WorldWideScience

Sample records for capture long-distance movement

  1. Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile). Long distance juvenile movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rafael; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Mazzotti, Frank; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    the distance traveled ranged from 0.3 km to 90.2 km. The data showed that the smaller alligators moved greater distance than larger ones (Lance et al. 2011. Southeast Nat. 10:389–398). An ongoing 30 year mark and recapture study for Crocodylus acutus in Florida allowed us to look at long distance movement (>30 km) of juveniles (30km). Initial and most recent captures as a juvenile were used to analyze distances moved (Fig. 1). These distances were measured linearly between capture locations. Maximum linear distances of 76.3 km and 69.6 km were recorded for animals 4838 and 6662. All crocodiles moved from nesting habitat through potentially optimal nursery habitat prior to reaching their recapture locations. These juvenile long distance movements could be due to larger crocodiles facilitating their dispersal from the nest location (Lance et al. 2011. op. cit.). These data (Table 1.) support that there is exchange of individuals among the nesting colonies and our ongoing efforts to monitor this threatened species allow us to make observations of how juvenile crocodiles are moving throughout the landscape in an ecosystem currently undergoing restoration.

  2. Simulation of the Movement of Long-distance AUV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiao-xu; SONG Bao-wei; HU Hai-bao; SHAO Cheng

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the movement of the long-distance torpedo-like autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) which is controlled by the dynamic positioning system (DPS), by adopting momentum theorem and the angular momentum theorem, the appropriate movement math model for the long-distance torpedo-like AUV has been built and the thrust of DPS is distributed. Several representative movements of AUV are simulated, such as transferring between two random points and pointing circumrotation movement. The simulation result is analyzed. It shows that DPS including five thrusters can control the AUV movement steadily at low velocity.

  3. Long-Distance Wh-Movement and Long-Distance Wh-Movement Avoidance in L2 English: Evidence from French and Bulgarian Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates spoken productions of complex questions with long-distance wh-movement in the L2 English of speakers whose first language is (Canadian) French or Bulgarian. Long-distance wh-movement is of interest as it can be argued that it poses difficulty in acquisition due to its syntactic complexity and related high processing load.…

  4. Identification a coat protein region of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) essential for long-distance movement in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salánki, Katalin; Kiss, László; Gellért, Akos; Balázs, Ervin

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the long-distance movement determinant of cucumoviral coat proteins (CPs), five mutants were engineered into the CMV CP bearing the corresponding tomato aspermy virus (TAV) loops exposed on the surface of the virion. Both viruses can move long-distance in Nicotiana clevelandii, but only CMV can move long-distance in cucumber. Investigation of the CMV chimeras identified three amino acids of the βB-βC loop that were essential for the CMV long-distance movement in cucumber. Introducing these mutations into the TAV CP was not sufficient for long-distance movement, indicating that this is not the sole region causing long-distance movement deficiency.

  5. Age- and season-specific variation in local and long-distance movement behavior of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bloom, Peter H.; Braham, Melissa; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2016-01-01

    Animal movements can determine the population dynamics of wildlife. We used telemetry data to provide insight into the causes and consequences of local and long-distance movements of multiple age classes of conservation-reliant golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the foothills and mountains near Tehachapi, California. We estimated size and habitat-related correlates of 324 monthly 95 % home ranges and 317 monthly 50 % core areas for 25 birds moving locally over 2.5 years. We also calculated daily, hourly, and total distances traveled for the five of these birds that engaged in long-distance movements. Mean (±SD) monthly home-range size was 253.6 ± 429.4 km2 and core-area size was 26.4 ± 49.7 km2. Consistent with expectations, space used by pre-adults increased with age and was season-dependent but, unexpectedly, was not sex-dependent. For all ages and sexes, home ranges and core areas were dominated by both forest & woodland and shrubland & grassland habitat types. When moving long distances, eagles traveled up to 1588.4 km (1-way) in a season at highly variable speeds (63.7 ± 69.0 km/day and 5.2 ± 10.4 km/h) that were dependent on time of day. Patterns of long-distance movements by eagles were determined by age, yet these movements had characteristics of more than one previously described movement category (migration, dispersal, etc.). Our results provide a context for differentiating among types of movement behaviors and their population-level consequences and, thus, have implications for management and conservation of golden eagle populations.

  6. Stomatal movement in response to long distance- communicated signals initiated by heat shock in partial roots of Commelina communis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The systematic or long-distance signal transmission plays crucial roles in animal lives. Compared with animals, however, much less is known about the roles of long-distance signal communication in plant lives. Using the model plant Commelina communis L., we have probed the root to shoot communication mediated by heat-shock signals. The results showed that a heat shock of 5 min at 40℃ in partial roots, i.e. half or even 1/4 root system, could lead to a significant decrease in stomatal conductance. The regulation capability depends on both heat shock temperature and the amount of root system, i.e. with higher temperature and more roots stressed, the leaf conductance would decrease more significantly. Interestingly, the stomatal regulation by heat shock signal is in a manner of oscillation: when stomata conductance decreased to the lowest level within about 30 min, it would increase rapidly and sometimes even exceed the initial level, and after several cycles the stomata conductance would be finally stabilized at a lower level. Feeding xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants could lead to a decrease in stomata conductance, suggesting that the heat shock-initiated signal is basically a positive signal. Further studies showed that heat shock was not able to affect ABA content in xylem sap, and also, not able to lead to a decrease in leaf water status, which suggested that the stomatal regulation was neither mediated by ABA nor by a hydraulic signal. Heat shock could lead to an increase in xylem sap H2O2 content, and moreover, the removal of H2O2 by catalase could partially recover the stomatal inhibition by xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants, suggesting that H2O2 might be able to act as one of the root signals to control the stomatal movement. Due to the fact that heat-shock and drought are usually two concomitant stresses, the stomatal regulation by heat-shock signal should be of significance for plant response to stresses. The observation for the

  7. Mutation of a chloroplast-targeting signal in Alternanthera mosaic virus TGB3 impairs cell-to-cell movement and eliminates long-distance virus movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Vaira, Anna Maria; Bae, Hanhong; Bragg, Jennifer N; Ruzin, Steven E; Bauchan, Gary R; Dienelt, Margaret M; Owens, Robert A; Hammond, John

    2010-08-01

    Cell-to-cell movement of potexviruses requires coordinated action of the coat protein and triple gene block (TGB) proteins. The structural properties of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) TGB3 were examined by methods differentiating between signal peptides and transmembrane domains, and its subcellular localization was studied by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and confocal microscopy. Unlike potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, AltMV TGB3 was not associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and accumulated preferentially in mesophyll cells. Deletion and site-specific mutagenesis revealed an internal signal VL(17,18) of TGB3 essential for chloroplast localization, and either deletion of the TGB3 start codon or alteration of the chloroplast-localization signal limited cell-to-cell movement to the epidermis, yielding a virus that was unable to move into the mesophyll layer. Overexpression of AltMV TGB3 from either AltMV or PVX infectious clones resulted in veinal necrosis and vesiculation at the chloroplast membrane, a cytopathology not observed in wild-type infections. The distinctive mesophyll and chloroplast localization of AltMV TGB3 highlights the critical role played by mesophyll targeting in virus long-distance movement within plants.

  8. Landscapes of Movement: Exploring a Contemporary Approah to Long-Distance Non-Motorized Backcountry Recreation Trail Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Christopher Monroe

    2015-01-01

    The discipline of long-distance non-motorized backcountry recreation trail planning and design has traditionally been defined by ad hoc, volunteer-based approaches. Despite the notable physical, affective, and cognitive benefits to individuals and populations derived from utilizing such trails, little progress has been made in framing a rigorous and contemporary method for their planning and design. Without such a framework, attempts in the field may fail to engage the advantages associated w...

  9. Plasmodesmata-located protein overexpression negatively impacts the manifestation of systemic acquired resistance and the long-distance movement of Defective in Induced Resistance1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carella, P; Isaacs, M; Cameron, R K

    2015-03-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant defence response that provides immunity to distant uninfected leaves after an initial localised infection. The lipid transfer protein (LTP) Defective in Induced Resistance1 (DIR1) is an essential component of SAR that moves from induced to distant leaves following a SAR-inducing local infection. To understand how DIR1 is transported to distant leaves during SAR, we analysed DIR1 movement in transgenic Arabidopsis lines with reduced cell-to-cell movement caused by the overexpression of Plasmodesmata-Located Proteins PDLP1 and PDLP5. These PDLP-overexpressing lines were defective for SAR, and DIR1 antibody signals were not observed in phloem sap-enriched petiole exudates collected from distant leaves. Our data support the idea that cell-to-cell movement of DIR1 through plasmodesmata is important during long-distance SAR signalling in Arabidopsis.

  10. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  11. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Gao

    Full Text Available The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K, arginine (R and histidine (H that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  12. A versatile complementation assay for cell-to-cell and long distance movements by cucumber mosaic virus based agro-infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Min; Li, Chun; Miriam, Karwitha; Zhang, Xue; Tao, Xiaorong

    2014-09-22

    Microinjection, bombardment or tobamovirus and potexvirus based assay has been developed to identify the putative movement protein (MP) or to characterize plasmodesma-mediated macromolecular transport. In this study, we developed a versatile complementation assay for the cell-to-cell and long distance movements of macromolecules by agro-infiltration based on the infectious clones of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The movement-deficient CMV reporter was constructed by replacing the MP on RNA 3 with ER targeted GFP. The ectopic expression of CMV MP was able to efficiently move the RNA3-MP::erGFP reporter from the original cell to neighboring cells, whereas CMV MP-M5 mutant was unable to initiate the movement. Importantly, the presence of CMV RNA1 and RNA2 can dramatically amplify the movement signals once the RNA3-MP::erGFP reporter moves out of the original cell. The appropriate observation time for this movement complementation assay was at 48-72 hours post infiltration (hpi), whereas the optimal incubation temperature was between 25 and 28 °C. The ectopic co-expression of MPs from other virus genera, NSm from tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) or NSvc4 from rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), could also facilitate the movement of the RNA3::erGFP reporter from the original cell into other cells. The chimeric mutant virus created by substituting the MP of CMV RNA3 with NSm from TSWV or NSvc4 from RSV move systemically in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by agro-infiltration. This agro-infiltration complementation assay is simple, efficient and reliable. Our approach provides an alternative and powerful tool with great potentials in identifying putative movement protein and characterizing macromolecular trafficking.

  13. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  14. Long distance tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, B I

    2005-01-01

    Quantum tunneling between two potential wells in a magnetic field can be strongly increased when the potential barrier varies in the direction perpendicular to the line connecting the two wells and remains constant along this line. A periodic structure of the wave function is formed in the direction joining the wells. The resulting motion can be coherent like motion in a conventional narrow band periodic structure. A particle penetrates the barrier over a long distance which strongly contrasts to WKB-like tunneling. The whole problem is stationary. The coherent process can be influenced by dissipation.

  15. The Influence of Plantar Short Foot Muscle Exercises on Foot Posture and Fundamental Movement Patterns in Long-Distance Runners, a Non-Randomized, Non-Blinded Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sulowska

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two kinds of plantar short foot muscles exercise on foot posture and fundamental movement patterns in long-distance runners.A parallel group non-blinded trial with 6-week follow-up.Twenty five long-distance runners aged 22-35 years. They were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 13 subjects performed the exercise "Vele's Forward Lean" and "Reverse Tandem Gait" and in Group 2 (n = 12 the "Short Foot Exercise." The runners performed the exercises daily for 6 weeks. The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 and The Functional Movement Screen (FMS tests were performed twice: at baseline and after 6 weeks of the exercise.A significant improvement was observed in FPI -6 (talar head palpation in Group 1, and inversion/eversion of the calcaneus in Group 2. Also in Group 1 a significant improvement was noted in FMS tests: deep squat, active straight leg raise and in total score.Short foot muscles strengthening exercises have beneficial effect on functional movement patterns and on foot posture, therefore they should be included as a part of daily training program of runners.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615001200572.

  16. Potential involvement of a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 in the long-distance movement of Cucumber mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, A; Simón-Buela, L; Salcedo, G; García-Arenal, F

    2006-07-01

    The systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in cucumber plants was analyzed. The structure that is translocated and its putative interactions with phloem components were analyzed in phloem exudate (PE) samples, which reflect sieve tubes stream composition. Rate zonal centrifugation and electron-microscopy analyses of PE from CMV-infected plants showed that CMV moves through sieve tubes as virus particles. Gel overlay assays revealed that CMV particles interact with a PE protein, p48. The amino-acid sequence of several tryptic peptides of p48 was determined. Partial amino-acid sequence of p48 showed it was a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 (PP1) from pumpkin, with which p48 also shares several chemical properties. PP1 from pumpkin has plasmodesmata-gating ability and translocates in sieve tubes. Encapsidated CMV RNA in PE samples from infected plants was less accessible to digestion by RNase A than RNA in purified CMV particles, a property that was reconstituted by the in vitro interaction of purified CMV particles and protein p48. These results indicate that the interaction with p48 modifies CMV particle structure and suggest that CMV particles interact with the cucumber homolog of PP1 during translocation in the sieve tubes.

  17. Long distance movement of DIR1 and investigation of the role of DIR1-like during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Champigny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DIR1 is a lipid transfer protein postulated to complex with and/or chaperone a signal(s to distant leaves during Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR in Arabidopsis. DIR1 was detected in phloem sap-enriched petiole exudates collected from wild-type leaves induced for SAR, suggesting that DIR1 gains access to the phloem for movement from the induced leaf. Occasionally the dir1-1 mutant displayed a partially SAR-competent phenotype and a DIR1-sized band in protein gel blots was detected in dir1-1 exudates suggesting a highly similar protein, DIR1-like (At5g48490, may contribute to SAR. Recombinant protein studies demonstrated that DIR1 polyclonal antibodies recognize DIR1 and DIR1-like. Homology modeling of DIR1-like using the DIR1-phospholipid crystal structure as template, provides clues as to why DIR1-like rarely compensates for the dir1-1 SAR defect. The contribution of DIR1 and DIR1-like during SAR was examined using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation-SAR assay and an estrogen-inducible DIR1-EGFP/dir1-1 line. We provide evidence that upon SAR induction, DIR1 moves down the leaf petiole to distant leaves. Our data also suggests that DIR1-like displays a reduced capacity to move to distant leaves during SAR. The existence of DIR1-like and its infrequent participation in SAR may contribute to the variable SAR responses reported by groups studying SAR mutants.

  18. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities...

  19. Binding Principle for Long-Distance Anaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Ik

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of long-distance anaphora, a binding phenomenon in which reflexives find their antecedents outside their local domain, is presented, using data from English, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Icelandic, and Italian. It is found that no approach deals with long-distance anaphors exclusively and elegantly. The binding domain…

  20. Long distance signaling using axionlike particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    2007-12-01

    The possible existence of axionlike particles could lead to a new type of long-distance communication. In this work, basic antenna concepts are defined and a Friis-like equation is derived to facilitate long-distance link calculations. An example calculation is presented showing that communication over distances of 1000 km or more may be possible for ma5×10-8GeV-1.

  1. Modelling long-distance seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Tewlsbury, Joshua, J.; Bolker, Benjamin, M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance seed dispersal is difficult to measure, yet key to understanding plant population dynamics and community composition. 2. We used a spatially explicit model to predict the distribution of seeds dispersed long distances by birds into habitat patches of different shapes. All patches were the same type of habitat and size, but varied in shape. They occurred in eight experimental landscapes, each with five patches of four different shapes, 150 m apart in a matrix of mature forest. The model was parameterized with smallscale movement data collected from field observations of birds. In a previous study we validated the model by testing its predictions against observed patterns of seed dispersal in real landscapes with the same types and spatial configuration of patches as in the model. 3. Here we apply the model more broadly, examining how patch shape influences the probability of seed deposition by birds into patches, how dispersal kernels (distributions of dispersal distances) vary with patch shape and starting location, and how movement of seeds between patches is affected by patch shape. 4. The model predicts that patches with corridors or other narrow extensions receive higher numbers of seeds than patches without corridors or extensions. This pattern is explained by edgefollowing behaviour of birds. Dispersal distances are generally shorter in heterogeneous landscapes (containing patchy habitat) than in homogeneous landscapes, suggesting that patches divert the movement of seed dispersers, ‘holding’ them long enough to increase the probability of seed defecation in the patches. Dispersal kernels for seeds in homogeneous landscapes were smooth, whereas those in heterogenous landscapes were irregular. In both cases, long-distance (> 150 m) dispersal was surprisingly common, usually comprising approximately 50% of all dispersal events. 5. Synthesis . Landscape heterogeneity has a large influence on patterns of long-distance seed dispersal. Our

  2. Environmental Impact of Long Distance Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel and the cl......This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel...... and the climate burden from long overseas distances is especially high even though only few travel overseas. The travel activity is furthermore increasing much more for long distances than for European destinations. Domestic travel activity with overnight stay is nearly stagnating. The study furthermore shows...

  3. Satellite tracking reveals long distance coastal travel and homing by translocated estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark A; Grigg, Gordon C; Irwin, Steve R; Shanahan, Danielle; Franklin, Craig E

    2007-09-26

    Crocodilians have a wide distribution, often in remote areas, are cryptic, secretive and are easily disturbed by human presence. Their capacity for large scale movements is poorly known. Here, we report the first study of post-release movement patterns in translocated adult crocodiles, and the first application of satellite telemetry to a crocodilian. Three large male Crocodylus porosus (3.1-4.5 m) were captured in northern Australia and translocated by helicopter for 56, 99 and 411 km of coastline, the last across Cape York Peninsula from the west coast to the east coast. All crocodiles spent time around their release site before returning rapidly and apparently purposefully to their capture locations. The animal that circumnavigated Cape York Peninsula to return to its capture site, travelled more than 400 km in 20 days, which is the longest homeward travel yet reported for a crocodilian. Such impressive homing ability is significant because translocation has sometimes been used to manage potentially dangerous C. porosus close to human settlement. It is clear that large male estuarine crocodiles can exhibit strong site fidelity, have remarkable navigational skills, and may move long distances following a coastline. These long journeys included impressive daily movements of 10-30 km, often consecutively.

  4. Satellite tracking reveals long distance coastal travel and homing by translocated estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Read

    Full Text Available Crocodilians have a wide distribution, often in remote areas, are cryptic, secretive and are easily disturbed by human presence. Their capacity for large scale movements is poorly known. Here, we report the first study of post-release movement patterns in translocated adult crocodiles, and the first application of satellite telemetry to a crocodilian. Three large male Crocodylus porosus (3.1-4.5 m were captured in northern Australia and translocated by helicopter for 56, 99 and 411 km of coastline, the last across Cape York Peninsula from the west coast to the east coast. All crocodiles spent time around their release site before returning rapidly and apparently purposefully to their capture locations. The animal that circumnavigated Cape York Peninsula to return to its capture site, travelled more than 400 km in 20 days, which is the longest homeward travel yet reported for a crocodilian. Such impressive homing ability is significant because translocation has sometimes been used to manage potentially dangerous C. porosus close to human settlement. It is clear that large male estuarine crocodiles can exhibit strong site fidelity, have remarkable navigational skills, and may move long distances following a coastline. These long journeys included impressive daily movements of 10-30 km, often consecutively.

  5. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.;

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near...

  6. Microbial modification of host long-distance dispersal capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchings Linda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal plays a key role in shaping biological and ecological processes such as the distribution of spatially-structured populations or the pace and scale of invasion. Here we have studied the relationship between long-distance dispersal behaviour of a pest-controlling money spider, Erigone atra, and the distribution of maternally acquired endosymbionts within the wider meta-population. This spider persists in heterogeneous environments because of its ability to recolonise areas through active long-distance airborne dispersal using silk as a sail, in a process termed 'ballooning'. Results We show that there is spatial heterogeneity in the prevalence of two maternally acquired endosymbiont infections within the wider E. atra meta-population and we demonstrate through several independent approaches a link between the presence of one of these endosymbionts, Rickettsia, and the tendency for long-distance movement. Conclusion This novel finding that particular endosymbionts can influence host dispersal is of broad importance given the extremely widespread occurrence of similar bacteria within arthropod communities. A bacterial phenotype that limits dispersal has the potential not only to reduce gene flow and thus contribute to degrees of reproductive isolation within species, but also to influence species distribution and thus overall community composition.

  7. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Randell, Haley; Wills, Abigail R; Janvier, Totozafy Eric; Belalahy, Tertius Rodriguez; Sewall, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km) in rural areas; (3) most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought.

  8. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E Reuter

    Full Text Available Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1 identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2 analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3 examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4 estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns, meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns, and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns. We found that: (1 a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2 wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km in rural areas; (3 most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts, though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4 wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought.

  9. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafied Cangara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and international cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also possible to develop the Open University System in teaching and learning process, particularly since the internet technology has been intensively used

  10. Long distance animal transport: the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Johan Osinga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Too often, the issue of animal welfare during transport is the subject of emotional debates. For farmers within the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, it is important that the economic, scientific and practical aspects be taken into account when setting international rules for animal welfare. Farmers also stress the need to combine scientific data with their practical experience. Raising awareness, adopting a risk-based approach, education, labelling, slaughterhouse capacity and animal health, as well as standards and rules, are issues of importance for developing a long distance transportation infrastructure respectful of animal welfare around the world.

  11. Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D; Jiang, Liang

    2016-02-15

    Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥ 1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.

  12. Focus characteristics of long distance flying optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兆谷; 蒋金波; 李现勤; 许国良; 夏金安; W.M.Steen; G.Dearden

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD law for the complex parameter q of the TEM00 Gaussian beam is generally not valid for high-order modes. It can be used for the high-order modes or their superposition when the spot size w in the virtual part of the parameter q is substituted by the Rayleigh range ZR of a certain resonator. The focus characteristics of long distance flying optics are studied in this paper theoretically and experimentally for the TEMmn Gaussian beams between the two types of resonators without and with distortion. It is very important for the applications of the flying optical processing, the laser space craft and the spatial filter in the large laser project.

  13. Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.

  14. Long-distance effects of insertional mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most common systems of genetic engineering of mammalian cells are associated with insertional mutagenesis of the modified cells. Insertional mutagenesis is also a popular approach to generate random alterations for gene discovery projects. A better understanding of the interaction of the structural elements within an insertional mutagen and the ability of such elements to influence host genes at various distances away from the insertion site is a matter of considerable practical importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that, in the context of a lentiviral construct, a transcript, which is initiated at an internal CMV promoter/enhancer region and incorporates a splice donor site, is able to extend past a collinear viral LTR and trap exons of host genes, while the polyadenylation signal, which is naturally present in the LTR, is spliced out. Unexpectedly, when a vector, which utilizes this phenomenon, was used to produce mutants with elevated activity of NF-κB, we found mutants, which owed their phenotype to the effect of the insert on a gene located tens or even hundreds of kilobases away from the insertion site. This effect did not result from a CMV-driven transcript, but was sensitive to functional suppression of the insert. Interestingly, despite the long-distance effect, expression of loci most closely positioned to the insert appeared unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that a polyadenylation signal in a retroviral LTR, when occurring within an intron, is an inefficient barrier against the formation of a hybrid transcript, and that a vector containing a strong enhancer may selectively affect the function of genes far away from its insertion site. These phenomena have to be considered when experimental or therapeutic transduction is performed. In particular, the long-distance effects of insertional mutagenesis bring into question the relevance of the lists of disease-associated retroviral integration

  15. Homeschooling in America: Capturing and Assessing the Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This book is the definitive study on homeschooling in the United States, delving into a movement that impacts more students nationwide than the entire charter school movement. In 2010, more than 2 million students were homeschooled. This book explores: (1) The history of homeschooling in America; (2) How this movement has grown in credibility and…

  16. Towards Human Capture Movement: Estimation of Anatomical Movements of the Shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Salmerón-Quiroz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the human arm motion capture, which is motivated by the requirements in physical rehabilitation and training of stroke patients in the same way as monitoring of elderly person activities. The proposed methodology uses a data fusion of low-cost and low-weight MEMS sensors jointly to an a priori knowledge of the arm anatomy. The main goal is to estimate the arm position, the anatomical movements of the shoulder and its accelerations. We propose a discrete optimization based-approach which aims to search the optimal attitude ambiguity directly without decorrelation of ambiguity, and to computing the baseline vector consequently. The originality of this paper is to apply the discrete optimization to track the desired trajectory of a nonlinear system such as the Human Movement in the presence of uncertainties. The global asymptotic convergence of the nonlinear observer is guaranteed. Extensive tests of the presented methodology with real world data illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

  17. FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterill, Joanna; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified. Although floral promotion via graft transmission of FT has not been demonstrated in trees, FT-like genes have been successfully applied to reducing the long juvenile (pre-flowering) phase of many trees enabling fast track breeding.

  18. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  19. The Role that φ-Features Play in Long Distance Binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    .INTRODUCTIONThis article attempts to investigate long distance binding in Chinese under a feature- orientated ap-proach based on the studies done by Battistella ( 1 989) ,Tang ( 1 986) ,Cole and Sung ( 1 990 ) and oth-ers.The data presented in this article demonstrated,contrary to the prevailing assumption that- fea-tures of reflexives in various language are base generated,long distance reflexives before movement atL F have barren or impoverishedφ- features.On this basis,itis demonstrated thata reflexive ...

  20. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  1. Faroese long-distance reflexives face off against Icelandic long-distance reflexives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E. Strahan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance reflexives (LDRs in Faroese are often compared to those in Icelandic, and are even considered to have the same distribution (Thráinsson et al., 2004. In this paper I evaluate the extent to which this is true. The results from recent fieldwork show that there are clear differences between the LDR in the two closely related languages, in particular that Faroese speakers often reject LDR sentences that contain a non-third person, and that Faroese LDR is often completely acceptable out of a non-complement clause. In addition, initial findings suggest that there may be dialectal variation with respect to at least these two aspects of LDR in Faroese.

  2. Executive overview: welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David B; Thornber, Peter M; Murray, Gardner

    2008-01-01

    A compendium of papers brings together a range of perspectives on the long distance transportation of animals. The purpose is to assist in the strengthening of global public policies for the protection of animal health and welfare. The audience targeted is the wide range of people involved in shaping sound public policy. Papers cover the history of long distance transportation of animals, the viewpoints of the foremost civil society organisations involved in the long distance transport of animals, how various governments approach public policy on the subject, the implementation of quality management for the transportation of different species of animals in different situations, future directions for quality management, design and engineering of infrastructures, transport safety and animal welfare and the education and training necessary for the successful management of animal welfare during long distance transportation. A seamless connection between animal health and animal welfare is an absolute necessity given the critical importance of animal movements in the spread of infection and the devastation to animal and human welfare produced by infectious disease. A compendium of papers brings together a range of perspectives on the long distance transportation of animals. The purpose is to assist in the strengthening of global public policies for the protection of animal health and welfare. The audience targeted is the wide range of people involved in shaping sound public policy. Papers cover the history of long distance transportation of animals, the viewpoints of the foremost civil society organisations involved in the long distance transport of animals, how various governments approach public policy on the subject, the implementation of quality management for the transportation of different species of animals in different situations, future directions for quality management, design and engineering of infrastructures, transport safety and animal welfare and the

  3. Moving Large Data Sets Over High-Performance Long Distance Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Ruwart, Thomas [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    In this project we look at the performance characteristics of three tools used to move large data sets over dedicated long distance networking infrastructure. Although performance studies of wide area networks have been a frequent topic of interest, performance analyses have tended to focus on network latency characteristics and peak throughput using network traffic generators. In this study we instead perform an end-to-end long distance networking analysis that includes reading large data sets from a source file system and committing large data sets to a destination file system. An evaluation of end-to-end data movement is also an evaluation of the system configurations employed and the tools used to move the data. For this paper, we have built several storage platforms and connected them with a high performance long distance network configuration. We use these systems to analyze the capabilities of three data movement tools: BBcp, GridFTP, and XDD. Our studies demonstrate that existing data movement tools do not provide efficient performance levels or exercise the storage devices in their highest performance modes. We describe the device information required to achieve high levels of I/O performance and discuss how this data is applicable in use cases beyond data movement performance.

  4. Perniosis in a long-distance cyclist crossing Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew J; Jarman, Alison M; Bennett, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of severe perniosis in a long-distance cyclist. This case demonstrates the importance of identifying those at risk of cold-related injuries who are about to embark on extensive travel in cold environments.

  5. Human-mediated dispersal of seeds over long distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Matthias C.; Alexander, Matt J.; Soons, Merel B.; Galsworthy, Stephen; Dunne, Laura; Gould, Robert; Fairfax, Christina; Niggemann, Marc; Hails, Rosie S.; Bullock, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Human activities have fundamental impacts on the distribution of species through altered land use, but also directly by dispersal of propagules. Rare long-distance dispersal events have a disproportionate importance for the spread of species including invasions. While it is widely accepted that humans may act as vectors of long-distance dispersal, there are few studies that quantify this process. We studied in detail a mechanism of human-mediated dispersal (HMD). For two plant species we measured, over a wide range of distances, how many seeds are carried by humans on shoes. While over half of the seeds fell off within 5 m, seeds were regularly still attached to shoes after 5 km. Semi-mechanistic models were fitted, and these suggested that long-distance dispersal on shoes is facilitated by decreasing seed detachment probability with distance. Mechanistic modelling showed that the primary vector, wind, was less important as an agent of long-distance dispersal, dispersing seeds less than 250 m. Full dispersal kernels were derived by combining the models for primary dispersal by wind and secondary dispersal by humans. These suggest that walking humans can disperse seeds to very long distances, up to at least 10 km, and provide some of the first quantified dispersal kernels for HMD. PMID:18826932

  6. Long-distance coherent coupling in a quantum dot array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, F R; Barthelemy, P; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Vandersypen, L M K

    2013-06-01

    Controlling long-distance quantum correlations is central to quantum computation and simulation. In quantum dot arrays, experiments so far rely on nearest-neighbour couplings only, and inducing long-distance correlations requires sequential local operations. Here, we show that two distant sites can be tunnel-coupled directly. The coupling is mediated by virtual occupation of an intermediate site, with a strength that is controlled via the energy detuning of this site. It permits a single charge to oscillate coherently between the outer sites of a triple dot array without passing through the middle, as demonstrated through the observation of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference. The long-distance coupling significantly improves the prospects of fault-tolerant quantum computation using quantum dot arrays, and opens up new avenues for performing quantum simulations in nanoscale devices.

  7. Long distance runners present upregulated sweating responses than sedentary counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Beom Lee

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have investigated peripheral sweating mechanisms of long-distance runners. The aim of this study was to compare peripheral sweating mechanisms in male long-distance runners, and sedentary counterparts. Thirty six subjects, including 20 sedentary controls and 16 long-distance runners (with 7-12 years of athletic training, average 9.2±2.1 years were observed. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART with iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min and 10% acetylcholine (ACh were performed to determine axon reflex-mediated and directly activated (DIR, muscarinic receptor sweating. Sweat onset time, sweat rate, number of activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland and skin temperature were measured at rest while maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max were measured during maximal cycling. Sweat rate, activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland, skin temperature and VO2max were significantly higher in the trained runners than in the sedentary controls. Sweat onset time was significantly shorter for the runners. In the group of long-distance runners, significant correlations were found between VO2max and sweat onset time (r2 = 0.543, P<0.01, n = 16, DIR sweat rate (r2 = 0.584, P<0.001, n = 16, sweat output per gland (r2 = 0.539, P<0.01, n = 16. There was no correlation between VO2max and activated sweat glands. These findings suggest that habitual long-distance running results in upregulation of the peripheral sweating mechanisms in humans. Additional research is needed to determine the molecular mechanism underlying these changes. These findings complement the existing sweating data in long-distance runners.

  8. Movement patterns and study area boundaries: Influences on survival estimation in capture-mark-recapture studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future

  9. Generation of Long-Distance Entanglement in Spin System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiao-Qiang; LIU Wu-Ming

    2008-01-01

    We propose two schemes to produce long-distance entanglement in a spin chain. The first is based on a controllable interaction system, one starts from an entangled kernel and adds weaken interaction spins to the boundary sites step by step, then the entanglement will be extended longer and longer and its value is equal to that of its kernel. The second is based on a uniform interaction (J) system with a bulk magnetic field (B) that is absent for the boundary qubits, as long as B/J>5, one can obtain near perfect long distance entanglement. Ultra-low-temperature is needed in both schemes.

  10. Evaluation of Macrobend Loss on Long Distance Optical Ground Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. M. Salleh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bend loss is a kind of loss that contributes to the power attenuation which is caused by the bending of optical fiber. For long distance optical fiber, bending might occur at joining point as there are many joining points along the link. Studies related to bend loss always relate the effect of bend radius on bend loss value. There is no study that relates the value of loss that can be affected by other factors like the natural environmental conditions. In this study, the evaluation of bend loss on existing long distance Optical Ground Wire (OPGW was studied since the cable was exposed to any climate condition.

  11. Long-distance signaling of iron deficiency in plants

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Planta, we established two points regarding the long-distance signal of iron status in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). One is that the long-distance signal generated in iron deficient tissues is a major factor in positively regulating the expressions of iron uptake genes in tobacco. The expression of a ferric chelate reductase gene (NtFRO1) and an iron-regulated transporter gene (NtIRT1) in roots decreased by cutting off the leaves grown under the iron-deficient condi...

  12. (Non-)Arguments in Long-Distance Extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Anne Mette; Kizach, Johannes; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in fully grammatical sentences, response time increases and acceptability decreases when the filler in a long-distance extraction is incom- patible with the matrix verb. This effect could potentially be due to a difference between argument and adjunct extraction...

  13. Psycho-Social Parameters in Young Female Long Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund J.; And Others

    This study was designed to determine selected psycho-social parameters associated with a group of teenage, female long distance runners. These young women, who train by running approximately 50-90 miles per week, had scores in certain physiological and anthropometric measurements which were among the most advantageous for running ever recorded in…

  14. Long-distance dispersal via ocean currents connects Omani clownfish populations throughout entire species range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Simpson

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a crucial ecological process, driving population dynamics and defining the structure and persistence of populations. Measuring demographic connectivity between discreet populations remains a long-standing challenge for most marine organisms because it involves tracking the movement of pelagic larvae. Recent studies demonstrate local connectivity of reef fish populations via the dispersal of planktonic larvae, while biogeography indicates some larvae must disperse 100-1000 s kilometres. To date, empirical measures of long-distance dispersal are lacking and the full scale of dispersal is unknown. Here we provide the first measure of long-distance dispersal in a coral reef fish, the Omani clownfish Amphiprion omanensis, throughout its entire species range. Using genetic assignment tests we demonstrate bidirectional exchange of first generation migrants, with subsequent social and reproductive integration, between two populations separated by over 400 km. Immigration was 5.4% and 0.7% in each region, suggesting a biased southward exchange, and matched predictions from a physically-coupled dispersal model. This rare opportunity to measure long-distance dispersal demonstrates connectivity of isolated marine populations over distances of 100 s of kilometres and provides a unique insight into the processes of biogeography, speciation and adaptation.

  15. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......Longer distance cycling is a commuting mode that contributes to sustainability and public health objectives, but little is known about current long distance cyclist's motives. The paper explores longer distance commuter cyclists, their characteristics, practice and motives. Longer distance...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time...

