from Round 1 to Round 2 (4,430 to 6,876, respectively). Accessibility coverage in terms of knowledge about the Khushi clinic has significantly decreased between Rounds 1 and 2 (60.9% to 54.6%; P<0.001). Acceptability coverage has increased between the two rounds (13.8% to 50.6%; P<0.001). Contact coverage has also increased between the rounds (12.7% to 22.3%; P<0.001). Effectiveness coverage for preventive and curative care has also increased significantly. This paper comments on the gaps in accessibility and acceptability of health care coverage and emphasizes the need for further studies to assess the contextual factors that influence the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions designed to address access barriers and to identify what combination of interventions may generate the best possible outcome. PMID:25848319

  3. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention....... However, it is expensive, obtrusive and produces huge amount of data. Besides, eye-tracking do not give access to user's mind. Capturing interface/cursor tracking may be cost effective. It is easy to install, data collection is automatic and unobtrusive and replaying the captured recording to the user and...

  4. Eastern Coyote/Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon Movement Patterns: Lessons Learned in Urbanized Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G. Way

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity and movement patterns represent a fundamental aspect of a species natural history. Twenty four-hour movements of eastern coyotes or coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon; hereafter eastern coyote for consistency purposes ranged up to 31.9 linear km and averaged 23.5 + 7.3 (SD km from 5-14 radio-fixes during each 24 hr monitoring period. Coyotes moved mostly at night and through altered open areas (e.g., powerlines, dumps more than expected when compared to residential and natural areas. Coyotes inhabiting urbanized areas generally use residential areas for traveling and/or foraging. With large daily (or more aptly, nightly movement patterns, resident coyotes can potentially be located anywhere within their large home ranges at any given time, as data revealed that one pack (3-4 individuals can cover a combined 75-100 km per night, in a territory averaging 20-30 km2. Transient movements from capture location to end location varied from 23.0—100.5 km and averaged 63.8 km for two females and 49.3 km for four males. Eastern coyotes travel long distances even in human-dominated areas, allowing transients to find vacant territories. Because of their ability to move through urban areas and to colonize and recolonize areas, management efforts should focus more on educating the public about actual coyote behavior and their life history needs than on killing them.

  5. Rodent middens reveal episodic, long-distance plant colonizations across the hyperarid Atacama Desert over the last 34,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francisca P.; Latorre, Claudio; Maldonado, Antonio; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To document the impact of late Quaternary pluvial events on plant movements between the coast and the Andes across the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Location Sites are located along the lower and upper fringes of absolute desert (1100–2800 m a.s.l.), between the western slope of the Andes and the Coastal Ranges of northern Chile (24–26° S). Methods We collected and individually radiocarbon dated 21 rodent middens. Plant macrofossils (fruits, seeds, flowers and leaves) were identified and pollen content analysed. Midden assemblages afford brief snapshots of local plant communities that existed within the rodents' limited foraging range during the several years to decades that it took the midden to accumulate. These assemblages were then compared with modern floras to determine the presence of extralocal species and species provenance. Results Five middens span the last glacial period (34–21 ka) and three middens are from the last glacial–interglacial transition (19–11 ka). The remaining 13 middens span the last 7000 years. Coastal hyperarid sites exhibit low taxonomic richness in middens at 19.3, 1.1, 1.0, 0.9, 0.5 ka and a modern sample. Middens are also dominated by the same plants that occur today. In contrast, middens dated to 28.1, 21.3, 17.3, 3.7 and 0.5 ka contain more species, including Andean extralocals. Precordillera middens (c. 2700 m) show a prominent increase in plant macrofossil richness, along with the appearance of Andean extralocals and sedges at 34.5 and 18.9 ka. Six younger middens dated to 6.1–0.1 ka are similar to the modern local vegetation. Main conclusions Increased species richness and Andean extralocal plants occurred along the current lower fringes of absolute desert during the last glacial–interglacial transition and late Holocene. The absence of soil carbonates indicates the persistence of absolute desert throughout the Quaternary. Colonization by Andean plants could have been accomplished through long-distance seed

  6. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source

  7. STUDY REGARDING THE DYNAMICS OF AFFECTIVE MANIFESTATIONS IN MIDDLE DISTANCE AND LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS, IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS OF MENTAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAREŞ GABRIEL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction. High performance in track and field is constantly conditioned by the athletes' reaction to different stress factors. The analysis of mental stress on athletes in different situations has made certain specialists to say that the psychological effect of a stress agent (seen as a response of the athlete is less predictable than the physiological effect, one reason being the complex and difficult nature of objectively predicting the response provoked by the effect of the stress factor, considering the fact that high performance athletes react differently to the pressure of complex situations during training and competitions. Methodology. The research was conducted on 12 subjects with different experience in high performance track and field/athletics, and in this specific event. The subjects were given three psychological tests, within a period of six months, during three different stress situations: two tests (initial and final before two major competitions (the national championships - selection competitions, and an intermediate testing (halfway between the two competitions, when the subjects were in full training process for the second competition. During these six months the previously planned training program was followed, but with a larger emphasis (in comparison with other training periods on the psychological training of the athletes.Results. The statistical analysis of the values for the studied variables has shown the existence of significant differences only in the manifestations associated with certain psychological states of the ones we studied, during different tests. Conclusions The affective manifestations of the middle distance-long distance runners during different situations of mental stress present an oscillatory dynamics with a slightly descendant curve, showing a complexity of the psycho-affective states and reactions.

  8. Long distance coupling of lower hybrid waves in ITER relevant edge conditions in jet reversed shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant step towards demonstrating the feasibility of coupling Lower Hybrid (LH) waves in ITER has been achieved in the latest LH current drive experiments in JET. The local electron density in front of the LH launcher was increased by injecting gas (D2 or CD4) from a dedicated gas injection module magnetically connected to the launcher. P(LHCD) = 3 MW was coupled with an average reflection coefficient of 5%, at a distance between the last closed flux surface and the launcher of 10 cm, in plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and H-mode edge, with type 1 and type 3 ELMs (edge localized modes). Following a modification of the gas injection system, in order to optimise the gas localisation with respect to the LH launcher, injection of D2 proved to be more efficient than CD4. A D2 flux of 5-8 x 1021 el/s was required at 9 cm. The plasma performance (neutron rate, H-factor, ion temperature) was similar with D2 and CD4. An additional advantage with D2 injection was found, as it reduced the amplitude of the ELMs, which further facilitated the LH coupling. Furthermore, preliminary results of the study of the behaviour of electron density profile in the scrape-off layer during injection of C2H6 and C3H8 are reported. Finally, the appearance of hot spots, resulting from parasitic absorption of LHCD power in front of the launcher mouth, was studied in the long distance discharges with near gas injection. (authors)

  9. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  10. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sabatini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  11. Impacts of battery characteristics, driver preferences and road network features on travel costs of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) for long-distance trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a road network with refueling and fast charging stations, the minimum-cost driving path of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) depends on factors such as location and availability of refueling/fast charging stations, capacity and cost of PHEV batteries, and driver tolerance towards extra mileage or additional stopping. In this paper, our focus is long-distance trips of PHEVs. We analyze the impacts of battery characteristics, often-overlooked driver preferences and road network features on PHEV travel costs for long-distance trips and compare the results with hybrid electric and conventional vehicles. We investigate the significance of these factors and derive critical managerial insights for shaping the future investment decisions about PHEVs and their infrastructure. In particular, our findings suggest that with a certain level of deployment of fast charging stations, well established cost and emission benefits of PHEVs for the short range trips can be extended to long distance. Drivers' stopping intolerance may hamper these benefits; however, increasing battery capacity may help overcome the adverse effects of this intolerance. - Highlights: • We investigate the travel costs of CVs, HEVs and PHEVs for long-distance trips. • We analyze the impacts of battery, driver and road network characteristics on the costs. • We provide critical managerial insights to shape the investment decisions about PHEVs. • Drivers' stopping intolerance may hamper the cost and emission benefits of PHEVs. • Negative effect of intolerance on cost may be overcome by battery capacity expansion

  12. Long distance atmospheric pollution: assessment, risks, management and decision. Collection of abstracts of research works. Synthesis of results of researches performed within the framework of the PRIMEQUAL programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief presentation of the PRIMEQUAL programme, an inter-agency and institution research programme for a better air quality (275 supported research actions since the programme creation), an introduction presents the context of research works within this programme on long distance pollution. Various research works are then briefly presented. They address three main themes: 1) determining factors and atmospheric processes (role of organic nitrates in nitrogen transport, source and evolution of organic carbonated pollution in the atmosphere, modelling of long distance pollution, a miniature and autonomous station for atmospheric composition monitoring), 2) the regional evidence of pollutants transport (local and long distance pollution in Ile-de-France, pollutant transport and air quality in Mediterranean Sea, measurement and modelling of the deposition of Saharan dusts, relationship between forest fires and air quality), and 3) long term impacts on ecosystems, health and economy (peat lands as markers of atmospheric contamination, 20 years of measurements of atmospheric depositions in France and trends on the long term, vulnerability of ecosystems to atmospheric nitrogen, a cost-benefit approach to the relationship between long distance pollution and climate change). An appendix contains the call for research propositions which resulted in the above-mentioned researches

  13. Long-distance translocation of protein during morphogenesis of the fruiting body in the filamentous fungus, Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Woolston

    phenomenon of long-distance protein translocation in A. bisporus that has potential application in recombinant protein expression and biotechnological approaches for crop improvement.

  14. 中长跑运动员步频步幅与摄氧量关系的研究%Research on Relationship between Stride Length, Frequency and Oxygen Uptake of Middle and Long Distance Runners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡阳

    2014-01-01

    Through analysis of the long and middle distance runners ’ speed, stride length and frequency , oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation and the relationship between heart rate and so on cardiopulmonary function , and cardiopulmonary function and physical condition , this paper investigates the runners ’ physiological characteristics and movement laws .The main purpose is to provide theoretical basis for improving the athletes ’ long distance movement technology , training effect and performance , scientific and effective training plan and tactical game .%通过分析研究中长跑运动员的跑速和步频步幅与摄氧量、肺通气量和心率等心肺功能的关系,以及心肺功能和身体状况探讨长跑运动员跑步中生理特点与运动规律,为改进运动员的长跑运动技术,提高训练效果和运动成绩,科学有效制定训练计划和比赛的战术提供理论依据。

  15. Absolute consistency: individual versus population variation in annual-cycle schedules of a long-distance migrant bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Jesse R; Battley, Phil F; Potter, Murray A

    2013-01-01

    Flexibility in scheduling varies throughout an organism's annual cycle, reflecting relative temporal constraints and fitness consequences among life-history stages. Time-selection can act at different scales, either by limiting the range of alternative strategies in the population, or by increasing the precision of individual performance. We tracked individual bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica baueri for two full years (including direct observation during non-breeding seasons in New Zealand and geolocator tracking of round-trip migrations to Alaska) to present a full annual-cycle view of molt, breeding, and migration schedules. At both population and individual scales, temporal variation was greater in post-breeding than pre-breeding stages, and greater in molts than in movements, but schedules did not tighten across successive stages of migration toward the breeding grounds. In general, individual godwits were quite consistent in timing of events throughout the year, and repeatability of pre-breeding movements was particularly high (r = 0.82-0.92). However, we demonstrate that r values misrepresent absolute consistency by confounding inter- and intra-individual variation; the biological significance of r values can only be understood when these are considered separately. By doing so, we show that some stages have considerable tolerance for alternative strategies within the population, whereas scheduling of northbound migratory movements was similar for all individuals. How time-selection simultaneously shapes both individual and population variation is central to understanding and predicting adaptive phenological responses to environmental change. PMID:23342168

  16. The Motivation and Physiological Survey Analysis of Weifang Zhiynan Long--distance Running Club Members' Participation in Long--distance Running%潍坊致远长跑俱乐部成员参与长跑运动的动因及生理指标调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华刚

    2011-01-01

    对潍坊市致远长跑俱乐部的成员进行了基本情况调查和常规的运动生理指标测试,通过对大量数据的统计分析,探讨长跑运动对人体健康产生的影响,为长跑健身提供相应的科学依据。%On the general survey and conventional exercise physiological tests of weifang zhiyuan long--distance running club members, this paper probes into the impact of long--distance running on human health through the analysis of large amounts of data, providing the relevant scientific basis for long--distance running and fitness.