  16. Turning points in long distance grandparent-grandchild relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Lauren R; Waldron, Vincent R

    2014-04-01

    This study examines changes in long-distance relationships between grandparents and their adolescent grandchildren by identifying relational turning points and trajectories. Qualitative analysis of data collected from interviews with grandparents yielded 100 unique turning points. Constant comparative analysis revealed eight distinct categories of relational turning points; Spending Time Together, Family Relational Dynamics, Geographic Distance, Lack of Relational Investment, Use of Technology, Relational Investment, Lack of Free Time, and Grandchild Gaining Independence. These varied in the degree to which they positively or negatively impacted relational closeness. Application of the Retrospective Interview Technique (RIT) yielded five distinctive relational trajectories: Decrease in Closeness, Increase in Closeness, Multidimensional Changes in Closeness, Minimal Changes in Closeness, and Consistent Relational Closeness. The results expose the communicative challenges faced by long-distance-grandparents, the diversity of these relationships, and the ways in which grandparenting bonds change over time. Implications for an enriched understanding of grandparenting relationships and practical applications for families are explored.

  17. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Blancou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period.

  18. Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) depend on sea ice for catching marine mammal prey. Recent sea-ice declines have been linked to reductions in body condition, survival, and population size. Reduced foraging opportunity is hypothesized to be the primary cause of sea-ice-linked declines, but the costs of travel through a deteriorated sea-ice environment also may be a factor. We used movement data from 52 adult female polar bears wearing Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, including some with dependent young, to document long-distance swimming (>50 km) by polar bears in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi seas. During 6 years (2004-2009), we identified 50 long-distance swims by 20 bears. Swim duration and distance ranged from 0.7 to 9.7 days (mean = 3.4 days) and 53.7 to 687.1 km (mean = 154.2 km), respectively. Frequency of swimming appeared to increase over the course of the study. We show that adult female polar bears and their cubs are capable of swimming long distances during periods when extensive areas of open water are present. However, long-distance swimming appears to have higher energetic demands than moving over sea ice. Our observations suggest long-distance swimming is a behavioral response to declining summer sea-ice conditions.

  19. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  20. Microbial modification of host long-distance dispersal capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchings Linda; Bonte Dries; Martin Oliver Y; Goodacre Sara L; Woolley Chris; Ibrahim Kamal; George Thomas CF; Hewitt Godfrey M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Dispersal plays a key role in shaping biological and ecological processes such as the distribution of spatially-structured populations or the pace and scale of invasion. Here we have studied the relationship between long-distance dispersal behaviour of a pest-controlling money spider, Erigone atra, and the distribution of maternally acquired endosymbionts within the wider meta-population. This spider persists in heterogeneous environments because of its ability to recoloni...

  1. Long-distance Bessel beam propagation through Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Philip; Ituen, Iniabasi; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Free-space optical communication has the potential to transmit information with both high speed and security. However, since it is unguided it suffers from losses due to atmospheric turbulence and diffraction. To overcome the diffraction limits the long-distance propagation of Bessel beams is considered and compared against Gaussian beam properties. Bessel beams are shown to have a number of benefits over Gaussian beams when propagating through atmospheric turbulence.

  2. TCP-Adaptive in High Speed Long Distance Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of high performance computing and increasing of network bandwidth, more and more applications require fast data transfer over high-speed long-distance networks. Research shows that the standard TCP Reno cannot fulfill the requirement of fast transfer of massive data due to its conservative congestion control mechanism. Some works have been proposed to improve the TCP throughput performance using more aggressive window increasing tactics and obtain substantial achievements. However, they cannot be strictly proved to be comprehensively suitable for high-speed complex network environments. In this paper, we propose TCP-Adaptive, an adaptive congestion control algorithm adjusting the increasing congestion window dynamically. The algorithm improves logarithmic detection procedure for available bandwidth in the flow path by distinguishing the first detection in congestion avoidance and retransmission timeout. On the other hand, an adaptive control algorithm is proposed to achieve better performance in high-speed long-distance networks. The algorithm uses round trip time (RTT variations to predict the congestion trends to update the increments of congestion window. Simulations verify the property of TCP-Adaptive and show satisfying performance in throughput, RTT fairness aspects over high-speed long-distance networks. Especially in sporadic loss environment, TCP-Adaptive shows a significant adaptability with the variations of link quality

  3. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Manoj K., E-mail: manoj.qit@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of Allahabad (India); Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Ahmedabad (India); Prakash, Hari [Physics Department, University of Allahabad (India); Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  4. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] inference from this model, study designs should seek a minimum of 25 animals of each marking type observed (marked or observed via telemetry) in each time period and geographic stratum.

  5. Humans as long-distance dispersers of rural plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G Auffret

    Full Text Available Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24,354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36% are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion.

  6. Long distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    High bit rate, all-optical long-distance transmission could be created through the combined use of loss-compensating gain in erbium-doped fibers and solitons. A detailed analysis of the distributed erbium-doped fiber, including the spectral-gain dependency, is combined with an optimum design...... of the transmission fiber and general bit-error-rate calculations. Changes in wavenumber, group velocity, and fiber dispersion due to erbium doping in a single-mode fiber are evaluated, and a reduction in bit-error rates due to the erbium spectral-gain profile is shown. Transmission through distributed erbium...

  7. A long-distance travel demand model for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, approximately 50% of all passenger kilometres come from trips beyond 100 km according to matrices developed in the TRANSTOOLS project. This accounts for an even larger share of CO2 emissions due to a higher modal share of air transport. Therefore long-distance trips are increasingly......, and will serve as an important tool for transport policy analysis at a European level. The model is formulated as a nested logit model and estimated based on travel diary data with segmentation into business, private, and holiday trips. We analyse the estimation results and present elasticities for a number...

  8. Long distance part of $\\epsilon_K$ from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ziyuan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the lattice QCD calculation of the long distance contribution to $\\epsilon_K$. Due to the singular, short-distance structure of $\\epsilon_K$, we must perform a short-distance subtraction and introduce a corresponding low-energy constant determined from perturbation theory, which we calculate at Next Leading Order (NLO). We perform the calculation on a $24^3 \\times 64$ lattice with a pion mass of 329 MeV. This work is a complete calculation, which includes all connected and disconnected diagrams.

  9. Welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals — the Animal Transportation Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Harris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and long distance movement of animals is a far larger business than most people imagine. Some reasons are outlined in this paper, along with the history of the AATA (Animal [Air] Transportation Association. This trade association has been involved for over 30 years in developing standards and procedures for the movement of all types of animals. The competence of animal handlers is of paramount importance. Competence of flying grooms is assessed by the AATA. This paper is written from the viewpoint of someone who has been a member since the Association's inception. The subject will be of interest to airlines, transporters, veterinarians, farmers, animal relocators, zoological establishments and legislators.

  10. Mechanisms of long-distance dispersal of seeds by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Katul, Gabriel G.; Horn, Henry S.; Thomas, Suvi M.; Oren, Ram; Avissar, Roni; Pacala, Stephen W.; Levin, Simon A.

    2002-07-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) is central to species expansion following climate change, re-colonization of disturbed areas and control of pests. The current paradigm is that the frequency and spatial extent of LDD events are extremely difficult to predict. Here we show that mechanistic models coupling seed release and aerodynamics with turbulent transport processes provide accurate probabilistic descriptions of LDD of seeds by wind. The proposed model reliably predicts the vertical distribution of dispersed seeds of five tree species observed along a 45-m high tower in an eastern US deciduous forest. Simulations show that uplifting above the forest canopy is necessary and sufficient for LDD, hence, they provide the means to define LDD quantitatively rather than arbitrarily. Seed uplifting probability thus sets an upper bound on the probability of long-distance colonization. Uplifted yellow poplar seeds are on average lighter than seeds at the forest floor, but also include the heaviest seeds. Because uplifting probabilities are appreciable (as much as 1-5%), and tree seed crops are commonly massive, some LDD events will establish individuals that can critically affect plant dynamics on large scales.

  11. Effects of Long Distance Transportation on Honey Bee Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiheung Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials in three different states (CA, GA, and MI were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were split into two groups and introduced into a transported (T colony or a stationary (S colony in each trial. Volumes of hypopharyngeal gland acini in T colonies were significantly smaller than S colonies in all three trials. There were no significant differences between S and T colonies in juvenile hormone titers. Protein content in head showed no significant differences between S and T either in 7-day-old or 17-day-old bees of MI trial, but GA trial showed a significant reduction in bees experiencing transportation. Protein content in thorax was only measured in GA trial and was not significantly different between the two groups. Lipid content in abdomen was not significantly different between the S and T colonies in all three trials. This study suggests that bees experiencing transportation have trouble fully developing their food glands and this might affect their ability to nurse the next generation of workers.

  12. Cross-border movement and women's health: how to capture the data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The movement of women across international borders is occurring at greater rates than ever before, yet the relationship between migration and women's health has been under-explored. One reason may be difficulty measuring migration variables including country of birth, length of time in country, immigration status, language ability, and ethnicity. A range of social, environmental, cultural, and medical characteristics associated with the pre-, during- and post-migration phases are also important to consider. The objective of this paper is to present challenges and solutions in measuring migration and related variables via survey-like questionnaires administered to international migrant women. Methods The development, validation, and translation of two questionnaires subsequently applied in studies of migrant women during pregnancy, birth and postpartum were used as case examples to highlight related measurement issues. Results Challenges: (1 Measuring socio-cultural, medical and environmental variables across the pre-during-post migration phases (since questions must be framed so that data relating to each phase of migration are captured; (2 Obtaining data for complex patterns of migration (i.e., multiple movements between multiple destinations; and (3 answering long questions across a time continuum. Solutions: (1 Using interviewer-assisted rather than self-administered questions; (2 Adding probes and explanations to 'walk' participants through their migration experiences; (3 Identifying variables (e.g., trafficking better captured using non-questionnaire data collection methods or better not collected (e.g., ethnicity due to extreme variations in meaning. Conclusion Carefully constructed and translated survey questionnaires are practical tools for the collection of a breadth of migrant data. These data, including detailed accounts of countries lived in, length of time in those countries, immigration status, change in

  13. Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

  14. Estuarine crocodiles ride surface currents to facilitate long-distance travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hamish A; Watts, Matthew E; Sullivan, Scott; Read, Mark A; Choukroun, Severine; Irwin, Steve R; Franklin, Craig E

    2010-09-01

    1. The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the world's largest living reptile. It predominately inhabits freshwater and estuarine habitats, but widespread geographic distribution throughout oceanic islands of the South-east Pacific suggests that individuals undertake sizeable ocean voyages. 2. Here we show that adult C. porosus adopt behavioural strategies to utilise surface water currents during long-distance travel, enabling them to move quickly and efficiently over considerable distances. 3. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor crocodile movement throughout 63 km of river, and found that when individuals engaged in a long-distance, constant direction journey (>10 km day(-1)), they would only travel when current flow direction was favourable. Depth and temperature measurements from implanted transmitters showed that they remained at the water surface during travel but would dive to the river substratum or climb out on the river bank if current flow direction became unfavourable. 4. Satellite positional fixes from tagged crocodiles engaged in ocean travel were overlaid with residual surface current (RSC) estimates. The data showed a strong correlation existed between the bearing of the RSC and that of the travelling crocodile (r(2) = 0.92, P < 0.0001). 5. The study demonstrates that C. porosus dramatically increase their travel potential by riding surface currents, providing an effective dispersal strategy for this species.

  15. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S; Pendergast, Thomas H; Flecker, Alexander S

    2011-11-22

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337-552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700-2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants.

  16. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (>5 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....

  17. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....

  18. Long-distance singularities in multi-leg scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; Duhr, Claude

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent completion of the three-loop calculation of the soft anomalous dimension in massless gauge-theory scattering amplitudes. This brings the state-of-the-art knowledge of long-distance singularities in multi-leg QCD amplitudes with any number of massless particles to three loops. The result displays some novel features: this is the first time non-dipole corrections appear, which directly correlate the colour and kinematic degrees of freedom of four coloured partons. We find that non-dipole corrections appear at three loops also for three coloured partons, but these are independent of the kinematics. The final result is remarkably simple when expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms, and it satisfies several non-trivial constraints. In particular, it is consistent with the high-energy limit behaviour and it satisfies the expected factorization properties in two-particle collinear limits.

  19. Long Distance Transference of Height Daum Across Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying long distance transference of height datum across seas by combining ellipsoidal height derived from GPS with gravimetric geoid height.The Yellow Sea Height Datum is transferred to Yangshan Island which is 30 km away from Luchaogang in Shanghai.The stations heights derived in this way are compared with those determined from two independent sets of the tidal observations taken in two years,and the difference values are 1.0 cm and 6.0 cm,respectively.Moreover,the derived height differences between two sections on the island are also compared with the values derived from precise leveling with respect to the same section.The result shows that the inconsistencies are only 0.2 cm and 0.7 cm,respectively.

  20. Long-distance quantum key distribution in optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Hiskett, P A; Lita, A E; Miller, A J; Nam, S; Nordholt, J E; Peterson, C G; Rosenberg, D

    2006-01-01

    Use of low-noise detectors can both increase the secret bit rate of long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and dramatically extend the length of a fibre optic link over which secure key can be distributed. Previous work has demonstrated use of ultra-low-noise transition-edge sensors (TESs) in a QKD system with transmission over 50 km. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of the TESs by successfully generating error-corrected, privacy-amplified key over 148.7 km of dark optical fibre at a mean photon number mu = 0.1, or 184.6 km of dark optical fibre at a mean photon number of 0.5. We have also exchanged secret key over 67.5 km that is secure against powerful photon-number-splitting attacks.

  1. Long-Distance Quantum Communication with Neutral Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Razavi, M; Razavi, Mohsen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    The architecture proposed by Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) for long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles is analyzed. Its fidelity and throughput in entanglement distribution, entanglement swapping, and quantum teleportation is derived within a framework that accounts for multiple excitations in the ensembles as well as loss and asymmetries in the channel. The DLCZ performance metrics that are obtained are compared to the corresponding results for the trapped-atom quantum communication architecture that has been proposed by a team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Northwestern University (MIT/NU). Both systems are found to be capable of high-fidelity entanglement distribution. However, the DLCZ scheme only provides conditional teleportation and repeater operation, whereas the MIT/NU architecture affords full Bell-state measurements on its trapped atoms. Moreover, it is shown that achieving unity conditional fidelity in DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation requires...

  2. Long-distance transport of signals during symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhi-Ping; Illana, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Legumes enter nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), whereas most flowering plants establish symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Once first steps of symbiosis are initiated, nodule formation and mycorrhization in legumes is negatively controlled by a shoot-derived inhibitor (SDI), a phenomenon termed autoregulation. According to current views, autoregulation of nodulation and mycorrhization in legumes is regulated in a similar way. CLE peptides induced in response to rhizobial nodulation signals (Nod factors) have been proposed to represent the ascending long-distance signals to the shoot. Although not proven yet, these CLE peptides are likely perceived by leucine-rich repeat (LRR) autoregulation receptor kinases in the shoot. Autoregulation of mycorrhization in non-legumes is reminiscent to the phenomenon of “systemic acquired resistance” in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:21455020

  3. Scorpio and Long-Distance Trade in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmel Beyer, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    This paper establishes a relationship between Scorpio and the astronomical group of the Ciudadela at Teotihuacan, linking them to the city's merchant elite. Its argument is based on a brief discussion of the alacrán and the context in which it appears in Prehispanic documents and art. Human figures with a scorpion-tail are emphasized because of their association with the merchant class and Venus. The iconography used to represent this star takes on many shapes, some of which were related to war. The origin of this symbol can be found on the southern coast of Guatemala, from where cacao was distributed to Oaxaca and the highlands. During the Postclassic the Soconusco was one of the most cherished domains of the Aztec, whose pochteca not only carried out long-distance trade but also had the power to solve or promote diplomatic conflicts.

  4. Long-distance practical quantum key distribution by entanglement swapping

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Artur; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We develop a model for practical, entanglement-based long-distance quantum key distribution employing entanglement swapping as a key building block. Relying only on existing off-the-shelf technology, we show how to optimize resources so as to maximize secret key distribution rates. The tools comprise lossy transmission links, such as telecom optical fibers or free space, parametric down-conversion sources of entangled photon pairs, and threshold detectors that are inefficient and have dark counts. Our analysis provides the optimal trade-off between detector efficiency and dark counts, which are usually competing, as well as the optimal source brightness that maximizes the secret key rate for specified distances (i.e. loss) between sender and receiver.

  5. Next Generation Large Capacity Long Distance Fiber To The Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. A. Ayad and M. Elazazy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical device technologies for photonic networks, are focusing on integrated optical device technologies for digital coherent optical transmission technologies. With the rapid spread of fiber to the home (FTTH, broadband video services and mobile Internet devices now require a highly functional optical network infrastructure with a large capacity 100-Gbit/s/channel system based on digital coherent technology is considered to be a promising candidate for next-generation large-capacity long-distance optical communication systems. The optical components required for such systems, such as Polarization Division Multiplexed Quadrate Phase Shift Keying (PDM-QPSK optical modulator, integrated receiver, and local light source, are under development. Opto-electrical integration technologies, which enable us to construct small, low-cost, and highly functional optical components, will play an important role in providing cost-effective transmission equipment for future 100-Gbit/s/ch and post-100-Gbit/s/ch optical communications

  6. Long-distance transport of endogenous gibberellins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Thomas; Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones controlling major aspects of plant growth and development. Although previous studies suggested the existence of a transport of GAs in plants, the nature and properties associated with this transport were unknown. We recently showed through micrografting and biochemical approaches that the GA12 precursor is the chemical form of GA undergoing long-distance transport across plant organs in Arabidopsis. Endogenous GA12 moves through the plant vascular system from production sites to recipient tissues, in which GA12 can be converted to bioactive forms to support growth via the activation of GA-dependent processes. GAs are also essential to promote seed germination; hence GA biosynthesis mutants do not germinate without exogenous GA treatment. Our results suggest that endogenous GAs are not (or not sufficiently) transmitted to the offspring to successfully complete the germination under permissive conditions.

  7. LIVING LONG-DISTANCE RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almond Pilar N. Aguila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs and their loved ones in thePhilippines manage to have dynamic relationships despite physical distance with Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC or the use of new media (the Internet and cellular phone. Theoretically guided by Marshall McLuhan and Stuart Hall, this paper presents three case studies that depict how individuals mindfully use communication technology to enact their relationships. Such interactions also entail the exchange of new ideas on gender roles, family relations, and dominant-subordinate roles that lead to cultural change. Conclusively, technology has made it easier for OFWs and their loved ones to overcome their aversion to being in long-distance relationships and overseas employment.

  8. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P; Delp, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models.

  9. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Seth

    Full Text Available The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1 elevation and 2 abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3 upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4 internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models.

  10. Effective long-distance pollen dispersal in Centaurea jacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Albrecht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source populations of Centaurea jacea in restored meadows, the most widespread Swiss agri-environment scheme, to potted plants in adjacent intensively managed meadows without other individuals of this species. Potted plants were put in replicated source populations at 25, 50, 100 m and where possible 200 m distance from these source populations. Pollen transfer among isolated plants was prevented by temporary bagging, such that only one isolated plant was accessible for flower visitors at any one time. Because C. jacea is self-incompatible, seed set in single-plant isolates indicated insect mediated effective pollen dispersal from the source population. Seed set was higher in source populations (35.7+/-4.4 than in isolates (4.8+/-1.0. Seed set declined from 18.9% of that in source populations at a distance of 25 m to 7.4% at 200 m. At a distance of 200 m seed set was still significantly higher in selfed plants, indicating long-distance effective pollen dispersal up to 200 m. Analyses of covariance suggested that bees contributed more than flies to this long-distance pollen dispersal. We found evidence that pollen dispersal to single-plant isolates was positively affected by the diversity and flower abundance of neighboring plant species in the intensively managed meadow. Furthermore, the decline of the dispersal was less steep when the source population of C. jacea was large. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that insect pollinators can effectively transfer pollen from source populations of C. jacea over at least 200 m, even when "recipient populations" consisted of single-plant isolates

  11. Long-distance quantum communication. Decoherence-avoiding mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb Bernardes, Nadja

    2012-12-17

    Entanglement is the essence of most quantum information processes. For instance, it is used as a resource for quantum teleportation or perfectly secure classical communication. Unfortunately, inevitable noise in the quantum channel will typically affect the distribution of entanglement. Owing to fundamental principles, common procedures used in classical communication, such as amplification, cannot be applied. Therefore, the fidelity and rate of transmission will be limited by the length of the channel. Quantum repeaters were proposed to avoid the exponential decay with the distance and to permit long-distance quantum communication. Long-distance quantum communication constitutes the framework for the results presented in this thesis. The main question addressed in this thesis is how the performance of quantum repeaters are affected by various sources of decoherence. Moreover, what can be done against decoherence to improve the performance of the repeater. We are especially interested in the so-called hybrid quantum repeater; however, many of the results presented here are sufficiently general and may be applied to other systems as well. First, we present a detailed entanglement generation rate analysis for the quantum repeater. In contrast to what is commonly found in the literature, our analysis is general and analytical. Moreover, various sources of errors are considered, such as imperfect local two-qubit operations and imperfect memories, making it possible to determine the requirements for memory decoherence times. More specifically, we apply our formulae in the context of a hybrid quantum repeater and we show that in a possible experimental scenario, our hybrid system can create near-maximally entangled pairs over a distance of 1280 km at rates of the order of 100 Hz. Furthermore, aiming to protect the system against different types of errors, we analyze the hybrid quantum repeater when supplemented by quantum error correction. We propose a scheme for

  12. Long-distance communication between laryngeal carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Antanavičiūtė

    Full Text Available Tunneling nanotubes and epithelial bridges are recently discovered new forms of intercellular communication between remote cells allowing their electrical synchronization, transfer of second messengers and even membrane vesicles and organelles. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time in primary cell cultures prepared from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC samples that these cells communicate with each other over long distances (up to 1 mm through membranous tunneling tubes (TTs, which can be open-ended or contain functional gap junctions formed of connexin 43. We found two types of TTs, containing F-actin alone or F-actin and α-tubulin. In the LSCC cell culture, we identified 5 modes of TT formation and performed quantitative assessment of their electrical properties and permeability to fluorescent dyes of different molecular weight and charge. We show that TTs, containing F-actin and α-tubulin, transport mitochondria and accommodate small DAPI-positive vesicles suggesting possible transfer of genetic material through TTs. We confirmed this possibility by demonstrating that even TTs, containing gap junctions, were capable of transmitting double-stranded small interfering RNA. To support the idea that the phenomenon of TTs is not only typical of cell cultures, we have examined microsections of samples obtained from human LSCC tissues and identified intercellular structures similar to those found in the primary LSCC cell culture.

  13. Energy efficiency and steam coal transport over long distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stala-Szlugaj Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is one of the most important energy sources in the world. Its main consumers are the energy sector (with a 37-46% share in the years 1990-2014; 1.12-2.34 billion toe and industry (24-27%; 0.78-1.38 billion toe. Diversified distribution of coal deposits in the world in relation to its consumers means that it has to be transported over often very long distances. The global coal trade is dominated by maritime transport (90-94% in the years 2004-2014, and the share of transport by land is relatively smaller. The aim of the article was to calculate the index describing what part of the energy contained in the coal transported on a particular route is consumed by the train carrying it. Due to the dominant position of the Russian Federation in imports of coal to Poland, it was assumed that coal will be imported by rail from Kuzbass (Russia's largest coal basin. As a result of the calculation, it was found that the rate of energy consumption for transport of imported coal will be somewhere in the range of 9.22-15.26%. In the case of deliveries of hard coal from Polish producers to the power plants the calculated rate changes within the range of 0.55-0.58%.

  14. Engineering and performance standards parameters for long distance road transport in the United States: the special case of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L. Stull

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transportation conditions of slaughter horses for human consumption have become a public and regulatory issue in the United States in the last two decades. Federal regulations were developed partially using the results of funded research projects that examined the types of vehicles, characteristics of slaughter horse candidates, types of injuries during transport, duration of transit, stocking densities and other behavioural and physiological indices during long-distance road transport. Additionally, the physiological responses of horses travelling long distances in vans while cross-tied by their halters in individual stalls were also studied. Both engineering- and performance-based standards were developed from the scientific studies and implemented in the federal regulations to ensure the humane movement of equines to slaughter facilities via commercial road transportation.

  15. Probabilistic inference of multijoint movements, skeletal parameters and marker attachments from diverse motion capture data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive solution to the problem of reconstructing the multijoint movement trajectories of the human body from diverse motion capture data. The problem is formulated in a probabilistic framework so as to handle multiple and unavoidable sources of uncertainty: sensor noise, soft tissue deformation and marker slip, inaccurate marker placement and limb measurement, and missing data due to occlusions. All unknown quantities are treated as state variables even though some of them are constant. In this way, state estimation and system identification can be performed simultaneously, obtaining not only the most likely values but also the confidence intervals of the joint angles, skeletal parameters, and marker positions and orientations relative to the limb segments. The inference method is a Gauss-Newton generalization of the extended Kalman filter. It is adapted to the kinematic domain by expressing spatial rotations via quaternions and computing the sensor residuals and their Jacobians analytically. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a reliable data analysis tool used in practice. The software implementation is available online.

  16. Phloem long-distance delivery of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) to the apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soo-Cheul; Chen, Cheng; Rojas, Maria; Daimon, Yasufumi; Ham, Byung-Kook; Araki, Takashi; Lucas, William J

    2013-08-01

    Cucurbita moschata FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE 2 (hereafter FTL2) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), components of the plant florigenic signaling system, move long-distance through the phloem from source leaves to the vegetative apex where they mediate floral induction. The mechanisms involved in long-distance trafficking of FT/FTL2 remain to be elucidated. In this study, we identified the critical motifs on both FT and FTL2 required for cell-to-cell trafficking through mutant analyses using a zucchini yellow mosaic virus expression vector. Western blot analysis, performed on phloem sap collected from just beneath the vegetative apex of C. moschata plants, established that all mutant proteins tested retained the ability to enter the phloem translocation stream. However, immunolocalization studies revealed that a number of these FTL2/FT mutants were defective in the post-phloem zone, suggesting that a regulation mechanism for FT trafficking exists in the post-phloem unloading step. The selective movements of FT/FTL2 were further observed by microinjection and trichome rescue studies, which revealed that FT/FTL2 has the ability to dilate plasmodesmata microchannels during the process of cell-to-cell trafficking, and various mutants were compromised in their capacity to traffic through plasmodesmata. Based on these findings, a model is presented to account for the mechanism by which FT/FTL2 enters the phloem translocation stream and subsequently exits the phloem and enters the apical tissue, where it initiates the vegetative to floral transition.

  17. Extraction of primitive representation from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force to generate physically consistent imitated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Yuka; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Morimoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an imitation learning framework to generate physically consistent behaviors by estimating the ground reaction force from captured human behaviors. In the proposed framework, we first extract behavioral primitives, which are represented by linear dynamical models, from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force by using the Gaussian mixture of linear dynamical models. Therefore, our method has small dependence on classification criteria defined by an experimenter. By switching primitives with different combinations while estimating the ground reaction force, different physically consistent behaviors can be generated. We apply the proposed method to a four-link robot model to generate squat motion sequences. The four-link robot model successfully generated the squat movements by using our imitation learning framework. To show generalization performance, we also apply the proposed method to robot models that have different torso weights and lengths from a human demonstrator and evaluate the control performances. In addition, we show that the robot model is able to recognize and imitate demonstrator movements even when the observed movements are deviated from the movements that are used to construct the primitives. For further evaluation in higher-dimensional state space, we apply the proposed method to a seven-link robot model. The seven-link robot model was able to generate squat-and-sway motions by using the proposed framework.

  18. What drives long-distance dispersal? A test of theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H

    2009-06-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) may contribute disproportionately to species persistence in fragmented landscapes, non-native invasions, and range shifts in response to climate change. However, direct data on LDD are extremely limited, leaving us with little understanding of why it occurs. I used six years of mark-recapture data on the stream salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus to test theoretical predictions of how variation in habitat quality affects LDD. Frequency of LDD was quantified using the kurtosis of yearly movement distributions from recaptured animals in a 1-km headwater stream. Temporal and spatial variation in habitat quality were quantified with spatially explicit data on the body condition and dispersion of individuals throughout the study stream. Using information-theoretic model selection criteria, I found that LDD increased during periods of low average body condition and low spatial variation in body condition. Consistent with basic theory, my results indicate that temporal variation in habitat quality is critical to initiating dispersal, and that LDD increases when animals must move farther to encounter higher-quality habitat. This suggests that information on how habitat quality varies in time and space can be useful for predicting LDD. More broadly, this study highlights the value of direct data on animal movement for testing dispersal theory.

  19. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants

    KAUST Repository

    Thorup, Kasper

    2017-01-05

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future.

  20. FLOWERING LOCUS T protein may act as the long-distance florigenic signal in the cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Belanger, Helene; Lee, Young-Jin; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Miura, Eriko; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Gendler, Karla; Jorgensen, Richard A; Phinney, Brett; Lough, Tony J; Lucas, William J

    2007-05-01

    Cucurbita moschata, a cucurbit species responsive to inductive short-day (SD) photoperiods, and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were used to test whether long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA or FT is required for floral induction. Ectopic expression of FT by ZYMV was highly effective in mediating floral induction of long-day (LD)-treated plants. Moreover, the infection zone of ZYMV was far removed from floral meristems, suggesting that FT transcripts do not function as the florigenic signal in this system. Heterografting demonstrated efficient transmission of a florigenic signal from flowering Cucurbita maxima stocks to LD-grown C. moschata scions. Real-time RT-PCR performed on phloem sap collected from C. maxima stocks detected no FT transcripts, whereas mass spectrometry of phloem sap proteins revealed the presence of Cm-FTL1 and Cm-FTL2. Importantly, studies on LD- and SD-treated C. moschata plants established that Cmo-FTL1 and Cmo-FTL2 are regulated by photoperiod at the level of movement into the phloem and not by transcription. Finally, mass spectrometry of florally induced heterografted C. moschata scions revealed that C. maxima FT, but not FT mRNA, crossed the graft union in the phloem translocation stream. Collectively, these studies are consistent with FT functioning as a component of the florigenic signaling system in the cucurbits.

  1. Long-distance seed dispersal by straw-coloured fruit bats varies by season and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abedi-Lartey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On-going fragmentation of tropical forest ecosystems and associated depletion of seed dispersers threatens the long-term survival of animal-dispersed plants. These threats do not only affect biodiversity and species abundance, but ultimately ecosystem functions and services. Thus, seed dispersers such as the straw-coloured fruit bat, E. helvum, which traverse long distances across fragmented landscapes, are particularly important for maintaining genetic connectivity and colonizing new sites for plant species. Using high-resolution GPS-tracking of movements, field observations and gut retention experiments, we quantify dispersal distances for small- and large-seeded fruits foraged by E. helvum during periods of colony population low (wet season and high (dry season in an urban and a rural landscape in the forest zone of Ghana. Gut passage time averaged 116 min (range 4–1143 min, comparable to other fruit bats. Movements were generally longer in the urban than in the rural landscape and also longer in the dry than in the wet season. As the majority of seeds are dispersed only to feeding roosts, median dispersal distances were similar for both large (42–67 m and small (42–65 m seeds. However, small seeds were potentially dispersed up to 75.4 km, four times further than the previous maximum distance estimated for a similar-sized frugivore. Maximum seed dispersal distances for small seeds were almost twice as long in the rural (49.7 km compare to the urban (31.2 km landscape. Within the urban landscape, estimated maximum dispersal distances for small seeds were three times longer during the dry season (75.4 km compared to the wet season (22.8 km; in contrast, distances in the rural landscape were three times longer in the wet season (67 km compared to the dry season (24.4. Dispersal distances for large seeds during the dry season (551 m in the rural landscape were almost twice that in the wet season (319 m. We found no influence of food

  2. How important is long-distance seed dispersal for the regional survival of plant species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, M.B.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-distance seed dispersal is generally assumed to be important for the regional survival of plant species. In this study, we quantified the importance of long-distance seed dispersal for regional survival of plant species using wind dispersal as an example. We did this using a new approach, by fi

  3. The Design and Construction of a Long-Distance Atmospheric Propagation Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LONG-DISTANCE ATMOSPHERIC PROPAGATION TEST...release; distribution is unlimited THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LONG-DISTANCE ATMOSPHERIC PROPAGATION TEST CHAMBER Roberto A. Torrealba...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE DESIGN AND

  4. Long distance pollen-mediated flow of herbicide resistance genes in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Yu, Qin; Barrett-Lennard, Robert; Powles, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Gene flow promotes genetic exchange among plant populations mediating evolutionary dynamics; yet, the importance of gene flow at distance via pollen movement is poorly understood. A field experiment at the landscape level was conducted with Lolium rigidum herbicide-susceptible individuals (population VLR1) placed into an otherwise Lolium-free bushland environment at increasing distances from adjacent large commercial crop fields infested with herbicide-resistant L. rigidum. Herbicide resistance was used as a marker to quantify the distance and the rate of pollen-mediated gene flow. About 21,245 seeds were produced on the isolated, susceptible mother plants of which 3,303 seedlings were tested for herbicide resistance and 664 seedlings were found to be resistant. Pollen-mediated gene flow occurred at 3,000 m (maximum tested distance). Both Mendelian and molecular analyses (sequencing and CAPS markers) confirmed the introgression of herbicide resistance genes. This is the first documented case of long-distance gene flow in L. rigidum. The results are important for future modeling simulations of herbicide resistance evolution and subsequent mobility. The adoption of integrated agronomic strategies, the control of potential receptor plants on fields' margins and conservative use of herbicides can be realistic options to minimize herbicide resistance spread.

  5. Long-distance entanglement and quantum communication in coupled cavity arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Giampaolo, S M

    2009-01-01

    We introduce quantum spin models that allow for long-distance end-to-end entanglement and long-distance, high-fidelity teleportation, even at moderately high temperatures. We show how these models, that realize an optimal compromise between scalability and resilience to decoherence, can be implemented in simply engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities. We demonstrate how the latter can be used to realize a quasi-deterministic scheme of long-distance quantum communication with high success rate, without direct projection on Bell states and Bell measurements.

  6. Interpersonal conflict and health perceptions in long-distance caregiving relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Vreeburg, Sean K; Verdugo, Sherri; Sparks, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    With job markets expanding globally and life expectancy continually increasing, more demands are being placed on distant relatives to provide care for their aging family members, creating a health care situation known as long-distance caregiving. An online survey explored the relations between negative health perceptions by long-distance caregivers and conflict frequency and conflict strategy usage. The authors observed positive significant relations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and conflict frequency and usage of the distributive and avoidance conflict strategies. However, they observed no significant associations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and usage of the two integrative strategies. Implications for long-distance caregiving communication are discussed.

  7. Integrating language in theories on long-distance movement: migration vs mobility & the concept of motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, C.

    2014-01-01

    Language in the context of migration is an unexplored concept. This paper takes a first step towards integrating language into current theories of international mobility. The current state of migration research will be briefly outlined. Subsequently, the differences between the concepts ‘migration’

  8. LONG-DISTANCE GM POLLEN MOVEMENT OF CREEPING BENTGRASS USING MODELED WIND TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of understanding the role of atmospheric conditions in pollen dispersal has grown in recent years with increased field-testing of genetically modified (GM) crop plants. An atmospheric model was used to characterize wind trajectories at 10 m and 100 m above GM polle...