  17. Long-distance wind-borne dispersal of the moth Cornifrons ulceratalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Evergestinae) into the northern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Dantart, Jordi; Stefanescu, Constantí; Àvila i Castells, Anna; Alarcón Jordán, Marta,

    2009-01-01

    On October 2006, during an episode of abnormally warm weather, the African moth Cornifrons ulceratalis (Lederer, 1858) was captured simultaneously for the first time in several sites in north-eastern Spain, the Balearic Islands and southern France. A deep depression situated over the Atlantic at the time gave rise to warm south-westerly winds, accompanied by suspended dust, that blew towards the north-western Mediterranean Basin. Back trajectories of air masses at two different altitudinal le...

  18. Long-distance kissing loop interactions between a 3' proximal Y-shaped structure and apical loops of 5' hairpins enhance translation of Saguaro cactus virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Shi, Kerong; Yuan, Xuefeng; Simon, Anne E

    2011-08-15

    Circularization of cellular mRNAs is a key event prior to translation initiation. We report that efficient translation of Saguaro cactus virus (SCV) requires a 3' translational enhancer (PTE) located partially in coding sequences. Unlike a similar PTE reported in the 3' UTR of Pea enation mosaic virus that does not engage in an RNA:RNA interaction (Wang Z. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 284, 14189-14202, 2009), the SCV PTE participates in long distance RNA:RNA interactions with hairpins located in the p26 ORF and in the 5' UTR of one subgenomic RNA. At least two additional RNA:RNA interactions are also present, one of which involves the p26 initiation codon. Similar PTE can be found in six additional carmoviruses that can putatively form long-distance interactions with 5' hairpins located in comparable positions. PMID:21664637

  19. Non-perturbative approach to the long distance behavior of Yang-Mills theory and the problem of quark confinement in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures the authors first review the motivation and formulation of QCD. They then compare the forces of QED produced by the vacuum polarization of electric charge to those of QCD. In QED the long distance force is given by Coulomb's law while the short distance force is still unknown. In QCD the effective coupling at short distance becomes small (asymptotic freedom) and can be calculated using perturbation theory. The long distance forces, relevant for confinement, must however be calculated using nonperturbative methods. They present such a non-perturbative approach based upon the Schwinger-Dyson equations and Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities of Yang-Mills theory. The Schwinger-Dyson equations describe the propagation of gluons in a dielectric medium, the vacuum

  20. Coupled solar-magnetic orientation during leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) long-distance migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Zerbini, A.; Andriolo, A.; Clapham, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Determining how animals perform long-distance animal migration remains one of the most enduring and fundamental mysteries of behavioural ecology. It is widely accepted that navigation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and significant experimental research has documented a variety of viable orientation and navigation cues. However, relatively few investigations have attempted to reconcile experimentally determined orientation and navigation capacities of animals with empirical remotely sensed animal track data, leaving most theories of navigation and orientation untested. Here we show, using basic hypothesis testing, that leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migration paths are non-randomly distributed in magnetic coordinate space, with local peaks in magnetic coordinate distributions equal to fractional multiples of the angular obliquity of Earth’s axis of rotation. Time series analysis of humpback whale migratory behaviours, including migration initiation, changes in course, and migratory stop-overs, further demonstrate coupling of magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These unexpected and highly novel results indicate that diverse taxa integrate magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These results are compatible with a 'map and compass' orientation and navigation system. Humpback whale migration track geometries further indicate a map and compass orientation system is used. Several humpback whale tracks include highly directional segments (Mercator latitude vs. longitude r2>0.99) exceeding 2000 km in length, despite exposure to variable strength (c. 0-1 km/hr) surface cross-currents. Humpback whales appear to be able to compensate for surface current drift. The remarkable directional

  1. Dancing in the Diaspora: Cultural Long-Distance Nationalism and the Staging of Chineseness by San Francisco’s Chinese Folk Dance Association

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sau-ling C.

    2010-01-01

    This essay analyzes the history of a San Francisco Bay Area cultural institution over a period of more than four decades, and, applying to it the concept of "cultural long-distance nationalism," it attempts to tease apart the complexity of cultural practice in diaspora. The organization in question is the Chinese Folk Dance Association (CFDA), founded in 1959, a pro-People’s Republic of China (PRC) troupe of amateur dancers and musicians playing Chinese instruments. As someone who wa...

  2. A Mobile/Web App for Long Distance Caregivers of Older Adults: Functional Requirements and Design Implications from a User Centered Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Steven S.; Gorman, Paul N.; Jimison, Holly B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was ...

  3. Protein catabolism and high lipid metabolism associated with long-distance exercise are revealed by plasma NMR metabolomics in endurance horses

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Le Moyec; Céline Robert; Triba, Mohamed N.; Billat, Véronique L.; Xavier Mata; Laurent Schibler; Eric Barrey

    2014-01-01

    During long distance endurance races, horses undergo high physiological and metabolic stresses. The adaptation processes involve the modulation of the energetic pathways in order to meet the energy demand. The aims were to evaluate the effects of long endurance exercise on the plasma metabolomic profiles and to investigate the relationships with the individual horse performances. The metabolomic profiles of the horses were analyzed using the non-dedicated methodology, NMR spectroscopy and sta...

  4. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. Objectives This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. Materials and Method...

  5. Protein Catabolism and High Lipid Metabolism Associated with Long-Distance Exercise Are Revealed by Plasma NMR Metabolomics in Endurance Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Céline; Triba, Mohamed N.; Billat, Veronique L.; Mata, Xavier; Schibler, Laurent; Barrey, Eric

    2014-01-01

    During long distance endurance races, horses undergo high physiological and metabolic stresses. The adaptation processes involve the modulation of the energetic pathways in order to meet the energy demand. The aims were to evaluate the effects of long endurance exercise on the plasma metabolomic profiles and to investigate the relationships with the individual horse performances. The metabolomic profiles of the horses were analyzed using the non-dedicated methodology, NMR spectroscopy and sta...

  6. Passage performance of long-distance upstream migrants at a large dam on the Paraná River and the compounding effects of entry and ascent

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luiz Wagner; Sergio Makrakis; Theodore Castro-Santos; Maristela Cavicchioli Makrakis; João Henrique Pinheiro Dias; René Fuster Belmont

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a fishway evaluation performed at the Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Porto Primavera) - CESP, Paraná River, Brazil. The evaluation was designed to quantify entry and passage proportions of 4 long-distance migratory fish species: Brycon orbignyanus (piracanjuba), Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu), Prochilodus lineatus (curimba), and Rhinelepis aspera (cascudo-preto). Proportions finding and entering the fishway differed between species, ...

  7. The use of morphometric analysis to predict the swimming efficiency of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species in fish passage

    OpenAIRE

    Lucileine de Assumpção; Maristela Cavicchioli Makrakis; Sergio Makrakis; Ricardo Luiz Wagner; Patrícia Sarai da Silva; Ariane Furtado de Lima; Elaine Antoniassi Luiz Kashiwaqui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the external body morphology (based on morphometric data) and the swimming efficiency in fish passages (based on the ascent time in a fish ladder) of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species. The fish were collected in the fish ladder of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Engenheiro Sergio Motta), upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species differ in several morphometric ratios related to swimming performance. Prochilodus lineatus exhibited a hi...

  8. PbWoxT1 mRNA from pear (Pyrus betulaefolia) undergoes long-distance transport assisted by a polypyrimidine tract binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xuwei; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Jing; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengnan; Wang, Aide; Meng, Dong; Zhang, Qiulei; Chen, Qiuju; Li, Tianzhong

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which mRNAs are transported over long distances in the phloem between the rootstock and the scion in grafted woody plants. We identified an mRNA in the pear variety 'Du Li' (Pyrus betulaefolia) that was shown to be transportable in the phloem. It contains a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) domain and was therefore named Wox Transport 1 (PbWoxT1). A 548-bp fragment of PbWoxT1 is critical in long-distance transport. PbWoxT1 is rich in CUCU polypyrimidine domains and its mRNAs interact with a polypyrimidine tract binding protein, PbPTB3. Furthermore, the expression of PbWoxT1 significantly increased in the stems of wild-type (WT) tobacco grafted onto the rootstocks of PbWoxT1 or PbPTB3 co-overexpressing lines, but this was not the case in WT plants grafted onto PbWoxT1 overexpressing rootstocks, suggesting that PbPTB3 mediates PbWoxT1 mRNA long-distance transport. We provide novel information that adds a new mechanism with which to explain the noncell-autonomous manner of WOX gene function, which enriches our understanding of how WOX genes work in fruit trees and other species. PMID:26661583

  9. How to set-up a long-distance mentoring program: a framework and case description of mentorship in HIV clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuagbaw L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mbuagbaw,1,2 Lehana Thabane2,31Centre for the Development of Best Practices in Health (CDBPH, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Henri Dunant Avenue, Messa, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Biostatistics Unit, Father Sean O’Sullivan Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, CanadaAbstract: Mentoring plays an important role in learning and career development. Mentored researchers are more productive and more likely to publish their work. However, mentorship programs are not universally used in most settings or disciplines. Furthermore, successful and mutually beneficial mentoring relationships are not always easy to arrange. Long-distance mentoring relationships are even more difficult to handle and may break down for a wide variety of reasons. Drawing from our experiences with the first Canadian Institutes of Health Research – Canadian HIV Trials Network international postdoctoral fellowship program, we describe the roles of the context, the key mentor and the mentee attributes; goals and expectations; environments, local support, a communication plan, funding, face-to-face contact, multidisciplinary collaboration, co-mentoring, and evaluation as they apply to the successful implementation of a long-distance mentoring program.Keywords: long distance, mentoring, framework, Canada, Cameroon

  10. 关于长输管道焊接质量控制的探讨%Discussion on Quality Control of Long-distance Pipeline Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭道厚

    2011-01-01

    在长输管道工程施工中的关键是焊接过程,长输管道工程的施工质量好坏与焊接过程的质量控制是密不可分.本文从施工人员、施工经验,焊接环境、焊接设备和检验仪器工具、材料与焊材、焊接工艺文件、焊接检验检测和焊缝返修七个方面分析了长输管道焊接过程的质量控制要点,以确保压力管道工程施工质量.%The key in long-distance pipeline construction is welding process, long-distance pipeline construction quality is inextricably linked with quality control of welding process.In this paper, quality control points of long distance pipeline welding process are analyzed from seven aspects of construction workers, construction experience, welding environment, welding equipment and inspection equipment tools, materials and welding material,welding process documents, weld inspection and weld joint repair to ensure the quality of pressure piping construction.

  11. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Hoenner

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata estimated from (a highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th percentile error was 4 km for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3 and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively. This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  12. Are Long-Distance Migrants Constrained in Their Evolutionary Response to Environmental Change?: Causes of Variation in the Timing of Autumn Migration in a Blackcap (S. atricapilla) and Two Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.; Widmer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Long-distance migratory birds often show little phenotypic variation in the timing of life-history events like breeding, molt, or migration. It has been hypothesized that this could result from low levels of heritable variation. If this were true, the adaptability of long-distance migratory birds wo

  13. The role of long distance migration in the rural renaissance, in gentrification, and in growth of the Sunbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J

    1980-01-01

    The author "has examined trends in interstate migration during the 1970s for the four regions of the United States and, in particular, explored the relationship of this migration with nonmetropolitan expansion and the return to the city movement. The data show that the former trend is a very real one which has persisted throughout the decade and that population growth through interstate migration in nonmetropolitan America is, on balance, the result of nonblacks moving to the South from elsewhere in the nation. Except in the West, central cities continue to experience substantial losses of population through interstate migration. Interstate migration continues to be directed toward suburbs, and is especially vigorous in the West." Data are from the March 1975 and March 1979 Current Population Surveys. PMID:12312474

  14. Study on Long-distance Two-way Video Diagnosis Technology Based on Jabber%基于Jabber的远程双向视频诊断技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建英

    2011-01-01

    It is a new and effective prevention and control method of insect pests that experts diagnose plant diseases and insect pests via long-distance two-way video system. The Jabber and H. 264 coding technology are researched. At first, VFW was used to capture video of diseases and insect pests. Then, the H. 264 was used to compress the video, the compressed video data was transmitted by Jabber. Finally, other end decoded and displayed the compressed video by H. 264. Client end used Delphi as developing tool and sever end used Jabber2. 0 to realize this design.%专家通过远程双向视频系统诊断农作物病虫害,是一种新兴且有效的病虫害防治方法.深入研究了Jabber和H.264编码技术,首先通过VFW技术捕获农作物病虫害的视频,H.264编码技术对视频进行压缩,压缩后的视频数据通过Jabber服务器进行传输,对端通过H.264解码播放农作物病虫害视频,从而实现远程诊断.客户端采用Delphi作为开发工具,服务器端采用Jabber 2.0实现了设计.

  15. Distributed Monitoring Method of Subsidence Deformation of Long-Distance Pipeline%长输管道沉降变形分布式监测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毅力琦; 丁克勤; 钱才富; 乔松

    2011-01-01

    由于各种自然灾害和人为作用,可能会导致长距离油气输送管道发生沉降变形,因此对庞大的油气输送管网进行监测,及时发现情况,可以预防事故发生,保证生产生活的正常进行。提出了长输管道沉降变形分布式监测方法。该方法利用先进的分布式光纤传感技术对管道应变进行实时监测,利用梁大变形理论中应变与挠度的关系,采用数值计算方法得到管道的挠度值。该方法能够更加直观形象地分析计算管道的变形情况。为长输管道的安全运行提供保障。%The long distance pipeline would have subsidence deformation for the sake of natural disasters and artificial processes. Thus, monitoring the huge oil and gas transport pipeline system could discover abnormity instance without delay and prevent accidents to ensure the production and life. The distributed monitoring method of subsidence deformation of long-distance pipeline, presented in this paper, uses advanced distributed optical fiber sensing technology to monitor pipeline's strain in real-time. According to the relationship between strain and deflection in beam's large deformation theory, the deflection of pipeline could be calculated with numerical method. This monitoring method could analyze pipe's deformation more intuitively and vividly to provide safety for long- distance pipeline.

  16. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S; Schamber, Jason L; Ward, David H; Nicolai, Christopher A; Conant, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California-Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)-and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997-1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997-1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding. PMID:22030737

  17. Long-Distance Kissing Loop Interactions between a 3' Proximal Y-Shaped Structure and Apical Loops of 5' Hairpins Enhance Translation of Saguaro Cactus Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Shi, Kerong; Yuan, Xuefeng; Simon, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Circularization of cellular mRNAs is a key event prior to translation initiation. We report that efficient translation of Saguaro cactus virus (SCV) requires a 3' translational enhancer (PTE) located partially in coding sequences. Unlike a similar PTE reported in the 3' UTR of Pea enation mosaic virus that does not engage in an RNA:RNA interaction (Wang Z. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 284, 14189–14202, 2009), the SCV PTE participates in long distance RNA:RNA interactions with hairpins located in th...

  18. Re-evaluating the role of voluntary organisations: merchant networks, the Baltic and the expansion of European long-distance trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sahle, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Based on a letter book of the London Baltic merchant Michael Mitford dating 1703-1707 this paper argues that the ability of merchant networks to secure property rights in long distance trade must be re-evaluated. Contrary to the argument of the New Institutional Economists, these were not inferior to the nation state in facilitating the expansion of trade and thereby Smithean growth. It is shown that Mitford's network did not limit membership by non-economic criteria but adapted to the needs ...

  19. Capturing Hotspots For Constrained Indoor Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Finding the hotspots in large indoor spaces is very important for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation and guidance. The tracking data coming from indoor tracking are huge in volume and not readily available for finding hotspots. This paper presents a graph...

  20. Seasonal Movement Patterns and Long-Range Dispersal of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Martini, Xavier; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in the United States. Both short-range and long-range dispersal of D. citri adults affect the spread of HLB; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of D. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. In the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine the dispersal of D. citri by trapping marked adults under natural field conditions. D. citri movement from abandoned citrus groves to adjacent managed citrus groves was greatest during the spring and summer months and decreased significantly during the colder months (September-March). D. citri were able to traverse potential geographic barriers such as roads and fallow fields. In an experiment conducted to determine long-range dispersal capacity in the absence of severe weather events, D. citri were able to disperse at least 2 km within 12 d. Wind direction was not correlated with the number of marked psyllids captured, indicating substantial flight capability by D. citri. Finally, the number of marked psyllids captured increased with the density of emerging young leaves on surrounding trees. The results confirm that abandoned citrus groves in Florida serve as reservoirs for D. citri, which can disperse across long distances despite geographical barriers. PMID:26470097

  1. A Cross-Layer Wireless Sensor Network Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Real-Time Monitoring of the Long-Distance Electric Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes has become a critical link that constrains the engineering application of the smart grid due to the fact that the smart grid is characterized by long-distance transmission in a special environment. The paper proposes a linear hierarchical network topological structure specific to WSN energy conservation in environmental monitoring of the long-distance electric transmission lines in the smart grid. Based on the topological structural characteristics and optimization of network layers, the paper also proposes a Topological Structure be Layered Configurations (TSLC routing algorithm to improve the quality of WSN data transmission performance. Coprocessing of the network layer and the media access control (MAC layer is achieved by using the cross-layer design method, accessing the status for the nodes in the network layer and obtaining the status of the network nodes of the MAC layer. It efficiently saves the energy of the whole network, improves the quality of the network service performance, and prolongs the life cycle of the network.

  2. Aquaporin-mediated long-distance polyphosphate translocation directed towards the host in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: application of virus-induced gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Hijikata, Nowaki; Ohtomo, Ryo; Handa, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Saito, Katsuharu; Masuta, Chikara; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi translocate polyphosphate through hyphae over a long distance to deliver to the host. More than three decades ago, suppression of host transpiration was found to decelerate phosphate delivery of the fungal symbiont, leading us to hypothesize that transpiration provides a primary driving force for polyphosphate translocation, probably via creating hyphal water flow in which fungal aquaporin(s) may be involved. The impact of transpiration suppression on polyphosphate translocation through hyphae of Rhizophagus clarus was evaluated. An aquaporin gene expressed in intraradical mycelia was characterized and knocked down by virus-induced gene silencing to investigate the involvement of the gene in polyphosphate translocation. Rhizophagus clarus aquaporin 3 (RcAQP3) that was most highly expressed in intraradical mycelia encodes an aquaglyceroporin responsible for water transport across the plasma membrane. Knockdown of RcAQP3 as well as the suppression of host transpiration decelerated polyphosphate translocation in proportion to the levels of knockdown and suppression, respectively. These results provide the first insight into the mechanism underlying long-distance polyphosphate translocation in mycorrhizal associations at the molecular level, in which host transpiration and the fungal aquaporin play key roles. A hypothetical model of the translocation is proposed for further elucidation of the mechanism. PMID:27136716

  3. 长输管道土壤腐蚀特性分析%Analysis on Long-distance Pipeline Corrosion Properties in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬

    2014-01-01

    Based on long-distance pipeline corrosion level and trend of 658 soil sampling points, 30 typical soil erosion points were selected to carry out buried tests to establish soil erosion data sample. BP neural network evaluation method was used to carry out multivariate analysis of test results to predict soil erosion characteristics of other 628 points. This method provides the basis and standard for analysis of long-distance pipeline corrosion properties in soil in the future.%基于长输管道658处土壤取样点的腐蚀等级及变化趋势,选取30处典型土壤腐蚀点开展埋片试验,建立土壤腐蚀数据样本。采用BP神经网络评价法,进行多因素分析30处埋片点的测试结果,并预测其他628处取样点的土壤腐蚀特性。该方法可为今后长输管道土壤腐蚀特性分析提供依据和标准。

  4. High pressure long distance pipelines: technical - economic analysis; Les conduites a haute pression pour le transport a grande distance de gaz naturel: analyse technico-economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, E.; Ercolani, D. [Snamprogetti (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Over the second half of the Nineties, Snamprogetti and Snam, with the cooperation of ENI Divisione Agip, Saipem and EniTecnologie, have been working for a new concept of long distance (LD) transportation of natural gas via cross country pipelines, based on high pressure (HP) larger than the traditional 7.5 to 10 MPa, here called low pressure (LP), and advanced technologies. This paper describes the economic advantages of the new long distance high pressure (LDHP) gas transportation concept, in terms of investment and operating costs; the findings of the application of a mathematical model developed for the determination of the optimum pipe diameter and number of compression stations for both HP and LP alternatives are discussed. The economic comparison, referred to a representative case i.e. a transmission system of 5,000 km for a specified transport capacity of 15 to 30 x 10{sup 9} Sm{sup 3}/y, shows that the competitiveness of LDHP transportation increases with the increase of the flow rates, reaching a very remarkable advantage for quantities exceeding 10 x 10{sup 9} Sm{sup 3}/y. At present ENI Group companies are engaged in further development focused on the application of high grade steels (X-100), and aiming at obtaining further cost reduction while both ensuring the required system reliability and meeting the specified safety requirements. (authors)

  5. Flow dynamics in mid-Jurassic dikes and sills of the Ferrar large igneous province and implications for long-distance magma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Giulia M.; Muirhead, James D.; Long, Sylvan M.; Zanella, Elena; White, James D. L.

    2016-06-01

    Magma flow paths in sill-fed dikes of the Ferrar large igneous province (LIP), contrast with those predicted by classic models of dike transport in LIPs and magmatic rift settings. We examine anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) flow paths in dike networks at Terra Cotta Mountain and Mt. Gran, which intruded at paleodepths of ~ 2.5 and ~ 1.5 km. These intrusions (up to 30 m thick) exhibit irregular, interconnected dike-sill geometries and adjoin larger sills (~ 200-300 m thick) at different stratigraphic levels. Both shallowly dipping and sub-vertical magma flow components are interpreted from AMS measurements across individual intrusions, and often match macroscopic flow indicators and variations in dike attitudes. Flow paths suggest that intrusive patterns and magma flow directions depended on varying stress concentrations and rotations during dike and sill propagation, whereas a regional extensional tectonic control was negligible or absent. Unlike giant dike swarms in LIPs elsewhere (e.g., 1270 Ma MacKenzie LIP), dikes of the Ferrar LIP show no regionally consistent vertical or lateral flow patterns, suggesting these intrusion were not responsible for long-distance transport in the province. In the absence of regionally significant, colinear dike swarms, or observed intrusions at crustal depths ≥ 4 km, we suggest that long distance magma transport occurred in sills within Beacon Supergroup sedimentary rocks. This interpretation is consistent with existing geochemical data and thermal constraints, which support lateral magma flow for ~ 3,500 km across the Gondwana supercontinent before freezing.

  6. Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

  7. A New Development of Biometric Identification-Long-Distance Iris Recognition%生物特征识别技术新发展--远距离虹膜识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高霖

    2014-01-01

    虹膜识别技术目前已经发展至远距离虹膜识别分支。文章介绍了远距离虹膜识别概念的起源,定义时所考虑的主要因素,并阐述了不同阶段远距离虹膜识别的不同定义,和当前广泛使用的远距离虹膜识别解决方案。%With the development of iris recognition technology, long-distance iris recognition branch has been develped. This paper introduces origins of the concept of long-distance iris recognition as wel as the main factors for its defination, elaborated on different definitions of the different stages of long-distance iris recognition, and introduces a widely used long-distance iris recognition solution.

  8. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions...