  9. Sensory Narratives: Capturing Embodiment in Narratives of Movement, Sport, Leisure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa; Emerald, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Narrative research has been employed by many researchers in the field of physical culture (including movement, play, dance, sport, leisure, physical pursuits, physical activity, physical education and health). From our storied worlds, narrative research reveals complex embodied and emplaced social phenomena within this field. However, there are…

  10. Surface modification of poly (vinyl chloride) by long-distance and direct argon RF plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of long- distance and direct argon radio frequency (RF) plasma surface treatment on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films in terms of changes in surface wettability and surface chemistry. The surface properties are characterized by the water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanism is further analyzed and the role of all kinds of active species, e.g. electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification is further evaluated. Results show that the long-distance and direct RF plasma treatments modify the PVC surface in morphology and composition, and both modifications cause surface oxidation of PVC films, in the forming of functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. The effect of the long-distance argon RF plasma is more notable. This suggests that long-distance argon RF plasma could restrain the ion and electron eroding effect and enhance free radical reaction.

  11. Telephone and Cable Lines, Long Distance, Published in Not Provided, US Army.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Telephone and Cable Lines, Long Distance dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Applicable coordinate system; in a Not...

  12. How important is long-distance seed dispersal for the regional survival of plant species?

    OpenAIRE

    Soons, M.B.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-distance seed dispersal is generally assumed to be important for the regional survival of plant species. In this study, we quantified the importance of long-distance seed dispersal for regional survival of plant species using wind dispersal as an example. We did this using a new approach, by first relating plant species' dispersal traits to seed dispersal kernels and then relating the kernels to regional survival of the species. We used a recently developed and tested mechanistic seed di...

  13. Why movement is captured by music, but less by speech: role of temporal regularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Dalla Bella

    Full Text Available Music has a pervasive tendency to rhythmically engage our body. In contrast, synchronization with speech is rare. Music's superiority over speech in driving movement probably results from isochrony of musical beats, as opposed to irregular speech stresses. Moreover, the presence of regular patterns of embedded periodicities (i.e., meter may be critical in making music particularly conducive to movement. We investigated these possibilities by asking participants to synchronize with isochronous auditory stimuli (target, while music and speech distractors were presented at one of various phase relationships with respect to the target. In Exp. 1, familiar musical excerpts and fragments of children poetry were used as distractors. The stimuli were manipulated in terms of beat/stress isochrony and average pitch to achieve maximum comparability. In Exp. 2, the distractors were well-known songs performed with lyrics, on a reiterated syllable, and spoken lyrics, all having the same meter. Music perturbed synchronization with the target stimuli more than speech fragments. However, music superiority over speech disappeared when distractors shared isochrony and the same meter. Music's peculiar and regular temporal structure is likely to be the main factor fostering tight coupling between sound and movement.

  14. Dissipation Intermittency Increases Long-Distance Dispersal of Heavy Particles in the Canopy Sublayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Tomer; Trakhtenbrot, Ana; Poggi, Davide; Cassiani, Massimo; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion of heavy particles such as seeds within canopies is evaluated using Lagrangian stochastic trajectory models, laboratory, and field experiments. Inclusion of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate intermittency is shown to increase long-distance dispersal (LDD) by contributing to the intermittent ejection of particles to regions of high mean velocity outside the canopy volume. Model evaluation against controlled flume experiments, featuring a dense rod canopy, detailed flow measurements, and imaged trajectories of spherical particles, demonstrates that superimposing a terminal velocity on the fluid velocity is insufficient to determine the particle dispersal kernel. Modifying the trajectory model by adding dissipation intermittency is found to be significant for dispersal predictions along with the addition of inertial and crossing trajectories' effects. Comparison with manual seed-release experiments in a forest using wind-dispersed seeds shows that the model captures most of the measured kernels when accepted uncertainties in plant area index and friction velocity are considered. Unlike the flume experiments, the model modifications for several wind-dispersed seeds have minor effects on short-distance dispersal. A large increase was predicted in LDD when including dissipation intermittency for the forest experiment. The main results suggest that fitting or calibrating models to the `main body' of measured kernels may not offer extrapolating foresight to LDD predictions. As inertial effects were found mostly negligible in the field conditions here, the extended trajectory model requires specifying only the seed's terminal velocity and a constant variance of the normalized dissipation rate. Therefore, the proposed modifications can be readily applied to classical trajectory models so as to improve LDD predictions.

  15. Capturing and testing perceptual-cognitive expertise: a comparison of stationary and movement response methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, André; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2014-03-01

    Numerous methods have been used to study expertise and performance. In the present article, we compare the cognitive thought processes of skilled soccer players when responding to film-based simulations of defensive situations involving two different experimental conditions. Participants either remained stationary in a seated position (n = 10) or were allowed to move (n = 10) in response to life-size film sequences of 11 versus 11 open-play soccer situations viewed from a player's perspective. Response accuracy and retrospective verbal reports of thinking were collected across the two task conditions. In the movement-based response group, participants generated a greater number of verbal report statements, including a higher proportion of evaluation, prediction, and action planning statements, than did participants in the stationary group. Findings suggest that the processing strategies employed during performance differ depending on the nature of the response required of participants. Implications for behavioral methods and experimental design are discussed.

  16. Land bridge and long-distance dispersal--Old views, new evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhekun; YANG Xuefei; YANG Qingsong

    2006-01-01

    The study of land bridge based on con- tinental drift1) and long-distance dispersal are gaining increasing attention in biogeography. We review several major dispersal theories including the Mal- pigiacea route, patterns of chameleon dispersal and the floating island model. The Malpigiaceae route indicates that the Malpigiaceae family originated in northern South America and that members of several clades migrated into North America and subsequently moved via north Atlantic land connections into the Old World starting in the Eocene. This route may also explain many other pantropic disjunction patterns, including some Chinese plants disjunctions, involving South America. Not all biogeographical distribution patterns can be explained by vicariance theory, so more research, including chameleon distribution, has recently focused on long-distance dispersal. The lat- est analyses suggest that chameleons have dis- persed over long-distances from Madagascar on several occasions. The floating island model would explain flora and fauna similarities between South America and Africa. Studying long-distance dispersal mechanisms is important for understanding distribu- tion patterns and even the spread of pandemics. More research on the specific implications of long- distance dispersal for biogeography is necessary.

  17. A study on sexual risk behaviors of long-distance truck drivers in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Thakur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sexual behavior of trucking populations has been associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI and HIV in India and elsewhere in the world. The objective of the study was to describe the Health seeking and sexual risks behaviors among the long distance truck drivers and to estimate the prevalence of STI symptoms in the long distance truck driver. Methods: Cross sectional study conducted on the Long Distance truck drivers plying on national highway passing through Bhopal state Highway, who halted at road side group of and ldquo;Dhabas and rdquo; (road side hotels at 3 exits ways of Bhopal City M.P (India. A total of 309 truck drivers approached over a period of 90 days. Out of these 251 consented for the study. Result: The study revealed that 49 % of the long distance truck driver had CSW exposure in last 6 months. The prevalence of STI symptoms was found to be 21.51 % among the long distance truck drivers. The Truck Driver who had exposure with CSW more than five times in the last 6 months were found to be more careless regarding using condoms while having intercourse with the CSW's. Conclusion: Effort like availability of condoms in the high risk group settings is required. Dhabas should be made to function as a sentinel centre for promoting awareness for HIV/AIDS and STIs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1769-1774

  18. Cerebral neurons underlying prey capture movements in the pteropod mollusc, Clione limacina. II. Afterdischarges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norekian, T P

    1993-03-01

    The pteropod mollusc Clione limacina is a highly specialized carnivore which feeds on shelled pteropods and uses, for their capture, three pairs of oral appendages, called buccal cones. Contact with the prey induces rapid eversion of buccal cones, which then become tentacle-like and grasp the shell of the prey. In the previous paper, a large group of electrically coupled, normally silent cells (A motoneurons) has been described in the cerebral ganglia of Clione. Activation of A neurons induces opening of oral skin folds and extrusion of the buccal cones. The present study continues the analysis of the electrical properties of A motoneurons. Brief intracellular stimulation of an A neuron can produce prolonged firing (afterdischarge), lasting up to 40 s, in the entire population of A neurons. After-discharge activity is based on an afterdepolarization evoked by an initial strong burst of A neuron spikes. The data suggest that this afterdepolarization represents excitatory synaptic input from unidentified neurons which in turn receive excitatory inputs from A neurons, thus organizing positive feedback. The main functional role of this positive feedback is the spread and synchronization of spike activity among all A neurons in the population. In addition, it serves to transform a brief excitatory input to A neurons into their prolonged and stable firing, which is required during certain phases of feeding behavior in Clione.

  19. Phloem RNA-binding proteins as potential components of the long-distance RNA transport system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICENTE ePALLAS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RNA-binding proteins (RBPs govern a myriad of different essential processes in eukaryotic cells. Recent evidence reveals that apart from playing critical roles in RNA metabolism and RNA transport, RBPs perform a key function in plant adaption to various environmental conditions. Long distance RNA transport occurs in land plants through the phloem, a conducting tissue that integrates the wide range of signalling pathways required to regulate plant development and response to stress processes. The macromolecules in the phloem pathway vary greatly and include defence proteins, transcription factors, chaperones acting in long distance trafficking, and RNAs (mRNAs, siRNAs and miRNAs. How these RNA molecules translocate through the phloem is not well understood, but recent evidence indicates the presence of translocatable RNA-binding proteins in the phloem, which act as potential components of long distance RNA transport system. This review updates our knowledge on the characteristics and functions of RBPs present in the phloem.

  20. Reverse the force direction at long distance by quantum corrections with a mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X S

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that quantum corrections can possibly reverse the sign of the one-particle-exchange potential (OPEP) at long distance if (and under general assumptions, only if) the exchanged particle has a mass $m$, either intrinsic or effective. Such phenomenon requires a running coupling constant $\\alpha(q^2)$ satisfying $\\alpha (-m^2)<0$ in the off-shell renormalization scheme. Reversal of the OPEP sign at long distance (and hence attraction transits to repulsion, or vice versa) may have important implications for gravity and cosmic acceleration, particle and nuclear physics, and also condensed matter properties such as superconductivity.

  1. COMBINED GPS/GLONASS PRECISE POSITIONING FOR LONG-DISTANCE BASELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Combined GPS/GLONASS can increase the accuracy and reliability ofpositioning especially in some applications with many impediments.Due to the atmosphere delay,the commonly used methods for processing short distance baselines can not be implemented in long distance baselines.In this paper,a new data processing strategy for long distance baselines is proposed,which uses the properties of some combination observables of combined GPS/GLONASS and distance baselines may come to the order of 10-8 and combined GPS/GLONASS improves the accuracy over that of GPS-only positioning,which brings benefit to crust deformation monitoring and research on geodynamics.

  2. Role of Clay Minerals in Long-Distance Transport of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-runout (> 50 km) subaerial landslides are rare on Earth, but are common features episodically shaping Mars' Valles Marineris (VM) trough system over the past 3.5 billion years. They display two end-member morphologies: a thick-skinned inner zone, characterized by fault-bounded, rotated blocks near their source region, and a thin-skinned, exceptionally long-runout outer zone, characterized by thin sheets spreading over 10s of km across the trough floor. Four decades of studies on the latter have resulted in two main competing hypotheses to explain their long-distance transport: (1) movement of landslides over layers of trapped air or soft materials containing ice or snow, enabling basal lubrication, and (2) fluidization of landslide materials with or without the presence of water and volatiles. To address this issue, we examine the mineralogic composition of landslides across VM using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) near-infrared spectral data analysis coupled with detailed geologic mapping and morphometric analysis of satellite images. Our survey reveals a general correlation between transport distance, significant lateral spreading, and the presence of hydrated silicates among VM landslides. Given that smectite clay absorbs water into its layered crystal structure and can reduce the friction coefficient by a factor of three v. that of dry rocks, these results suggest that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating long-runout landslide transport in VM. We propose that, concurrent with downslope failure and sliding of broken trough-wall rock, frontal landslide masses overrode and entrained hydrated-silicate-bearing trough-floor deposits, lubricating the basal sliding zones and permitting the landslide outer zones to spread laterally while moving forward over the low-friction surface. The key participation of hydrated silicates in episodic, sustained landslide activity throughout the canyon implies that clay minerals

  3. The design of Gaussian beam zoom system in intermediate and long distance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengcheng; Zhou, Jian

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that laser possesses high brightness, high coherence, good directivity and other unique properties. In many practical applications, it is necessary to get small light spot in intermediate and long distance. Intermediate and long distance laser measurement demands to minimize the spot radius in order to improve the spatial resolution of the system and signal quality. Therefore, the study of Gaussian beam focusing property has high value for practical applications. In order to achieve intermediate and long distance laser measurement, this paper studies the method to adjust Gaussian beam spot diameter within a certain range after a near-field optical system transformation to improve the signal quality. Based on the fundamental characteristics of the Gaussian beam, this paper deduces the theoretical formula for the position and radius of the Gaussian beam waist and measures them by means of the CCD method. Then Matlab is used to simulate the spot diameter in the far field, and by combining numerical simulation results as well as optimizing the structure of the actual optical system, we make the light spot diameter in the target area fit the requirements of the laser velocimeter in intermediate and long distance measurement.

  4. Scheme for Robust Long-Distance Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Sheng; QUO Guang-Can

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the configuration of phase coding for quantum key distribution with single photon can also be used for continuous variable quantum key distribution. Therefore the robust long-distance high-speed quantum key distribution can be achieved with current technology.

  5. Neuromuscular factors associated with decline in long-distance running performance in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on neuromuscular factors that may affect endurance performance in master athletes. During the last decade, due to the rapid increase in the number of master or veteran participants in endurance sporting competitions, many studies attempted to identify metabolic factors associated with the decrease in endurance, especially long-distance running performance with ageing, focusing on decreases in maximal oxygen consumption. However, neuromuscular factors have been less studied despite the well-known phenomena of strength loss with ageing. For master athletes to perform better in long-distance running events, it is important to reduce muscle fatigue and/or muscle damage, to improve locomotion efficiency and to facilitate recovery. To date, no consensus exists that regular endurance training is beneficial for improving locomotion efficiency, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle damage, and enhancing recovery capacity in master athletes. Some recent studies seem to indicate that master athletes have similar muscle damage to young athletes, but they require a longer recovery time after a long-distance running event. Further analyses of these parameters in master athletes require more experimental and practical interest from researchers and coaches. In particular, more attention should be directed towards the capacity to maintain muscle function with training and the role of neuromuscular factors in long-distance performance decline with ageing using a more cellular and molecular approach.

  6. Long-Distance and Proximal Romantic Relationship Satisfaction: Attachment and Closeness Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amber; Pistole, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction was examined in college student long-distance romantic relationships (LDRRs) and geographically proximal romantic relationships (PRRs). LDRR/PRR attachment style proportions and relationship satisfaction were similar. Multiple regression analyses revealed that low attachment avoidance contributed uniquely to high LDRR…

  7. Long-distance electron transfer by cable bacteria in aquifer sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hubert; Bosch, Julian; Griebler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradation of organic pollutants in aquifers is often restricted to the fringes of contaminant plumes where steep countergradients of electron donors and acceptors are separated by limited dispersive mixing. However, long-distance electron transfer (LDET) by filamentous ‘cable bacteria’ h...

  8. Weak long distance contributions to the neutron and proton electric dipole moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnens, Johan; Pallante, Elisabetta

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate the long distance weak contribution to the neutron and proton electric dipole moments using an effective Lagrangian framework. We estimate the coefficients needed by a factorization hypothesis and additional assumptions on γ5 terms in the baryon lagrangian. We obtain |dne| ≈ 5 × 10-3

  9. Fundamental design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard;

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive theoretical analysis on the design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission has been carried out, using a highly accurate model. The dispersion of the optical fiber as a function of the numerical aperture and the cutoff wavelength is included...

  10. Long distance root-shoot signalling in plant-insect community interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Erb, M.; Kaplan, I.

    2013-01-01

    Plants mediate interactions between insects, including leaf- and root-feeders; yet the underlying mechanisms and connection with ecological theory remain unresolved. In this review, based on novel insights into long-distance (i.e., leaf-leaf, root-shoot) defence signalling, we explore the role of ph

  11. Metabolic profile of long-distance migratory flight and stopover in a shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landys, MM; Piersma, T; Guglielmo, CG; Jukema, J; Ramenofsky, M; Wingfield, JC; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Wingfield, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Migrating birds often complete long non-stop flights during which body energy stores exclusively support energetic demands. The metabolic correlates of such long-distance travel in free-living migrants are as yet poorly studied. Bar-tailed godwits, Limosa lapponica taymyrensis, undertake a 4500 km f

  12. Mode-resolved frequency comb interferometry for high-accuracy long distance measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, S.A.; Van Eldik, S.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2015-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have developed into powerful tools for distance metrology. In this paper we demonstrate absolute long distance measurement using a single femtosecond frequency comb laser as a multi-wavelength source. By applying a high-resolution spectrometer based on a virtually imaged phas

  13. Changing Gender Roles, Shifting Power Balance and Long-distance Migration of Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.J.M.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-distance migration of couples requires joint decision-making within the household. The uneven power balance between men and women and traditional gender roles have given rise to the concepts of ‘tied stayer’ (usually the male partner) and ‘tied mover’ (usually the female). Since these concepts

  14. Changing gender roles, shifting power balance and long-distance migration of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-distance migration of couples requires joint decision-making within the household. The uneven power balance between men and women and traditional gender roles have given rise to the concepts of 'tied stayer' (usually the male partner) and 'tied mover' (usually the female). Since these concepts

  15. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  16. Necessity Fuels Creativity: Adapting Long-Distance Collaborative Methods for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopoci Drake, Katie; Larson, Eliza; Rugh, Rachel; Tait, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Improved technology has made it possible to virtually bridge distance between dance makers, rendering physical location another choreographic device to be manipulated. Long-distance collaboration as an artistic process is not only a fertile new ground for creation and necessary for many practicing dance artists in the field today, but there is…

  17. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  18. Transportation of low-grade thermal energy over long distance by ammonia-water absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; WANG RuZhui; LUO LinGai; XIA ZaiZhong; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the importance and the cycle choice for long-distance transportation of low-grade thermal energy, and the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic feasibility of single-effect ammonia-water absorption system for heat or cold transportation over long distance are also involved. A model of a long-distance thermal energy transportation system is built and analyzed, which shows satisfactory and attractive results. When a steam heat source at 12012 is available, the user site can get hot water output at about 55℃ with the thermal COP of about 0.6 and the electric COP of about 100 in winter, and cold water output at about 10~C with the thermal COP of about 0.5 and the electric COP of 50 in summer.A small-size prototype is built to verify the performance analysis. Basically the experimental data show good accordance with the analysis results. The ammonia-water absorption system is a potential prospective solution for the heat or cold transportation over long distance.

  19. Broadband IP Stream Transmission Experiments over Global and Long Distance Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kimio; Oguchi; Tetsuro; Fujii; Atsushi; Takahara; Toshiaki; Miyazaki; Kazuo; Hagimoto; Sadayasu; Ono

    2003-01-01

    Super High Definition (SHD) movies were successfully transmitted as streaming contents at about 300 Mbps for the first time over a long distance IP network (more than 3,000 km), in conjunction with the experimental verification of traffic control and scalable multicast technologies.

  20. The Virtual Learning Environment ROODA: An Institutional Project of Long Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Patricia Alejandra; Leite, Silvia Meirelles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes ROODA (http://www.homer.nuted.edu.ufrgs.br), a virtual learning environment and one of the official Long Distance Education platforms that has been in use since 2005 at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil. It is free software that integrates syncronous and assyncronous…

  1. Robust Scheme for Long-Distance Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A scheme is presented for the long-distance teleportation of an unknown atomic state between two separated cavities. The scheme is based on the Raman coupling and cavity decay. In the scheme, the effective atom-cavity coupling strength is much smaller than the cavity decay rate and thus cavities of high quality factor are unnecesssary.

  2. Long-Distance Communication and Signal Amplification in Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti eShah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is an inducible defense mechanism in plants that confers enhanced resistance against a variety of pathogens. SAR is activated in the uninfected systemic (distal organs in response to a prior (primary infection elsewhere in the plant. SAR is associated with the activation of salicylic acid (SA signaling and the priming of defense responses for robust activation in response to subsequent infections. The activation of SAR requires communication by the primary infected tissues with the distal organs. The vasculature functions as a conduit for the translocation of factors that facilitate long-distance intra-plant communication. In recent years, several metabolites putatively involved in long-distance signaling have been identified. These include the methyl ester of SA (MeSA, the abietane diterpenoid dehydroabietinal (DA, the dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid (AzA, and a glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P-dependent factor. Long-distance signaling by some of these metabolites also requires the lipid-transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE 1. The relative contribution of these factors in long-distance signaling is likely influenced by environmental conditions, for example light. In the systemic leaves, the AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (ALD1-dependent production of the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip, FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1 signaling, as well as SA synthesis and downstream signaling are required for the activation of SAR. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction between long-distance SAR signals and details the recently discovered role of Pip in defense amplification and priming that allows plants to acquire immunity at the systemic level. Recent advances in SA signaling and perception are also highlighted.

  3. Risk Factors for Near Miss Incident among Long Distance Bus Drivers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Ronaidi NIK MAHDI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accident is a worldwide public health issue that has its highest impact on low and middle income countries including Malaysia. Many previous studies concerned on the causality of the actual accidents and little attention were given to near miss incidents. Hence, the current study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 517 long distance bus drivers. Data were collected using interview-guided translated and validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Manchester Driver Behaviour questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Results: The prevalence of near miss incident among long distance bus drivers was 37.5% (95% CI: 33.5, 41.8. The significant associated factors for near miss incident were younger age group (ORadj : 1.99; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.01, longer distance travelled per day (ORadj : 2.34; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.60, sleep disturbances (ORadj : 1.74; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54 and errors in driving behaviour (ORadj : 1.31; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.39.Conclusion: Self-reported near miss incidents were relatively high among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia. This issue should be taken seriously and preventive action should consider the significant human factors such as younger age group, errors in driving behaviours, sleep disturbances as well as occupational factors like distance travelled per day. Keywords: Road traffic accident, Near miss, Bus drivers, Malaysia 

  4. Acute changes in muscle activation and leg extension performance after different running exercises in elite long distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorimaa, Timo; Virlander, Rami; Kurkilahti, Pasi; Vasankari, Tommi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated acute changes in muscle activation and muscular power performance after three different running exercises in elite long-distance runners. Twenty-two nationally and internationally ranked long-distance runners performed first an incremental treadmill running test until exhaustion (MR) and then 40 min continuous (TR) and intermittent (2 min run/2 min rest) (IR) running exercises at an intensity of 80 and 100% of the velocity associated with VO(2max), respectively. Muscle activation and muscular power performance tests (counter-movement jumps, CMJ, and a set of ten maximal half squats from the static starting position with an extra load of 35% of the subjects, one repetition maximum) were performed before and immediately after the runs. The average mechanical power (P) of the half squats was calculated and the root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) from the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was recorded simultaneously during the half squat performances. The results showed an acute exercise-induced increase in P (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000) together with a reduction in EMGrms of the knee extensor muscles (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000). However, mechanical P expressed as a relative change within the set decreased after MR. In TR the improvement in P correlated positively with the maximal running performance of the runners (P muscles, and may lead to a different coordination strategy in leg extension exercises performed into the vertical direction. After continuous type of running the power improvement correlates positively with maximal endurance running capacity, whereas after intermittent type of running it correlates negatively.

  5. Long-distance autumn migration across the Sahara by painted lady butterflies: exploiting resource pulses in the tropical savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Constantí; Soto, David X; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger; Hobson, Keith A

    2016-10-01

    The painted lady, Vanessa cardui, is a migratory butterfly that performs an annual multi-generational migration between Europe and North Africa. Its seasonal appearance south of the Sahara in autumn is well known and has led to the suggestion that it results from extremely long migratory flights by European butterflies to seasonally exploit the Sahel and the tropical savannah. However, this possibility has remained unproven. Here, we analyse the isotopic composition of butterflies from seven European and seven African countries to provide new support for this hypothesis. Each individual was assigned a geographical natal origin, based on its wing stable hydrogen isotope (δ(2)Hw) value and a predicted δ(2)Hw basemap for Europe and northern Africa. Natal assignments of autumn migrants collected south of the Sahara confirmed long-distance movements (of 4000 km or more) starting in Europe. Samples from Maghreb revealed a mixed origin of migrants, with most individuals with a European origin, but others having originated in the Sahel. Therefore, autumn movements are not only directed to northwestern Africa, but also include southward and northward flights across the Sahara. Through this remarkable behaviour, the productive but highly seasonal region south of the Sahara is incorporated into the migratory circuit of V. cardui.

  6. Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2015-09-07

    A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.

  7. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in long-distance travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Abdelaal, Mohamed A.; Alaklabi, Ali; Bakhsh, Ebtisam; Alomi, Yousef A.; Baik, Mohammad Al; Aldahan, Salah; Schünemann, Holger; Brozek, Jan; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Darzi, Andrea J.; Waziry, Reem; Akl, Elie A.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a preventable disease. Long distant travelers are prone to variable degree to develop VTE. However, the low risk of developing VTE among long-distance travelers and which travelers should receive VTE prophylaxis, and what prophylactic measures should be used led us to develop these guidelines. These clinical practice guidelines are the result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia involving an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society). The McMaster University Guideline working group provided the methodological support. The expert panel identified 5 common questions related to the thromboprophylaxis in long-distance travelers. The corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. PMID:28042639

  8. Passive phloem loading and long-distance transport in a synthetic tree-on-a-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comtet, Jean; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Turgeon, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Vascular plants rely on differences in osmotic pressure to export sugars from regions of synthesis (mature leaves) to sugar sinks (roots, fruits). In this process, known as Münch pressure flow, the loading of sugars from photosynthetic cells to the export conduit (the phloem) is crucial, as it sets...... the pressure head necessary to power long-distance transport. Whereas most herbaceous plants use active mechanisms to increase phloem sugar concentration above that of the photosynthetic cells, in most tree species, for which transport distances are largest, loading seems, counterintuitively, to occur by means...... developed in our synthetic passive loader can reach botanically relevant values as high as 10 bars. We conclude that passive loading is sufficient to drive long-distance transport in large plants, and that trees are well suited to take full advantage of passive phloem loading strategies....

  9. Long distance related stressors and coping behaviors in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, T J; Hathaway, G

    1993-01-01

    This descriptive comparative study addresses long distance related stress and coping behaviors of 53 parents of children with cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in the stress and coping behaviors of parents living 100 miles from the tertiary treatment center compared with those who live less than 100 miles from the center. The theoretical framework used was Lazarus' theory on stress and coping. The study participants were from several Pediatric Oncology Group member institutions. The parents completed Hymovich's Parent Perception Inventory and a demographic data sheet. Parametric (one-tailed t-test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests) were included in the statistical analysis. The results showed significant differences in demographic data, concerns, beliefs/feelings, and coping. Implications for the pediatric oncology treatment team include specific interventions that will improve the quality of care for the children/parents who live a long distance from the tertiary treatment center.

  10. Process for the Φ130 sapphire window element with long distance and high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zengqi; Su, Ying; Lei, Jianli; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Xinlong; Liu, Xuanmin; Sun, Taohui

    2016-10-01

    With the process test for the choice of materials, the test materials and the molds, the abrasives, the temperature and the different machining process monitoring parameters of the polishing machine, the process method and the quality control technology were figured out for the Φ130 sapphire window element with long distance and high resolution (hereinafter referred to as window element), meantime, the optimum process condition was determined to machine the element. The results were that the high resolution imaging window was processed with the surface roughness Ra of 0.639nm, the transmission distortion of λ/10 (λ=632.8nm), the parallel error of 5″, the resolution of 1.47″ and the focal length of 5 km, which can satisfy the imaging requirements better for the military photoelectric device for sapphire window with long distance and high resolution.

  11. Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based On Polarization Encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, C Z; Ma, H X; Pan, J W; Wang, X B; Yang, D; Yang, T; Yin, H; Zeng, H P; Zhang, J; Gao, Wei-Bo; Ma, Huai-Xin; Pan, Jian-Wei; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Tao; Yin, Hao; Zeng, He-Ping; Zhang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) with one-way quantum communication in polarization space over 75 km. So far, our experimental implementation is the only one that really offers the unconditionally secure final keys among all the implementations of long-distance QKD with weak coherent states. We use 3 different intensities of 0, 0.2 and 0.6 for the pulses of source in our experiment. In order to eliminate the influences of polarization mode dispersion in the long-distance single-mode optical fiber, an automatic polarization compensation system is utilized to implement the active compensation. Only one detector is used in our experiment. The secure distance can be raised to 120 km given 4 detectors.

  12. Multiple-Language Translation System Focusing on Long-distance Medical and Outpatient Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Aierken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For people living in the countryside, an effective long-distance medical and health service is very important. People living in western China, especially, require convenient communication in their native language with doctors working in a modern city. To address this problem, a multiple-language translation system for long-distance medical and outpatient services is discussed. This system initially provides a table containing basic information including disease names and symptoms for different medical classifications, and then translates the sentences selected from the table automatically using a machine translation system. Finally, a PDF file is created for the doctor and the patient. In this paper, the system construction and evaluation of the machine translation are introduced.

  13. Study on the Technology of Supplying Water Safely by Long-Distance Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanbo; YU Taipin; LIU Junhua; ZHAO Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    The extensively built long-distance water transmission pipelines have become the main water sources for urban areas.To ensure the reliability and safety of the water supply,from the viewpoint of overall management, it would be necessary to establish a system of information management for the pipeline.The monitoring,calculating and analyzing functions of the system serve to give controlling instructions and safe operating rules to the automatic equipment and technician, making sure the resistance coefficient distribution along the pipeline is reasonable;the hydraulic state transition is smooth when operating conditions change or water supply accidents occur,avoiding the damage of water hammer.This paper covered the composition structures of the information management system of long-distance water transmission pipelines and the functions of the subsystems, and finally elaborated on the approaches and steps ofbuilding a mathematics model for the analysis of dynamic hydraulic status.

  14. Significance of self magnetic field in long-distance collimation of laser-generated electron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shi; Niu, Yifei; Dan, Jiakun; Chen, Ziyu; Li, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance collimation of fast electron beams generated by laser-metallic-wire targets has been observed in recent experiments, while the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. In this work, we investigate in detail the laser-wire interaction processes with a simplified model and Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate the significance of the self magnetic fields of the beams in the long-distance collimation. Good agreements of simulated image plate patterns with various experiments and detailed analysis of electron trajectories show that the self magnetic fields provide restoring force that is critical for the beam collimation. By studying the wire-length dependence of beam divergence in certain experiments, we clarify that the role of the metallic wire is to balance the space-charge effect and thus maintain the collimation.

  15. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Garcés; Victoria Cussen; Hugh Wirth

    2008-01-01

    The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The ...

  16. Demand Routing with ASE Impairment Consideration in Long Distance Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui; Yang, Hongchang; Xu, Liang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a heuristic algorithm that considers ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) noise impairment is developed for demand routing in long distance optical networks. Amplifier span constraints, determined by ASE noise impairment, are presented to constrain the maximal transparent reach of a lightpath. Problem formulation and heuristic algorithms are given. Simulation demonstrates that each demand stream is guaranteed to be successfully routed, and network resources (wavelength channels and transceivers) are effectively utilized.

  17. Centenary of long distance railway electrification in Germany; 100 Jahre Fernbahnelektrifizierung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassmann, Siegfried [DB Bahn Fernverkehr AG, Muenchen (Germany). Regionalbereich Sued; Scherrans, Thomas [IFB Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Glanert, Peter

    2011-04-15

    Starting of electric test operation on the railway line Dessau - Bitterfeld on January 18{sup th} 1911 was the hour of birth of electric long distance railway traction in Germany with low frequency single phase a. c. Construction of traction power supply installations and putting into service of the electric locomotives are pioneering works of technical history. Extension was initiated just during first test period, but eruption of World War I stopped the project abruptly. (orig.)

  18. Hyperbolic waveguide for long-distance transport of near-field heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Riccardo; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Guizal, Brahim; Antezza, Mauro; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2016-09-01

    Heat flux exchanged between two hot bodies at subwavelength separation distances can exceed the limit predicted by the blackbody theory. However, this super-Planckian transfer is restricted to these separation distances. Here we demonstrate the possible existence of a super-Planckian transfer at arbitrary large separation distances if the interacting bodies are connected in the near field with weakly dissipating hyperbolic waveguides. This result opens the way to long-distance transport of near-field thermal energy.

  19. Superconducting cables: Long distance energy transmission. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of superconducting cables and power transmission lines for long distance energy transmission. Topics include methods of cryogenic refrigeration and electrical insulation, fabrication and development of niobium alloy conductors, energy loss analysis, and dielectric design of superconducting power transmission systems. Government research reports on superconducting technology for electric power transmission and distribution are also reviewed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. The Distant Heart: Mediating Long-Distance Relationships through Connected Computational Jewelry

    OpenAIRE

    Silina, Yulia; Haddadi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In the world where increasingly mobility and long-distance relationships with family, friends and loved-ones became commonplace, there exists a gap in intimate interpersonal communication mediated by technology. Considering the advances in the field of mediation of relationships through technology, as well as prevalence of use of jewelry as love-tokens for expressing a wish to be remembered and to evoke the presence of the loved-one, developments in the new field of computational jewelry offe...

  1. Addition of long-distance heart procurement promotes changes in heart transplant waiting list status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antibas Atik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the addition of long-distance heart procurement on a heart transplant program and the status of heart transplant recipients waiting list. Methods: Between September 2006 and October 2012, 72 patients were listed as heart transplant recipients. Heart transplant was performed in 41 (57%, death on the waiting list occurred in 26 (36% and heart recovery occurred in 5 (7%. Initially, all transplants were performed with local donors. Long-distance, interstate heart procurement initiated in February 2011. Thirty (73% transplants were performed with local donors and 11 (27% with long-distance donors (mean distance=792 km±397. Results: Patients submitted to interstate heart procurement had greater ischemic times (212 min ± 32 versus 90 min±18; P<0.0001. Primary graft dysfunction (distance 9.1% versus local 26.7%; P=0.23 and 1 month and 12 months actuarial survival (distance 90.1% and 90.1% versus local 90% and 86.2%; P=0.65 log rank were similar among groups. There were marked incremental transplant center volume (64.4% versus 40.7%, P=0.05 with a tendency on less waiting list times (median 1.5 month versus 2.4 months, P=0.18. There was a tendency on reduced waiting list mortality (28.9% versus 48.2%, P=0.09. Conclusion: Incorporation of long-distance heart procurement, despite being associated with longer ischemic times, does not increase morbidity and mortality rates after heart transplant. It enhances viable donor pool, and it may reduce waiting list recipient mortality as well as waiting time.

  2. Long-distance behavior of temperature correlation functions in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [UMR 5672 du CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We describe a Bethe ansatz based method to derive, starting from a multiple integral representation, the long-distance asymptotic behavior at finite temperature of the density-density correlation function in the interacting onedimensional Bose gas. We compute the correlation lengths in terms of solutions of non-linear integral equations of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz type. Finally, we establish a connection between the results obtained in our approach with the correlation lengths stemming from the quantum transfer matrix method. (orig.)

  3. Long-distance electron transfer by cable bacteria in aquifer sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Hubert; BOSCH, Julian; Griebler, Christian; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Lueders, Tillmann; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradation of organic pollutants in aquifers is often restricted to the fringes of contaminant plumes where steep countergradients of electron donors and acceptors are separated by limited dispersive mixing. However, long-distance electron transfer (LDET) by filamentous ‘cable bacteria' has recently been discovered in marine sediments to couple spatially separated redox half reactions over centimeter scales. Here we provide primary evidence that such sulfur-oxidizing cable bacteria ca...

  4. Anthropometric and functional characteristics of Colombian elite long-distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of elite long-distance runners. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 19 male competitive long-distance runners of national level (age 28.2 ± 6.9 years. A total of 24 anthropometric variables were measured according to the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK statements. The Heath-Carter method and the formula proposed by Siri, Matiegka, Jackson and Pollock were used to calculate the somatotype and the body composition, respectively. Ergospirometry VO (2 max, Vertical Jump Test and the Wingate Test were used as functional indicators. Results: Regarding body composition, we found fat mass percentage 13.3 ± 3.2; muscle mass 47.3 ± 2.5%, and body adiposity index 24.1 ± 3.3. Somatotype profile was the mesomorphic-balanced (3.6-4.0-2.1. Mean values of functional tests with their standard deviations were: VO(2 máx (mL•kg-1•min-1 42.6 ± 8.1; anaerobic power 106.0 ± 31.8 kg•s-1, and anaerobic capacity 6501.0 ± 1831.6 K/jul. Conclusion: These results may provide a profile of long-distance runners that can be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical emphasis.

  5. Vibrational long-distance communication in the termites Macrotermes natalensis and Odontotermes sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Felix A; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2013-09-01

    Fungus-growing higher termites build long subterranean galleries that lead outwards from the nest to foraging sites. When soldiers are disturbed, they tend to drum with their heads against the substrate and thereby create vibrational alarm signals. The present study aimed at describing these acoustic signals, how they are elicited, produced and perceived, and how these signals propagate within the galleries and nests over long distances in two termite species of the Southern African savannah, Macrotermes natalensis and an Odontotermes sp. The signals consist of trains of pulses with a pulse repetition rate of 10-20 Hz. The galleries have physical features that promote vibrational communication and are used as channels for long-distance communication. In M. natalensis, the signal propagation velocity is ~130 m s(-1) and the signals are attenuated by ~0.4 dB per centimetre distance. Nestmates are extremely sensitive to these vibrations with a behavioural threshold amplitude of 0.012 m s(-2). Workers respond by a fast retreat into the nest and soldiers are recruited to the source of vibration. Soldiers also start to drum with a reaction time of about 0.3 s, thereby amplifying the intensity of the signal. This social long-distance communication through chains of signal-reamplifying termites results in a relatively slow propagation (1.3 m s(-1)) of the signal without decrement over distances of several metres.

  6. Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal of a recently expanding migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Song, Gang; Navarro, Joan; Zhang, Ruiying; Symes, Craig T; Forero, Manuela G; Lei, Fumin

    2016-06-01

    Long-distance dispersal events and their derivable increases of genetic diversity have been highlighted as important ecological and evolutionary determinants that improve performances of range-expanding species. In the context of global environmental change, specific dispersal strategies have to be understood and foreseen if we like to prevent general biodiversity impoverishment or the spread of allochthonous diseases. We explored the genetic structure and potential population mixing on the recently range-expanding European bee-eater Merops apiaster. In addition, the species is suspected of harbouring and disseminating the most relevant disease for bees and apiculture, Nosema microsporidia. In agreement with complementary ringing recovery data and morphometric measurements, genetic results on two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellites showed a reasonably well-structured population partitioning along its breeding distribution. Microsatellite results indicated that not only did a few birds recently disperse long distance during their return migrations and change their natal breeding areas, but also that a group of allochthonous birds together founded a new colony. Although we did not provide evidence on the direct implication of birds in the widespread of Nosema parasites, our finding on the long-distance dispersal of bird flocks between remote breeding colonies adds concern about the role of European bee-eaters in the spread of such disease at a large, inter-continental scale.

  7. Long-distance entanglement in many-body atomic and optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenon of long-distance entanglement in the ground state of quantum spin models, its use in high-fidelity and robust quantum communication, and its realization in many-body systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in arrays of coupled optical cavities. We investigate different patterns of site-dependent interaction couplings, singling out two general settings: Patterns that allow for perfect long-distance entanglement (LDE) in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement remains finite in the thermodynamic limit, and patterns of quasi long-distance entanglement (QLDE) in the ground state of the system, namely, such such that the end-to-end entanglement vanishes with a very slow power-law decay as the length of the spin chain is increased. We discuss physical realizations of these models in ensembles of ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in optical lattices. We show how, using either suitably engineered super-lattice structures or exploiting the presence...

  8. Voluntary counseling and willingness to screen among Nigerian long distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Aniebue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is an important preventive strategy in the control of HIV/AIDS and Long distance truck drivers (LDTD have been identified as an important group in the transmission of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to assess knowledge and perception of Nigerian long distance truck drivers on HIV/AIDS, voluntary counseling and testing and their willingness to undergo HIV screening. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety seven LDTD in Enugu, Nigeria were surveyed using pre tested structured questionnaires. Results: Awareness of HIV/AIDS was high (94.9% amongst the drivers and the media was their commonest source of information. Similarly the awareness of VCT was high (94.4%. One hundred and eight (54.8% respondents were willing to undergo HIV screening test if offered freely and 86 (43.7% others have previously been screened. Educational status was a significant determinant of willingness to undergo HIV screening p<0.05. The reasons for screening were mainly doctors′ recommendation (19.3% and voluntary self screening (18.8%. The commonest reasons for not wanting to undergo screening were the feeling of not being at risk (27.9%, fear of a positive result (10.2% and cost of screening test (9.6%. Conclusion: There is a critical need to improve HIV screening participation amongst Long distance drivers in Nigeria.

  9. A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

  10. From short to long distances with Gell-Mann--Low Renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim

    2004-05-01

    Computing correlation functions is an important and formidable problem of many-body physics. For 1D gapless systems, Haldane's theory gives exponents of large distance expansions, model details entering through speed of sound. The prefactors depend on high-energy cutoffs, and it is unclear which model-dependent parameters set them. ..We present a method very well-suited for the approximate computation of the leading order prefactor, with short-distance expansion as an input. Our basis is the Gell-Mann--Low Renormalization Group, and optimism about sufficient analyticity of correlation functions. In the test case of Tonks-Girardeau gas, a rare model where both short and long-distance expansions are known, already the first non-zero subleading term of the short-distance expansion gives the long-distance prefactor to within 15%. ..While Wilson's Renormalization Group makes high energy cutoffs irrelevant, we actually determine them for Haldane model. A byproduct of our method is an interpolation between short and long-distance behaviors, which we use to treat interaction-induced decoherence in atom interferometers.

  11. Formulating policies for the welfare of animals during long distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavinelli, Andrea; Ferrara, Maria; Simonin, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Long distance transportation of animals creates much public concern in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere, partly because of its visibility to the general public. The protection of animals during transport is thus a key element of EU policy for farm animal welfare. At the same time, animal transport has been vital to the structure of the food chain in Europe since the beginning of the Common Agricultural Policy. The authors describe the formulation of EU policy on long distance transportation. Initiatives are based on scientific risk assessment and considerations of international guidelines. The two main objectives of EU policy are to reduce long distance transportation as far as possible and to upgrade standards for transported animals. The extent of detail in regulations depends on the ability of the sector concerned to address issues and on continual upgrading of the awareness and knowledge of transport operators on animal welfare which is universally important for progress. The economic impact of legislative measures must be evaluated as part of the policy process, noting that proper animal welfare standards can generate direct and indirect economic advantages. Awareness of these welfare advantages in all sectors is essential for raising the quality of enforcement. Finally, policy goals should be monitored to verify the extent of their fulfilment. Efforts from competent authorities and transport companies in Europe are improving the situation. However, a strong legislative framework is likely to remain the best option for the coming years to ensure that the welfare of transported animals is more than just a minimum.

  12. Study on the long-distance target apperception techniques for underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The limited physical size for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV)or unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV)makes it difficult to acquire enough space gain for localizing long-distance targets.A new technique about long-distance target apperception with passive synthetic aperture array for underwater vehicles is presented.First,a synthetic aperture-processing algorithm based on the FFT transform in the beam space(BSSAP)is introduced.Then,the study on the flank array passive long-distance apperception techniques in the frequency scope of 11-18 kHz is implemented from the view of improving array gains,detection probability and augmenting detected range under a certain sea environment.The results show that the BSSAP algorithm can extend the aperture effectively and improve detection probability.Because of the augment of the transmission loss,the detected range has the trend of decline with the increase of frequency under the same target source level.The synthesized array could improve the space gain by nearly 7 dB and SNR is increased by about 5 dB.The detected range is enhanced to nearly 2 km under the condition of 108-118 dB of the target source level for AUV system in measurement interval of nearly 1 s.

  13. Long-distance dispersal in migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca is relatively common between the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.; Robinson, R.A.; Van der Jeugd, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal can potentially have important consequences for evolutionary change, but is difficult to quantify. We present quantitative estimates of natal dispersal between the UK and the Netherlands in a long-distance migratory bird, the pied flycatcher. Due to over 90 000 individual rin

  14. A guideline for integrating dynamic areas of interests in existing set-up for capturing eye movement: Looking at moving aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Maik; Rußwinkel, Nele; Möhlenbrink, Christoph

    2016-06-10

    Today, capturing the behavior of a human eye is considered a standard method for measuring the information-gathering process and thereby gaining insights into cognitive processes. Due to the dynamic character of most task environments there is still a lack of a structured and automated approach for analyzing eye movement in combination with moving objects. In this article, we present a guideline for advanced gaze analysis, called IGDAI (Integration Guideline for Dynamic Areas of Interest). The application of IGDAI allows gathering dynamic areas of interest and simplifies its combination with eye movement. The first step of IGDAI defines the basic requirements for the experimental setup including the embedding of an eye tracker. The second step covers the issue of storing the information of task environments for the dynamic AOI analysis. Implementation examples in XML are presented fulfilling the requirements for most dynamic task environments. The last step includes algorithms to combine the captured eye movement and the dynamic areas of interest. A verification study was conducted, presenting an air traffic controller environment to participants. The participants had to distinguish between different types of dynamic objects. The results show that in comparison to static areas of interest, IGDAI allows a faster and more detailed view on the distribution of eye movement.

  15. Long-distance entanglement in many-body atomic and optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)], E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it

    2010-02-15

    We discuss the phenomenon of long-distance entanglement (LDE) in the ground state of quantum spin models, its use in high-fidelity and robust quantum communication, and its realization in many-body systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in arrays of coupled optical cavities. We investigate XX quantum spin models on one-dimensional lattices with open ends and different patterns of site-dependent interaction couplings, singling out two general settings: patterns that allow for perfect LDE in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement remains finite in the thermodynamic limit, and patterns of quasi-long-distance entanglement (QLDE) in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement vanishes with a very slow power-law decay as the length of the spin chain is increased. We discuss physical realizations of these models in ensembles of ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in optical lattices. We show how, using either suitably engineered super-lattice structures or exploiting the presence of edge impurities in lattices with single periodicity, it is possible to realize models endowed with nonvanishing LDE or QLDE. We then study how to realize models that optimize the robustness of QLDE at finite temperature and in the presence of imperfections using suitably engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities. For both cases the numerical estimates of the end-to-end entanglement in the actual physical systems are thoroughly compared with the analytical results obtained for the spin model systems. We finally introduce LDE-based schemes of long-distance quantum teleportation in linear arrays of coupled cavities, and show that they allow for high-fidelity and high success rates even at moderately high temperatures.

  16. Alteration of long-distance functional connectivity and network topology in patients with supratentorial gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The need for information regarding functional alterations in patients with brain gliomas is increasing, but little is known about the functional consequences of focal brain tumors throughout the entire brain. Using resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI), this study assessed functional connectivity in patients with supratentorial brain gliomas with possible alterations in long-distance connectivity and network topology. Data from 36 patients with supratentorial brain gliomas and 12 healthy subjects were acquired using rs-fMRI. The functional connectivity matrix (FCM) was created using 32 pairs of cortical seeds on Talairach coordinates in each individual subject. Local and distant connectivity were calculated using z-scores in the individual patient's FCM, and the averaged FCM of patients was compared with that of healthy subjects. Weighted network analysis was performed by calculating local efficiency, global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology, and compared between patients and healthy controls. When comparing the averaged FCM of patients with that of healthy controls, the patients showed decreased long-distance, inter-hemispheric connectivity (0.32 ± 0.16 in patients vs. 0. 42 ± 0.15 in healthy controls, p = 0.04). In network analysis, patients showed increased local efficiency (p < 0.05), but global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology were relatively preserved compared to healthy subjects. Patients with supratentorial brain gliomas showed decreased long-distance connectivity while increased local efficiency and preserved small-world topology. The results of this small case series may provide a better understanding of the alterations of functional connectivity in patients with brain gliomas across the whole brain scale. (orig.)

  17. Formulating policies for the welfare of animals during long distance transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gavinelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Long distance transportation of animals creates much public concern in the European Union (EU and elsewhere, partly because of its visibility to the general public. The protection of animals during transport is thus a key element of EU policy for farm animal welfare. At the same time, animal transport has been vital to the structure of the food chain in Europe since the beginning of the Common Agricultural Policy. The authors describe the formulation of EU policy on long distance transportation. Initiatives are based on scientific risk assessment and considerations of international guidelines. The two main objectives of EU policy are to reduce long distance transportation as far as possible and to upgrade standards for transported animals. The extent of detail in regulations depends on the ability of the sector concerned to address issues and on continual upgrading of the awareness and knowledge of transport operators on animal welfare which is universally important for progress. The economic impact of legislative measures must be evaluated as part of the policy process, noting that proper animal welfare standards can generate direct and indirect economic advantages. Awareness of these welfare advantages in all sectors is essential for raising the quality of enforcement. Finally, policy goals should be monitored to verify the extent of their fulfilment. Efforts from competent authorities and transport companies in Europe are improving the situation. However, a strong legislative framework is likely to remain the best option for the coming years to ensure that the welfare of transported animals is more than just a minimum.

  18. Massage therapy decreases pain and perceived fatigue after long-distance Ironman triathlon: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S Nunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Can massage therapy reduce pain and perceived fatigue in the quadriceps of athletes after a long-distance triathlon race (Ironman? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded outcome assessors. Participants: Seventy-four triathlon athletes who completed an entire Ironman triathlon race and whose main complaint was pain in the anterior portion of the thigh. Intervention: The experimental group received massage to the quadriceps, which was aimed at recovery after competition, and the control group rested in sitting. Outcome measures: The outcomes were pain and perceived fatigue, which were reported using a visual analogue scale, and pressure pain threshold at three points over the quadriceps muscle, which was assessed using digital pressure algometry. Results: The experimental group had significantly lower scores than the control group on the visual analogue scale for pain (MD –7 mm, 95% CI –13 to –1 and for perceived fatigue (MD –15 mm, 95% CI –21 to –9. There were no significant between-group differences for the pressure pain threshold at any of the assessment points. Conclusion: Massage therapy was more effective than no intervention on the post-race recovery from pain and perceived fatigue in long-distance triathlon athletes. Trial registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, RBR-4n2sxr. [Nunes GS, Bender PU, de Menezes FS, Yamashitafuji I, Vargas VZ, Wageck B (2016 Massage therapy decreases pain and perceived fatigue after long-distance Ironman triathlon: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 83–87

  19. Long-distance regulation of Add2 pre-mRNA3′end processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Mirjana; Costessi, Luisa; Iaconcig, Alessandra; Porro, Fabiola; Muro, Andrés F.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate 3′end processing depends on the correct recognition of polyadenylation regulatory elements by specific protein complexes. In addition to the well-known hexanucleotide motif and downstream sequence element (DSE), less-defined auxiliary elements are usually found to modulate cleavage and polyadenylation. They are generally located in close proximity to the core polyadenylation elements but, in most of the cases, the molecular mechanisms involved are not well defined. We concentrated our studies on the regulation of the mouse β adducin (Add2) pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation. It contains two proximal erythroid-specific (PAS1 and PAS2-3) and one distal brain-specific (PAS4) polyadenylation sites along the 3′UTR. Using an in vivo approach based in the transfection of minigenes containing the Add2 polyadenylation signals, we previously identified the core regulatory elements responsible for PAS4 activity. Here, we have identified two novel non-canonical cis-acting elements regulating 3′end processing at PAS4, which show long-distance activities. The first of these elements, which spans for 257 nucleotides and is located at more than 5 kb upstream the PAS4, was essential to enable processing at the Add2 PAS4. The second element, located at about 4.5 kb upstream of the PAS4, reduces PAS4 processing. Both elements display long-distance activities and, to our knowledge, long-distance upstream polyadenylation regulatory elements have not been previously described in non-viral eukaryotic transcripts. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms directing Add2 pre-mRNA 3′end processing, and suggests that pre-mRNA 3′ end processing of other genes may also be unexpectedly regulated by non-canonical auxiliary elements. PMID:23411391

  20. Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

    2013-01-01

    Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

  1. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying-Chi; Brugge, Martin; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Dekinga, Anne; Porter, Ron; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters and GPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and global tracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliable methods to attach these tracking devices to small migratory birds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2) tags are retained during periods of substantial mass change associated with long-distance migration. We developed a full-body harness to attach tags to Red Knots (Calidris canutus), a medium-sized shorebird (average mass 124 g) that undertakes long-distance migrations. First, we deployed dummy tags on captive birds and monitored them over a complete migratory fattening cycle (February–July 2013) during which time they gained and lost 31–110 g and underwent a pre-alternate moult of body feathers. Using each individual’s previous year fattening and moult data in captivity as controls, we compared individual mass and moult differences between years between the tagged and reference groups, and concluded that the attachment did not impact mass and moult cycles. However, some birds shed feathers under the tags and under the polyester harness line commonly used in avian harnesses. Feather shedding was alleviated by switching to smoothed-bottom tags and monofilament harness lines. To field-trial this design, we deployed 5-g satellite transmitters on ten Red Knots released on 3 October 2013 in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Bird movements and tag performance appeared normal. However, nine tags stopped transmitting 11–170 days post-release which was earlier than expected. We attribute this to bird mortality rather than failure of the attachments or transmitters and suggest that the extra weight and drag caused by the tag and its feather-blocking shield increased the chance of depredation by the locally common Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). Our results demonstrate that species- and place-specific contexts can strongly determine tagging success. While captive trials are an important first

  2. Long-distance nitrate signaling displays cytokinin dependent and independent branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandrine Ruffel; Arthur Poitout; Gabriel Krouk; Gloria M Coruzzi; Benoit Lacombe

    2016-01-01

    Summary The long-distance signaling network allowing a plant to properly develop its root system is crucial to optimize root foraging in areas where nutrients are available. Cytokinin is an essential element of the systemic signaling network leading to the enhancement of lateral root proliferation in areas where nitrate is available. Here, we explore more precisely: (i) which particular traits of lateral root growth (density and length of emerged lateral roots) are the targets of systemic signaling in a context of heterogeneous nitrate supply; and (i ) if the systemic signaling depends only on cytokinin or on a combination of several signalings.

  3. Long-distance remote characterization of ultrastable lasers via commercial telecommunication fiber network

    CERN Document Server

    Pape, Andre; Friebe, Jan; Riedmann, Matthias; Wübbena, Temmo; Rasel, Ernst-Maria; Predehl, Katharina; Lipphardt, Burghard; Schnatz, Harald; Grosche, Gesine

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a fully optical, remote characterization of independent ultrastable lasers separated by a geographical distance of more than 50 km via a 73 km long phase-stabilized fiber in a commercial telecommunication network. The phase-coherent comparison shows a fractional frequency instability between the independent ultrastable laser systems of s_y = 4E-15 for averaging times > 2 s; the remote analog transfer beat note shows a linewidth of 1 Hz. This demonstrates the potential of long-distance remote comparisons of ultrastable optical frequencies using commercial telecommunication fiber networks.

  4. Long distance electron transmission couples sulphur, iron, calcium and oxygen cycling in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    sulfide oxidation leads to electric field formation, sulfide depletion and acidification of the upper centimeters of the sediment. This promoted ion migration and dissolution of carbonates and iron sulfides. Sulfide released from iron sulfides was the major e-donor in the system. Ferrous iron released...... from iron sulfides was to a large extend deposited in the oxic zone as iron oxides and Ca2+ eventually precipitates at the surface as due to high pH caused by cathodic oxygen reduction. The result show how long distance electron transmission allows oxygen to drive the allocation of important minerals...

  5. Long-distance root-to-shoot transport of phytochelatins and cadmium in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ji-Ming; Lee, David A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2003-08-19

    Phytochelatin synthases (PCS) mediate cellular heavy-metal resistance in plants, fungi, and worms. However, phytochelatins (PCs) are generally considered to function as intracellular heavy-metal detoxification mechanisms, and whether long-distance transport of PCs occurs during heavy-metal detoxification remains unknown. Here, wheat TaPCS1 cDNA expression was either targeted to Arabidopsis roots with the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter (Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3) or ectopically expressed with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S::TaPCS1/cad1-3) in the PC-deficient mutant cad1-3. Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3 and 35S::TaPCS1/cad1-3 complemented the cadmium, mercury, and arsenic sensitivities of the cad1-3 mutant. Northern blot, RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses showed Adh promoter-driven TaPCS1 expression only in roots and thus demonstrated lack of long-distance TaPCS1 mRNA and protein transport in plants. Fluorescence HPLC analyses showed that under Cd2+ stress, no PCs were detectable in cad1-3. However, in Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants, PCs were detected in roots and in rosette leaves and stems. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses showed that either root-specific or ectopic expression of TaPCS1 significantly enhanced long-distance Cd2+ transport into stems and rosette leaves. Unexpectedly, transgenic expression of TaPCS1 reduced Cd2+ accumulation in roots compared with cad1-3. The reduced Cd2+ accumulation in roots and enhanced root-to-shoot Cd2+ transport in transgenic plants were abrogated by l-buthionine sulfoximine. The presented findings show that (i) transgenic expression of TaPCS1 suppresses the heavy-metal sensitivity of cad1-3, (ii) PCs can be transported from roots to shoots, and (iii) transgenic expression of the TaPCS1 gene increases long-distance root-to-shoot Cd2+ transport and reduces Cd2+ accumulation in roots.

  6. Heterosis may result in selection favouring the products of long-distance pollen dispersal in Eucalyptus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa E Silva

    Full Text Available Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the

  7. Long-distance electronic energy transfer in light-harvesting supramolecular polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiger, Christian B; Li, Shaoguang; Kumar, Ganesh R; Langenegger, Simon M; Häner, Robert

    2014-12-01

    The efficient collection of solar energy relies on the design and construction of well-organized light-harvesting systems. Herein we report that supramolecular phenanthrene polymers doped with pyrene are effective collectors of light energy. The linear polymers are formed through the assembly of short amphiphilic oligomers in water. Absorption of light by phenanthrene residues is followed by electronic energy transfer along the polymer over long distances (>100 nm) to the accepting pyrene molecules. The high efficiency of the energy transfer, which is documented by large fluorescence quantum yields, suggests a quantum coherent process.

  8. Design of New Long-Distance Intelligent Watt-Hour Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wenlei; Xue Yanbing

    2005-01-01

    The design scheme for a new kind of long-distance intelligent watt-hour meter is presented. In the system, the control computer communicates with the bank's host computer by the X. 25 network; the built-in embeded secure access module (FSAM) can verify data by commutation with the intelligent nodes that enhance the security of the data. IC TSS721 is adopted to collect data remotely,and the CPU IC card is used to ensure the the bargaining security and reliability. In addition, the software of the system is introduced.

  9. Differences in myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in sprinters and long distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainoldi, A; Gazzoni, M; Melchiorri, G

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the rate of change of surface EMG variables during a constant force isometric fatiguing contraction (80% MVC, 30 s of duration) of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles is able to distinguish between nine sprinters and nine long distance runners. Signals were recorded with linear arrays of eight electrodes. Muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV), mean frequency (MNF) of EMG signal power spectrum and average rectified value (ARV) of the EMG signal were calculated both from the whole signal (global approach) and from motor unit action potentials (MUAP distribution approach) extracted from the signal. Results showed significant differences only in the MUAP distribution approach. For this approach, the rates of change of conduction velocity (CV) (both absolute and normalized with respect to the initial value) were found to be always greater in the sprinter (VMO: -0.012 +/- 0.011 m s(-2) and -0.25 +/- 0.21%/s; VL: -0.014 +/- 0.009 m s(-2) and -0.27 +/- 0.17%/s) than in the long distance runner group (VMO: -0.004 +/- 0.006 m s(-2) and -0.08 +/- 0.14%/s; VL: 0.003 +/- 0.012 m s(-2) and 0.08 +/- 0.26%/s) (VL: p = 0.016, VMO: p = 0.034). No differences were observed in the CV initial values and in rates of change of MNF, while MNF initial values recorded from the VMO were found to be greater (119.6 +/- 25.1 Hz) in the sprinter group than in the long distance runner group (99.2 +/- 12.1 Hz, p = 0.016). A correlation was found between initial values and rates of change of CV in the VMO (r = 0.61, p sprinters and long distance runners and the identification of a set of candidated variables for the assessment of muscle adaptation during training and/or rehabilitation programs represent the main results of the study.

  10. Research on Methods of Nutrition after Middle and Long Distance Runners Training of Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the method of literature research, interview, investigation, mathematical statistics and so on, combined with the actual situation in the teaching and training, analyzing the two main factors to affect the adolescent fatigue of muscles and nervous system after the middle distance race training, exploring the methods and measures of the recovery. Through the data access, our country to the adult middle-long-distance athletes training research has a lot of, but for teenage training, especially (youth physical training methods, characteristics and should pay attention to problem research is less.

  11. Research for visualization of running state of long-distance water transmission pipeline based on OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Xuejun; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-03-01

    The running condition of long distance water pipeline are complicated and changeable, and the lag of water flow is obvious, which is the key technical problem to be solved in the process of regulation and control. According to the present situation of the long-distance water conveyance project, the visualization simulation technology is used to study the operation and management of the long-distance water conveyance pipeline based on OpenGL technology. The system developed in this paper can combine pipeline information, working condition data and relevant data to provide a visualization platform for analysis and decision-making of project management and operation.

  12. Disentangling the drivers of reduced long-distance seed dispersal by birds in an experimentally fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, María; Anciães, Marina; da Silva, Mariana T B; Rubim, Paulo; Johnson, Erik; Bruna, Emilio M

    2011-04-01

    of Turdus albicollis, the largest-bodied disperser and the only one to both regurgitate and defecate seeds. This change in Turdus abundance acted together with lower numbers of fruiting plants in small fragments to decrease the probability of long-distance dispersal events from small patches. These findings emphasize the importance of foraging style for seed dispersal and highlight the primacy of habitat size relative to spatial configuration in preserving biotic interactions.

  13. Recent Advances in Long-distance FBG Sensor Systems at UESTC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Yun-Jiang; RAN Zeng-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in long-distance in-Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor systems at University of Electronic Science & Technology of China (UESTC) is reviewed in this paper. Two novel approaches with a 50km transmission distance are proposed and demonstrated. The first one is based on the combination of bidirectional Raman amplification and a dual Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) configuration. A good Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of ~16dB is achieved with only a pump power of ~280 mW, which is ~10 dB higher than that without amplification. The second is based on a novel tunable fiber ring laser configuration with hybrid Raman/EDFA configuration. Experimental results show that an excellent optical SNR of ~60 dB has been achieved for a 50 km transmission distance with a low Raman pump power of ~170 mW and a low EDFA pump power of ~40 mW at wavelength of 980 nm. It is anticipated that these long-distance FBG sensing systems could find important applications in health monitoring of large infra-structures, such as oil or gas pipelines, ultra-long bridges and tunnels, river banks, and so on.

  14. Confession-building, long-distance networks, and the organization of Jesuit science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S J

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the Society of Jesus to engage in a broad and enduring tradition of scientific activity is here addressed in terms of its programmatic commitment to the consolidation and extension of the Catholic confession (i.e., to a multipronged program of confession-building) and its mastery of the administrative apparatus necessary to operate long-distance networks. The Society's early move into two major apostolates, one in education and the other in the overseas missions, brought Jesuits into regular contact with the educated elites of Europe and at the same time placed the society's missionaries in remote parts of the natural world. The modes of organization of travel and communication required by the Society's long-distance networks (i.e., the training and deployment of reliable agents willing to work under direction in remote locations and capable of providing trustworthy reports and observations to their superiors through regular exchange of correspondence) not only facilitated scientific communication and collaboration within the order, it also provided Jesuits with the resources they needed to engage successfully in 'ministries among the learned'. Evidence of a sustained attempt by Jesuit authors to assume the role of Kulturträger is found in the several genres of scientific publications that dominate the society's scientific corpus. Thus the society's early recognition of the "apostolic value" of scientific publications in recruiting friends and allies among Europe's intellectual elites, I argue, allowed a robust interest in natural knowledge to emerge as a legitimate part of the Jesuit vocation.

  15. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hohmann, Peter Reaburn, Kevin Tetsworth, Andreas Imhoff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001, forefoot (p = 0.0001, midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006, hindfoot (p = 0.0001, first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001 and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001. Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance.

  16. Firm insoles effectively reduce hemolysis in runners during long distance running - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janakiraman Kamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shock absorbing insoles are effective in reducing the magnitude and rate of loading of peak impact forces generated at foot strike during running, whereas the foot impact force during running has been considered to be an important cause of intravascular hemolysis in long distance runners. Objective of this study was to evaluate the intravascular hemolysis during running and compare the effect of two different types of insoles (Soft and Firm on hemolysis. Methods Twenty male long and middle distance runners volunteered to participate in this study. We selected two insoles (Soft and Firm according to their hardness level (SHORE 'A' scale. Participants were randomly assigned to the soft insole (group 1 and firm insole (group 2 group with ten athletes in each group. Each athlete completed one hour of running at the calculated target heart rate (60-70%. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after running. We measured unconjucated bilirubin (mg/dl, lactate dehydrogenase (μ/ml, hemoglobin (g/l and serum ferritin (ng/ml as indicators of hemolysis. Results Our study revealed a significant increase in the mean values of unconjucated bilirubin (P Conclusion Our results indicate that intravascular hemolysis occurs in athletes during long distance running and we conclude that addition of firm insoles effectively reduces the amount of hemolysis in runners compared to soft insoles.

  17. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key points Fatigue does not increase foot pressures Every runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favours Foot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run PMID:27274662

  18. High-performance HVDC transmission over long distances; Hochleistungsuebertragung ueber grosse Entfernungen mit hochgespanntem Gleichstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    High-voltage DC transmission is a world-wide established technology for low-cost transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances. Thanks to HVDC transmission, large amounts of electricity can now for the first time also be transmitted over long distances via ocean cable, something that cannot be done with AC power cables. HVDC transmission is independent of grid frequencies and can link grids of different frequency and different quality of frequency. Interconnected grids coupled via DC circuits can exploit additional technical and economic advantages such as mutual supply of power reserves, balancing of peak load, and modulation of active and reactive power. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung (HGUe) ist eine weltweit etablierte Technik zur kostenguenstigen Uebertragung grosser elektrischer Leistungen ueber grosse Entfernungen. Sie schafft erstmals die Moeglichkeit, auch mittels Seekabel grosse Leistungen ueber Entfernungen zu uebertragen, die mit der Drehstromtechnik nicht moeglich sind. HGUeist unabhaengig von den Netzfrequenzen und kann Netze unterschiedlicher Frequenz und Frequenzguete miteinander verbinden. Ueber Gleichstromkreise gekuppelte Verbundnetze koennen zusaetzliche technische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile wie gegenseitige Bereitstellung von Kraftwerksreserven, Spitzenlastausgleich sowie Wirk- und Blindleistungsmodulation nutzt. (orig.)

  19. Factors associated with falling asleep at the wheel among long-distance truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A T; Rohrbaugh, J W; Hammer, M C; Fuller, S Z

    2000-07-01

    Data on the prevalence and hypothesized predictors of falling asleep while driving were gathered through face-to-face interviews with 593 long-distance truck drivers randomly selected at public and private rest areas and routine roadside truck safety inspections. Hypothesized predictor variables related to drivers' typical work and rest patterns, extent of daytime and night-time drowsiness, symptoms of sleep disorder, measures of driving exposure, and demographic characteristics. A sizeable proportion of long-distance truck drivers reported falling asleep at the wheel of the truck: 47.1% of the survey respondents had ever fallen asleep at the wheel of a truck, and 25.4% had fallen asleep at the wheel in the past year. Factor analysis reduced the large set of predictors to six underlying, independent factors: greater daytime sleepiness; more arduous schedules, with more hours of work and fewer hours off-duty; older, more experienced drivers; shorter, poorer sleep on road; symptoms of sleep disorder; and greater tendency to night-time drowsy driving. Based on multivariate logistic regression, all six factors were predictive of self-reported falling asleep at the wheel. Falling asleep was also associated with not having been alerted by driving over shoulder rumble strips. The results suggest that countermeasures that limit drivers' work hours and enable drivers to get adequate rest and that identify drivers with sleep disorders are appropriate methods to reduce sleepiness-related driving by truck drivers.

  20. Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opedal, Øystein H; Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Albertsen, Elena; Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Stenøien, Hans K; Pélabon, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates among populations. To assess bee-mediated pollen dispersal on a smaller scale, we conducted paternity analyses within a focal population, and quantified within-population spatial genetic structure in four populations. Gene flow was limited to certain nearby populations within continuous forest blocks, whereas drift appeared to dominate on larger scales. Limited long-distance gene flow was supported by within-population patterns; gene flow was biased towards nearby plants, and significant small-scale spatial genetic structure was detected within populations. These findings suggest that, although female euglossine bees might be effective at moving pollen within populations, and perhaps within forest blocks, their contribution to gene flow on the regional scale seems too limited to counteract genetic drift in patchily distributed tropical plants. Among-population gene flow might have been reduced following habitat fragmentation.

  1. Capability of long distance 100  GHz FMCW using a single GDD lamp sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, Natan S; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-12-20

    Millimeter wave (MMW)-based imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, homeland security, concealed weapon detection, and space technology. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging sensors makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the 2D image. New experiments show the capability of long distance FMCW detection by using a large scale Cassegrain projection system, described first (to our knowledge) in this paper. The system presents the capability to employ a long distance of at least 20 m with a low-cost plasma-based glow discharge detector (GDD) focal plane array (FPA). Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable relatively inexpensive 3D MMW imaging.