  9. Satellite Telemetry and Long-Range Bat Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Craig S Smith; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Breed, Andrew C.; Raina K. Plowright; Kevin J Olival; Carol de Jong; Peter Daszak; Field, Hume E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-distance movement of bats has direct relevance to studies of population dynamics, ecology, disease emergence, and conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed and trialed several collar and platform terminal transmitter (PTT) combinations on both free-living and captive fruit bats (Family Pteropodidae: Genus Pteropus). We examined transmitter weight, size, profile and comfort as key determinants of maximized transmitter activity. We then tested...

  10. RNA silencing movement in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glykeria Mermigka; Frederic Verret; Kriton Kalantidis

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms, like higher plants, need to coordinate their growth and development and to cope with environmental cues. To achieve this, various signal molecules are transported between neighboring cells and distant organs to control the fate of the recipient cells and organs. RNA silencing produces cell non-autonomous signal molecules that can move over short or long distances leading to the sequence specific silencing of a target gene in a well defined area of cells or throughout the entire plant, respectively. The nature of these signal molecules, the route of silencing spread, and the genes involved in their production, movement and reception are discussed in this review. Additionally, a short section on features of silencing spread in animal models is presented at the end of this review.

  11. Propagation and stability characteristics of a 500-m-long laser-based fiducial line for high-precision alignment of long-distance linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators

  12. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  13. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  14. TO COMPARE THE EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY WITH STRETCHING VERSUS TAPING WITH STRETCHING ON ILIOTIBIAL BAND FRICTION SYNDROME IN LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS is the most common injury of the lateral side of the knee in runners. Runners typically complain of persistent lateral knee pain not associated with swelling, usually it occurs due to one to two miles of running and further worsening of the pain during running on the downhill. The popularity of running is still growing and, as participation increases, the incidence of running-related injuries will also increase. The Iliotibial track (ITT or the band is an anatomical structure of the lateral upper leg that recently has been highly published as an overused structure during sports. A friction syndrome has been attributed to excessive distance running, inappropriate running regimens and worn footwear [1] . Hence we have taken up this study to study about the effect of cryotherapy and kinesio taping technique with stretching exercise in patients with iliotibial band friction syndrome in long distance runners.

  15. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth. PMID:26318002

  16. 长输天然气管道泄漏回收研究%Research on Recovery of Natural Gas in Pipeline During Long-Distance Pipeline Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马焱; 刘德俊; 李小月; 高钊; 王芙; 高吉庆; 孙皓

    2013-01-01

    长输天然气管道作为重要的能源运输工具,在保障安全高效性输送的同时,全面拉动了我国天然气城市化进程。国内处理管道泄露问题时,通常先放空管道内天然气再进行抢修工作,这样就造成了对天然气的大量浪费。设计了一套对长输管道放空天然气进行回收的车载压缩机组,并进行经济可行性分析。当发生泄露后,车量迅速到达截断阀室现场,将泄露段天然气回收注入至下一段管道,既节约能源,又减少了由于放空天然气带来的环境污染。%As important energy transportation means, the long-distance natural gas pipeline promotes the natural gas urbanization process in China as it can ensure safe efficiency natural gas transmission. When dealing with the problem of pipeline leak in China, natural gas in the pipeline is usually vented before carrying out the repair work,which can cause a lot of waste of natural gas. A set of vehicle compressor was designed, it can recover natural gas in long distance pipeline, and its economic feasibility was analyzed. When a leak occurs, recycling car will quickly reach the cut-off valve room scene, recycle natural gas of leak section and inject it into the next section of pipeline. It can save energy, and reduce the environmental pollution caused by venting natural gas.

  17. Long-Distance Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Joseph

    1999-04-01

    One of the goals of physics education is to instill a sense of wonder in our students. We hope our natural curiosity will rub off on them and that they will apply the critical thinking skills we teach them to other aspects of their lives outside the classroom. As an example of this, consider the situation described in Milton's epic poem ``Paradise Lost''. Milton wrote that when the devil was cast out of heaven, he fell for nine days before landing in hell. In Milton's universe, hell is a separate place from Earth, but many people place hell at the center of the Earth. Based on these ideas, we can apply Newton's laws of motion to calculate the distance from heaven to Earth. This exercise is an example of the kind of intellectual exercise a physicist (or a physics student) might carry out when confronted with such information. We apply the basic principles of physics to a situation described in work of literature while making no attempt to validate or refute any philosophy, theology or ideology.

  18. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which are...... actually found close to be unit elastic....

  19. Large-Range Movements of Neotropical Orchid Bees Observed via Radio Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Wikelski, Martin; Moxley, Jerry; Eaton-Mordas, Alexander; Lopez-Uribe, Margarita M.; Holland, Richard; Moskowitz, David; Roubik, David W.; Kays, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) are often cited as classic examples of trapline-foragers with potentially extensive foraging ranges. If long-distance movements are habitual, rare plants in widely scattered locations may benefit from euglossine pollination services. Here we report the first successful use of micro radio telemetry to track the movement of an insect pollinator in a complex and forested environment. Our results indicate that individual male orchid bees (Exaerete frontalis) h...

  20. An fMRI Study Dissociating Distance Measures Computed by Broca’s Area in Movement Processing: Clause boundary vs Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP similar to the dependency head intervene the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca’s area, showing that activity in Broca’s area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca’s area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca’s area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG. Therefore, the involvement of Broca’s area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (ie, NP intervention.

  1. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  2. Technology and Application of Long Distance Pipeline Corrosion Defects Detection%长输管道腐蚀缺陷检测技术与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方舟

    2016-01-01

    Generally using multi- frequency tube in our country in current method (RD400-PCM detector) to test the coating damage point positioning, test result accuracy by 100%;Detection of pipe wall thickness generally uses the ultrasonic testing technology, its precision is higher than magnetic flux leakage detection technology, achieve 5 mm2 pitting, 10% amount of corrosion of pipe wall thickness can quantitative detection. Buried pipeline soil environmental evaluation index including soil resistivity,redox potential,pH value,soil salt content and water content, according to the size of the indicators to determine the level of pipeline corrosion, soil moisture content was less than 10% advisable, otherwise the soil corrosion rate of pipeline will increase. Then the corrosion inspection system application on a 14 km long distance pipeline in Changqing oil field, result shows that long-distance pipeline anticorrosive coating is in a good quality, the pipe body corrosion is more serious, which turn flat five transmission corrosion remaining minimum of pipe wall thickness,3.81 mm, with most of the pipeline residual wall thickness is 4.31 mm or so, combined with the soil envi-ronment, to use fixed number of year long pipeline replacement, with corrosion phenome-non of section for maintenance,prolong the service life of pipeline,reduce the risk of long-distance pipeline operation.%我国一般采用多频管中电流法(RD400-PCM检测仪)对长输管道防腐层破损点进行检测定位,检测结果准确率达到100%;对管体壁厚的检测一般采用超声波检测技术,其精度要高于漏磁检测技术,点蚀达到5 mm2,10%管道壁厚的腐蚀量均能定量检测。埋地管道土壤环境评价指标包括土壤的电阻率、氧化还原电位、pH值、土壤含盐量以及含水量,根据各项指标确定了管道腐蚀级别,土壤含水量小于10%为宜,否则土壤对管道的腐蚀速率变大。将上述腐蚀

  3. Modeling long distance dispersal of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus as a polydisperse aerosol - Application to the emergence of a new strain from Egypt to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Ziv; Klement, Eyal; Fattal, Eyal

    2015-12-01

    Long distance dispersal (LDD) of airborne aerosol of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was extensively modeled in the literature. Most studies modeled this aerosol in simplistic approach as a passive tracer, neglecting physical and biological mechanisms that affect bio-aerosols such as the FMD aerosol. This approach was justified either because under persistent wind these mechanisms lower the extant of downwind hazard or on the grounds that the effect of some of the physical mechanisms on particles as small as the FMD particles (0.015-20 μm) is supposed to be negligible compared to the effect of atmospheric turbulence. Even when the FMD aerosol was treated as aerosol, it was assumed that it is monodisperse, i.e., all its particles are of the same size. The aim of the study is to examine whether these simplistic approaches are indeed justified when dealing with LDD of a bio-aerosol under actual atmospheric conditions. In order to do so, the influence of a more realistic modeling of the FMD aerosol as a polydisperse aerosol was compared to passive tracer and to monodisperse aerosol. The comparison refers to a case of a widespread FMD outbreak that occurred in 2012 in Egypt. This outbreak involved the emergence of a new serotype in Egypt, SAT2 and concern was raised that this serotype will advance further to Asia and Europe. Israel is located on the land bridge between Africa, Asia and Europe, and shares a long desert border with Egypt as well as a long Mediterranean shore adjacent to Egypt's shore. This unique location as well as the fact that Israel does not have any cattle trade with its neighboring countries make Israel an interesting test case for the examination of the necessary conditions for the long distance dispersal (LDD) of a new FMD strains from Africa to Europe. The analysis in this study shows that under quasi-stationary wind conditions modeling FMD dispersal as a passive tracer results in a significantly longer hazard distance. Under non

  4. Uso de álcool e anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros de estrada Alcohol and amphetamines use among long-distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Costa do Nascimento

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a incidência do uso de álcool e anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros de estrada. Foram estudados 91 sujeitos, abordados em um posto de combustíveis em Passos, MG, em novembro de 2005. Os dados dos participantes foram obtidos por meio de um questionário contendo 19 questões de múltipla escolha. Utilizou-se para a análise dos dados estatística descritiva, teste do qui-quadrado e o coeficiente de correlação de Cramér. Os resultados indicaram que 66% dos caminhoneiros usavam anfetaminas durante os percursos de viagens, principalmente em postos de combustíveis (54% à beira das rodovias. O álcool era utilizado por 91% deles, dos quais 43% consumiam a bebida nos postos de combustíveis. Concluiu-se que há a necessidade de campanhas preventivas e informativas voltadas para esta categoria profissional nos postos de combustíveis e empresas de transportes, alertando sobre os riscos de ingestão dessas substâncias no período de trabalho.The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence of alcohol and amphetamine use among long-distance truck drivers. There were studied 91 truck drivers at the gas station in Passos, Southeastern Brazil, in November 2005. Data was collected using a questionnaire comprising 19 multiple choice questions. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Cramér's correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. The results indicated that 66% of the long-distance truck drivers used amphetamines during their travels, mainly at gas stations along the highways (54%. Alcohol was consumed by 91% of them and 43% of them consumed it at gas stations. It is concluded that there is a need of preventive and education campaigns targeting this occupation category at gas stations and transportation companies, focusing on the risks of these substances use during working hours.

  5. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra RM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ram Manohar Mishra,1 Madhulika Dube,2 Niranjan Saggurti,1 Arvind Pandey,3 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,1 Sowmya Ramesh11Population Council, New Delhi, 2Department of Statistics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 3National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066 undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1 low (duration ≤ 6 years and (2 high experience (duration ≥ 7 years. Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry < 18 complete years or adult entrants (age at entry ≥ 18 complete years. In the low-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were more likely than the adult entrants to have sex with paid female partners (42.6% versus 27.2%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–2.9 and to practice inconsistent condom use with such partners (69.1% versus 26.8%, respectively; adjusted OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 2.4–11.6. However, no significant differences were found in STI and HIV prevalence between the adolescent and the adult entrants in this cohort. In the high-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were about two times more likely than the adult entrants to practice inconsistent condom use with paid female partners (38.5% versus

  6. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yancong; Yang, Jiachen; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems-toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration-are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting. PMID:26308004

  7. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancong Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems—toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration—are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting.

  8. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  9. Long- distance Wireless Data Acquisition System Based on Wi -Fi%基于Wi-Fi的远距离无线数据采集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世玉; 曾强; 赵娟; 张志杰

    2012-01-01

    传统的军用摩托车测试系统大多是存储测试系统,无法将测试数据实时地传递到远端的控制台,这给数据的读取和分析带来不便.论文设计并实现了一种基于Wi - Fi远距离无线数据采集系统.相比目前其它无线传输系统该无线采集系统具有传输速度快、距离远、抗干扰能力强、能与以太网整合等优点.在满足传输速率的前提下,通信距离可达10 km.%Most of conventional motorcycle measurement system is storage measurement system which can not transmit real - time data to remote console, so it is inconvenient to read data and analysis data . Therefore, design and implement a WiFi - based long - distance wireless acquisition system. Compared other wireless transmission systems in present this wireless acquisition system has faster transfer rate, longer distances , anti - interference ability and integration with Ethernet. Communication distance is up to 10km on condition that transmission rate is met the requirement.

  10. Changes in haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and pig-MAP during a housing period following long distance transport in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamano, Germana; Mellia, Elisabetta; Candiani, Denise; Ingravalle, Francesco; Bruno, Renato; Ru, Giuseppe; Doglione, Luca

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a housing period following long distance transport on haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and pig major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) in swine. After transportation, 80 gilts were allotted to group A, B, C, or D. Blood samples were collected on arrival and 28 days later; additional samples were collected from Group C on day 14, and from Group D on days 3, 5 and 14. Acute phase proteins (APPs) in Group A were significantly lower on day 28 than on day 1; the opposite occurred in Group B because of a tail biting episode. In Group C, values remained elevated on day 14 and showed a reduction on day 28; in Group D elevated levels detected on day 14 were preceded by a decrease from days 1 to 5. The results indicate that stressors associated with transportation and new accommodation can cause an increase in APPs that could be useful indicators of welfare during transport and routine management. PMID:17509918

  11. Decision fusion framework in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster-Shafer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decision fusion algorithm in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory is proposed in this paper. To monitor the leakage and external damage, a new monitoring system is constructed with an optical fiber cable installed along the pipeline as a distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) and a pair of pressure meters installed at the pipeline inlet and outlet. When leaking, the oil stream disturbs the cable and a negative-pressure wave originates which propagates to pipe inlet and outlet. The probability of leaking is evaluated according to the correlation coefficient of negative-pressure waves acquired at the inlet and outlet, and the location is pinpointed using the negative-pressure method. The optical fiber cable is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation/vibration caused by leaking, tampering, or mechanical impacting. An optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) is employed to locate the additional attenuation and an optical power meter is employed to record the transmitted optical power. By using the D-S rule, features generated from the waveforms of optical power and negative-pressures are fused to make a decision about whether and where there is leakage and/or external damage

  12. 浅谈长输管道典型SCADA系统特点对比%Perspectives on Comparisons of typical SCADA system in long-distance pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾

    2014-01-01

    Expounds the present situation of the long-distance pipeline SCADA system at domestic and abroad,compare two kinds of typical structure of SCADA system is currently widely used,and list their characteristics,advantages and disadvantages.Furthermore, through analyzing the reliability and failure rate of two structures,discussed according to different process requirements select the appropriate structure of SCADA system,proposed dispatch center and station control system,in order to maximize the role of different system structures, improve production efifciency.%阐述了长输管道广泛应用的SCADA系统的现状,对比了两种典型的SCADA系统结构,并列举了各自的特点和优缺点。此外,通过对两种结构可靠性和故障率的分析,论述了可根据不同的工艺需求选择合适的SCADA系统结构,提出了调度中心和站控系统选取的依据,以便充分发挥不同系统结构的作用,提高生产效率。

  13. A mobile/web app for long distance caregivers of older adults: functional requirements and design implications from a user centered design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Steven S; Gorman, Paul N; Jimison, Holly B

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults. PMID:25954469

  14. Design of Metering System in Long-Distance Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline%天然气长输管道计量系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋

    2016-01-01

    计量系统是天然气长输管道中的重要组成部分,介绍了长输管道计量系统中常用流量计特点,给出了计量系统仪表选型及设计的一般过程,详细说明了精度考虑、口径考虑、流速计算及回路配置等问题的设计原则及计算方法。给出了以气体超声流量计、在线气体色谱分析仪、流量计算机等构建的体积流量和能量流量的计量系统的典型配置。%Flow measurement system is an important component in long-distance natural gas transportation pipe; flowmeters usually used in gas metering are introduced and compared in this paper. Meter selection and general design procedure are also given out including accuracy consideration,diameter consideration,velocity calculation,loop configration,etc.A typical metering system based on ultrasonic meter,online chromatographic analyzer,flow computer is constructed.

  15. Long-distance effects and final state interactions in B->@p@pK and B->KK@?K decays [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, A.; Kamiński, R.; Leśniak, L.; Loiseau, B.

    2005-09-01

    B decays into ππK and KKbar K, where the ππ and Kbar K pairs interact in isospin zero S-wave, are studied in the ππ effective mass range from threshold to 1.2 GeV. The interplay of strong and weak decay amplitudes is analyzed using an unitary ππ and KKbar coupled channel model. Final state interactions are described in terms of four scalar form factors constrained by unitarity and chiral perturbation theory. Branching ratios for the B →f0 (980) K decay, calculated in the factorization approximation with some QCD corrections, are too low as compared to recent data. In order to improve agreement with experiment, we introduce long-distance contributions called charming penguins. Effective mass distributions, branching ratios and asymmetries are compared with the existing data from BaBar and Belle Collaborations. A particularly large negative asymmetry in charged B decays is predicted for one set of the charming penguin amplitudes.

  16. Data transfer of long distance based on electric current loop circuit%基于电流环电路的远距离数据传输

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍卓; 王薇

    2012-01-01

    Level switch is widely used in the process of data transfer of long distance in the area of the industrial control. This paper mainly discusses the electric current loop, which is another data transfer circuit. This circuit switches level singal to current singal, taking current as the carrier of data transfer. This circuit has the excellent performance of anti-noise in the vile industrial environment.%电平转换在工业控制远距离数据传输过程中被广泛采用,取得了良好的效果。阐述了另一种数据传输的电路——电流环,该电路将电平信号转换为电流信号,以电流作为数据传输的载体,在恶劣工业环境下具有较强的抗噪、抗干扰的能力。

  17. Factors influencing the movement biology of migrant songbirds confronted with an ecological barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinsky, J. A.; Diehl, Robert H.; Radzio, T. A.; Delaney, D. K.; Moore, F. R

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a migratory songbird embarks on a long-distance flight across an ecological barrier is likely a response to a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. During autumn 2008 and 2009, we used automated radio tracking to investigate how energetic condition, age, and weather influenced the departure timing and direction of Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory stopover along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Most birds left within 1 h after sunset on the evening following capture. Those birds that departed later on the first night or remained longer than 1 day were lean. Birds that carried fat loads sufficient to cross the Gulf of Mexico generally departed in a seasonally appropriate southerly direction, whereas lean birds nearly always flew inland in a northerly direction. We did not detect an effect of age or weather on departures. The decision by lean birds to reorient movement inland may reflect the suitability of the coastal stopover site for deposition of fuel stores and the motivation to seek food among more extensive forested habitat away from the barrier.

  18. The Capsid Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus Overcomes two Separate Defense Barriers to Facilitate Viral Systemic Movement in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capsid protein (CP) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a multi-functional protein needed for virus assembly, suppression of RNA silencing-based antiviral defense, and long distance movement in infected plants. In this report, we have examined genetic requirements for the different functions of TCV...

  19. Laser capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes detailed methods used for laser capture microdissection (LCM) of discrete subpopulations of cells. Topics covered include preparing tissue blocks, cryostat sectioning, processing slides, performing the LCM, and purification of RNA from LCM samples. Notes describe the fine points of each operation, which can often mean the difference between success and failure. PMID:22639264

  20. A multi-isotope approach (N-, S-, O, Sr and Pb) to estimate the impact of long distance air pollution on sensitive alpine karst groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Karst and other sensitive aquifers contribute up to 90 % to the total drinking water supply in some European regions. However, they are more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers due to short transfer times from recharge to source. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to show possibilities to quantify the impact of even small long distance air pollution on sensitive water resources (e.g. karst). In spite of strong efforts initiated by the European Union and other international organisations in the past 20 years, air pollution from industry, traffic and agriculture is still significant. Transboundary transport processes by atmospheric circulation are responsible for its long range distribution. There is evidence that even remote mountainous regions in the Pyrenees or Alps as well as the Mediterranean islands are contaminated by inorganic and organic airborne pollution. This is most evident on the surface, but also may penetrate straight into aquifers, particularly in carbonate areas with strong karstification. In a pilot study precipitation, soil, rock and spring waters were collected in a small catchment at the front of the Northern Calcareous Alps to test the application of isotope analyzes to estimate the amount of far transported contaminants and their impact on the spring water quality. The hydrochemistry and the isotopic composition of nitrate, sulphate, strontium, lead and the water molecule itself has been analyzed in five laboratories, each of them specialized in a certain group of isotopes. Comparison of strontium isotope measurements in precipitation, spring waters and dolomite bedrock in a relatively pristine and remote area at the front-range of the Northern Calcareous Alps in Austria with literature data indicate that 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in participation (0.7092) support at least a more radiogenic, far transported source in addition to a possible recycling of local dolomite and limestone dust (0.7080-0.7083). Spring

  1. Nitric oxide and iron modulate heme oxygenase activity as a long distance signaling response to salt stress in sunflower seedling cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Bhatla, Satish C

    2016-02-29

    Nitric oxide is a significant component of iron signaling in plants. Heme is one of the iron sensors in plants. Free heme is highly toxic and can cause cell damage as it catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its catabolism is carried out by heme oxygenase (HOs; EC 1.14.99.3) which uses heme both as a prosthetic group and as a substrate. Two significant events, which accompany adaptation to salt stress in sunflower seedlings, are accumulation of ROS and enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) in roots and cotyledons. Present investigations on the immunolocalization of heme oxygenase distribution in sunflower seedling cotyledons by confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging provide new information on the differential spatial distribution of the inducible form of HO (HO-1) as a long distance in response to NaCl stress. The enzyme is abundantly distributed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals (SCs) in seedling cotyledons. Abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins has also been observed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals in cotyledons derived from salt stressed seedlings. The spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins and HO-1 expression further correlates with the abundance of mitochondria in these cells. Present findings, thus, highlight a link among distribution of HO-1 expression, abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins and mitochondria in specialized cells around the secretory canal as a long distance mechanism of salt stress tolerance in sunflower seedlings. Enhanced spatial distribution of HO-1 in response to NaCl stress in seedling cotyledons is in congruence with the observed increase in specific activity of HO-1 in NaCl stressed conditions. The enzyme activity is further enhanced by hemin (HO-1 inducer) both in the absence or presence of NaCl stress and inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin. Western blot analysis of cotyledon homogenates using anti-HO-1 polyclonal antibody shows one major band (29

  2. Ambient temperature does not affect fuelling rate in absence of digestive constraints in long-distance migrant shorebird fuelling up in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Vézina, François; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-08-01

    Pre-flight fuelling rates in free-living red knots Calidris canutus, a specialized long-distance migrating shorebird species, are positively correlated with latitude and negatively with temperature. The single published hypothesis to explain these relationships is the heat load hypothesis that states that in warm climates red knots may overheat during fuelling. To limit endogenous heat production (measurable as basal metabolic rate BMR), birds would minimize the growth of digestive organs at a time they need. This hypothesis makes the implicit assumption that BMR is mainly driven by digestive organ size variation during pre-flight fuelling. To test the validity of this assumption, we fed captive knots with trout pellet food, a diet previously shown to quickly lead to atrophied digestive organs, during a fuelling episode. Birds were exposed to two thermal treatments (6 and 24 degrees C) previously shown to generate different fuelling rates in knots. We made two predictions. First, easily digested trout pellet food rather than hard-shelled prey removes the heat contribution of the gut and would therefore eliminate an ambient temperature effect on fuelling rate. Second, if digestive organs were the main contributors to variations in BMR but did not change in size during fuelling, we would expect no or little change in BMR in birds fed ad libitum with trout pellets. We show that cold-acclimated birds maintained higher body mass and food intake (8 and 51%) than warm-acclimated birds. Air temperature had no effect on fuelling rate, timing of fuelling, timing of peak body mass or BMR. During fuelling, average body mass increased by 32% while average BMR increased by 15% at peak of mass and 26% by the end of the experiment. Our results show that the small digestive organs characteristic of a trout pellet diet did not prevent BMR from increasing during premigratory fuelling. Our results are not consistent with the heat load hypothesis as currently formulated. PMID:20339851