  2. Ecological Specialization to Fluctuating Resources Prevents Long-Distance Migratory Raptors from Becoming Sedentary on Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoso, Laura; López-López, Pascual; Grande, Juan Manuel; Mellone, Ugo; Limiñana, Rubén; Urios, Vicente; Ferrer, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora’s falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora’s falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. Conclusions/Significance New data reveal that Eleonora’s falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change. PMID:23626704

  3. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  4. Repeatability of individual migration routes, wintering sites, and timing in a long-distance migrant bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Rien E; Bauer, Silke; Schaub, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Migratory birds are often faithful to wintering (nonbreeding) sites, and also migration timing is usually remarkably consistent, that is, highly repeatable. Spatiotemporal repeatability can be of advantage for multiple reasons, including familiarity with local resources and predators as well as avoiding the costs of finding a new place, for example, nesting grounds. However, when the environment is variable in space and time, variable site selection and timing might be more rewarding. To date, studies on spatial and temporal repeatability in short-lived long-distance migrants are scarce, most notably of first-time and subsequent migrations. Here, we investigated repeatability in autumn migration directions, wintering sites, and annual migration timing in Hoopoes (Upupa epops), a long-distance migrant, using repeated tracks of adult and first-time migrants. Even though autumn migration directions were mostly the same, individual wintering sites often changed from year to year with distances between wintering sites exceeding 1,000 km. The timing of migration was repeatable within an individual during autumn, but not during spring migration. We suggest that Hoopoes respond to variable environmental conditions such as north-south shifts in rainfall during winter and differing onset of the food availability during spring migration.

  5. High-resolution GPS tracking reveals habitat selection and the potential for long-distance seed dispersal by Madagascan flying foxes Pteropus rufus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Oleksy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seed dispersal can be important for the regeneration of forested habitats, especially in regions where deforestation has been severe. Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae have considerable potential for long-distance seed dispersal. We studied the movement patterns and feeding behaviour of the endemic Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus, in Berenty Reserve, southeast Madagascar. Between July and September 2012 (the dry season nine males and six females were tagged with customised GPS loggers which recorded fixes every 2.5 min between 18.00 and 06.00 h. The combined home range of all of the tagged bats during 86 nights exceeded 58,000 ha. Females had larger home ranges and core foraging areas and foraged over longer distances (average 28.1 km; median 26.7 km than males (average 15.4 km; median 9.5 km. Because the study was conducted during the gestation period, the increased energy requirements of females may explain their greater mean foraging area. Compositional analysis revealed that bats show strong preferences for overgrown sisal (Agave sisalana plantations (a mix of shrub, trees and sisal plants and remnant riverside forest patches. Sisal nectar and pollen were abundant food sources during the tracking period and this probably contributed to the selective use of overgrown sisal plantations. The bats also ate large quantities of figs (Ficus grevei during the study, and dispersed seeds of this important pioneer species. The bats flew at an average speed of 9.13 m/s, perhaps to optimise gliding performance. The study confirms that P. rufus has the potential to be a long-distance seed disperser, and is able to fly over a large area, often crossing cleared parts of its habitat. It potentially plays an important role in the regeneration of threatened forest habitats in this biodiversity hotspot.

  6. Telephone and Cable Lines, Long Distance, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Farmer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Telephone and Cable Lines, Long Distance dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of...

  7. Testing long-distance modifications of gravity to 100 astronomical units

    CERN Document Server

    Buscaino, Brandon; Graham, Peter W; Gratta, Giorgio; Wiser, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    There are very few direct experimental tests of the inverse square law of gravity at distances comparable to the scale of the Solar System and beyond. Here we describe a possible space mission optimized to test the inverse square law at a scale of up to 100 AU. For example, sensitivity to a Yukawa correction with a strength of $10^{-7}$ times gravity and length scale of 100 AU is within reach, improving the current state of the art by over two orders of magnitude. This experiment would extend our understanding of gravity to the largest scale that can be reached with a direct probe using known technology. This would provide a powerful test of long-distance modifications of gravity including many theories motivated by dark matter or dark energy.

  8. Long-distance quantum state transfer through cavity-assisted interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-Ning; Mei Feng; Yu Ya-Fei; and Zhang Zhi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for long-distance quantum state transfer between different atoms based on cavity-assisted interactions.In our scheme,a coherent optical pulse sequentially interacts with two distant atoms trapped in separated cavities. Through the measurement of the state of the first atom and the homodyne detection of the final output coherent light,the quantum state can be transferred into the second atom with a success probability of unity and a fidelity of unity.In addition,our scheme neither requires the high-Q cavity working in the strong coupling regime nor employs the single-photon quantum channel,which greatly relaxes the experimental requirements.

  9. Does size and buoyancy affect the long-distance transport of floating debris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G.

    2015-08-01

    Floating persistent debris, primarily made from plastic, disperses long distances from source areas and accumulates in oceanic gyres. However, biofouling can increase the density of debris items to the point where they sink. Buoyancy is related to item volume, whereas fouling is related to surface area, so small items (which have high surface area to volume ratios) should start to sink sooner than large items. Empirical observations off South Africa support this prediction: moving offshore from coastal source areas there is an increase in the size of floating debris, an increase in the proportion of highly buoyant items (e.g. sealed bottles, floats and foamed plastics), and a decrease in the proportion of thin items such as plastic bags and flexible packaging which have high surface area to volume ratios. Size-specific sedimentation rates may be one reason for the apparent paucity of small plastic items floating in the world’s oceans.

  10. Wind as a Long-Distance Dispersal Vehicle in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jesús; Felicísimo, Ángel M.; Cabezas, Francisco; Burgaz, Ana R.; Martínez, Isabel

    2004-05-01

    Anisotropic (direction-dependent) long-distance dispersal (LDD) by wind has been invoked to explain the strong floristic affinities shared among landmasses in the Southern Hemisphere. Its contribution has not yet been systematically tested because of the previous lack of global data on winds. We used global winds coverage from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration SeaWinds scatterometer to test whether floristic similarities of Southern Hemisphere moss, liverwort, lichen, and pteridophyte floras conform better with (i) the anisotropic LDD hypothesis, which predicts that connection by ``wind highways'' increases floristic similarities, or (ii) a direction-independent LDD hypothesis, which predicts that floristic similarities among sites increase with geographic proximity. We found a stronger correlation of floristic similarities with wind connectivity than with geographic proximities, which supports the idea that wind is a dispersal vehicle for many organisms in the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Concurrent fatigue and postactivation potentiation during extended interval training in long-distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze acute effect of running extended interval training(EIT on vertical jump (VJ and handgrip strength (HS performance in experienced endurance athletes. In order to analyze mechanical parameters of the VJ and HS between runs, sixteen experienced male athletes performed an EIT (4x3x400m. The results show that fatigue induced by EIT does not impair handgrip strength or VJ performance. A significant improvement (p< .05 was noted for VJ due to the postactivation potentiation (PAP phenomenon. A positive correlation (r= .619, p= .011 was found between VJ and lactate. The results suggest that experienced long-distance runners can maintain their strength levels and, consequently, work capacity, despite the induced fatigue by the field training demand. Therefore, VJ performance during EIT can be used as an indicator of muscular adaptations to training and, together, with handgrip strength, become indicators of fatigue. These indicators allow proper prescription training routines.

  12. Historical DNA documents long-distance natal homing in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Sara; Overgaard Therkildsen, Nina; Retzel, Anja; Berg Hedeholm, Rasmus; Pedersen, Martin Waever; Meldrup, Dorte; Pampoulie, Christophe; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Grønkjaer, Peter; Nielsen, Einar Eg

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long-distance natal homing (>1000 km) over more than 60 years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation single-nucleotide polymorphism assay, we demonstrate that the vast majority of cod tagged in West Greenland and recaptured on Icelandic spawning grounds belonged to the Iceland offshore population, strongly supporting a hypothesis of homing. The high degree of natal fidelity observed provides the evolutionary settings for development of locally adapted populations in marine fish and emphasize the need to consider portfolio effects in marine fisheries management strategies.

  13. Overcoming Challenges: Breathing Hope Through Teamwork and Long-Distance Thoracic Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Ernie

    2016-09-01

    Lung donation and transplantation is increasing in volume annually, yet there continues to be a shortage of available organs for transplant. Despite this shortage, suitable lungs are occasionally not transplanted due to logistical issues. Issues such as time and distance can be a major barrier in deceased donor organ recovery and transplantation. This single case study serves as an example of the teamwork and cooperation that resulted in the successful transplantation of lungs in spite of long-distance logistical issues between the donor and the recipient. All of the members who contributed to this collaboration recognized the need and urgency to overcome these challenges. The organ procurement organization's collaboration with multiple transplant centers across multiple regions resulted in a successful outcome for the lung recipient.

  14. Long distance root-shoot signalling in plant-insect community interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Roxina; Erb, Matthias; Kaplan, Ian

    2013-03-01

    Plants mediate interactions between insects, including leaf- and root-feeders; yet the underlying mechanisms and connection with ecological theory remain unresolved. In this review, based on novel insights into long-distance (i.e., leaf-leaf, root-shoot) defence signalling, we explore the role of phytohormones in driving broad-scale patterns of aboveground-belowground interactions that can be extrapolated to general plant-insect relationships. We propose that the outcome of intra-feeding guild interactions is generally negative due to induction of similar phytohormonal pathways, whereas between-guild interactions are often positive due to negative signal crosstalk. However, not all outcomes could be explained by feeding guild; we argue that future studies should target ecologically representative plant-insect systems, distinguish subguilds, and include plant growth hormones to improve our understanding of plant-mediated interactions.

  15. Non-contact transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) for long-distance cardiovascular monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J; Lin, Bill S; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2015-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restrict their use to at-rest short-term monitoring using single-point measurements. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, of which many are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level using ambient correction via temporally coded illumination (TCI) and signal processing for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yield a substantially more pulsatile PPGI si...

  16. Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Dong; Gao, Wei-Bo; Ma, Huai-Xin; Yin, Hao; Zeng, He-Ping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2007-01-05

    We demonstrate the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) with one-way quantum communication in polarization space over 102 km. Further, we simplify the experimental setup and use only one detector to implement the one-way decoy-state QKD over 75 km, with the advantage to overcome the security loopholes due to the efficiency mismatch of detectors. Our experimental implementation can really offer the unconditionally secure final keys. We use 3 different intensities of 0, 0.2, and 0.6 for the light sources in our experiment. In order to eliminate the influences of polarization mode dispersion in the long-distance single-mode optical fiber, an automatic polarization compensation system is utilized to implement the active compensation.

  17. [Theory of long-distance electron transfer in nanoscale biological structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'nikov, P M

    2011-01-01

    Macromolecular biological systems accomplishing the directed electron transfer are nano-sized structures. The distance between carrier molecules (cofactors), which represent practically isolated electron localization centers, reaches tens of angstroms. The electron transfer theory based on the concept of delocalized electron states, which is conventionally used in biophysics, is unable to adequately interpret the results of concrete observations in many cases. On the basis of the theory of electronic transitions in the case of localized states, developed in the physics of disorder matter, a mechanism of long distance electron transfer in biological systems is suggested. The molecular relaxation of the microenvironment of electron localization centers that accompanies the electron transfer process is also considered.

  18. Toward Long Distance, Sub-diffraction Imaging Using Coherent Camera Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Jason; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Matsuda, Nathan; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Cossairt, Oliver; Veeraraghavan, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose using camera arrays coupled with coherent illumination as an effective method of improving spatial resolution in long distance images by a factor of ten and beyond. Recent advances in ptychography have demonstrated that one can image beyond the diffraction limit of the objective lens in a microscope. We demonstrate a similar imaging system to image beyond the diffraction limit in long range imaging. We emulate a camera array with a single camera attached to an X-Y translation stage. We show that an appropriate phase retrieval based reconstruction algorithm can be used to effectively recover the lost high resolution details from the multiple low resolution acquired images. We analyze the effects of noise, required degree of image overlap, and the effect of increasing synthetic aperture size on the reconstructed image quality. We show that coherent camera arrays have the potential to greatly improve imaging performance. Our simulations show resolution gains of 10x and more are achievabl...

  19. Long-distance electron transfer by cable bacteria in aquifer sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Riis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradation of organic pollutants in aquifers is often restricted to the fringes of contaminant plumes where steep countergradients of electron donors and acceptors are separated by limited dispersive mixing. However, long-distance electron transfer (LDET) by filamentous ‘cable bacteria’ has...... recently been discovered in marine sediments to couple spatially separated redox half reactions over centimeter scales. Here we provide primary evidence that such sulfur-oxidizing cable bacteria can also be found at oxic–anoxic interfaces in aquifer sediments, where they provide a means for the direct...... of oxygen and sulfide by 9 mm together with a pH profile characteristic for sulfur oxidation by LDET. Bacterial filaments, which were highly abundant in the suboxic zone, were identified by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as cable bacteria belonging...

  20. Cable bacteria associated with long-distance electron transport in New England salt marsh sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Filamentous Desulfobulbaceae have been proposed as 'cable bacteria', which electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction in marine sediment and thereby create a centimetre-deep suboxic zone. We incubated New England salt marsh sediment and found long-distance electron transport across 6 mm and 16S rRNA genes identical to those of previously observed cable bacteria in Aarhus Bay sediment incubations. Cable bacteria density in sediment cores was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to the coastal, subtidal sediments with short-termed blooms of cable bacteria based on rapidly depleted iron sulfide pools, the salt marsh cable community was based on ongoing sulfate reduction and therefore probably more persistent. Previously observed seasonal correlation between Desulfobulbaceae dominance and extensive reduced sulfur oxidation in salt marshes suggest that cable bacteria at times may have an important role in situ.

  1. Postglacial population expansion drives the evolution of long-distance migration in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Smith, Thomas B; Wayne, Robert K

    2006-11-01

    The evolution of long-distance migratory behavior from sedentary populations is a central problem in studies of animal migration. Three crucial issues that remain unresolved are: (1) the biotic and abiotic factors promoting evolution of migratory behavior, (2) the geographic origin of ancestral sedentary populations, and (3) the time scale over which migration evolves. We test the role of postglacial population expansions during the Quaternary in driving the evolution of songbird migration against prevailing views favoring the role of intraspecific competition. In contrast to previous attempts to investigate these questions using interspecific phylogenies, we adopt an intraspecific approach and examine the phylogeography of a North American songbird, the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), which exhibits both long-distance migratory behavior in temperate North America and sedentary behavior in Mexico and Central America. We show that migratory populations descend from sedentary populations in southern Mexico and that migration has evolved as a result of a northward population expansion into temperate North America since the last glacial maximum 18,000 years ago. Migration appears to have evolved rapidly in some species as populations colonized areas of high seasonality in the temperate zone. The phylogeography of the yellow-eyed junco (Junco phaeonotus), a strictly sedentary species, provides a null model supporting the view that northward range expansions were driven solely by environmental factors and not by a predisposition to evolve migratory behavior. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that historical climate patterns can drive the rapid evolution of avian migration in natural populations, and they suggest a general mechanism for the repeated evolution of migration within and across bird lineages.

  2. Long distance energy transfer in a polymer matrix doped with a perylene dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Franziska; Lochbrunner, Stefan

    2011-02-28

    Exciton migration over long distances is a key issue for various applications in organic electronics. We investigate a disordered material system which has the potential for long exciton diffusion lengths in combination with a high versatility. The perylene bisimide dye Perylene Red is incorporated in a polymer matrix with a high concentration. The dye molecules represent active sites with a narrow energy distribution for the electronically excited states. Excitons can be efficiently exchanged between them by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The narrow energy distribution reduces drastically the trapping probability of the excitons compared to polymers and allows for long transfer distances. To characterize the mobility of the excitons and their diffusion length the dye Oxazine 1 is added as an acceptor in low concentration and the transfer probability to the acceptor is determined by measuring the reduction of Perylene Red fluorescence. The quenched quantum yield is measured for dye concentrations varying from 0.05 M to 0.15 M for Perylene Red and from 0.3 mM to 3 mM for Oxazine 1. The experimental results are compared to a model which assumes that excitons can diffuse through the material by FRET between Perylene Red sites and are trapped at an acceptor with a final hetero FRET step. We find a quite good match between theory and experiment though the observed diffusion constant is about two times smaller than the calculated one. The exciton diffusion length extracted from the data is 30 nm for a Perylene Red concentration of 0.1 M and demonstrates that long distance energy transfer is possible in this disordered material system.

  3. Overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adarlan M.; Passos, Aline C.; Santos, Daniel; Orban, Eduardo M.; Lisboa, Helder D.; Goncalves, Nilton; Guimaraes, Robson C. [Anglo Ferrous Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil. Anglo Ferrous Brazil is a company of Anglo American plc that is one of the world's largest mining and natural resource company. Minas-Rio is a world class iron ore project which has been developed in Brazil aiming to produce 26.6 million tons per year of concentrate. The mine, concentrator and pump station 1 will be located in Conceicao do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais state, and the terminal station will be located at Acu Port in Sao Joao da Barra, Rio de Janeiro state. The long distance iron ore slurry pipeline will be one of major differentials of Minas-Rio Project and its useful life was initially estimated in 20 years. The slurry pipeline has a total length of 525 kilometers and will be constructed from predominately 26 inches external diameter API 5L X70 pipes. From kilometer 314 to kilometer 480, 24 inches pipe will be installed to prevent slack flow downstream pump station 2. The pump station 1 is designed to provide the hydraulic head necessary to transport the concentrate iron ore slurry with 8 positive displacement pumps to pump station 2. The pump station 2, located 240 kilometers downstream pump station 1, is designed to operate with 10 positive displacement pumps. The valve station will be located at kilometer 347 and will be used to break the static head between pump station 2 and the terminal station during a slurry pipeline shutdown. (author)

  4. Long-distance signals positively regulate the expression of iron uptake genes in tobacco roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yusuke; Hodoshima, Hirotaka; Shimada, Hiroaki; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2007-12-01

    Long-distance signals generated in shoots are thought to be associated with the regulation of iron uptake from roots; however, the signaling mechanism is still unknown. To elucidate whether the signal regulates iron uptake genes in roots positively or negatively, we analyzed the expressions of two representative iron uptake genes: NtIRT1 and NtFRO1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) roots, after shoots were manipulated in vitro. When iron-deficient leaves were treated with Fe(II)-EDTA, the expressions of both genes were significantly reduced; nevertheless iron concentration in the roots maintained a similar level to that in roots grown under iron-deficient conditions. Next, all leaves from tobacco plants grown under the iron-deficient condition were excised. The expression of two genes were quickly reduced below half within 2 h after the leaf excision and gradually disappeared by the end of a 24-h period. The NtIRT1 expression was compared among the plants whose leaves were cut off in various patterns. The expression increased in proportion to the dry weight of iron-deficient leaves, although no relation was observed between the gene expression and the position of excised leaves. Interestingly, the NtIRT1 expression in hairy roots increased under the iron-deficient condition, suggesting that roots also have the signaling mechanism of iron status as well as shoots. Taken together, these results indicate that the long-distance signal generated in iron-deficient tissues including roots is a major factor in positive regulation of the expression of NtIRT1 and NtFRO1 in roots, and that the strength of the signal depends on the size of plants.

  5. Long-distance transport of L-ascorbic acid in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberino Salvatore

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following on from recent advances in plant AsA biosynthesis there is increasing interest in elucidating the factors contributing to the L-ascorbic acid (AsA content of edible crops. One main objective is to establish whether in sink organs such as fruits and tubers, AsA is synthesised in situ from imported photoassimilates or synthesised in source tissues and translocated via the phloem. In the current work we test the hypothesis that long-distance transport is involved in AsA accumulation within the potato tuber, the most significant source of AsA in the European diet. Results Using the EDTA exudation technique we confirm the presence of AsA in the phloem of potato plants and demonstrate a correlation between changes in the AsA content of source leaves and that of phloem exudates. Comparison of carboxyflourescein and AgNO3 staining is suggestive of symplastic unloading of AsA in developing tubers. This hypothesis was further supported by the changes in AsA distribution during tuber development which closely resembled those of imported photoassimilates. Manipulation of leaf AsA content by supply of precursors to source leaves resulted in increased AsA content of developing tubers. Conclusion Our data provide strong support to the hypothesis that long-distance transport of AsA occurs in potato. We also show that phloem AsA content and AsA accumulation in sink organs can be directly increased via manipulation of AsA content in the foliage. We are now attempting to establish the quantitative contribution of imported AsA to overall AsA accumulation in developing potato tubers via transgenic approaches.

  6. Long-distance, graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaguchi, Michitaka; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kimura, Takahiro; Daimon, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Tomita, Yuki; Dohi, Koji; Mori, Masashi; Araki, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    Day length perceived by a leaf is a major environmental factor that controls the timing of flowering. It has been believed that a mobile, long-distance signal called florigen is produced in the leaf under inductive day length conditions, and is transported to the shoot apex where it triggers floral morphogenesis. Grafting experiments have shown that florigen is transmissible from a donor plant that has been subjected to inductive day length to an uninduced recipient plant. However, the nature of florigen has long remained elusive. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is expressed in cotyledons and leaves in response to inductive long days (LDs). FT protein, with a basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD, acts in the shoot apex to induce target meristem identity genes such as APETALA1 (AP1) and initiates floral morphogenesis. Recent studies have provided evidence that the FT protein in Arabidopsis and corresponding proteins in other species are an important part of florigen. Our work shows that the FT activity, either from overexpressing or inducible transgenes or from the endogenous gene, to promote flowering is transmissible through a graft junction, and that an FT protein with a T7 tag is transported from a donor scion to the apical region of recipient stock plants and becomes detectable within a day or two. The sequence and structure of mRNA are not of critical importance for the long-distance action of the FT gene. These observations led to the conclusion that the FT protein, but not mRNA, is the essential component of florigen.

  7. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  8. Eye movements are captured by a perceptually simple conditioned stimulus in the absence of explicit contingency knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lauren S; Helmstetter, Fred J; Hannula, Deborah E

    2016-12-01

    Past reports suggest that threatening materials can impact the efficiency of goal-directed behavior. However, questions remain about whether a conditional stimulus (CS) can capture attention as previous results may have been influenced by voluntary prioritization of a to-be-ignored CS. In 2 experiments, eye tracking was used to evaluate whether neutral, perceptually simple materials capture attention when they take on aversive properties via probabilistic fear conditioning with strict methods in place to eliminate voluntary CS prioritization. During training, participants attempted to fixate search targets (i.e., horizontally or vertically oriented rectangles) as quickly as possible to avoid shock. In reality, shock administration was related to rectangle orientation so that 1 rectangle (CS+) predicted shock more often than the other (CS-). Subsequently rectangles became distractors and were to be ignored. At this point, participants were instructed to fixate a new target and incidences of CS capture were examined. Results showed that saccades were made more quickly to the CS+ than the CS- as training progressed, and that oculomotor capture by irrelevant rectangles occurred more often for the CS+ than the CS-. An independent physiological index (skin conductance response) confirmed that contingencies had been learned, as SCR magnitude was greater for CS+ than CS- trials early in the test phase. These effects were documented despite the absence of explicit contingency knowledge, assessed using a postexperimental questionnaire. Collectively, these outcomes indicate that a CS can capture attention despite being task-irrelevant, and that these effects do not depend on conscious awareness of learned contingencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ogueta-Alday

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Las carreras de fondo (comprendidas entre los 5 km hasta la maratón han crecido en España tanto en número como en participación. Esto ha suscitado un gran interés en entrenadores y deportistas, que solicitan información y formación sobre los diferentes factores que afectan al rendimiento. Ante esta demanda, el número de investigaciones ha aumentado notablemente. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica ha sido analizar los factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo desde sus diferentes perspectivas. Para ello, se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica en 3 bases de datos (Medline, SportDiscus y Google Scholar y los factores han sido clasificados en 5 grandes grupos, subdivididos a su vez en diferentes apartados: 1- ambientales (aire/viento, temperatura, humedad, altura y pendiente del terreno, 2- ligados al entrenamiento (entrenamiento de resistencia, fuerza, en ambientes calurosos y en altura, 3- fisiológicos (VO2max, umbrales ventilatorios, economía de carrera, edad, género, tipos de fibras musculares, fatiga y raza, 4- biomecánicos (antropometría, leg-stiffness, flexibilidad, patrón de pisada, calzado, ortesis plantares y parámetros espacio-temporales y 5- psicológicos (estrategias de intervención, dirección de la atención y música. La influencia de algunos de éstos sobre el rendimiento es ampliamente conocida; sin embargo, en el caso de algunos factores psicológicos (dirección de la atención y música y biomecánicos (patrón de pisada y parámetros espacio-temporales el número de estudios es escaso o los resultados poco concluyentes. La realización de más estudios, conjuntamente con el avance de las nuevas tecnologías y sistemas de medición, permitirá un mejor conocimiento sobre la temática. Abstract The number of competitions and participation on long-distance races (from 5 km to the marathon in Spain has grown significantly during the last few years. Due to this popularity, both coaches

  10. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caesar H Lubaba

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  11. Safety culture in activities involving ionizing radiation long-distance courses for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.M.; Ghobril, C.N. [ATOMO - Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/C Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanches, M.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Levy, P.J.; Levy, D.S. [Omiccron Programacao Grafica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A.T.O.M.O. is a firm with long experience in the layout and coordination of Radiological Protection courses and, for this reason, has developed long-distance courses, both in Portuguese and in English, using multi-media resources already available for the areas of Gamma-graphy, Nuclear Gauges, Accelerators and Large Irradiators. On developing this project, we focused companies and their personnel to be trained, aiming avoiding their relocation and providing the comfortable of studying at their more convenient time. O.m.i.c.r.o.m., a multimedia firm, our partner in this project, has been responsible for the course program and design. This work consisted in the adaptation of the traditional material for electronic language, through links, hot words and icons especially developed for additional information. Besides images and graphics from the original handouts, animations were developed at O.m.i.c.r.o.m. studios, explaining the procedures with more details and simplifying the comprehension of more complex subjects. For enhancing the Cd Rom, slides were produced, where the pictures move automatically as the explanations are narrated. The Cd also comprises some videos, where the students may visualize practically the complex procedures, which are extremely important. At the end of each topic, the students evaluate their knowledge through multiple choice tests, which deal with the subject studied in the related chapter. This and other highly updated resources are utilized for assuring a better learning. The Cd is not only an electronic handout, but a long-distance course providing weekly support for the students, through Internet, direct access to the instructors by e-mails or chat, previously arranged, access to a data bank constantly updated for more frequent questions, plus link addresses and pages of interest for radiological protection. The tests are taken at the end of each module, before starting the following one. Each module comprises several chapters, totaling

  12. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  13. Stroboscopic image capture: Reducing the dose per frame by a factor of 30 does not prevent beam-induced specimen movement in paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Typke, Dieter [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gilpin, Christopher J. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Downing, Kenneth H. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov

    2007-02-15

    Beam-induced specimen movement may be the major factor that limits the quality of high-resolution images of organic specimens. One of the possible measures to improve the situation that was proposed by Henderson and Glaeser [Ultramicroscopy 16 (1985) 139-150], which we refer to here as 'stroboscopic image capture', is to divide the normal exposure into many successive frames, thus reducing the amount of electron exposure-and possibly the amount of beam-induced movement-per frame. The frames would then be aligned and summed. We have performed preliminary experiments on stroboscopic imaging using a 200-kV electron microscope that was equipped with a high dynamic range Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for image recording and a liquid N{sub 2}-cooled cryoholder. Single-layer paraffin crystals on carbon film were used as a test specimen. The ratio F(g)/F(0) of paraffin reflections, calculated from the images, serves as our criterion for the image quality. In the series that were evaluated, no significant improvement of the F {sub image}(g)/F {sub image}(0) ratio was found, even though the electron exposure per frame was reduced by a factor of 30. A frame-to-frame analysis of image distortions showed that considerable beam-induced movement had still occurred during each frame. In addition, the paraffin crystal lattice was observed to move relative to the supporting carbon film, a fact that cannot be explained as being an electron-optical effect caused by specimen charging. We conclude that a significant further reduction of the dose per frame (than was possible with this CCD detector) will be needed in order to test whether the frame-to-frame changes ultimately become small enough for stroboscopic image capture to show its potential.

  14. Ecological systems as computer networks: Long distance sea dispersal as a communication medium between island plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaa, Adnen; Ben Abid, Samir; Boulila, Abdennacer; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Ben Fadhel, Najeh

    2016-06-01

    Ecological systems are known to exchange genetic material through animal species migration and seed dispersal for plants. Isolated plant populations have developed long distance dispersal as a means of propagation which rely on meteorological such as anemochory and hydrochory for coast, island and river bank dwelling species. Long distance dispersal by water, in particular, in the case of water current bound islands, calls for the analogy with computer networks, where each island and nearby mainland site plays the role of a network node, the water currents play the role of a transmission channel, and water borne seeds as data packets. In this paper we explore this analogy to model long distance dispersal of seeds among island and mainland populations, when traversed with water currents, in order to model and predict their future genetic diversity. The case of Pancratium maritimum L. populations in Tunisia is used as a proof of concept, where their genetic diversity is extrapolated.

  15. Very rapid long-distance sea crossing by a migratory bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José A.; Dias, Maria P.; Méndez, Verónica; Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Gunnarsson, Tómas G.

    2016-11-01

    Landbirds undertaking within-continent migrations have the possibility to stop en route, but most long-distance migrants must also undertake large non-stop sea crossings, the length of which can vary greatly. For shorebirds migrating from Iceland to West Africa, the shortest route would involve one of the longest continuous sea crossings while alternative, mostly overland, routes are available. Using geolocators to track the migration of Icelandic whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus), we show that they can complete a round-trip of 11,000 km making two non-stop sea crossings and flying at speeds of up to 24 m s‑1 the fastest recorded for shorebirds flying over the ocean. Although wind support could reduce flight energetic costs, whimbrels faced headwinds up to twice their ground speed, indicating that unfavourable and potentially fatal weather conditions are not uncommon. Such apparently high risk migrations might be more common than previously thought, with potential fitness gains outweighing the costs.

  16. A review on some of the problems associated with long-distance journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Waterhouse, J; Edwards, B

    2008-01-01

    Long-distance travel, for business or pleasure, is becoming increasingly common. Any long journey, whether by plane, road or rail, will be associated with "travel fatigue", the combined effects of a changed routine (particularly sleep loss and altered meals) and the general disruption caused by travel. Planning any trip well in advance will minimise many of these problems, but some factors are less easy to guard against; these include sitting in cramped and uncomfortable conditions and, with flights, the hypoxic environment in the cabin. After arrival at a destination in another country, there can be problems with language, altered food and different customs. If the flight has crossed the equator, then there is also likely to be a change in season and natural lighting, and if the flight has, additionally or alternatively, crossed several time zones, then there will also be the problem of "jet lag", caused by a transient dyssynchrony between the "body clock" and the new local time. The new environment might differ from the place of departure with regard to ambient temperature and humidity, altitude, natural lighting (and hence exposure to ultra-violet radiation) and pollution. In all cases, the traveller needs to be aware of these changes before setting off, so that appropriate preparations (different clothing, for example) can be made.

  17. Simulating Long Distance Seed Dispersal for Trees under Rapid Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Future climate change scenarios predict a rapid shift in the size and location of suitable habitat for many tree species. The need for human assisted seed dispersal assumes that trees won't arrive at these new habitats by themselves. Some species won't be able to migrate fast enough to track climate change (i.e. estimated rates of 1000m/year or more), whereas other species may find moving through a fragmented landscape an additional challenge. It is important to identify the species which are most likely to require human assistance, however our current suite of vegetation-climate simulation models include unrealistic representations of seed dispersal. Vegetation climate models assume either no dispersal or perfect dispersal (where seeds can arrive at any destination regardless of barriers or absolute distance). For most tree species, seed dispersal lies somewhere between these two extremes. We will present the first time seed dispersal has been explicitly incorporated into a mechanistic vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS). The model was parameterized using published seed dispersal kernels for various tree species in Eastern North America. Due to the large scale of the simulated area, only long distance dispersal events were included. However, these rare dispersal events were sufficient to simulate vegetation migration across a landscape. This model will improve our ability to predict which trees are likely to migrate fast enough under rapid climate change and those which are likely to need assistance.

  18. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai W.F.BODE; A.Jamie WOOD; Daniel W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    Group navigation is of great importance for many animals,such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish.One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders ("Many-wrongs principle").Here,we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connectious as preferential interactions between individuals.Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion.We use network summary statistics,in particular network motifs,to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements.It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered,but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups.We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2):329-341,2012].

  19. Renal function, aldosterone, and vasopressin excretion following repeated long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dressendorfer, R H; O'Brien, J C; Claybaugh, J R

    1981-04-01

    Renal and endocrine responses were studied in 10 male runners during a 20-day 500-km race. Overnight urine and prerun blood samples were taken prior to running on days 1, 2, 5, 8, 14, 17, and 20. Day 13 followed 70 h of rest. Urine flow rate, osmotic clearance, tubular free water reabsorption, urinary vasopressin excretion rate, and body weight were not significantly changed. Creatinine clearance was constant except for an elevation on day 5. Plasma osmolality was elevated on days 2, 14, and 17. Plasma sodium was increased (P less than 0.05) on days 2 and 13 but reduced on day 20. The percentage of filtered sodium excreted was significantly reduced on all nights following running and elevated on recovery day 13. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate was significantly elevated 162, 117, and 97% on days 5, 8, and 20 and returned to control levels on day 13 after 70 h of rest. These data suggest that in response to repeated long-distance running normal fluid balance is regained within 12 h. However, it is necessary to conserve sodium for at least 24 h after exercise as evidenced by the decrease in the percent filtered sodium excreted and continued elevation of aldosterone excretion.

  20. Serum enzyme activities following long-distance running: comparison between Ethiopian and white athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, A; Nemet, D; Shenkman, L

    1995-11-01

    Ethiopian runners are famous for their achievements in long-distance running. The recent immigration of Ethiopians to Israel provided an opportunity to compare some physiological variables between elite Ethiopian and white Israeli runners. Six Ethiopian and five white Israeli runners, aged 20 to 40 years, were studied before and after an 11 km race. Venous blood was sampled from each runner prior to the race, and 1 h, 48 h, and 5 days following the race. The activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured, and levels of serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, albumin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. CK activity rose 2.6-fold with a peak 5 days after the race. LDH and AST levels rose as well (1.4-1.3-fold, respectively). Significant elevations also occurred in serum phosphorus, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations 1 h after the race. In contrast to previous studies in which higher enzyme activities were reported in blacks, we did not detect any difference in serum enzyme values between black and white runners.

  1. Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu-Jun; Zou, Kai-Heng; Sun, Wei; Mao, Yingqiu; Zhu, Yi-Xiao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) generates symmetric keys between two remote parties and guarantees the keys are not accessible to any third party. Wavelength-division multiplexing between QKD and classical optical communications by sharing the existing fiber-optics infrastructure is highly desired in order to reduce the cost of QKD applications. However, comparing to the light for classical transmission, quantum signals are very weak and easily affected by impairments from classical light, such as the spontaneous Raman-scattering effect. Here, by selecting an optimal wavelength of quantum signals, we significantly reduce the influence of the Raman-scattering effect. In addition, through coherent optical communication technology, we achieve high-speed classical data transmission with relatively low launch powers, thereby further reducing the impairments from classical light. As a result, we realize the multiplexing and long-distance copropagation of QKD and terabit classical data transmission up to 80 km. The data capacity is two orders of magnitude larger than the existing results. Our demonstration verifies the feasibility of QKD and classical communication to share the resources of backbone fiber links and thus taking the utility of QKD a great step forward.