  3. Intercontinental long-distance dispersal of Canellaceae from the New to the Old World revealed by a nuclear single copy gene and chloroplast loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian; Salomo, Karsten; Salazar, Jackeline; Naumann, Julia; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Neinhuis, Christoph; Feild, Taylor S; Wanke, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Canellales, a clade consisting of Winteraceae and Canellaceae, represent the smallest order of magnoliid angiosperms. The clade shows a broad distribution throughout the Southern Hemisphere, across a diverse range of dry to wet tropical forests. In contrast to their sister-group, Winteraceae, the phylogenetic relations and biogeography within Canellaceae remain poorly studied. Here we present the phylogenetic relationships of all currently recognized genera of Canellales with a special focus on the Old World Canellaceae using a combined dataset consisting of the chloroplast trnK-matK-trnK-psbA and the nuclear single copy gene mag1 (Maigo 1). Within Canellaceae we found high statistical support for the monophyly of Warburgia and Cinnamosma. However, we also found relationships that differ from previous studies. Cinnamodendron splitted into two clades, a South American clade and a second clade confined to the Antilles and adjacent areas. Cinnamodendron from the Antilles, as well as Capsicodendron, South American Cinnamodendron and Pleodendron were not monophyletic. Consequently, Capsicodendron should be included in the South American Cinnamodendron clade and the genus Pleodendron merged with the Cinnamodendron clade from the Antilles. We also found that Warburgia (restricted to mainland eastern Africa) together with the South American Cinnamodendron and Capsicodendron are sister to the Malagasy genus Cinnamosma. In addition to the unexpected geographical relationships, both biogeographic and molecular clock analyses suggest vicariance, extinction, and at least one intercontinental long-distance-dispersal event. Our dating result contrasts previous work on Winteraceae. Diversification of Winteraceae took place in the Paleocene, predating the Canellaceae diversification by 13 MA in the Eocene. The phylogenetic relationships for Canellaceae supported here offer a solid framework for a future taxonomic revision of the Canellaceae. PMID:25579657

  4. Spatial patterns of AFLP diversity in Bulbophyllum occultum (Orchidaceae) indicate long-term refugial isolation in Madagascar and long-distance colonization effects in La Réunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, U; Fischer, G A; Pailler, T; Comes, H P

    2016-05-01

    Bulbophyllum occultum, an epiphytic orchid mainly distributed in the rainforests of (north)eastern Madagascar and La Réunion, represents an interesting model case for testing the effects of anthropogenic vs historical (e.g., climate induced) habitat isolation and long-distance colonization on the genetic structure of plant species with disjunct distributions in the Madagascan region. To this aim, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) across 13 populations in Madagascar and nine in La Réunion (206 individuals in total). We found overall high levels of population subdivision (ΦPT=0.387) and low within-population diversity (HE, range: 0.026-0.124), indicating non-equilibrium conditions in a mainly selfing species. There was no impact of recent deforestation (Madagascar) or habitat disturbance (La Réunion) detectable on AFLP diversity. K-means clustering and BARRIER analyses identified multiple gene pools and several genetic breaks, both within and among islands. Inter-island levels of population genetic diversity and subdivision were similar, whereby inter-individual divergence in flower colour explained a significant part of gene pool divergence in La Réunion. Our results suggest that (i) B. occultum persisted across multiple isolated ('refugial') regions along the eastern rainforest corridor of Madagascar over recent climatic cycles and (ii) populations in La Réunion arose from either single or few independent introductions from Madagascar. High selfing rates and sufficient time for genetic drift likely promoted unexpectedly high population genetic and phenotypic (flower colour) differentiation in La Réunion. Overall, this study highlights a strong imprint of history on the genetic structure of a low-gene-dispersing epiphytic orchid from the Madagascan region. PMID:26883184

  5. The Heavy Vehicle Study: a case-control study investigating risk factors for crash in long distance heavy vehicle drivers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grunstein Ron R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy vehicle transportation continues to grow internationally; yet crash rates are high, and the risk of injury and death extends to all road users. The work environment for the heavy vehicle driver poses many challenges; conditions such as scheduling and payment are proposed risk factors for crash, yet the precise measure of these needs quantifying. Other risk factors such as sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnoea have been shown to increase crash risk in motor vehicle drivers however the risk of heavy vehicle crash from this and related health conditions needs detailed investigation. Methods and Design The proposed case control study will recruit 1034 long distance heavy vehicle drivers: 517 who have crashed and 517 who have not. All participants will be interviewed at length, regarding their driving and crash history, typical workloads, scheduling and payment, trip history over several days, sleep patterns, health, and substance use. All participants will have administered a nasal flow monitor for the detection of obstructive sleep apnoea. Discussion Significant attention has been paid to the enforcement of legislation aiming to deter problems such as excess loading, speeding and substance use; however, there is inconclusive evidence as to the direction and strength of associations of many other postulated risk factors for heavy vehicle crashes. The influence of factors such as remuneration and scheduling on crash risk is unclear; so too the association between sleep apnoea and the risk of heavy vehicle driver crash. Contributory factors such as sleep quality and quantity, body mass and health status will be investigated. Quantifying the measure of effect of these factors on the heavy vehicle driver will inform policy development that aims toward safer driving practices and reduction in heavy vehicle crash; protecting the lives of many on the road network.

  6. Protein catabolism and high lipid metabolism associated with long-distance exercise are revealed by plasma NMR metabolomics in endurance horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Le Moyec

    Full Text Available During long distance endurance races, horses undergo high physiological and metabolic stresses. The adaptation processes involve the modulation of the energetic pathways in order to meet the energy demand. The aims were to evaluate the effects of long endurance exercise on the plasma metabolomic profiles and to investigate the relationships with the individual horse performances. The metabolomic profiles of the horses were analyzed using the non-dedicated methodology, NMR spectroscopy and statistical multivariate analysis. The advantage of this method is to investigate several metabolomic pathways at the same time in a single sample. The plasmas were obtained before exercise (BE and post exercise (PE from 69 horses competing in three endurance races at national level (130-160 km. Biochemical assays were also performed on the samples taken at PE. The proton NMR spectra were compared using the supervised orthogonal projection on latent structure method according to several factors. Among these factors, the race location was not significant whereas the effect of the race exercise (sample BE vs PE of same horse was highly discriminating. This result was confirmed by the projection of unpaired samples (only BE or PE sample of different horses. The metabolomic profiles proved that protein, energetic and lipid metabolisms as well as glycoproteins content are highly affected by the long endurance exercise. The BE samples from finisher horses could be discriminated according to the racing speed based on their metabolomic lipid content. The PE samples could be discriminated according to the horse ranking position at the end of the race with lactate as unique correlated metabolite. As a conclusion, the metabolomic profiles of plasmas taken before and after the race provided a better understanding of the high energy demand and protein catabolism pathway that could expose the horses to metabolic disorders.

  7. Long-distance wind-dispersal of spores in a fungal plant pathogen: estimation of anisotropic dispersal kernels from an extensive field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieux, Adrien; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Bonnot, François; Klein, Etienne K; Ngando, Josue E; Mehl, Andreas; Ravigne, Virginie; Carlier, Jean; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Given its biological significance, determining the dispersal kernel (i.e., the distribution of dispersal distances) of spore-producing pathogens is essential. Here, we report two field experiments designed to measure disease gradients caused by sexually- and asexually-produced spores of the wind-dispersed banana plant fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Gradients were measured during a single generation and over 272 traps installed up to 1000 m along eight directions radiating from a traceable source of inoculum composed of fungicide-resistant strains. We adjusted several kernels differing in the shape of their tail and tested for two types of anisotropy. Contrasting dispersal kernels were observed between the two types of spores. For sexual spores (ascospores), we characterized both a steep gradient in the first few metres in all directions and rare long-distance dispersal (LDD) events up to 1000 m from the source in two directions. A heavy-tailed kernel best fitted the disease gradient. Although ascospores distributed evenly in all directions, average dispersal distance was greater in two different directions without obvious correlation with wind patterns. For asexual spores (conidia), few dispersal events occurred outside of the source plot. A gradient up to 12.5 m from the source was observed in one direction only. Accordingly, a thin-tailed kernel best fitted the disease gradient, and anisotropy in both density and distance was correlated with averaged daily wind gust. We discuss the validity of our results as well as their implications in terms of disease diffusion and management strategy. PMID:25116080

  8. Dancing in the Diaspora: Cultural Long-Distance Nationalism and the Staging of Chineseness by San Francisco’s Chinese Folk Dance Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau-ling C. Wong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the history of a San Francisco Bay Area cultural institution over a period of more than four decades, and, applying to it the concept of "cultural long-distance nationalism," it attempts to tease apart the complexity of cultural practice in diaspora. The organization in question is the Chinese Folk Dance Association (CFDA, founded in 1959, a pro-People’s Republic of China (PRC troupe of amateur dancers and musicians playing Chinese instruments. As someone who was peripherally involved with the group in the mid-1970s and early 1980s and was a friend or acquaintance of a few members of the group, I became curious about the changes in its activities, its performance programs, its roles in the Bay Area community, and its self-perceived relationship to the homeland over time. I have examined the CFDA’s performance programs, photographs, and press coverage since the 1970s (earlier archival material was not available to me, as well as interviewed three of its key figures and spoken on several occasions with one of the three, the long-time executive director of the group and a friend from graduate school. What I have found is that the changes undergone by the group reveal the multiplicity of factors that go into the staging of Chineseness in diaspora and the challenges inherent in such a process. The challenges are especially acute given how rapidly the nation-state to which a specific cultural presentation is tied—the People’s Republic of China (PRC—has itself been undergoing rapid and radical transformations.

  9. Dancing in the Diaspora: Cultural Long-Distance Nationalism and the Staging of Chineseness by San Francisco’s Chinese Folk Dance Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau-ling C. Wong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This essay analyzes the history of a San Francisco Bay Area cultural institution over a period of more than four decades, and, applying to it the concept of "cultural long-distance nationalism," it attempts to tease apart the complexity of cultural practice in diaspora. The organization in question is the Chinese Folk Dance Association (CFDA, founded in 1959, a pro-People’s Republic of China (PRC troupe of amateur dancers and musicians playing Chinese instruments. As someone who was peripherally involved with the group in the mid-1970s and early 1980s and was a friend or acquaintance of a few members of the group, I became curious about the changes in its activities, its performance programs, its roles in the Bay Area community, and its self-perceived relationship to the homeland over time. I have examined the CFDA’s performance programs, photographs, and press coverage since the 1970s (earlier archival material was not available to me, as well as interviewed three of its key figures and spoken on several occasions with one of the three, the long-time executive director of the group and a friend from graduate school. What I have found is that the changes undergone by the group reveal the multiplicity of factors that go into the staging of Chineseness in diaspora and the challenges inherent in such a process. The challenges are especially acute given how rapidly the nation-state to which a specific cultural presentation is tied—the People’s Republic of China (PRC—has itself been undergoing rapid and radical transformations.

  10. Paediatric palliative home care in areas of Germany with low population density and long distances: a questionnaire survey with general paediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremeike Kerstin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007, the patient’s right to specialised palliative home care became law in Germany. However, childhood palliative care in territorial states with low patient numbers and long distances requires adapted models to ensure an area-wide maintenance. Actually, general paediatricians are the basic care providers for children and adolescents. They also provide home care. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about general paediatrician’s involvement in and contribution to palliative care in children. Findings To evaluate the current status of palliative home care provided by general paediatricians and their cooperation with other paediatric palliative care providers, a questionnaire survey was disseminated to general paediatricians in Lower Saxony, a German federal state with nearly eight million inhabitants and a predominantly rural infrastructure. Data analysis was descriptive. One hundred forty one of 157 included general paediatricians completed the questionnaire (response rate: 89.8%. A total of 792 children and adolescents suffering from life-limiting conditions were cared for by these general paediatricians in 2008. Severe cerebral palsy was the most prevalent diagnosis. Eighty-nine per cent of the general paediatricians stated that they had professional experience with paediatric palliative care. Collaboration of general paediatricians and other palliative care providers was stated as not well developed. The support by a specialised team including 24-hour on-call duty and the intensification of educational programs were emphasised. Conclusions The current regional infrastructure of palliative home care in Lower Saxony can benefit from the establishment of a coordinated network of palliative home care providers.

  11. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C.; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J.; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in fou...

  12. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;

    2014-01-01

    , to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...... in an encamped state. Though the attraction to the group centroid is relatively weak, our model successfully captures group-influenced movement dynamics. Specifically, as compared to a regular mixture of correlated random walks, the group dynamic model more accurately predicts the non-diffusive behaviour...

  13. Overview of Long-distance Migration of Rice Planthopper%水稻稻飞虱迁飞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晶晶; 金志凤; 徐红星; 李仁忠

    2013-01-01

    The Rice Planthopper was one of the main insect pests in rice production in China at present. The long-distance migration, which including take-off, flight and landing was the results of biological evolution and environmental stress, especially the food shortage, which affected by physiological station, ecological situation, insect source and other factors. Weather system, meteorological factors, geographic features, and other factors were related to migration progress, in which the low-level jet stream could be used as monitoring migration of rice Planthopper in warning parameters, combined with the sources of rice planthoppers to predicted the landing-area. Migration parameter and model could accurately elucidate the rice planthopper from take-off, flight, landing immigration of migratory behavior dynamics, simulation from the insect source, flying height, flight time, flight trajectory, to provide scientific basis for prevention of rice planthopper.%  稻飞虱是目前影响中国水稻生产的主要害虫之一。其迁飞行为是生物进化、环境胁迫(特别是食料不足)共同作用的结果,包括起飞、飞行和降落3个阶段,受生理、生态、虫源等多方面因素影响。迁飞过程与天气系统、气象条件、地理特点等因素相关,其中低空急流可以作为监测稻飞虱迁飞的预警参数,与虫情结合可以预测稻飞虱迁入区。迁飞参数化和模型可以较精确地阐明稻飞虱迁出起飞、空中飞行、降落迁入等迁飞行为的动力学机制,模拟其虫源地、飞行高度、迁飞历时、飞行轨迹等,为预防预测稻飞虱提供了科学依据。

  14. Overview of Long-distance Migration of Rice Planthopper%水稻稻飞虱迁飞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晶晶; 金志凤; 徐红星; 李仁忠

    2013-01-01

      稻飞虱是目前影响中国水稻生产的主要害虫之一。其迁飞行为是生物进化、环境胁迫(特别是食料不足)共同作用的结果,包括起飞、飞行和降落3个阶段,受生理、生态、虫源等多方面因素影响。迁飞过程与天气系统、气象条件、地理特点等因素相关,其中低空急流可以作为监测稻飞虱迁飞的预警参数,与虫情结合可以预测稻飞虱迁入区。迁飞参数化和模型可以较精确地阐明稻飞虱迁出起飞、空中飞行、降落迁入等迁飞行为的动力学机制,模拟其虫源地、飞行高度、迁飞历时、飞行轨迹等,为预防预测稻飞虱提供了科学依据。%The Rice Planthopper was one of the main insect pests in rice production in China at present. The long-distance migration, which including take-off, flight and landing was the results of biological evolution and environmental stress, especially the food shortage, which affected by physiological station, ecological situation, insect source and other factors. Weather system, meteorological factors, geographic features, and other factors were related to migration progress, in which the low-level jet stream could be used as monitoring migration of rice Planthopper in warning parameters, combined with the sources of rice planthoppers to predicted the landing-area. Migration parameter and model could accurately elucidate the rice planthopper from take-off, flight, landing immigration of migratory behavior dynamics, simulation from the insect source, flying height, flight time, flight trajectory, to provide scientific basis for prevention of rice planthopper.

  15. Impact of oral meloxicam and long-distance transport on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in feedlot steers receiving modified live BVDV booster vaccination on arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, N K; Platt, R; Roth, J A; Stock, M L; Engelken, T; Vann, R C; Wulf, L W; Busby, W D; Wang, C; Kalkwarf, E M; Coetzee, J F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of oral meloxicam (MEL) and long-distance transportation on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in preconditioned steers receiving a booster vaccination on arrival. We hypothesized that steers treated with MEL at 1mg/kg body weight, 6h before night-time transport, would be less immunocompromised on arrival (day 0) and after 7days, and that CMI following vaccination with a modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) recall antigen would be increased. Brahman crossbreed steers, 13-17 months of age (n=87), were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: MEL, transported (MTR) (n=22), MEL, non-transported (MNT) (n=22), lactose placebo, transported (CTR) (n=21), and lactose placebo, non-transported (CNT) (n=22). MTR and CTR steers were transported for approximately 16h non-stop on a truck from Mississippi to Iowa (approximately 1300km), whereas steers in the MNT and CNT groups remained in Mississippi as non-transported controls. Body weight was measured and jugular blood was collected at -1, 0, and 7days from all steers at the same time, regardless of location. Multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) was used to identify T-cell subsets and detect the expression of three activation markers (CD25 [interleukin (IL)-2 receptor], intracellular interferon-gamma [IFNγ], and IL-4) after in vitro stimulation with BVDV recall antigen. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured on day -1, 0, and 7 as a marker of transport-associated stress. Serum antibody titer to BVDV was assessed on day -1 and day 7 post-booster vaccination. Whole-blood samples were analyzed using MP-FCM on days 0 and 7. Results were log transformed and analyzed using repeated measures of analysis of variance. Compared with non-transported controls, transport led to an increase in BVDV-induced expression of CD25, IFNγ, and IL-4 in CD4(+), CD8(+), and γδ(+) T-cell subsets (P0.10). A treatment*transport interaction was noted for the increase in IL

  16. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.)

  17. Diel and seasonal movements of grumatã Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836) (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesoa, N A; Schulz, U H

    2010-12-01

    Prochilodus lineatus is a reophilic migratory species of economical importance for local fisheries which is widely distributed in Brazil. The present study investigated diel and seasonal movement patterns, spawning migration and habitat use of P. lineatus in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil. Between August 2002 and March 2004, 19 grumatãs were tagged internally with digitally coded radio transmitters. Tracking was conducted weekly by boat or aircraft, and six fixed data loggers recorded movements of tagged fish. Results showed that the mean distance covered per fish and day was positively related with fish weight (p = 0.03; n = 19). Grumatã showed preference for river streches surrounded by wetlands (p < 0.001; n = 286). Their diel activity pattern displayed one peak at 7 hours, and a second at 15 hours. During the night, activity was significantly reduced (p = 0.01). The seasonal movements pattern showed increased activity in October 2002 - March 2003 and from October 2003 to January 2004. Multiple regression analysis did not show a significant relationship between distance covered and temperature or water level (p = 0.116; n = 19). No synchronized long distance spawning migrations were observed. The mean distance covered by the individuals/day showed a negative significant relationship with number of tracking days (p = 0.022; n = 19), indicating a higher probability of being captured for more mobile individuals. The preservation of the still existing wetlands and reduction of the fishing pressure are essential for the future conservation of the grumatã population of the Sinos River. PMID:21225158

  18. How landscape dynamics link individual- to population-level movement patterns: A multispecies comparison of ungulate relocation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, T.; Olson, K.A.; Dressler, G.; Leimgruber, P.; Fuller, T.K.; Nicolson, C.; Novaro, A.J.; Bolgeri, M.J.; Wattles, D.; DeStefano, S.; Calabrese, J.M.; Fagan, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To demonstrate how the interrelations of individual movements form large-scale population-level movement patterns and how these patterns are associated with the underlying landscape dynamics by comparing ungulate movements across species. Locations Arctic tundra in Alaska and Canada, temperate forests in Massachusetts, Patagonian Steppes in Argentina, Eastern Steppes in Mongolia. Methods We used relocation data from four ungulate species (barren-ground caribou, Mongolian gazelle, guanaco and moose) to examine individual movements and the interrelation of movements among individuals. We applied and developed a suite of spatial metrics that measure variation in movement among individuals as population dispersion, movement coordination and realized mobility. Taken together, these metrics allowed us to quantify and distinguish among different large-scale population-level movement patterns such as migration, range residency and nomadism. We then related the population-level movement patterns to the underlying landscape vegetation dynamics via long-term remote sensing measurements of the temporal variability, spatial variability and unpredictability of vegetation productivity. Results Moose, which remained in sedentary home ranges, and guanacos, which were partially migratory, exhibited relatively short annual movements associated with landscapes having very little broad-scale variability in vegetation. Caribou and gazelle performed extreme long-distance movements that were associated with broad-scale variability in vegetation productivity during the peak of the growing season. Caribou exhibited regular seasonal migration in which individuals were clustered for most of the year and exhibited coordinated movements. In contrast, gazelle were nomadic, as individuals were independently distributed and moved in an uncoordinated manner that relates to the comparatively unpredictable (yet broad-scale) vegetation dynamics of their landscape. Main conclusions We show how

  19. The Movement of Composition: Dance and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This piece, created at the Digital Media and Composition Institute in June 2012, is a multimodal attempt to capture and compare both the physical and conceptual movement involved in dance and writing. The project is my first step towards exploring the non-linear nature of composition as expressed in the movement of the body and of the mind.

  20. Web Archiving: Preserving the Umbrella Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    At-risk web content needs to be preserved for future research.  It is especially important to preserve through web archiving social media and other web content of protest movements such as Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement of the Fall of 2014.  Libraries, researchers and data journalists have separately engaged in capturing social media. 

  1. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  2. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact......Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...

  3. The use of morphometric analysis to predict the swimming efficiency of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species in fish passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucileine de Assumpção

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the external body morphology (based on morphometric data and the swimming efficiency in fish passages (based on the ascent time in a fish ladder of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species. The fish were collected in the fish ladder of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Engenheiro Sergio Motta, upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species differ in several morphometric ratios related to swimming performance. Prochilodus lineatus exhibited a higher muscle ratio and caudal fin length ratio. However, Leporinus elongatus showed higher values for the fineness ratio, a higher length from snout to pectoral fin base ratio, and a higher caudal peduncle depth factor. Although both species show good swimming performance, the characteristics listed above may enable L. elongatus to apply greater power and propulsion, allowing it to reach a high swimming speed and to exhibit greater efficiency than P. lineatus. Leporinus elongatus moves faster than P. lineatus and has a lower mean ascent time (1.39 hours than P. lineatus (3.76 hours. Prochilodus lineatus would require a somewhat longer time to pass through the fish ladder.Este estudo investigou a relação entre a morfologia externa do corpo (baseado em dados morfométricos e eficiência de natação em passagem para peixes (baseado no tempo de ascensão em uma escada para peixes de duas espécies neotropicais migradoras de longas distâncias. Os peixes foram coletados na escada para peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica de Porto Primavera (conhecida como Engenheiro Sérgio Motta, alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As espécies diferem em algumas razões morfométricas referentes ao desempenho de natação: Prochilodus lineatus apresentou valores mais elevados para razão muscular e razão do comprimento da nadadeira caudal. No entanto, Leporinus elongatus apresentou valores mais elevados para razão fineza, para razão do comprimento do focinho à base da nadadeira peitoral e

  4. North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, G.B.; Venter, W. D. F.; Lange, J.M.A.; H. Rees; Hankins, C

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 count >350 cells/ μ L) have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate "real world" programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and co...