  2. [Intensive care within the context of military long-distance transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, B; Rohowsky, B; Rödig, E; Lampl, L

    2004-05-01

    Due to the changed task spectrum of the German Federal Armed Forces with participation in international deployments for UN and NATO the concept of Aeromedical Evacuation (MedEvac) gained a new quality for the Air Force as well as for the Medical Corps. The transport of mostly severely injured or critically ill patients requires both, medical equipment which has to be permanently adapted to the national standard, and qualified intensive-care-personnel. At present, the aircrafts used for such deployments are four C-160 Transall, one CL-601 Challenger and two Airbus A310, which, if necessary, can be equipped with one or more intensive-care "patient transportation units" (PTU). Contrary to the two other aircrafts, the CL-601 Challenger is only equipped for the intensive-care transport of one individual patient. The PTU corresponds to the technical equipment of the intensive care unit of a level-1-trauma centre and ensures an intensive-care therapy on highest level also during longer transportation. The work with this equipment, the characteristics of the long-distance air transport and the special situation of the military deployment causes special demands on the qualifications of the assigned personnel. Primarily planned for the repatriation of injured or ill soldiers, in the mean time, this concept is also essential for the medevac of civilian victims after mass casualties worldwide.

  3. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-08-22

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea.

  4. Mechanistic analytical models for long-distance seed dispersal by wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, G G; Porporato, A; Nathan, R; Siqueira, M; Soons, M B; Poggi, D; Horn, H S; Levin, S A

    2005-09-01

    We introduce an analytical model, the Wald analytical long-distance dispersal (WALD) model, for estimating dispersal kernels of wind-dispersed seeds and their escape probability from the canopy. The model is based on simplifications to well-established three-dimensional Lagrangian stochastic approaches for turbulent scalar transport resulting in a two-parameter Wald (or inverse Gaussian) distribution. Unlike commonly used phenomenological models, WALD's parameters can be estimated from the key factors affecting wind dispersal--wind statistics, seed release height, and seed terminal velocity--determined independently of dispersal data. WALD's asymptotic power-law tail has an exponent of -3/2, a limiting value verified by a meta-analysis for a wide variety of measured dispersal kernels and larger than the exponent of the bivariate Student t-test (2Dt). We tested WALD using three dispersal data sets on forest trees, heathland shrubs, and grassland forbs and compared WALD's performance with that of other analytical mechanistic models (revised versions of the tilted Gaussian Plume model and the advection-diffusion equation), revealing fairest agreement between WALD predictions and measurements. Analytical mechanistic models, such as WALD, combine the advantages of simplicity and mechanistic understanding and are valuable tools for modeling large-scale, long-term plant population dynamics.

  5. Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric; Peraudeau, Sebastien; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Beaujard, François; Julien, Jean-Louis; Cochard, Hervé; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices.

  6. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  7. Long-distance entanglement of spin qubits via quantum Hall edge states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The implementation of a functional quantum computer involves entangling and coherent manipulation of a large number of qubits. For qubits based on electron spins confined in quantum dots, which are among the most investigated solid-state qubits at present, architectural challenges are often encountered in the design of quantum circuits attempting to assemble the qubits within the very limited space available. Here, we provide a solution to such challenges based on an approach to realizing entanglement of spin qubits over long distances. We show that long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction of confined electron spins can be established by quantum Hall edge states, leading to an exchange coupling of spin qubits. The coupling is anisotropic and can be either Ising type or XY type, depending on the spin polarization of the edge state. Such a property, combined with the dependence of the electron spin susceptibility on the chirality of the edge state, can be utilized to gain valuable insights into the topological nature of various quantum Hall states.

  8. Intrinsic parameterization of a computational optical system for long-distance displacement structural monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luís F. Lages; Rebordão, José Manuel N. V.; Ribeiro, Álvaro Silva

    2015-01-01

    We aim at the intrinsic parameterization of a computational optical system applied in long-distance displacement measurement of large-scale structures. In this structural-monitoring scenario, the observation distance established between the digital camera and reference targets, which is composed of the computational optical system, can range from 100 up to 1000 m, requiring the use of long-focal length lenses in order to obtain a suitable sensitivity for the three-dimensional displacement measurement of the observed structure which can be of reduced magnitude. Intrinsic parameterization of long-focal length cameras is an emergent issue since conventional approaches applied for reduced focal length cameras are not suitable mainly due to ill-conditioned matrices in least squares estimation procedures. We describe the intrinsic parameterization of a long-focal length camera (600 mm) by the diffractive optical element method and present the obtained estimates and measurement uncertainties, discussing their contribution for the system's validation by calibration field test and displacement measurement campaigns in a long-span suspension bridge.

  9. Narratives of Psychosocial Response to Microtrauma Injury among Long-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley C. Russell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with microtrauma or overuse injuries resulting from an accumulation of repeated small forces may differ from athletes with macrotrauma or acute injuries in their psychosocial responses because of the unique challenges presented by these insidious-onset and often chronic injuries. Our purpose was to use narrative inquiry to examine the psychosocial experiences and responses of 10 long-distance runners who had experienced microtrauma injuries. Qualitative data analysis of interview data led to a chronological timeline of the injury experience and an assessment of the meaning attributed to these injury experiences using a variation of Mishler’s core-narrative approach. Participants reported distinct thoughts, feelings, and behaviors during each phase of the injury—pre-injury, injury onset, and outcome. In the pre-injury period, participants indicated specific running-related goals and attributed their injuries to overtraining or a change in training. During the injury onset phase, participants consistently indicated two themes: self-diagnosis and treatment, and not taking time off. Within the outcome phase of injury, participants acknowledged changed training because of the injury, and lessons learned from their injury experiences. The narratives of microtrauma-injured runners revealed psychosocial distress and behavioral tendencies post-injury that have important implications for runners, coaches, and healthcare professionals.

  10. DISTRIBUTED OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR FOR LONG-DISTANCE OIL PIPELINE HEALTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A fully distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for monitoring long-distance oil pipeline health is proposed based on optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is installed along the pipeline acting as a sensor. The experiments show that the cable swells when exposed to oil and induced additional bending losses inside the fiber, and the optical attenuation of the fiber coated by a thin skin with periodical hardness is sensitive to deformation and vibration caused by oil leakage, tampering,or mechanical impact. The region where the additional attenuation occurred is detected and located by DOFS based on OTDR, the types of pipeline accidents are identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power received by an optical power meter. Another prototype of DOFS based on a forward traveling frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) is also proposed to monitor pipeline. The advantages and disadvantages of DOFSs based on OTDR and FMCW are discussed. The experiments show that DOFSs are capable of detecting and locating distant oil pipeline leakages and damages in real time with an estimated precision of ten meters over tens of kilometers.

  11. Long-distance quantum teleportation assisted with free-space entanglement distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Ji-Gang; Yang Bin; Yi Zhen-Huan; Zhou Fei; Chen Kai; Peng Cheng-Zhi; Pan Jian-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Faithful long-distance quantum teleportation necessitates prior entanglement distribution between two communicated locations.The particle carrying on the unknown quantum information is then combined with one particle of the entangled states for Bell-state measurements,which leads to a transfer of the original quantum information onto the other particle of the entangled states.However in most of the implemented teleportation experiments nowadays,the Bell-state measurements are performed even before successful distribution of entanglement.This leads to an instant collapse of the quantum state for the transmitted particle,which is actually a single-particle transmission thereafter.Thus the true distance for quantum teleportation is,in fact,only in a level of meters.In the present experiment we design a novel scheme which has overcome this limit by utilizing fiber as quantum memory.A complete quantum teleportation is achieved upon successful entanglement distribution over 967 meters in public free space.Active feed-forward control techniques are developed for real-time transfer of quantum information.The overall experimental fidelities for teleported states are better than 89.6%,which signify high-quality teleportation.

  12. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W. F. BODE, A. Jamie WOOD, Daniel W. FRANKS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Group navigation is of great importance for many animals, such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish. One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders (“Many-wrongs principle”. Here, we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connections as preferential interactions between individuals. Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion. We use network summary statistics, in particular network motifs, to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements. It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered, but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups. We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2: 329-341, 2012].

  13. Using task dynamics to quantify the affordances of throwing for long distance and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Weightman, Andrew; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Zhu, Qin

    2016-07-01

    In 2 experiments, the current study explored how affordances structure throwing for long distance and accuracy. In Experiment 1, 10 expert throwers (from baseball, softball, and cricket) threw regulation tennis balls to hit a vertically oriented 4 ft × 4 ft target placed at each of 9 locations (3 distances × 3 heights). We measured their release parameters (angle, speed, and height) and showed that they scaled their throws in response to changes in the target's location. We then simulated the projectile motion of the ball and identified a continuous subspace of release parameters that produce hits to each target location. Each subspace describes the affordance of our target to be hit by a tennis ball moving in a projectile motion to the relevant location. The simulated affordance spaces showed how the release parameter combinations required for hits changed with changes in the target location. The experts tracked these changes in their performance and were successful in hitting the targets. We next tested unusual (horizontal) targets that generated correspondingly different affordance subspaces to determine whether the experts would track the affordance to generate successful hits. Do the experts perceive the affordance? They do. In Experiment 2, 5 cricketers threw to hit either vertically or horizontally oriented targets and successfully hit both, exhibiting release parameters located within the requisite affordance subspaces. We advocate a task dynamical approach to the study of affordances as properties of objects and events in the context of tasks as the future of research in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Long-distance electron transfer by cable bacteria in aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hubert; Bosch, Julian; Griebler, Christian; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Lueders, Tillmann; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2016-08-01

    The biodegradation of organic pollutants in aquifers is often restricted to the fringes of contaminant plumes where steep countergradients of electron donors and acceptors are separated by limited dispersive mixing. However, long-distance electron transfer (LDET) by filamentous 'cable bacteria' has recently been discovered in marine sediments to couple spatially separated redox half reactions over centimeter scales. Here we provide primary evidence that such sulfur-oxidizing cable bacteria can also be found at oxic-anoxic interfaces in aquifer sediments, where they provide a means for the direct recycling of sulfate by electron transfer over 1-2-cm distance. Sediments were taken from a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer, amended with iron sulfide and saturated with water, leaving the sediment surface exposed to air. Steep geochemical gradients developed in the upper 3 cm, showing a spatial separation of oxygen and sulfide by 9 mm together with a pH profile characteristic for sulfur oxidation by LDET. Bacterial filaments, which were highly abundant in the suboxic zone, were identified by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as cable bacteria belonging to the Desulfobulbaceae. The detection of similar Desulfobulbaceae at the oxic-anoxic interface of fresh sediment cores taken at a contaminated aquifer suggests that LDET may indeed be active at the capillary fringe in situ.

  15. Long-distance delivery of bacterial virulence factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Bomberger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use a variety of secreted virulence factors to manipulate host cells, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report a mechanism for the long-distance delivery of multiple bacterial virulence factors, simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm, thus obviating the need for direct interaction of the pathogen with the host cell to cause cytotoxicity. We show that outer membrane-derived vesicles (OMV secreted by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa deliver multiple virulence factors, including beta-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, hemolytic phospholipase C, and Cif, directly into the host cytoplasm via fusion of OMV with lipid rafts in the host plasma membrane. These virulence factors enter the cytoplasm of the host cell via N-WASP-mediated actin trafficking, where they rapidly distribute to specific subcellular locations to affect host cell biology. We propose that secreted virulence factors are not released individually as naked proteins into the surrounding milieu where they may randomly contact the surface of the host cell, but instead bacterial derived OMV deliver multiple virulence factors simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm in a coordinated manner.

  16. Nonoptimal component placement, but short processing paths, due to long-distance projections in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kaiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that neural systems across several scales of organization show optimal component placement, in which any spatial rearrangement of the components would lead to an increase of total wiring. Using extensive connectivity datasets for diverse neural networks combined with spatial coordinates for network nodes, we applied an optimization algorithm to the network layouts, in order to search for wire-saving component rearrangements. We found that optimized component rearrangements could substantially reduce total wiring length in all tested neural networks. Specifically, total wiring among 95 primate (Macaque cortical areas could be decreased by 32%, and wiring of neuronal networks in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans could be reduced by 48% on the global level, and by 49% for neurons within frontal ganglia. Wiring length reductions were possible due to the existence of long-distance projections in neural networks. We explored the role of these projections by comparing the original networks with minimally rewired networks of the same size, which possessed only the shortest possible connections. In the minimally rewired networks, the number of processing steps along the shortest paths between components was significantly increased compared to the original networks. Additional benchmark comparisons also indicated that neural networks are more similar to network layouts that minimize the length of processing paths, rather than wiring length. These findings suggest that neural systems are not exclusively optimized for minimal global wiring, but for a variety of factors including the minimization of processing steps.

  17. Phloem Proteomics Reveals New Aspects of Long-distance Signaling in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urs F.Benning; Banita Tamot; Susanne Hoffmann-Benning

    2012-01-01

    As the world population grows our need for food and fuel increases drastically.Given the additional impact of the global climate change a second "green revolution",however seems unlikely to be achieved by simply adding fertilizer or accessing new land but will need a better understanding of the factors and processes essential for plant growth and development.One of those processes is the adaptation of plants to their environment.Since plants are sessile and cannot move to appropriate hiding places or feeding grounds to escape adverse conditions,they evolved mechanisms to detect changes in their environment,communicate these to different organs,and adjust development accordingly.One of these adaptations,the phloem,serves as a major trafficking pathway for assimilates,viruses,RNA,plant hormones,metabolites,and proteins with functions ranging from synthesis to metabolism to signaling.The study of signaling compounds within the phloem is essential for our understanding of plant communication of environmental cues.Determining the nature of signals and the mechanisms by which they are communicated through the phloem will lead to a more complete understanding of plant development and plant responses to stress and,as a result could lead to the development of plants with increased adaptation to a changed environment.Our analysis of Arabidopsis phloem exudates revealed several lipid-binding proteins as well as lipids.Lipids are not typically expected in the aqueous environment of SEs.Yet the long-distance transport of hydrophobic compounds in aqueous systems is not without precedence in biological systems:In human blood lipids are often bound to proteins and transported for storage,use,modification,or degradation; alternatively,they serve as messengers and modulate transcription factor activity and,as a result,development.It is conceivable that lipids and the respective lipid-binding proteins in the phloem serve similar functions in plants and play an important role in

  18. Emergence of long distance bird migrations: a new model integrating global climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine

    2008-12-01

    During modern birds history, climatic and environmental conditions have evolved on wide scales. In a continuously changing world, landbirds annual migrations emerged and developed. However, models accounting for the origins of these avian migrations were formulated with static ecogeographic perspectives. Here I reviewed Cenozoic paleoclimatic and paleontological data relative to the palearctic paleotropical long distance (LD) migration system. This led to propose a new model for the origin of LD migrations, the ‘shifting home’ model (SHM). It is based on a dynamic perspective of climate evolution and may apply to the origins of most modern migrations. Non-migrant tropical African bird taxa were present at European latitudes during most of the Cenozoic. Their distribution limits shifted progressively toward modern tropical latitudes during periods of global cooling and increasing seasonality. In parallel, decreasing winter temperatures in the western Palearctic drove shifts of population winter ranges toward the equator. I propose that this induced the emergence of most short distance migrations, and in turn LD migrations. This model reconciliates ecologically tropical ancestry of most LD migrants with predominant winter range shifts, in accordance with requirements for heritable homing. In addition, it is more parsimonious than other non-exclusive models. Greater intrinsic plasticity of winter ranges implied by the SHM is supported by recently observed impacts of the present global warming on migrating birds. This may induce particular threats to some LD migrants. The ancestral, breeding homes of LD migrants were not ‘northern’ or ‘southern’ but shifted across high and middle latitudes while migrations emerged through winter range shifts themselves.

  19. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  20. Interfacial air/water proton conduction from long distances by sulfolobus solfataricus archaeal bolaform lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilalta, I; Gliozzi, A; Prats, M

    1996-08-15

    The stability, structural organization, and the ability to transfer protons long distances have been investigated in monolayers formed from archael bolaform lipids at the air/water interface. The lipids employed were the fractions GroR2Gro (R represents an acyl group with variable chain length typically consisting of 0-4 cyclopentane rings and 40 isoprenoid residues) and GroR2GroNon-Ol (Non-ol represents nonitol) extracted from Sulfolobus solfataricus by hydrolysis of the cytoplasmic membrane. GroR2-GroNon-ol films exhibit a very peculiar behaviour: the monolayer surface pressure increases with time, regardless of its low or high initial value. This finding is related to the possibility of GroR2GroNon-ol molecules to assume an upright (a metastable) or a U-shaped (stable) configuration. In the gaseous state and in the collapsed state of the film, no lateral proton conduction was observed. However, in the pressure range 0 < pi < 25 mN/m for GroR2Gro and 0 < pi < 30 mN/m for GroR2GroNon-ol monolayers, a lateral proton conduction at the air/water interface was observed. The structural organization of these bipolar lipids at the air/water interface can be related to the lateral proton conduction; it is possible to conclude that whatever configuration these lipids may adopt, they are able to structure the air/water interface in a hydrogen bond network that supports lateral proton conduction. This process may be ascribed to a percolation phenomenon occurring when the polar lipid head groups form a structured lattice of hydrogen bonds.

  1. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality.

  2. Rapid rehabilitation programme following sacral stress fracture in a long-distance running female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Karsten; Schreibmueller, Louisa; Jagodzinski, Michael; Zeichen, Johannes; Krettek, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Stress fractures occur in normal bone due to mechanical overload by cyclic stress increasing the osteoclastic activity, thus facilitating weakening leading to fracture of bones. Long-distance running may lead to stress fractures of the mid- and distal tibia and of the metatarsal bones. Stress fractures to the sacrum are rare. Certain factors for stress fractures in runners have been identified, such as leg-length inequality, a high longitudinal arch of the foot, forefoot varus, and menstrual irregularities in case of female athlete triad. We report on a 22-year-old female runner (usually training 140 km/week) suffering a sacral fatigue-type fracture. The female athlete triad with eating disorders, dysmenorrhea, and osteopenia was ruled out. Sexual hormone blood samples proofed normal values. The diagnosis was performed using magnetic resonance imaging 2 weeks after the onset of buttock pain. A conservative treatment regimen was initiated with strict physical rest for the first 2 weeks, and then gradual increase of physical activity with 60-90 min of daily cycling and moderate 2 x 60 min cross-training. After another 2 weeks time, daily 60-90 min of walking, Nordic pole walking, and moderate strength training two times a week was performed. At 7 weeks running was started, gradually increased to 90 km/week without any pain. A rapid rehabilitation programme after sacral stress fractures involving low impact physical activity, such as Walking and Nordic pole walking, is applicable to female athletes after ruling out the female athlete triad.

  3. Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought.

  4. El Nino-Southern Oscillation is linked to decreased energetic condition in long-distance migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L Paxton

    Full Text Available Predicting how migratory animals respond to changing climatic conditions requires knowledge of how climatic events affect each phase of the annual cycle and how those effects carry-over to subsequent phases. We utilized a 17-year migration dataset to examine how El Niño-Southern Oscillation climatic events in geographically different regions of the Western hemisphere carry-over to impact the stopover biology of several intercontinental migratory bird species. We found that migratory birds that over-wintered in South America experienced significantly drier environments during El Niño years, as reflected by reduced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values, and arrived at stopover sites in reduced energetic condition during spring migration. During El Niño years migrants were also more likely to stopover immediately along the northern Gulf coast of the southeastern U.S. after crossing the Gulf of Mexico in small suboptimal forest patches where food resources are lower and migrant density often greater than larger more contiguous forests further inland. In contrast, NDVI values did not differ between El Niño and La Niña years in Caribbean-Central America, and we found no difference in energetic condition or use of coastal habitats for migrants en route from Caribbean-Central America wintering areas. Birds over-wintering in both regions had consistent median arrival dates along the northern Gulf coast, suggesting that there is a strong drive for birds to maintain their time program regardless of their overall condition. We provide strong evidence that not only is the stopover biology of migratory landbirds influenced by events during the previous phase of their life-cycle, but where migratory birds over-winter determines how vulnerable they are to global climatic cycles. Increased frequency and intensity of ENSO events over the coming decades, as predicted by climatic models, may disproportionately influence long-distance migrants

  5. Non-linear relationship between hyperpolarisation and relaxation enables long distance propagation of vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Stephanie E; Chaston, Daniel J; Goto, Kenichi; Sandow, Shaun L; Edwards, Frank R; Hill, Caryl E

    2011-05-15

    Blood flow is adjusted to tissue demand through rapidly ascending vasodilatations resulting from conduction of hyperpolarisation through vascular gap junctions. We investigated how these dilatations can spread without attenuation if mediated by an electrical signal. Cremaster muscle arterioles were studied in vivo by simultaneously measuring membrane potential and vessel diameter. Focal application of acetylcholine elicited hyperpolarisations which decayed passively with distance from the local site,while dilatation spread upstream without attenuation. Analysis of simultaneous recordings at the local site revealed that hyperpolarisation and dilatation were only linearly related over a restricted voltage range to a threshold potential, beyond which dilatation was maximal. Experimental data could be simulated in a computational model with electrotonic decay of hyperpolarisation but imposition of this threshold. The model was tested by reducing the amplitude of the local hyperpolarisation which led to entry into the linear range closer to the local site and decay of dilatation. Serial section electron microscopy and light dye treatment confirmed that the spread of dilatation occurred through the endothelium and that the two cell layers were tightly coupled. Generality of the mechanism was demonstrated by applying the model to the attenuated propagation of dilatation found in larger arteries.We conclude that long distance spread of locally initiated dilatations is not due to a regenerative electrical phenomenon, but rather a restricted linear relationship between voltage and vessel tone, which minimises the impact of electrotonic decay of voltage. Disease-related alterations in endothelial coupling or ion channel expression could therefore decrease the ability to adjust blood flow to meet metabolic demand.

  6. Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, R T; Huenchuñir, C; Johansson, D; Forslund, H; Kautsky, L; Jonsson, P R; Johannesson, K

    2013-08-01

    Parallel evolution has been invoked as a forceful mechanism of ecotype and species formation in many animal taxa. However, parallelism may be difficult to separate from recently monophyletically diverged species that are likely to show complex genetic relationships as a result of considerable shared ancestral variation and secondary hybridization in local areas. Thus, species' degrees of reproductive isolation, barriers to dispersal and, in particular, limited capacities for long-distance dispersal will affect demographical structures underlying mechanisms of divergent evolution. Here, we used nine microsatellite DNA markers to study intra- and interspecific genetic diversity of two recently diverged species of brown macroalgae, Fucus radicans (L. Bergström & L. Kautsky) and F. vesiculosus (Linnaeus), in the Baltic Sea. We further performed biophysical modelling to identify likely connectivity patterns influencing the species' genetic structures. For each species, we found intraspecific contrasting patterns of clonality incidence and population structure. In addition, strong genetic differentiation between the two species within each locality supported the existence of two distinct evolutionary lineages (FST  = 0.15-0.41). However, overall genetic clustering analyses across both species' populations revealed that all populations from one region (Estonia) were more genetically similar to each other than to their own taxon from the other two regions (Sweden and Finland). Our data support a hypothesis of parallel speciation. Alternatively, Estonia may be the ancestral source of both species, but is presently isolated by oceanographic barriers to dispersal. Thus, a limited gene flow in combination with genetic drift could have shaped the seemingly parallel structure.

  7. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases on CARIBIC long-distance flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dix

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was implemented and operated onboard a long-distance passenger aircraft within the framework of the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container. The instrument was designed to keep weight, size and power consumption low and to comply with civil aviation regulations. It records spectra of scattered light from three viewing directions (nadir, 10° above and below horizon using a miniaturized telescope system. The telescopes are integrated in the main pylon of the inlet system which is mounted at the belly of the aircraft. Fibre bundles transmit light from the telescopes to spectrograph-detector units inside the DOAS container instrument. The latter is part of the removable CARIBIC instrument container, which is installed monthly on the aircraft for a series of measurement flights.

    During 30 flight operations within three years, measurements of HCHO, HONO, NO2, BrO, O3 and the oxygen dimer O4 were conducted. All of these trace gases except BrO could be analysed with a 30 s time resolution. HONO was detected for the first time in a deep convective cloud over central Asia, while BrO, NO2 and O3 could be observed in tropopause fold regions. Biomass burning signatures over South America could be seen and measurements during ascent and descent provided information on boundary layer trace gas profiles (e.g. NO2 or HCHO.

  8. An approach to coating and cathodic protection design on long distance gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchi, L.; Brugnetti, F.; Zanardo, F. [Snam Rete Gas, Milan (Italy); Castano, M. [Eni Gas and Power Div., Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a pilot gas pipeline using X100 grade steel planned as part of the TAP project in Italy. The full-scale experimental line is located at a military base in Sardinia, and is comprised of two 48-inch diameter buried pipelines which extend for approximately 700 m. One of the lines is coated, has good cathodic protection (CP) and no mechanical damage. The other line has been mechanically damaged and has artificial defects in the pipe coating as well as areas that are subjected to bacteria cultures. The damaged line has also been divided into 3 parts that are protected with different levels of cathodic protection. The aim of the project is to examine the pipeline's susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and near-neutral stress corrosion cracking. A full scale burst test will be conducted on the undamaged line in order to analyze the mechanical behaviour of high-grade steel in optimal conditions. Three layer high density polyethylene (HDPE) and dual layer fusion bond epoxy lining are being considered by the project, which also aims to investigate the performance of field joint coatings. The project is also investigating power generation systems for CP. The CP systems will be monitored by periodic visits from technical operators as well as with the use of telemetry and remote control systems. Reference electrodes will be used to monitor the CP level of the pilot pipelines. A Cu-CuSO{sub 4} electrode will be used to monitor soil resistivity. It was concluded that the project will provide information concerning the reliability and duration of experimental electrodes, as well as the life cycle costs of corrosion protection in long-distance pipelines. 1 ref., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Innovation design of long-distance pipelines buried under high-filling planned roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshen Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a long-distance gas pipeline is unavoidably buried under a planned high-filling road, the high fill subgrade setting will result in the change of the pipe's mechanical shape and the local stress concentration on the pipe, which will pose threats to the safe operation of the pipeline. Protection culverts are generally adopted to solve this issue, but the construction of protection culverts are difficult and high in cost and usually unable to meet the requirements of construction schedule of the planned road project by the local government. For this reason, the stress on pipelines in high fill subgrade was analyzed and a rectification measure was proposed and its safety and rationality was also calculated. The results show that increasing pipe thickness is a feasible rectification measure. Thus, we analyzed the stability of and stress on the pipe caused by the uneven high fill setting by using the ABAQUS finite element software package, in which the pipe was simulated as the beam element, the backfill above the pipe as the stress load, and the elastic foundation underneath the pipe as the evenly-distributed spring. From the stress cloud charts, we can see the stress concentration on the pipe where a sudden change occurs in high fill setting. Without proper measures, accidents would be inevitable in the end. The analysis results from the ABAQUS also show that the scheme of increasing the pipe thickness will be the most cost-effective and practical way to deal with the stress resulted from the uneven high fill setting above the pipe. But it is pointed out that the pipeline laying route should avoid planned high filling roads as far as possible to ensure its safe operation.

  10. Cytokinins and auxin communicate nitrogen availability as long-distance signal molecules in pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Vívian; Mercier, Helenice

    2007-11-01

    This work aimed at identifying a possible role of phytohormones in long-distance (root-shoot) signaling under nitrogen deficiency. Three-months old pineapple plants were transferred from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to nitrogen-free MS (-N). During the first 24h on -N, 20 plants were harvested every 4h. After 30 days in -N, the remaining plants were transferred back to regular MS (+N) and 20 plants harvested every 4h for the first 24h. Following the harvests, endogenous levels of nitrate (NO(3)(-)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), isopentenyladenine (iP), isopentenyladenine riboside (iPR), zeatin (Z) and zeatin riboside (ZR) were analyzed in roots and leaves. In N-starved plants, the NO(3)(-) level dropped by 20% in roots between the first (4h) and the second harvest (8h). In leaves a reduction of 20% was found 4h later. Accumulation of IAA peaked in leaves at 16h. In roots, the accumulation of IAA only started at 16h while the leaf content was already in decline, which suggests that the hormone might have traveled from the leaves to the roots, communicating N-shortage. The contents of the four cytokinins were generally low in both, shoot and roots, and remained almost unchanged during the 24h of analysis. After N re-supply, roots showed a NO(3)(-) peak at 8h whereas the foliar concentration increased 4h later. Hormone levels in roots climaxed at 8h, this coinciding with the highest NO(3)(-) concentration. In leaf tissue, a dramatic accumulation was only observed for Z and ZR, and the peak was seen 4h later than in roots, suggesting that Z-type cytokinins might have traveled from the roots to the leaves. These findings provide evidence that there is a signaling pathway for N availability in pineapple plants, communicated upwards through cytokinins (N-supplemented plants) and downwards through auxin (N-starved plants).

  11. Weather conditions promote route flexibility during open ocean crossing in a long-distance migratory raptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellone, Ugo; López-López, Pascual; Limiñana, Rubén; Urios, Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Weather conditions are paramount in shaping birds' migratory routes, promoting the evolution of behavioural plasticity and allowing for adaptive decisions on when to depart or stop during migration. Here, we describe and analyze the influence of weather conditions in shaping the sea-crossing stage of the pre-breeding journey made by a long-distance migratory bird, the Eleonora's falcon ( Falco eleonorae), tracked by satellite telemetry from the wintering grounds in the Southern Hemisphere to the breeding sites in the Northern Hemisphere. As far as we know, the data presented here are the first report of repeated oceanic journeys of the same individuals in consecutive years. Our results show inter-annual variability in the routes followed by Eleonora's falcons when crossing the Strait of Mozambique, between Madagascar and eastern continental Africa. Interestingly, our observations illustrate that individuals show high behavioural plasticity and are able to change their migration route from one year to another in response to weather conditions, thus minimising the risk of long ocean crossing by selecting winds blowing towards Africa for departure and changing the routes to avoid low pressure areas en route. Our results suggest that weather conditions can really act as obstacles during migration, and thus, besides ecological barriers, the migratory behaviour of birds could also be shaped by "meteorological barriers". We briefly discuss orientation mechanisms used for navigation. Since environmental conditions during migration could cause carry-over effects, we consider that forecasting how global changes of weather patterns will shape the behaviour of migratory birds is of the utmost importance.

  12. Recent long-distance dispersal overshadows ancient biogeographical patterns in a pantropical angiosperm family (Simaroubaceae, Sapindales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Joshua W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-08-01

    Detailed biogeographic studies of pantropical clades are still relatively few, and those conducted to date typically use parsimony or event-based methods to reconstruct ancestral areas. In this study, a recently developed likelihood method for reconstructing ancestral areas (the dispersal-extinction cladogenesis [DEC] model) is applied to the angiosperm family Simaroubaceae, a geographically widespread and ecologically diverse clade of pantropical and temperate trees and shrubs. To estimate divergence dates in the family, Bayesian uncorrelated rates analyses and robust fossil calibrations are applied to the well-sampled and strongly supported phylogeny. For biogeographic analyses, the effects of parameter configurations in the DEC model are assessed for different possible ancestral ranges, and the likelihood method is compared with dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA). Regardless of the parameters used, likelihood analyses show a common pattern of multiple recent range shifts that overshadow reconstruction of events deeper in the family's history. DIVA produced results similar to the DEC model when ancestral ranges were restricted to two areas, but some improbable ancestral ranges were also observed. Simaroubaceae exhibit an early history of range expansion between major continental areas in the Northern Hemisphere, but reconstruction of ancestral areas for lineages diverging in the early Tertiary are sensitive to the parameters of the model used. A North American origin is suggested for the family, with migration via Beringia by ancestral taxa. In contrast to traditional views, long-distance dispersal events are common, particularly in the Late Oligocene and later. Notable dispersals are inferred to have occurred across the Atlantic Ocean in both directions, as well as between Africa and Asia, and around the Indian Ocean basin and Pacific islands.

  13. Waterfowl endozoochory: An overlooked long-distance dispersal mode for Cuscuta (dodder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Mihai; Stefanović, Saša; García, Miguel A.; De La Cruz, Susan; Casazza, Michael L.; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    REMISE OF THE STUDY: Dispersal of parasitic Cuscuta species (dodders) worldwide has been assumed to be largely anthropomorphic because their seeds do not match any previously known dispersal syndrome and no natural dispersal vectors have been reliably documented. However, the genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution and recent phylogeographic results have indicated that at least18 historical cases of long-distance dispersal (LDD) have occurred during its evolution. The objective of this study is to report the first LDD biological vector for Cuscuta seeds. METHODS: Twelve northern pintails (Anas acuta) were collected from Suisun Marsh, California and the contents of their lowest part of the large intestine (rectum) were extracted and analyzed. Seed identification was done both morphologically and using a molecular approach. Extracted seeds were tested for germination and compared to seeds not subjected to gut passage to determine the extent of structural changes caused to the seed coat by passing through the digestive tract. KEY RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty dodder seeds were found in the rectum of four northern pintails. From these, 411 seeds were identified as Cuscuta campestris and nine as most likely C. pacifica. The germination rate of C. campestris seeds after gut passage was 55%. Structural changes caused by the gut passage in both species were similar to those caused by an acid scarification. CONCLUSIONS: Endozoochory by waterbirds may explain the historical LDD cases in the evolution of Cuscuta. This also suggests that current border quarantine measures may be insufficient to stopping spreading of dodder pests along migratory flyways.

  14. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-08-07

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load--key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research.

  15. Ultrafast fault-tolerant long-distance quantum communication with static linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Fabian; van Loock, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present an in-depth analysis regarding the error resistance and optimization of our all-optical Bell measurement and ultrafast long-distance quantum communication scheme proposed by Ewert, Bergmann, and van Loock [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 210501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.210501]. In order to promote our previous proposal from loss to fault tolerance, we introduce a general and compact formalism that can also be applied to other related schemes {including non-all-optical ones such as that of Muralidharan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 250501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.250501]}. With the help of this new representation we show that our communication protocol does not only counteract the inevitable photon loss during channel transmission, but is also able to resist common experimental errors such as Pauli-type errors (bit and phase flips) and detector inefficiencies (losses and dark counts). Furthermore, we demonstrate that on the physical level of photonic qubits the choice of the standard linear optical Bell measurement with its limited efficiency is optimal for our setting in the sense that, apart from their potential use in state preparation, more advanced Bell measurements yield only a small decrease in resource consumption. We devise two state generation schemes that provide the required ancillary encoded Bell states (quasi-)on-demand at every station. The schemes are either based on nonlinear optics or on linear optics with multiplexing and exhibit resource costs that scale linearly or less than quadratic with the number of photons per encoded qubit, respectively. Finally, we show that it is possible to operate our communication scheme with on-off detectors instead of employing photon-number-resolving detectors.

  16. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Historically there has been a lack of knowledge with respect to long distance travel. Due to the considerable contribution of long distance travel to total travelled kilometres and the related energy consumption from the transport sector and derived impacts on greenhouse emissions, this is proble......Historically there has been a lack of knowledge with respect to long distance travel. Due to the considerable contribution of long distance travel to total travelled kilometres and the related energy consumption from the transport sector and derived impacts on greenhouse emissions...... ownership and a consequently underestimation of the respective income elasticity. The study evaluates the impact of measurement error and reveals considerable problems in the data collection of income which in this case reduces the income elasticity. The second paper includes all three Danish travel surveys...... between 0.1-1.4 when iv measured in terms of travel demand and from 0.2-0.6 when measured in terms of travel distances. The final paper differs from the others as it explores and evaluates the impacts of the Oresund Bridge ten years after its opening. The new bridge resulted in significant changes...

  17. Long-distance travel and urban systems : Development of a theoretical and methodological framework and empirical evidence from Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limtanakool, N.

    2006-01-01

    It is evident in many countries worldwide that both the frequency and the distance of personal travel have grown concurrently with the proliferation of telecommunications that might substitute for travel. While the understanding of the determinants of long-distance travel is still limited in the lit

  18. Long flights do not influence immune responses of a long-distance migrant bird : a wind-tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindstrom, Ake; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis; Lindström, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Heavy physical work can result in physiological stress and suppressed immune function. Accordingly, long-distance migrant birds that fly for thousands of km within days can be expected to show immunosuppression, and hence be more vulnerable to infections en route. The red knot Calidris canutus Linna

  19. Distinct palisade tissue development processes promoted by leaf autonomous signalling and long-distance signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Yuri Nakajima; Inoue, Shio; Yoneda, Yuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2015-06-01

    Plants develop palisade tissue consisting of cylindrical mesophyll cells located at the adaxial side of leaves in response to high light. To understand high light signalling in palisade tissue development, we investigated leaf autonomous and long-distance signal responses of palisade tissue development using Arabidopsis thaliana. Illumination of a developing leaf with high light induced cell height elongation, whereas illumination of mature leaves with high light increased cell density and suppressed cell width expansion in palisade tissue of new leaves. Examination using phototropin1 phototropin2 showed that blue light signalling mediated by phototropins was involved in cell height elongation of the leaf autonomous response rather than the cell density increase induced by long-distance signalling. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation in both a leaf autonomous and long-distance manner, suggesting involvement of oxidative signals. Although constitutive expression of transcription factors involved in systemic-acquired acclimation to excess light, ZAT10 and ZAT12, induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation, knockout of these genes did not affect cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation. We conclude that two distinct signalling pathways - leaf autonomous signalling mostly dependent on blue light signalling and long-distance signalling from mature leaves that sense high light and oxidative stress - control palisade tissue development in A. thaliana.

  20. Fuel use and metabolic response to endurance exercise : a wind tunnel study of a long-distance migrant shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas; Kvist, Anders; Lindström, Åke; Piersma, Theunis; Visser, G. Henk

    2002-01-01

    This study examines fuel use and metabolism in a group of long-distance migrating birds, red knots Calidris canutus (Scolopacidae), flying under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel for up to 10 h. Data are compared with values for resting birds fasting for the same time. Plasma levels of free fat

  1. On the participation in medium- and long-distance travel: a decomposition analysis for the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limtanakool, N.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Social and economic benefits have accrued from medium- and long-distance travel, but at the expense of the environment. Since the travel behaviour literature tends to concentrate on shortdistance trips or trips within daily urban systems, a better understanding of the factors shaping medium- and lon

  2. SORBS2 transcription is activated by telomere position effect-over long distance upon telomere shortening in muscle cells from patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jérôme D; Ludlow, Andrew T; Batten, Kimberly; Gaillard, Marie-Cécile; Stadler, Guido; Magdinier, Frédérique; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-12-01

    DNA is organized into complex three-dimensional chromatin structures, but how this spatial organization regulates gene expression remains a central question. These DNA/chromatin looping structures can range in size from 10-20 kb (enhancers/repressors) to many megabases during intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions. Recently, the influence of telomere length on chromatin organization prior to senescence has revealed the existence of long-distance chromatin loops that dictate the expression of genes located up to 10 Mb from the telomeres (Telomere Position Effect-Over Long Distances [TPE-OLD]). Here, we demonstrate the existence of a telomere loop at the 4q35 locus involving the sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2 gene, SORBS2, a skeletal muscle protein using a modification of the chromosome conformation capture method. The loop reveals a cis-acting mechanism modifying SORBS2 transcription. The expression of this gene is altered by TPE-OLD in myoblasts from patients affected with the age-associated genetic disease, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1A, MIM 158900). SORBS2 is expressed in FSHD myoblasts with short telomeres, while not detectable in FSHD myoblasts with long telomeres or in healthy myoblasts regardless of telomere length. This indicates that TPE-OLD may modify the regulation of the 4q35 locus in a pathogenic context. Upon differentiation, both FSHD and healthy myotubes express SORBS2, suggesting that SORBS2 is normally up-regulated by maturation/differentiation of skeletal muscle and is misregulated by TPE-OLD-dependent variegation in FSHD myoblasts. These findings provide additional insights for the complexity and age-related symptoms of FSHD.

  3. Capture of fixation by rotational flow; a deterministic hypothesis regarding scaling and stochasticity in fixational eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Mansel Wilkinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual scan paths exhibit complex, stochastic dynamics. Even during visual fixation, the eye is in constant motion. Fixational drift and tremor are thought to reflect fluctuations in the persistent neural activity of neural integrators in the oculomotor brainstem, which integrate sequences of transient saccadic velocity signals into a short term memory of eye position. Despite intensive research and much progress, the precise mechanisms by which oculomotor posture is maintained remain elusive. Drift exhibits a stochastic statistical profile which has been modelled using random walk formalisms. Tremor is widely dismissed as noise. Here we focus on the dynamical profile of fixational tremor, and argue that tremor may be a signal which usefully reflects the workings of the oculomotor postural control. We identify signatures reminiscent of a certain flavour of transient neurodynamics; toric travelling waves which rotate around a central phase singularity. Spiral waves play an organisational role in dynamical systems at many scales throughout nature, though their potential functional role in brain activity remains a matter of educated speculation. Spiral waves have a repertoire of functionally interesting dynamical properties, including persistence, which suggest that they could in theory contribute to persistent neural activity in the oculomotor postural control system. Whilst speculative, the singularity hypothesis of oculomotor postural control implies testable predictions, and could provide the beginnings of an integrated dynamical framework for eye movements across scales.

  4. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  5. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  6. The Localization of Long-Distance Dependency Components: Integrating the Focal-lesion and Neuroimaging Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñango, Maria M; Finn, Emily; Lacadie, Cheryl; Constable, R Todd

    2016-01-01

    In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia. We test the hypothesis that this localization incongruence emerges from an interaction of memory and linguistic constraints involved in the real-time implementation of these dependencies and which had not been previously isolated. Capitalizing on a long-standing psycholinguistic understanding of LDDs as the workings of an active filler, we distinguish two linguistically defined mechanisms: GAP-search, triggered by the retrieval of the relative pronoun, and GAP-completion, triggered by the retrieval of the embedded verb. Each mechanism is hypothesized to have distinct memory demands and given their distinct linguistic import, potentially distinct brain correlates. Using fMRI, we isolate the two mechanisms by analyzing their relevant sentential segments as separate events. We manipulate LDD-presence/absence and GAP-search type (direct/indirect) reflecting the absence/presence of intervening islands. Results show a direct GAP-search-LIF cortex correlation that crucially excludes the LPST cortex. Notably, indirect GAP-search recruitment is confined to supplementary-motor and lower-parietal cortex indicating that GAP presence alone is not enough to engage predictive functions in the LIF cortex. Finally, GAP-completion shows recruitment implicating the dorsal pathway including: the supplementary motor cortex, left supramarginal cortex, precuneus, and

  7. Potential benefits of long-distance electricity transmission in China for air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Yuan, J.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    China is expanding west-to-east long-distance electricity transmission capacity with the aim of reducing eastern coal power production and resulting air pollution. In addition to coal power, this new grid capacity can be used to transport renewable-generated electricity with resulting climate co-benefits. Here we use an integrated assessment to evaluate the air quality and climate benefits of twelve proposed transmission lines in China, and compare two energy-by-wire strategies that transmit 1) only coal power (Coal-by-wire, CbW) or 2) combined renewable plus coal power (Renewable and coal-by-wire, (RE+C)bW), with 3) the current practice of transporting coal by rail for conversion to electricity near eastern demand centers (Coal-by-rail, CbR). Based on a regional atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-Chem, electricity transmission through the proposed lines leads to 2-3 μg/m3 (2-7%) reduction in the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the eastern provinces relative to 2010 levels, roughly ~1 μg/m3 greater than the reduction achieved in CbR where dirty coal units are locally replaced with efficient ones. Although the eastern air quality improvement is similar irrespective of the fuel source to power the lines, adding coal generation results in up to 3% increase in annual mean PM2.5 levels in some exporting provinces, whereas such increase is not observed when most added capacity is renewable-based. Counting both the economic value of reduced carbon emissions and the health-related air quality benefits can significantly improve the cost-effectiveness of transmitting both renewable and coal power. Comparing (RE+C)bW with the two coal-based options, we find not only 20% larger reduction in air-pollution-related deaths, but also three times greater reduction in CO2 emissions. Our study hence demonstrates the significance of coordinating renewable energy planning with transmission planning to simultaneously tackle air pollution and climate

  8. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  9. Foreword—welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Murray

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long distance transport of animals within countries, between countries, across regions and across continents is increasing significantly and is also changing in nature. Statistics from the International Trade Centre of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization show that the value of world trade in live animals soared from US$8.7 billion in 2000 to US$12.1 billion in 2005. This enormous figure would be even greater if zoo animals, wildlife and illicit traffic were included.The history of animal transportation goes back thousands of years. It remains a legitimate practice to this day provided proper measures are taken to protect animal well-being and health. What has made circumstances different in the 21st century is the nature of transport (land, sea and air, the volume of traffic and a public awareness of welfare issues with demands that animals be treated humanely and in accordance with best contemporary practices. This increased volume of transport creates an unprecedented risk for disseminating infectious diseases, including those that may affect people.Key public concerns about animal welfare relate to factors such as a lack of infrastructure and investment in training, research and standards development, as well as indifference and neglect. The live animal transportation industries are threatened when these deficiencies are not corrected.Fortunately, a number of countries foresaw these problems and introduced a series of activities to support good animal welfare practices. Many recognised the clear connection between animal welfare, health and husbandry practice, and established policy settings to include these activities under a veterinary public and animal health umbrella. Recognising its critical importance, the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE in its IVth Strategic plan (points a to b, identified animal welfare as a key issue and launched a

  10. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary This study was designed to benchmark the characteristics of loads of cattle stopping for feed, water and rest during long distance transport in Canada. Another objective of this study was to determine how well these loads were following current Canadian regulations for the length of time animals can spend in transit, and how long they must be rested for. The majority of loads stopping for feed water and rest were transporting cattle to feedlots rather than processing plants. Al...

  11. Helicity conservation in inclusive nonleptonic decay B to VX Test of long-distance final state interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M

    2002-01-01

    The polarization measurement in the inclusive B decay provides us with a simple test of how much the long-distance final-state interaction takes place as the energy of the observed meson varies in the final state. We give the expectation of the perturbative QCD for the energy dependence of the helicity fractions in a semiquantitative form. Experiment will tell us for which decay processes the perturbative calculation should be applicable.

  12. The importance of long-distance seed dispersal for the demography and distribution of a canopy tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlin, T Trevor; Ferguson, Jake M; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Levey, Douglas J

    2014-04-01

    Long-distance seed dispersal (LDD) is considered a crucial determinant of tree distributions, but its effects depend on demographic processes that enable seeds to establish into adults and that remain poorly understood at large spatial scales. We estimated rates of seed arrival, germination, and survival and growth for a canopy tree species (Miliusa horsfieldii), in a landscape ranging from evergreen forest, where the species' abundance is high, to deciduous forest, where it is extremely low. We then used an individual-based model (IBM) to predict sapling establishment and to compare the relative importance of seed arrival and establishment in explaining the observed distribution of seedlings. Individuals in deciduous forest, far from the source population, experienced multiple benefits (e.g., increased germination rate and seedling survival and growth) from being in a habitat where conspecifics were almost absent. The net effect of these spatial differences in demographic processes was significantly higher estimated sapling establishment probabilities for seeds dispersed long distances into deciduous forest. Despite the high rate of establishment in this habitat, Miliusa is rare in the deciduous forest because the arrival of seeds at long distances from the source population is extremely low. Across the entire landscape, the spatial pattern of seed arrival is much more important than the spatial pattern of establishment for explaining observed seedling distributions. By using dynamic models to link demographic data to spatial patterns, we show that LDD plays a pivotal role in the distribution of this tree in its native habitat.

  13. The Major Roles Of Long Distance Bus Transport In Developing Countries With Emphasis On Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassa Fekadu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major roles of long distance bus transport that radiates from Addis Ababa to the hinterland. The purpose is to assess and identify the major roles of Long Distance Bus Transport in Addis Ababa. The methodology is focused on both primary and secondary sources. The primary informants, who were principally distinguished from the passengers, operators, and key government officials from the transport office, include the head of bus terminal and Association, and selected experts. In terms of analysis, the qualitative approach was used by applying a thick description of the issue. The findings revealed that the availability of towns comes mainly because of the routes which give access and distribution of road passenger transport. The LDB (Long Distance Bus along the line has played a great role in the making of metropolitan linkage. The presence of these routes contributes more to the rise of urbanization and it has also played a role in the creation of towns and rural areas found around certain radius at the two sides of highways. Thus, it has a high probability for the expansion of urban sprawl and formation of conurbation in the future. The prescription for this study is to work with stakeholders to reduce the congestion of passengers in the terminals and the association also should serve the society 24/7 or 18/7.

  14. Old nuclear symmetries and large N(c) as long distance symmetries in the two nucleon system

    CERN Document Server

    Arriola, E Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Wigner and Serber symmetries for the two-nucleon system provide unique examples of long distance symmetries in Nuclear Physics, i.e. symmetries of the meson exchange forces broken only at arbitrarily small distances. We analyze the large Nc picture as a key ingredient to understand these, so far accidental, symmetries from a more fundamental viewpoint. A set of sum rules for NN phase-shifts, NN potentials and coarse grained V_lowk NN potentials can be derived showing Wigner SU(4) and Serber symmetries not to be fully compatible everywhere. The symmetry breaking pattern found from the partial wave analysis data, high quality potentials in coordinate space at long distances and their V_lowk relatives is analyzed on the light of large N(c) contracted SU(4) symmetry. Our results suggest using large Nc potentials as long distance ones for the two-nucleon system where the meson exchange potential picture is justified and known to be consistent with large Nc counting rules. We also show that potentials based on chir...

  15. Roman and early-medieval long-distance transport routes in north-western Europe : Modelling frequent-travel zones using a dendroarchaeological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther; van Doesburg, Jan; Groenewoudt, Bert J.

    2016-01-01

    To what extent long-distance transport in north-western Europe changed after the Roman period is generally unknown. Few historical sources are available and existing archaeological records are unclear and sometimes conflicting. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods mostly ha

  16. Phylogenetic evidence of long distance dispersal and transmission of piscine reovirus (PRV between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Helen Garseth

    Full Text Available The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L. was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon.

  17. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-12-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  18. Landscape epidemiology and control of pathogens with cryptic and long-distance dispersal: sudden oak death in northern Californian forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A N Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens and pests threaten ecosystem service, biodiversity, and crop security globally. If an invasive agent can disperse asymptomatically over long distances, multiple spatial and temporal scales interplay, making identification of effective strategies to regulate, monitor, and control disease extremely difficult. The management of outbreaks is also challenged by limited data on the actual area infested and the dynamics of spatial spread, due to financial, technological, or social constraints. We examine principles of landscape epidemiology important in designing policy to prevent or slow invasion by such organisms, and use Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to illustrate how shortfalls in their understanding can render management applications inappropriate. This pathogen has invaded forests in coastal California, USA, and an isolated but fast-growing epidemic focus in northern California (Humboldt County has the potential for extensive spread. The risk of spread is enhanced by the pathogen's generalist nature and survival. Additionally, the extent of cryptic infection is unknown due to limited surveying resources and access to private land. Here, we use an epidemiological model for transmission in heterogeneous landscapes and Bayesian Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo inference to estimate dispersal and life-cycle parameters of P. ramorum and forecast the distribution of infection and speed of the epidemic front in Humboldt County. We assess the viability of management options for containing the pathogen's northern spread and local impacts. Implementing a stand-alone host-free "barrier" had limited efficacy due to long-distance dispersal, but combining curative with preventive treatments ahead of the front reduced local damage and contained spread. While the large size of this focus makes effective control expensive, early synchronous treatment in newly-identified disease foci should be more cost-effective. We show how the

  19. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  20. Long-Distance Travellers: Phylogeography of a Generalist Parasite, Pholeter gastrophilus, from Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Raga, Juan Antonio; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and historical demography of the most generalist digenean from cetaceans, Pholeter gastrophilus, exploring the effects of isolation by distance, ecological barriers and hosts’ dispersal ability on the population structure of this parasite. The ITS2 rDNA, and the mitochondrial COI and ND1 from 68 individual parasites were analysed. Worms were collected from seven oceanic and coastal cetacean species from the south western Atlantic (SWA), central eastern Atlantic, north eastern Atlantic (NEA), and Mediterranean Sea. Pholeter gastrophilus was considered a single lineage because reciprocal monophyly was not detected in the ML cladogram of all individuals, and sequence variability was cetaceans, with a putative secondary role, if any, of intermediate hosts. Unique haplotypes were detected in SWA and NEA, and an AMOVA revealed significant population structure associated to the genetic variation in these regions. The Equator possibly acts as a significant geographical barrier for cetacean movements, possibly limiting gene flow between northern and southern populations of P. gastrophilus. A partial Mantel tests revealed that the significant isolation of NEA populations resulted from geographic clustering. Apparently, the limited mobility of cetaceans used by P. gastrophilus as definitive hosts in this region, coupled with oceanographic barriers and a patchy distribution of potential intermediate hosts could contribute to significant ecological isolation of P. gastrophilus in NEA. Rather unexpectedly, no genetic differentiation was found in the Mediterranean samples of this parasite. Historical demographic analyses suggested a recent population expansion of P. gastrophilus in the Atlantic Ocean, perhaps linked to initial association and subsequent spreading in cetaceans. PMID:28085945

  1. Long-distance multi-channel bidirectional chaos communication based on synchronized VCSELs subject to chaotic signal injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Yuan; Li, Jia-Chao; He, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-Dong; Song, Ting-Ting; Xu, Chang-Jun; Wang, Gui-Jin

    2016-10-01

    A novel long-distance multi-channel bidirectional chaos communication system over multiple paths based on two synchronized 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is proposed and studied theoretically. These two responding VCSELs (R-VCSELs) can output similar chaotic signals served as chaotic carrier in two linear polarization (LP) modes with identical signal injection from a driving VCSEL (D-VCSEL), which is subject to optical feedback and optical injection, simultaneously. Through the numerical simulations, high quality chaos synchronization between the two R-VCSELs can be obtained. Besides, the effects of varied qualities of chaos synchronization on communication performances in 20 km single mode fiber (SMF) channels are investigated by regulating different internal parameters mismatch after adopting chaos masking (CMS) technique. With the decrease of the maximum cross correlation coefficient (Max-C) between the two R-VCSELs, the bit error rate (BER) of decoded message increase. Meanwhile, the BER can still be less than 10-9 when the Max-C degrades to 0.982. Based on high quality synchronization, when the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) links are introduced, 4n messages of 10 Gbit/s can transmit in 180 km SMF channels over n coupling paths, bidirectionally and simultaneously. Thorough tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating long-distance, multi-channel, bidirectional chaos communication based on VCSELs with chaotic signal injection.

  2. Extreme long-distance dispersal of the lowland tropical rainforest tree Ceiba pentandra L. (Malvaceae) in Africa and the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Bermingham, Eldredge; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio

    2007-07-01

    Many tropical tree species occupy continental expanses of rainforest and flank dispersal barriers such as oceans and mountains. The role of long-distance dispersal in establishing the range of such species is poorly understood. In this study, we test vicariance hypotheses for range disjunctions in the rainforest tree Ceiba pentandra, which is naturally widespread across equatorial Africa and the Neotropics. Approximate molecular clocks were applied to nuclear ribosomal [ITS (internal transcribed spacer)] and chloroplast (psbB-psbF) spacer DNA sampled from 12 Neotropical and five West African populations. The ITS (N=5) and psbB-psbF (N=2) haplotypes exhibited few nucleotide differences, and ITS and psbB-psbF haplotypes were shared by populations on both continents. The low levels of nucleotide divergence falsify vicariance explanations for transatlantic and cross-Andean range disjunctions. The study shows how extreme long-distance dispersal, via wind or marine currents, creates taxonomic similarities in the plant communities of Africa and the Neotropics.

  3. Elevated Serum Hepcidin Levels during an Intensified Training Period in Well-Trained Female Long-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Ishibashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT (p < 0.05. Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05. Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05. In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron.

  4. Elevated Serum Hepcidin Levels during an Intensified Training Period in Well-Trained Female Long-Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Sumi, Daichi; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT (p < 0.05). Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron. PMID:28335426

  5. Trace-metal concentrations in African dust: effects of long-distance transport and implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia; Lamothe, Paul; Morman, Suzette; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Gilkes, Robert; Prakongkep, Nattaporn

    2010-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel lose billions of tons of eroded mineral soils annually to the Americas and Caribbean, Europe and Asia via atmospheric transport. African dust was collected from a dust source region (Mali, West Africa) and from downwind sites in the Caribbean [Trinidad-Tobago (TT) and U.S. Virgin Islands (VI)] and analysed for 32 trace-elements. Elemental composition of African dust samples was similar to that of average upper continental crust (UCC), with some enrichment or depletion of specific trace-elements. Pb enrichment was observed only in dust and dry deposition samples from the source region and was most likely from local use of leaded gasoline. Dust particles transported long-distances (VI and TT) exhibited increased enrichment of Mo and minor depletion of other elements relative to source region samples. This suggests that processes occurring during long-distance transport of dust produce enrichment/depletion of specific elements. Bioaccessibility of trace-metals in samples was tested in simulated human fluids (gastric and lung) and was found to be greater in downwind than source region samples, for some metals (e.g., As). The large surface to volume ratio of the dust particles (<2.5 µm) at downwind sites may be a factor.

  6. Incidence of chronic knee lesions in long-distance runners based on training level: Findings at MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: claudia.schueller-weidekamm@meduniwien.ac.at; Schueller, Gerd [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Uffmann, Martin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bader, Till [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic knee changes in long-distance runners based on the training status, including distance, running frequency, training pace, and running experience. Methods: MRI of the knee was performed in 26 non-professional runners 5 days after their last training unit. Lesions of the menisci and cartilage (5-point scale), bone marrow and ligaments (3-point scale), and joint effusion were evaluated. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner was evaluated. The incidence of the knee changes was correlated with the training level, gender, and age of the runners. Results: Grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in six runners with a high training level, and in only four runners with a low training level. Grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three high-trained runners and in one low-trained runner, and grade 2 lesions were found in one high-trained runner and in two low-trained runners, respectively. Grade 1 anterior cruciate ligament lesions were seen in three runners with a high- and in two runners with a low-training level. Runners with a higher training level showed a statistically significant higher score for all chronic knee lesions than those with a lower training level (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI findings indicate that a higher training level in long-distance runners is a risk factor for chronic knee lesions.

  7. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Chynoweth

    Full Text Available Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  8. Inter-and intraspecific variation in fern mating systems after long-distance colonization: the importance of selfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot G Arjen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on the reproductive biology of ferns showed that mating strategies vary among species, and that polyploid species often show higher capacity for self-fertilization than diploid species. However, the amount of intraspecific variation in mating strategy and selfing capacity has only been assessed for a few species. Yet, such variation may have important consequences during colonization, as the establishment of any selfing genotypes may be favoured after long-distance dispersal (an idea known as Baker's law. Results We examined intra-and interspecific variation in potential for self-fertilization among four rare fern species, of which two were diploids and two were tetraploids: Asplenium scolopendrium (2n, Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens (4n, Polystichum setiferum (2n and Polystichum aculeatum (4n. Sporophyte production was tested at different levels of inbreeding, by culturing gametophytes in isolation, as well as in paired cultures with a genetically different gametophyte. We tested gametophytes derived from various genetically different sporophytes from populations in a recently planted forest colonized through long-distance dispersal (Kuinderbos, the Netherlands, as well as from older, less disjunct populations. Sporophyte production in isolation was high for Kuinderbos genotypes of all four species. Selfing capacity did not differ significantly between diploids and polyploids, nor between species in general. Rather selfing capacity differed between genotypes within species. Intraspecific variation in mating system was found in all four species. In two species one genotype from the Kuinderbos showed enhanced sporophyte production in paired cultures. For the other species, including a renowned out crosser, selfing capacity was consistently high. Conclusions Our results for four different species suggest that intraspecific variation in mating system may be common, at least among temperate calcicole

  9. Migrating songbirds on stopover prepare for, and recover from, oxidative challenges posed by long-distance flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrip, Megan M; Bauchinger, Ulf; Goymann, Wolfgang; Fusani, Leonida; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Alan, Rebecca R; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-08-01

    Managing oxidative stress is an important physiological function for all aerobic organisms, particularly during periods of prolonged high metabolic activity, such as long-distance migration across ecological barriers. However, no previous study has investigated the oxidative status of birds at different stages of migration and whether that oxidative status depends on the condition of the birds. In this study, we compared (1) energy stores and circulating oxidative status measures in (a) two species of Neotropical migrants with differing migration strategies that were sampled at an autumn stopover site before an ecological barrier; and (b) a species of trans-Saharan migrant sampled at a spring stopover site after crossing an ecological barrier; and (2) circulating oxidative measures and indicators of fat metabolism in a trans-Saharan migrant after stopovers of varying duration (0-8 nights), based on recapture records. We found fat stores to be positively correlated with circulating antioxidant capacity in Blackpoll Warblers and Red-eyed Vireos preparing for fall migration on Block Island, USA, but uncorrelated in Garden Warblers on the island of Ponza, Italy, after a spring crossing of the Sahara Desert and Mediterranean Sea. In all circumstances, fat stores were positively correlated with circulating lipid oxidation levels. Among Garden Warblers on the island of Ponza, fat anabolism increased with stopover duration while oxidative damage levels decreased. Our study provides evidence that birds build antioxidant capacity as they build fat stores at stopover sites before long flights, but does not support the idea that antioxidant stores remain elevated in birds with high fuel levels after an ecological barrier. Our results further suggest that lipid oxidation may be an inescapable hazard of using fats as the primary fuel for flight. Yet, we also show that birds on stopover are capable of recovering from the oxidative damage they have accrued during migration, as

  10. Migrating songbirds on stopover prepare for, and recover from, oxidative challenges posed by long-distance flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrip, Megan M; Bauchinger, Ulf; Goymann, Wolfgang; Fusani, Leonida; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Alan, Rebecca R; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Managing oxidative stress is an important physiological function for all aerobic organisms, particularly during periods of prolonged high metabolic activity, such as long-distance migration across ecological barriers. However, no previous study has investigated the oxidative status of birds at different stages of migration and whether that oxidative status depends on the condition of the birds. In this study, we compared (1) energy stores and circulating oxidative status measures in (a) two species of Neotropical migrants with differing migration strategies that were sampled at an autumn stopover site before an ecological barrier; and (b) a species of trans-Saharan migrant sampled at a spring stopover site after crossing an ecological barrier; and (2) circulating oxidative measures and indicators of fat metabolism in a trans-Saharan migrant after stopovers of varying duration (0–8 nights), based on recapture records. We found fat stores to be positively correlated with circulating antioxidant capacity in Blackpoll Warblers and Red-eyed Vireos preparing for fall migration on Block Island, USA, but uncorrelated in Garden Warblers on the island of Ponza, Italy, after a spring crossing of the Sahara Desert and Mediterranean Sea. In all circumstances, fat stores were positively correlated with circulating lipid oxidation levels. Among Garden Warblers on the island of Ponza, fat anabolism increased with stopover duration while oxidative damage levels decreased. Our study provides evidence that birds build antioxidant capacity as they build fat stores at stopover sites before long flights, but does not support the idea that antioxidant stores remain elevated in birds with high fuel levels after an ecological barrier. Our results further suggest that lipid oxidation may be an inescapable hazard of using fats as the primary fuel for flight. Yet, we also show that birds on stopover are capable of recovering from the oxidative damage they have accrued during migration, as

  11. The use of social networking sites for relationship maintenance in long-distance and geographically close romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billedo, Cherrie Joy; Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship. An online survey was conducted among predominantly young adult Facebook users who were in a romantic relationship (N=272). Results showed that participants who were in a LDRR reported higher levels of relational maintenance behaviors through SNS than participants who were in a GCRR. Also, as compared to participants who were in a GCRR, participants who were in a LDRR used SNS more for partner surveillance and experienced higher levels of SNS jealousy.

  12. Long-distance remote comparison of ultrastable optical frequencies with 10(-15) instability in fractions of a second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, A; Terra, O; Friebe, J; Riedmann, M; Wübbena, T; Rasel, E M; Predehl, K; Legero, T; Lipphardt, B; Schnatz, H; Grosche, G

    2010-09-27

    We demonstrate a fully optical, long-distance remote comparison of independent ultrastable optical frequencies reaching a short term stability that is superior to any reported remote comparison of optical frequencies. We use two ultrastable lasers, which are separated by a geographical distance of more than 50 km, and compare them via a 73 km long phase-stabilized fiber in a commercial telecommunication network. The remote characterization spans more than one optical octave and reaches a fractional frequency instability between the independent ultrastable laser systems of 3 x 10 (-15) in 0.1 s. The achieved performance at 100 ms represents an improvement by one order of magnitude to any previously reported remote comparison of optical frequencies and enables future remote dissemination of the stability of 100 mHz linewidth lasers within seconds.

  13. Long-distance inter-hydrogen bond coupling effects in the polarized IR spectra of succinic acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakus, Henryk T.; Hachuła, Barbara; Hołaj-Krzak, Jakub T.

    2015-05-01

    The spectral properties of four different crystalline succinic acid (HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH) (SAC) isotopomer systems, h6, d2, d4 and d6, were examined by means of the IR spectroscopy in polarized light aided by numerical simulations of the νO-H and νO-D band contour shapes on utilizing the "strong-coupling" model. The abnormal IR spectral properties of SAC crystals in relation to the corresponding properties of glutaric, pimelic and adipic acid crystals were ascribed to the hyperconjugation electronic effects in the acid associated molecules. A vibronic coupling mechanism involving the proton stretching vibrations in the (COOH)2 cycles and the electronic motions in the molecular skeletons, the isotopic "H/D self-organization" mechanisms and a long-distance vibrational exciton coupling between the adjacent (COOH)2 cycles in the molecular chains are mainly responsible for the generation of the temperature effects in the crystalline IR spectra.

  14. Valuation of travel time for international long-distance travel - results from the Fehmarn Belt stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Rich, Jeppe; Burge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of travel time savings (VTTS). The final model, which was formulated as a nested logit model and included Box–Cox transformed travel time and cost attributes, revealed several interesting findings. Firstly, we found damping effects in both cost and time – most strongly in cost. Secondly, we found...... significant interactions among travel cost and time, and journey characteristics, such as distance and duration. This had direct impact on the VTTS, which was shown to decrease with distance and duration. Thirdly, we found that air travel implies a higher average VTTS, which is to be expected but rarely......The geographical scope of travel varies from short distances in urban areas to long distances across cities and countries. While urban travel has been widely analysed in the literature, travel over longer distances and particularly across countries, has received much less attention. While this may...

  15. Extremely low material loss and dispersion flattened TOPAS based circular porous fiber for long distance terahertz wave transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Sultana, Jakeya; Rana, Sohel; Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Faisal, Mohammad; Kaijage, Shubi F.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a porous-core circular photonic crystal fiber (PC-CPCF) with ultra-low material loss for efficient terahertz wave transmission. The full vector finite element method with an ideally matched layer boundary condition is used to characterize the wave guiding properties of the proposed fiber. At an operating frequency of 1 THz, simulated results exhibit an extremely low effective material loss of 0.043 cm-1, higher core power fraction of 47% and ultra-flattened dispersion variation of 0.09 ps/THz/cm. The effects of important design properties such as single mode operation, confinement loss and effective area of the fiber are investigated in the terahertz regime. Moreover, the proposed fiber can be fabricated using the capillary stacking or sol-gel technique and be useful for long distance transmission of terahertz waves.

  16. Structure and agency in long-distance truck drivers' lived experiences of condom use for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Condom promotion has emerged as a mainstay of targeted HIV prevention interventions in India, with its emphasis on individual behaviour change and personal responsibility. However, such approaches often do not account for marginalised populations' structural vulnerability to HIV, arising from social, economic and political factors in the lived environment. In this paper, I use a critical health communication framework to analyse how structure and agency interact in influencing condom use among long-distance truck drivers in India. Drawing on an abductive discourse analysis of condom-use discourses among truckers and peer educators in two Indian cities, findings reveal that while truckers understand the biomedical logic of condoms as barriers, they also express anxiety about condom breakage and experience structural barriers to condom use. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention to structural vulnerabilities in future HIV prevention efforts with truck drivers.

  17. Effects of low-dose G-CSF formulation on hematology in healthy horses after long-distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoshiro; Hobo, Seiji; Korosue, Kenji; Ootsuka, Kenji; Kitauchi, Akira; Kikkawa, Risa; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuzuki, Nao

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose filgrastim on hematology in 16 healthy horses after long-distance transportation. Horses were assigned to receive filgrastim (0.23 µg/kg, SC, once; G-CSF group; n=8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.3 ml, SC, once; control group; n=8) ≤ 1 hr before transportation. Horses were transported 2,530 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 44 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses before and after transportation. Because the post-transportation white blood cell counts and bacillary neutrophil to segmented neutrophil ratio were significantly higher in the G-CSF group, filgrastim may have promoted the mobilization of neutrophils from marrow. Filgrastim deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse shipping fever.

  18. Health care coverage among long-distance truckers in India: an evaluation based on the Tanahashi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Varun Sharma,1 Niranjan Saggurti,2 Shalini Bharat11School of Health Systems Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India; 2HIV AIDS Program, Population Council, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Long-distance truckers (LDTDs are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections due to the nature of their work, working environment, and frequent mobility. This paper examines and comments on the health care coverage provisioned under “Kavach” Project. Data from the Integrated Behavioural and Biological Survey, National Highway gathered from 2,066 LDTDs in Round 1 and 2,085 LDTDs in Round 2, who traveled in four extreme road corridors travelled by LDTDs in India, were used for analysis. Analysis reveals that service capacity in terms of socially marketed condoms per thousand LDTDs has increased from Round 1 to Round 2 (4,430 to 6,876, respectively. Accessibility coverage in terms of knowledge about the Khushi clinic has significantly decreased between Rounds 1 and 2 (60.9% to 54.6%; P<0.001. Acceptability coverage has increased between the two rounds (13.8% to 50.6%; P<0.001. Contact coverage has also increased between the rounds (12.7% to 22.3%; P<0.001. Effectiveness coverage for preventive and curative care has also increased significantly. This paper comments on the gaps in accessibility and acceptability of health care coverage and emphasizes the need for further studies to assess the contextual factors that influence the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions designed to address access barriers and to identify what combination of interventions may generate the best possible outcome.Keywords: HIV, long-distance truck drivers, mobility, national highways, Tanahashi framework, India

  19. Pain sensitivity, mood and plasma endocrine levels in man following long-distance running: effects of naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janal, M N; Colt, E W; Clark, W C; Glusman, M

    1984-05-01

    The effects of intense exercise on pain perception, mood, and plasma endocrine levels in man were studied under naloxone and saline conditions. Twelve long-distance runners (mean weekly mileage = 41.5) were evaluated on thermal, ischemic, and cold pressor pain tests and on mood visual analogue scales (VAS). Blood was drawn for determination of plasma levels of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BEir), growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), and prolactin (PRL). These procedures were undertaken before and after a 6.3 mile run at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity. Subjects participated on two occasions in a double-blind procedure counterbalanced for drug order: on one day they received 2 i.v. injections of naloxone (0.8 mg in 2 ml vehicle each) at 20 min intervals following the run; on the other day, 2 equal volume injections of normal saline (2 ml). Sensory decision theory analysis of the responses to thermal stimulation showed that discriminability, P(A), was significantly reduced post-run under the saline condition, a hypoalgesic effect; response bias, B, was unaffected. Ischemic pain reports were significantly reduced post-run on the saline day, also a hypoalgesic effect. Naloxone reversed the post-run ischemic but not thermal hypoalgesic effects. Joy, euphoria, cooperation, and conscientiousness VAS ratings were elevated post-run; naloxone attenuated the elevation of joy and euphoria ratings only. Plasma levels of BEir, ACTH, GH, and PRL were significantly increased post-run. The results show that long-distance running produces hypoalgesia and mood elevation in man. The effects of naloxone implicate endogenous opioid neural systems as mechanisms of some but not all of the run-induced alterations in mood and pain perception.