  5. Slaves of the environment: the movement of herbivorous insects in relation to their ecology and genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Loxdale, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    The majority of insect species do not show an innate behavioural migration, but rather populations expand into favourable new habitats or contract away from unfavourable ones by random changes of spatial scale. Over the past 50 years, the scientific fascination with dramatic long-distance and directed mass migratory events has overshadowed the more universal mode of population movement, involving much smaller stochastic displacement during the lifetime of the insects concerned. This may be li...

  6. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  7. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  8. Study on Coal and Rock Pressure Releasing Effect of Protected Seam Mining Under Long Distance%远程下保护层开采煤岩卸压效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程详; 赵光明

    2011-01-01

    基于保护层开采覆岩移动破坏特征,分析了远程下保护层开采煤岩卸压的可行性,采用FLAC2D数值模拟软件对被保护煤层的应力分布特征、煤厚变形规律、水平位移规律、卸压范围及卸压角进行了研究。结果表明:下保护层开采时,断裂带高度已发育到被保护层,煤层产生膨胀变形,生成大量的次生裂隙,使被保护煤层产生不同程度的卸压,同时水平位移的产生也有利于煤层透气性增加。在走向方向上,被保护层向保护层采空区方向内错约30 m,煤层进入稳定膨胀变形区,走向有效卸压角的大小为66°左右。研究结果应用于工程实践后,淮南某矿13-1煤层瓦斯压力由原来的4.4 MPa变为卸压后的0.7 MPa,煤层透气性系数增大了1 061倍,表明该方法是较好的区域性防突措施。%Based on the overburden strata movement and failure features of the protected seam mining,the paper had an analysis on the feasibility of the coal and rock pressure releasing in the protected seam mining under long distance.The FLAC2D numerical simulation software was applied to the study on the stress distribution features of the protected seam,seam thickness variation law,the horizontal displacement law,the pressure releasing scope and the pressure releasing angle.The results showed that during the underneath protective seam mining,the height of the crack zone was developed to the protected seam,swelling deformations were occurred in the seam,great secondary cracks were occurred and thus different pressure releasing were occurred in the protected seam.Meanwhile,the horizontal displacement occurred would be favorable to improve the permeability of the seam.On the strike direction,the protected seam was moved about 30 m to the direction of the goaf of the protective seam.The protected seam was in the stable swelling deformation zone and the effective pressure releasing angle in the strike was about 66°.After the study

  9. Functional analysis of the cloverleaf-like structure in the 3' untranslated region of bamboo mosaic potexvirus RNA revealed dual roles in viral RNA replication and long distance movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) RNA was identified to fold into a tertiary structure comprising a cloverleaf-like structure designated ABC domain followed by a major stem-loop D, which in turn is followed by a pseudoknot E and a poly(A) tail. The coat protein accumulation level of the mutant, BaMV40A/ΔABC, lacking ABC domain was just 15% that of wild-type when inoculated into protoplasts of Nicotiana benthamiana. This suggested that ABC domain might play an important role in BaMV RNA replication. To define the precise role of each of the three stem-loops of ABC domain in RNA replication, three mutants BaMV40B and C each lacking stem-loop A, B, and C, respectively, were created. Our results showed that accumulation of viral products of mutants BaMV40B and C were not as efficient as wild-type. On the contrary, level of accumulation of viral products of BaMVA was similar to that of wild-type in protoplasts and inoculated leaves. Interestingly, the accumulation of viral products was not as efficient as that of wild-type in systemic leaves, implying that stem-loop A is dispensable for replication, but signifies a role in systemic accumulation. Using UV cross-linking and competition experiments, it was demonstrated that the E. coli expressed helicase domain of BaMV ORF1 can preferentially interact with the ABC domain

  10. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  11. Striatonigral control of movement velocity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Ryan A; Li, Haofang; Gaidis, Erin J; Stackmann, Michelle; Shoemaker, Charles T; Rossi, Mark A; Yin, Henry H

    2016-04-01

    The basal ganglia have long been implicated in action initiation. Using three-dimensional motion capture, we quantified the effects of optogenetic stimulation of the striatonigral (direct) pathway on movement kinematics. We generated transgenic mice with channelrhodopsin-2 expression in striatal neurons that express the D1-like dopamine receptor. With optic fibres placed in the sensorimotor striatum, an area known to contain movement velocity-related single units, photo-stimulation reliably produced movements that could be precisely quantified with our motion capture programme. A single light pulse was sufficient to elicit movements with short latencies (<30 ms). Increasing stimulation frequency increased movement speed, with a highly linear relationship. These findings support the hypothesis that the sensorimotor striatum is part of a velocity controller that controls rate of change in body configurations. PMID:27091436

  12. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  13. Research of Long-distance and Collaborative Learning Based on Tian-di Site with Teaching System%基于天地网结合教学系统的远程协作学习研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建民; 陈晨

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of the information technology and increasing popularity of internet application and on the trend of fusion of Tian-di site,the long-distance education enters to a new field. It mainly focuses on the new type of learning-long-distance and collaborative learning and the application of teaching system based on the Tian-di site. Besides,also analyze the study of long-distance combining the supporting software of distance education,propose the implementation process of long-distance and collaborative learning based on the Tian-di site with teaching system,thus promoting the interaction and communication between teachers and students,students and students and satisfying the need of the multi-access for learners who want to access the answering system together. In this way,the users’ learning effect can be optimized. The technology has been applied with effective results.%  随着信息技术的飞速发展以及互联网应用的日益普及,在天网与地网相融合的大趋势下,远程教育进入了一个崭新的领域。文中主要研究远程协作学习这种新型学习方式,对基于天地网结合教学系统的应用进行研究,并结合远程教育教学支撑软件,对远程协作学习进行分析,提出了基于天地网结合教学系统的远程协作学习的实施过程。目的是为了促进教师与学生,学生与学生之间的互动交流,满足多位学习者同时访问解答系统所呈现问题的需要,最终达到优化学习的效果,此项研究在实际项目中取得了良好的应用效果。

  14. The Migration Matrix: Marine Vertebrate Movements in Magnetic Coordinate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Clapham, P. J.; Zerbini, A. N.; Andriolo, A.; Hays, G. C.; Egevang, C.; Domeier, M. L.; Lucas, N.

    2011-12-01

    Determining how vertebrates navigate during their long-distance migrations remains one of the most enduring and fundamental challenges of behavioral ecology. It is widely accepted that spatial orientation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and a variety of viable positional and directional orientation cues, including the sun, stars, and magnetic field, have been documented experimentally. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Are empirically observed migratory movements compatible with modern theoretical frameworks of spatial orientation? To address this question, we analysed leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) track maps, frequency distribution diagrams and time-series plots of animal locations in spherical magnetic coordinate space. Our analyses indicates that, although individual migration tracks are spatially and temporally distinct, vertebrate movements are non-randomly distributed in all three spherical magnetic coordinates (i.e. intensity, inclination, and declination). Stop-over locations, migratory destinations, and re-orientation points occur at similar magnetic coordinate locations, relative to tagging areas, in all four species, suggesting that a common system of magnetic orientation likely informs the navigational behaviors of these phylogenetically diverse taxa. Although our analyses demonstrate that the experiment-derived 'magnetic map' goal orientation theoretical framework of animal navigation is compatible with remotely-sensed migration track data, they also indicate that magnetic information is complemented by spatially and temporally contingent celestial stimuli during navigation.

  15. Coarse-scale movement patterns of a small-bodied fish inhabiting a desert stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul, M.C.; Quist, M.C.; Dinsmore, S.J.; Gaines, D.B.; Bower, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Located on the floor of Death Valley (CA, USA), Salt Creek harbors a single fish species, the Salt Creek pupfish, Cyprinodon salinus salinus, which has adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Salt Creek is fed by an underground spring and is comprised of numerous pools, runs, and marshes that exhibit substantial variability in temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations. In addition, the wetted area of Salt Creek is reduced throughout the summer months due to high rates of evaporation, with some reaches drying completely. Therefore, it seems logical that short- and long-term movement patterns may play an important role in Salt Creek pupfish population dynamics. The objective of this study was to describe coarse-scale movements of Salt Creek pupfish in Salt Creek during their breeding season from March to May. Sex ratios and length–frequency distributions varied spatially within Salt Creek, suggesting population segregation during the breeding season. Long-distance movements were generally rare, although two fish moved more than 1.2 km. Movement in upstream reaches was rare or absent, in contrast to the greater movement observed in downstream reaches (29% of recaptures). Temporal trends and demographic patterns in movement were not observed. Because the two most downstream habitats dry up in the summer, our results indicate that coarse-scale movements that re-populate downstream reaches likely occur during other times of year. Consequently, the importance of small- and large-scale movements is influenced by season. Further assessment of Salt Creek movement patterns conducted during other times of year may better illuminate long-distance movement patterns and source-sink dynamics.

  16. Action Capture: A VR-Based Method for Character Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bernhard; Amor, Heni Ben; Heumer, Guido; Vitzthum, Arnd

    This contribution describes a Virtual Reality (VR) based method for character animation that extends conventional motion capture by not only tracking an actor's movements but also his or her interactions with the objects of a virtual environment. Rather than merely replaying the actor's movements, the idea is that virtual characters learn to imitate the actor's goal-directed behavior while interacting with the virtual scene. Following Arbib's equation action = movement + goal we call this approach Action Capture. For this, the VR user's body movements are analyzed and transformed into a multi-layered action representation. Behavioral animation techniques are then applied to synthesize animations which closely resemble the demonstrated action sequences. As an advantage, captured actions can often be naturally applied to virtual characters of different sizes and body proportions, thus avoiding retargeting problems of motion capture.

  17. Movement in Architecture: A Spacial Movement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Lauren Coleen

    2010-01-01

    As the body moves through space ephemeral lines of movement are created. These lines of movement are influenced by body tendencies. We learn from the body by watching the path and patterning of movement. From the study of the movement of the body, theories of spacial movement were developed. The goal of my project is to draw from spacial movement theory to create an architectural expression that motivates movement of the body on my site and through my building. The focus of my thesis is ...

  18. Influence of attentional capture on oculomotor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Kramer, A.F.; Hahn, S.

    1999-01-01

    Previous research has shown that when searching for a color singleton. top-down control cannot prevent attentional capture by an abrupt visual onset. The present research addressed whether a task-irrelevant abrupt onset would affect eye movement behavior when searching for a color singleton. Results

  19. Temperature Stress Analysis and Protection Method of the Long-distance Buried Pipeline Elbow%埋地长输管道弯头温度应力分析及保护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣军

    2015-01-01

    The strength verification of the long-distance pipeline elbow is an important part in the design of oil and gas pipeline protect.The temperature stress on horizontal elbow and longitu-dinal elbow of long-distance pipeline is calculated.On the basis of calculation result,a protection method instead of anchor block for hot bending elbow is proposed to guide the engineering de-sign,in place of anchor block.%埋地长输管道弯头的强度校核是油气长输管道工程设计中的重要环节。对长输管道水平弯头及纵向弯头的温度应力进行了计算,通过对计算结果的分析,提出了相应的代替设置锚固墩的热煨弯头保护措施,用于指导工程设计。

  20. 远程输水管线系统在森林消防中的应用%Application of A Long-distance Water Transmission Pipeline System in Forest Firefighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇健; 马大和

    2015-01-01

    A long-distance water transmission pipeline-based firefighting system is new forest firefighting equipment,featur-ing strong water transmission capacity,high firefighting performance and high technical content. In the actual firefighting practice,it is necessary to accurately grasp the technical and performance features of the equipment,starting from the most fundamental work,and provide a broad application space and practice platform for giving full play to the long-distance water transmission pipeline-based firefighting system in firefighting operations.%远程输水管线灭火系统是一种新型的森林消防装备,具有输水能力强、灭火威力大、技术含量高等优点。在灭火实战中,应准确掌握该装备的技术和性能特点,从最基础的工作做起,为远程输水管线灭火系统充分发挥作战效能提供广阔的应用空间和实践平台。