  20. Application of fiber Bragg grating sensing technology in long-distance detection of temperature in weapon depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, ZhiLi; Zhao, Bing; Fu, Zhulin

    2010-10-01

    Incessantly long-term real-time detection of temperature is demanded in weapon depots, where the weapon equipment is stored in, to realize the self-regulation of temperature. Long-Distance intellectualized control can be actualized by setting sensor-net which is composed by several temperature sensors to simultaneously detect multi-point and multi- parameter. The temperature sensors based on Fiber Bragg Grating Technology are more suitable for long-term detection for their preponderance in high sensitivity, small volume, anti-jamming and so on. The temperature sensing system, which is composed by several Fiber Bragg Grating sensors in one light-cable, can accomplish Quasi-Distributed measurement and is suitable for multi-point and multi- parameter detection. Basal principle of Fiber Bragg Grating sensing technology is expounded in the article, with a sensing system applied to the long-distance detection of temperature in the depots is designed based on F-P Scanning Method. Besides, DSP and FPGA are adopted pre-treat the transformed data from AD such as filter and determine threshold. The main modules of this demodulation system such as 1550nm exact photoelectric detection module and trigonal wave voltage scan module are designed in this paper to realize demodulation. Proved by the analysis of the testing data, the Fiber Bragg Grating temperature sensing system, whose testing precision achieved the design purpose, has advantages of real-time measure and long-term stability. The system, which provides guarantee to realize the auto-control of temperature, can be generalized and will provide favorable foundation for the broad using of Fiber Bragg Grating sensing technology in the army.

  1. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on acute leukocyte, cortisol, and interleukin-6 response in high-intensity long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Vuorimaa, Timo; Puurtinen, Risto; Hämäläinen, Ismo; Mero, Antti A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of fluids with different carbohydrate concentrations (0, 1.5, and 7%) on the acute immune stress responses after high-intensity long-distance running. Continuous 18- to 20-km run was performed at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake with carbohydrate supplementation (CHO7%, 7% carbohydrate solution) and low-carbohydrate supplementation (lowCHO1.5%, 1.5% carbohydrate solution) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) controlled design. Seven recreational runners (4 men and 3 women) completed all 3 trials. Blood was collected at baseline (PRE) and immediately after the run (POST). The running task induced significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in leukocyte (white blood cells), neutrophil, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) counts in every trial. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in cortisol with PLA and lowCHO1.5% but not with CHO7%. Increase in total leukocyte and neutrophil concentration was significantly lower with CHO7% compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). Postexercise IL-6 levels were significantly elevated when compared with baseline in all conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations did not differ significantly between trials. LowCHO1.5% sport drink did not significantly differ from PLA in measured variables, which indicated that the amount and rate of carbohydrate ingestion (15 g, 10 g·h) in low-carbohydrate sport drink was not enough to significantly protect from the stress induced by high-intensity long-distance running, whereas the ingestion of CHO7% (45 g·h) blunted the significant cortisol response and significantly decreased the leukocyte response.

  2. Migration between continents: geographical structure and long-distance gene flow in Porpidia flavicunda (lichen-forming Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbom, Jutta

    2007-05-01

    Historical and contemporary geographical distribution ranges with their associated gene flow patterns interact to produce the genetic diversity observed today. Often it is not possible to separate out the impacts of historical events, e.g. past fragmentation, and contemporary gene flow, e.g. long-distance dispersal. Porpidia flavicunda is a lichen-forming ascomycete occurring circumpolar in the boreal to arctic zones for which vegetation history suggests that its distribution pattern has stayed broadly the same over the past millennia. DNA-sequence diversity in P. flavicunda can, thus, be expected to predominantly represent geographical population differentiation and its contemporary migration rates. The population sample consists of 110 specimens collected in Northern Québec, Baffin Island, Western Greenland and Northern Scandinavia. DNA-sequence data sets of three nuclear gene fragments (LSU, RPB2 and beta-tubulin) were analysed for genetic diversity within, and differentiation between, geographical regions. Tests of population subdivision employing analyses of molecular variance and exact tests of haplotype frequency distributions showed significant structure between the geographical regions. However, the lack of fixed nucleotide polymorphisms and the wide sharing of identical haplotypes between geographical regions suggest recurrent long-distance gene flow of propagules. Still, the means by which propagules are dispersed remain to be discovered. Inference of migration rates shows that in many cases a sufficiently high amount of migrants is exchanged between geographical regions to prevent drastic population differentiation through genetic drift. The observed haplotype distributions and migration rates point to a gene flow model of isolation by distance.

  3. Quantifying full phenological event distributions reveals simultaneous advances, temporal stability and delays in spring and autumn migration timing in long-distance migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Will T S; Bolton, Mark; Davis, Peter; Dennis, Roy; Broad, Roger; Robertson, Iain; Riddiford, Nick J; Harvey, Paul V; Riddington, Roger; Shaw, Deryk N; Parnaby, David; Reid, Jane M

    2017-04-01

    Phenological changes in key seasonally expressed life-history traits occurring across periods of climatic and environmental change can cause temporal mismatches between interacting species, and thereby impact population and community dynamics. However, studies quantifying long-term phenological changes have commonly only measured variation occurring in spring, measured as the first or mean dates on which focal traits or events were observed. Few studies have considered seasonally paired events spanning spring and autumn or tested the key assumption that single convenient metrics accurately capture entire event distributions. We used 60 years (1955-2014) of daily bird migration census data from Fair Isle, Scotland, to comprehensively quantify the degree to which the full distributions of spring and autumn migration timing of 13 species of long-distance migratory bird changed across a period of substantial climatic and environmental change. In most species, mean spring and autumn migration dates changed little. However, the early migration phase (≤10th percentile date) commonly got earlier, while the late migration phase (≥90th percentile date) commonly got later. Consequently, species' total migration durations typically lengthened across years. Spring and autumn migration phenologies were not consistently correlated within or between years within species and hence were not tightly coupled. Furthermore, different metrics quantifying different aspects of migration phenology within seasons were not strongly cross-correlated, meaning that no single metric adequately described the full pattern of phenological change. These analyses therefore reveal complex patterns of simultaneous advancement, temporal stability and delay in spring and autumn migration phenologies, altering species' life-history structures. Additionally, they demonstrate that this complexity is only revealed if multiple metrics encompassing entire seasonal event distributions, rather than single

  4. Noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects over long distances in air using a bending vibrator and a reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-05-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation of small particles, including liquid droplets, over long distances is discussed. It is well known that particles can be trapped at the nodal points of an acoustic standing wave if the particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the standing wave. We used an experimental setup consisting of a 3-mm-thick, 605-mm-long duralumin bending vibrating plate and a reflector. A bolt-clamped Langevin transducer with horn was attached to each end of the vibrating plate to generate flexural vibrations along the plate. A plane reflector with the same dimensions as the vibrating plate was installed parallel to the plate at a distance of approximately 17 mm to generate an ultrasonic standing wave between them and to trap the small particles at the nodal lines. The acoustic field and acoustic radiation force between the vibrator and reflector were calculated by finite element analysis to predict the positions of the trapped particles. The sound pressure distribution was measured experimentally using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. By controlling the driving phase difference between the two transducers, a flexural traveling wave can be generated along the vibrating plate, and the vertical nodal lines of the standing wave and the trapped particles can be moved. The flexural wave was excited along the vibrator at 22.5 kHz. A lattice standing wave with a wavelength of 35 mm in the length direction could be excited between the vibrator and the reflector, and polystyrene spheres with diameters of several millimeters could be trapped at the nodal lines of the standing wave. The experimental and calculated results showed good agreement for the relationship between the driving phase difference and the positions of the trapped particles. Noncontact transportation of the trapped particles over long distances could be achieved by changing the driving phase difference. The position of the trapped particles could be controlled to an accuracy of 0.046 mm/deg. An

  5. The use anesthetic agents to promote welfare in anemonefish aquaculture: Case study to handling and long-distance transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three anaesthetic agents (80 to 110 mg/L of MS-222, 10 to 30 mg/L of clove oil and 100 to 350 mg/L of 2-phenoxyethanol in anaesthesia and the success of use different clove oil concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mg/L on water quality and survival of an ornamental anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, during long-distance transport in closed system for 48 hours. The lowest effective concentrations based on the efficacy criteria of complete anaesthetic induction within 180s, recovery within 300s and survival when exposed 30 min to anaesthetic was 15 mg/l for clove oil, 200 µl/L for 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 mg/L for MS-222. Above the concentrations of 30 mg/L, 300 µl/L and 100 mg/L of clove oil, 2-phenoxyethanol and MS-222 respectively, fish did not recovery when exposed to anaesthetic during 30min. During long-distance transport, clove oil slowed the increase on the ammonia concentration and the decrease on oxygen level, but did not affect the pH and only at concentration of 10 mg/L increase de mortality at 36 and 48 hours after packed. All concentrations showed a significance increase on water quality, reducing total ammonia from 9.31 ± 0.58 mg/L (control group to 5.43 ± 0.56 mg/L (1mg/L, 4.97 ± 0.59 mg/L (3mg/L and 3.88 ± 0.14 mg/L (10mg/L. This study showed that all anaesthetic agents under study can be used in anaesthesia of percula clownfish with optimal doses varied according to the anaesthetic, 15 to 25 mg/L of clove oil, 200 to 250 of 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 to 90 mg/L of MS-222, but clove oil was the anaesthetic agent more effectiveness and with major margin of safety for percula clownfish, and this anaesthesic (clove oil can be used in ornamental fish transportation, reducing the deterioration in water quality and ensuring a better transport environment and reduced stress for the fish. However must be careful related the dose in use, because an excess anesthesic may reduce dissolved oxygen and cause high

  6. HIV infection in long-distance truck drivers in a low income setting in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuonwu, Obioma; Erhabor, Osaro; Frank-Peterside, Nnenna

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence, and correlates of HIV infection among long-distance truck drivers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A total of one hundred (100) long-distance truck drivers aged between 21 and 60 years and mean age of 42.36 ± 5.23 years were screened for the presence of HIV antibodies. The results showed that, out of the total number screened 10 (10%) were positive for HIV while 90 (90%) were negative. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher in the 31-40 years age group 6/26 (23%) compared to 1/13 (7.6%) in the 21-30 years age group and 2/37 (7.4%) in the 51-60 years age group (P = 0.04).The lowest prevalence of HIV occurred in the 41-50 years age group 1/24 (4.2%). HIV 1 was the predominant viral subtype among the subjects 9 (90%) while 1 (10%) had HIV-2. None of the HIV-positive subjects had dual HIV 1 and 2 infections. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count for subjects positive for HIV was 380 ± 68.0 (range 312-448 cells/μl) while CD4 count for HIV negative subjects was 780 ± 76 cells/μl (range 704-856 cells/μl. A significant negative correlation was observed between HIV positivity and CD4 count r = -0.010 (P = 0.01). It is recommended that intensive preventive measures be instituted coupled with the implementation of a vigorous enlightenment campaign targeting behavioral change from high risk culture among truckers. Efforts are urgently needed to provide access to sexual health education, treatment services and HIV testing facilities to reduce their vulnerability to HIV infection.

  7. An approach for estimating the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident over long distance transboundary scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrakos, D., E-mail: dimitris.mitrakos@eeae.gr; Potiriadis, C.; Housiadas, C.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Actions may be warranted after a major nuclear accident even at long distances. • Distance may not be the decisive parameter for longer term radiological impact. • Remote impact may vary orders of magnitude depending on the meteorological conditions. • The potential impact can be assessed using computationally inexpensive calculations. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident important initiatives were taken in European level to enhance the nuclear safety level of the existing and planned nuclear reactors, such as the so-called nuclear “stress-tests” and the amendment of the Nuclear Safety Directive. A recent work of HERCA and WENRA focused on the need for a more consistent and harmonized response in a transboundary context in case of a hypothetical major nuclear accident in Europe. Such an accident, although very improbable, cannot be totally excluded and so, should be considered in emergency preparedness arrangements among the various European countries. In case of a hypothetical severe Fukushima-like accident in Europe, the role of the neighboring countries may be important, since the authorities should be able to provide information and advice to the government and the public, but also can contribute to the overall assessment of the situation be their own means. In this work we assess the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident for distances longer than 300 km that are not typically covered by the internationally accepted emergency planning zones. The approach is simple and computationally inexpensive, since it is based on the calculation of only a few release scenarios at dates selected within a whole year on the basis of bounding the deposition levels at long distances in relation to the occurrence of precipitation. From the calculated results it is evident that distance is not the only decisive parameter in estimating the potential radiological significance of a severe nuclear accident. The hypothetical

  8. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  9. Material Independent Long Distance Pulling, Trapping, and Rotation of Fully Immersed Multiple Objects with a Single Optical Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Md Masudur; Mahdy, Mahdy Rahman Chowdhury; Haque, Md Ehsanul; Islam, Rakibul; Chowdhury, S Tanvir-ur-Rahman; Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel; Matin, Md Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Optical pulling with tractor beams is so far highly dependent on (i) the property of embedding background or the particle itself , (ii) the number of the particles and/or (iii) the manual ramping of beam phase. A necessary theoretical solution of these problems is proposed here. This article demonstrates a novel active tractor beam for multiple fully immersed objects with its additional abilities of yielding a controlled rotation and a desired 3D trapping. Continuous and stable long distance levitation, controlled rotation and 3D trapping are demonstrated with a single optical set-up by using two coaxial, or even non-coaxial, superimposed non-diffracting higher order Bessel beams of reverse helical nature and different frequencies. The superimposed beam has periodic intensity variations both along and around the beam-axis because of the difference in longitudinal wave-vectors and beam orders, respectively. The difference in frequencies of two laser beams makes the intensity pattern move along and around the b...

  10. A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

    2014-02-20

    Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  11. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Flint

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94% while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.

  12. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Hannah E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Bateman, Ken G; Haley, Derek B

    2014-03-05

    This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94%) while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.

  13. 2 Cases of Bullosis Diabeticorum following Long-Distance Journeys by Road: A Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Bello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bullosis diabeticorum is a distinct, spontaneous, noninflammatory, and blistering condition of acral skin that is unique to diabetics. It is rare. Exact aetiopathogenesis is not known, but many attributed peripheral neuropathy as a potent risk factor, others hypothesized the role of trauma, UV light, and nephropathy. Aim. To present cases of bullosis diabeticorum following long-distance journeys by road. Methods. History and physical examinations were done on 2 diabetics who presented with bilateral feet bullae following a long journey. Biopsy of a circumferential area of the bullae including adjoining apparently normal skin was done. Results. Features of peripheral neuropathy were noted. One developed digital gangrene without features of peripheral vascular disease. Culture of aspirate from a bullae yielded Staphylococcus aureus. Tissue biopsy showed hyperkeratotic focally acanthotic pigmented epidermis with subcorneal separation of the granular layer of the epidermis by aggregates of viable and nonviable polymorphs and lymphocytes. There is mild acantholysis of the epidermis, and a fibrocollagenous dermis which is moderately infiltrated by lymphocytes. Conclusion. Long journeys by road is a strong factor in the aetiopathogenesis of bullosis diabeticorum on a background of peripheral neuropathy. Diabetics especially those with peripheral neuropathy should be cautious while traveling long journeys by road.

  14. Concomitant increase in blood plasma levels of immunoreactive hemorphin-7 and beta-endorphin following long distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glämsta, E L; Mørkrid, L; Lantz, I; Nyberg, F

    1993-11-19

    Hemorphins are endogenous opioids derived by enzymatic degradation of hemoglobin, a protein released in blood plasma during long distance running. We examined levels of beta-endorphin and the heptapeptide hemorphin-7, in heparinized venous blood plasma from 15 sedentary controls (8 males, 7 females) and from 15 age- and sex-matched marathon runners at baseline and after running 42 km or 21 km. Baseline levels of beta-endorphin (range 0.2-4.3 fmol/ml) were neither dependent upon weight, body mass index weight/height, running status nor sex. Baseline levels of hemorphin-7 (range 0.2-6.9 pmol/ml) were lower in women (P < 0.04) and covariated positively with body weight (P = 0.06), explaining lower levels in runners by their lower body weight. Covariation with body mass index was positive, but not significant (P = 0.10), however, here the dependence upon sex appeared stronger (P = 0.014). Running induced significant and correlated increases in hemorphin-7 and beta-endorphin (r = 0.74; P < 0.002), possibly indicating a functional relationship between these two peptides.

  15. 2 Cases of Bullosis Diabeticorum following Long-Distance Journeys by Road: A Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Fatima; Samaila, O Modupe; Lawal, Yakubu; Nkoro, U Kufre

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bullosis diabeticorum is a distinct, spontaneous, noninflammatory, and blistering condition of acral skin that is unique to diabetics. It is rare. Exact aetiopathogenesis is not known, but many attributed peripheral neuropathy as a potent risk factor, others hypothesized the role of trauma, UV light, and nephropathy. Aim. To present cases of bullosis diabeticorum following long-distance journeys by road. Methods. History and physical examinations were done on 2 diabetics who presented with bilateral feet bullae following a long journey. Biopsy of a circumferential area of the bullae including adjoining apparently normal skin was done. Results. Features of peripheral neuropathy were noted. One developed digital gangrene without features of peripheral vascular disease. Culture of aspirate from a bullae yielded Staphylococcus aureus. Tissue biopsy showed hyperkeratotic focally acanthotic pigmented epidermis with subcorneal separation of the granular layer of the epidermis by aggregates of viable and nonviable polymorphs and lymphocytes. There is mild acantholysis of the epidermis, and a fibrocollagenous dermis which is moderately infiltrated by lymphocytes. Conclusion. Long journeys by road is a strong factor in the aetiopathogenesis of bullosis diabeticorum on a background of peripheral neuropathy. Diabetics especially those with peripheral neuropathy should be cautious while traveling long journeys by road.

  16. Live-cell imaging of Marburg virus-infected cells uncovers actin-dependent transport of nucleocapsids over long distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudt, Gordian; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Dolnik, Olga; Sodeik, Beate; Becker, Stephan

    2013-08-27

    Transport of large viral nucleocapsids from replication centers to assembly sites requires contributions from the host cytoskeleton via cellular adaptor and motor proteins. For the Marburg and Ebola viruses, related viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers, the mechanism of nucleocapsid transport remains poorly understood. Here we developed and used live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled viral and host proteins to characterize the dynamics and molecular requirements of nucleocapsid transport in Marburg virus-infected cells under biosafety level 4 conditions. The study showed a complex actin-based transport of nucleocapsids over long distances from the viral replication centers to the budding sites. Only after the nucleocapsids had associated with the matrix viral protein VP40 at the plasma membrane were they recruited into filopodia and cotransported with host motor myosin 10 toward the budding sites at the tip or side of the long cellular protrusions. Three different transport modes and velocities were identified: (i) Along actin filaments in the cytosol, nucleocapsids were transported at ∼200 nm/s; (ii) nucleocapsids migrated from one actin filament to another at ∼400 nm/s; and (iii) VP40-associated nucleocapsids moved inside filopodia at 100 nm/s. Unique insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of nucleocapsids and their interaction with the cytoskeleton and motor proteins can lead to novel classes of antivirals that interfere with the trafficking and subsequent release of the Marburg virus from infected cells.

  17. Long-distance axonal regeneration in the filum terminale of adult rats is regulated by ependymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Jacek M; Avram, Ronen

    2008-03-01

    Studies of regeneration of transected adult central nervous system (CNS) axons are difficult due to lack of appropriate in vivo models. In adult rats, we described filum terminale (FT), a caudal slender extension of the sacral spinal cord and an integral part of the central nervous system (CNS), to use it as a model of spinal cord injury. FT is more than 3 cm long, encompasses a central canal lined with ependymal cells surrounded by a narrow band of axons interspersed with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes but not neurons. Two weeks after the crush of FT, histological, ultrastructural, and axonal tracing studies revealed long distance descending axonal regeneration uniquely in close proximity of the ependymal cells of the central canal. Ependymal cells extended basal processes to form channels encompassing axons apparently regenerating at a rate of more than 2 mm a day. Remarkable increase of axonal sprouting was observed in the sacral spinal cord of Long Evans Shaker (LES) rats with crushed FT. FT offers an excellent model to study mechanisms of axonal regeneration regulated by ependymal cells in the adult CNS.

  18. Adaptive modelling of long-distance wave propagation and fine-scale flooding during the Tohoku tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Popinet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami is simulated using the quadtree-adaptive Saint-Venant solver implemented within the Gerris Flow Solver. The spatial resolution is adapted dynamically from 250 m in flooded areas up to 250 km for the areas at rest. Wave fronts are tracked at a resolution of 1.8 km in deep water. The simulation domain extends over 73° of both latitude and longitude and covers a significant part of the north-west Pacific. The initial wave elevation is obtained from a source model derived using seismic data only. Accurate long-distance wave prediction is demonstrated through comparison with DART buoys timeseries and GLOSS tide gauges records. The model also accurately predicts fine-scale flooding compared to both satellite and survey data. Adaptive mesh refinement leads to orders-of-magnitude gains in computational efficiency compared to non-adaptive methods. The study confirms that consistent source models for tsunami initiation can be obtained from seismic data only. However, while the observed extreme wave elevations are reproduced by the model, they are located further south than in the surveyed data. Comparisons with inshore wave buoys data indicate that this may be due to an incomplete understanding of the local wave generation mechanisms.

  19. Confinement understanding the relation between the Wilson loop and dual theories of long distance Yang Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, M; Brambilla, Nora; Prosperi, G M; Zachariasen, F

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we express the velocity dependent, spin dependent heavy quark potential V_{q\\bar q} in QCD in terms of a Wilson Loop W(\\Gamma) determined by pure Yang Mills theory. We use an effective dual theory of long-distance Yang Mills theory to calculate W(\\Gamma) for large loops; i.e. for loops of size R > R_{FT}. (R_{FT} is the flux tube radius, fixed by the value of the Higgs (monopole) mass of the dual theory, which is a concrete realization of the Mandelstam 't Hooft dual superconductor mechanism of confinement). We replace W(\\Gamma) by W_{eff}(\\Gamma), given by a functional integral over the dual variables, which for R > R_{FT} can be evaluated by a semiclassical expansion, since the dual theory is weakly coupled at these distances. The classical approximation gives the leading contribution to W_{eff}(\\Gamma) and yields a velocity dependent heavy quark potential which for large R becomes linear in R, and which for small R approaches lowest order perturbative QCD. This latter fact means that these re...

  20. Stable long-distance propagation and on-off switching of colliding soliton sequences with dissipative interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Debananda; Jung, Jae-Hun

    2013-01-01

    We study propagation and on-off switching of two colliding soliton sequences in the presence of second-order dispersion, Kerr nonlinearity, linear loss, cubic gain, and quintic loss. Employing a Lotka-Volterra (LV) model for dynamics of soliton amplitudes along with simulations with two perturbed coupled nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equations, we show that stable long-distance propagation can be achieved for a wide range of the gain-loss coefficients, including values that are outside of the perturbative regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate robust on-off and off-on switching of one of the sequences by an abrupt change in the ratio of cubic gain and quintic loss coefficients, and extend the results to pulse sequences with periodically alternating phases. Our study significantly strengthens the recently found relation between collision dynamics of sequences of NLS solitons and population dynamics in LV models, and indicates that the relation might be further extended to solitary waves of the cubic-quintic Ginzb...

  1. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species’ distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities.

  2. Phylogeography of the Rock Shell Thais clavigera (Mollusca): Evidence for Long-Distance Dispersal in the Northwestern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Zhao, Dan; Jung, Daewui; Li, Qi; Kong, Ling-Feng; Ni, Gang; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Matsukuma, Akihiko; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Chungoo; Lee, Hyuk Je; Park, Joong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The present-day genetic structure of a species reflects both historical demography and patterns of contemporary gene flow among populations. To precisely understand how these factors shape current population structure of the northwestern (NW) Pacific marine gastropod, Thais clavigera, we determined the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene for 602 individuals sampled from 29 localities spanning almost the whole distribution of T. clavigera in the NW Pacific Ocean (~3,700 km). Results from population genetic and demographic analyses (AMOVA, ΦST-statistics, haplotype networks, Tajima's D, Fu's FS, mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots) revealed a lack of genealogical branches or geographical clusters, and a high level of genetic (haplotype) diversity within each of studied population. Nevertheless, low but significant genetic structuring was detected among some geographical populations separated by the Changjiang River, suggesting the presence of geographical barriers to larval dispersal around this region. Several lines of evidence including significant negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS statistics values, the unimodally shaped mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots suggest a population expansion at marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11; 400 ka), the longest and warmest interglacial interval during the Pleistocene epoch. The lack of genetic structure among the great majority of the NW Pacific T. clavigera populations may be attributable to high gene flow by current-driven long-distance dispersal of prolonged planktonic larval phase of this species.

  3. Long-distance propagation of pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xian-Mei; Zhu Wen-Yue; Rao Rui-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Propagation properties of spatially pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams through the atmospheric turbulence over a long-distance uplink path are studied by numerical simulation.A linear coordination transformation is introduced to overcome the window effect and the loss-of-resolution problem.The beam spreading,beam wandering,and intensity scintillation as functions of turbulence strength,source correlation length,and change frequency of random phase that models the partial coherence of the source are analyzed. It is found that the beam spreading and the intensity scintillation of the partially coherent beam are less affected by the turbulence than those of the coherent one,but it suffers from a more severe diffractive effect,and the change frequency of random phase has no evident influence on it.The beam wandering is insensitive to the variation of source correlation length,and decreases firstly then goes to a fixed value as the change frequency increases.

  4. Long Distance Truck Drivers and the Structural Context of Health: A Culture-Centered Investigation of Indian Truckers' Health Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance truck drivers (truckers) in India have been identified as a "high-risk" group for the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and are consequently the targets of prevention and education-based interventions. While such interventions have addressed risk at the level of individual behavior, little attention has been paid to the structural barriers to health for truckers. Research among truckers in India has ignored the economic, social, and cultural context of health. In this article, I employ the culture-centered approach (CCA) to health communication in documenting truckers' narratives of health, which are innately connected to social and institutional structures around their lives. The data included 36 narrative interviews that I conducted as part of my fieldwork with Indian truckers, in addition to field notes and a reflexive journal. Through a reflexive analysis of these narratives, I present three themes: (a) the everyday violence of trucking, (b) health as sacrifice, and (c) migration and HIV/AIDS. I discuss how communication interventions can attend to the relationship between trucker health and the structural barriers they encounter.

  5. Simultaneous Vehicle and Crew Routing and Scheduling for Partial- and Full-Load Long-Distance Road Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drexl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a simultaneous vehicle and crew routing and scheduling problem arising in long-distance road transport in Europe: Pickup-and-delivery requests have to be fulfilled over a multi-period planning horizon by a heterogeneous fleet of trucks and drivers. Typically, in the vehicle routing literature, a fixed assignment of a driver to a truck is assumed. In our approach, we abandon this assumption and allow truck/driver changes at geographically dispersed relay stations. This offers greater planning flexibility and allows a better utilization of trucks, but also creates intricate interdependencies between trucks and drivers and requires the synchronization of their routes. A solution heuristic based on a two-stage decomposition of the problem is developed, taking into account European Union social legislation for drivers, and computational experiments using real-world data provided by a major German forwarder are presented and analyzed. The obtained results suggest that for the vehicle and driver cost structure prevalent in Western Europe and for transport requests that are not systematically acquired to complement one another, no cost savings are possible through simultaneous vehicle and crew routing and scheduling, although no formal proof of this fact is possible.

  6. Advanced autumn migration of sparrowhawk has increased the predation risk of long-distance migrants in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi Lehikoinen

    Full Text Available Predation affects life history traits of nearly all organisms and the population consequences of predator avoidance are often larger than predation itself. Climate change has been shown to cause phenological changes. These changes are not necessarily similar between species and may cause mismatches between prey and predator. Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, the main predator of passerines, has advanced its autumn phenology by about ten days in 30 years due to climate change. However, we do not know if sparrowhawk migrate earlier in response to earlier migration by its prey or if earlier sparrowhawk migration results in changes to predation risk on its prey. By using the median departure date of 41 passerine species I was able to show that early migrating passerines tend to advance, and late migrating species delay their departure, but none of the species have advanced their departure times as much as the sparrowhawk. This has lead to a situation of increased predation risk on early migrating long-distance migrants (LDM and decreased the overlap of migration season with later departing short-distance migrants (SDM. Findings highlight the growing list of problems of declining LDM populations caused by climate change. On the other hand it seems that the autumn migration may become safer for SDM whose populations are growing. Results demonstrate that passerines show very conservative response in autumn phenology to climate change, and thus phenological mismatches caused by global warming are not necessarily increasing towards the higher trophic levels.

  7. Multi-segment foot kinematics after total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis during relatively long-distance gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Aminian, K; Crevoisier, X

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) treatments, i.e., ankle arthrodesis (AA) and total ankle replacement (TAR), on the kinematics of multi-segment foot and ankle complex during relatively long-distance gait. Forty-five subjects in four groups (AOA, AA, TAR, and control) were equipped with a wearable system consisting of inertial sensors installed on the tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals. The subjects walked 50-m twice while the system measured the kinematic parameters of their multi-segment foot: the range of motion of joints between tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals in three anatomical planes, and the peaks of angular velocity of these segments in the sagittal plane. These parameters were then compared among the four groups. It was observed that the range of motion and peak of angular velocities generally improved after TAR and were similar to the control subjects. However, unlike AOA and TAR, AA imposed impairments in the range of motion in the coronal plane for both the tibia-calcaneus and tibia-metatarsals joints. In general, the kinematic parameters showed significant correlation with established clinical scales (FFI and AOFAS), which shows their convergent validity. Based on the kinematic parameters of multi-segment foot during 50-m gait, this study showed significant improvements in foot mobility after TAR, but several significant impairments remained after AA.

  8. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock: the example of cattle transport in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, John W

    2008-01-01

    The author outlines the design of road vehicles for the long distance transport of livestock, mainly cattle, which are used in the tropical and sub-Mediterranean climatic regions of Australia and which have been engineered to meet animal welfare principles. Over 50% of journeys exceed 500 km. Journeys of 2 000 to 3 000 km do occur and involve the resting of animals once or twice during the journey. Specialised vehicles, known as 'road trains', are employed and these consist of multiple trailers with multi-deck containers or stock crates for animals, which are hauled by a prime mover or tractor. The starting point for design is safety for both people and animals and the need to preserve transport infrastructure such as roads and bridges. The move to volume livestock loading, where livestock are loaded according to the volume they occupy rather than their weight, was a major early breakthrough. Details are given of the design of vehicles and loading facilities. Vehicle design includes suspensions and the floors, interior walls, doors, partitions and penning, deck supports and arrangements for through loading of stock crates. Loading and unloading ramps can be a major source of stress and standardised heights have been adopted in Australia.

  9. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock: the example of cattle transport in northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lapworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The author outlines the design of road vehicles for the long distance transport of livestock, mainly cattle, which are used in the tropical and sub-Mediterranean climatic regions of Australia and which have been engineered to meet animal welfare principles. Over 50% of journeys exceed 500 km. Journeys of 2 000 to 3 000 km do occur and involve the resting of animals once or twice during the journey. Specialised vehicles, known as 'road trains', are employed and these consist of multiple trailers with multi-deck containers or stock crates for animals, which are hauled by a prime mover or tractor. The starting point for design is safety for both people and animals and the need to preserve transport infrastructure such as roads and bridges. The move to volume livestock loading, where livestock are loaded according to the volume they occupy rather than their weight, was a major early breakthrough. Details are given of the design of vehicles and loading facilities. Vehicle design includes suspensions and the floors, interior walls, doors, partitions and penning, deck supports and arrangements for through loading of stock crates. Loading and unloading ramps can be a major source of stress and standardised heights have been adopted in Australia.

  10. Phylogeography of the Rock Shell Thais clavigera (Mollusca: Evidence for Long-Distance Dispersal in the Northwestern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Guo

    Full Text Available The present-day genetic structure of a species reflects both historical demography and patterns of contemporary gene flow among populations. To precisely understand how these factors shape current population structure of the northwestern (NW Pacific marine gastropod, Thais clavigera, we determined the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene for 602 individuals sampled from 29 localities spanning almost the whole distribution of T. clavigera in the NW Pacific Ocean (~3,700 km. Results from population genetic and demographic analyses (AMOVA, ΦST-statistics, haplotype networks, Tajima's D, Fu's FS, mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots revealed a lack of genealogical branches or geographical clusters, and a high level of genetic (haplotype diversity within each of studied population. Nevertheless, low but significant genetic structuring was detected among some geographical populations separated by the Changjiang River, suggesting the presence of geographical barriers to larval dispersal around this region. Several lines of evidence including significant negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS statistics values, the unimodally shaped mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots suggest a population expansion at marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11; 400 ka, the longest and warmest interglacial interval during the Pleistocene epoch. The lack of genetic structure among the great majority of the NW Pacific T. clavigera populations may be attributable to high gene flow by current-driven long-distance dispersal of prolonged planktonic larval phase of this species.

  11. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  12. Rodent middens reveal episodic, long-distance plant colonizations across the hyperarid Atacama Desert over the last 34,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francisca P.; Latorre, Claudio; Maldonado, Antonio; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To document the impact of late Quaternary pluvial events on plant movements between the coast and the Andes across the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Location Sites are located along the lower and upper fringes of absolute desert (1100–2800 m a.s.l.), between the western slope of the Andes and the Coastal Ranges of northern Chile (24–26° S). Methods We collected and individually radiocarbon dated 21 rodent middens. Plant macrofossils (fruits, seeds, flowers and leaves) were identified and pollen content analysed. Midden assemblages afford brief snapshots of local plant communities that existed within the rodents' limited foraging range during the several years to decades that it took the midden to accumulate. These assemblages were then compared with modern floras to determine the presence of extralocal species and species provenance. Results Five middens span the last glacial period (34–21 ka) and three middens are from the last glacial–interglacial transition (19–11 ka). The remaining 13 middens span the last 7000 years. Coastal hyperarid sites exhibit low taxonomic richness in middens at 19.3, 1.1, 1.0, 0.9, 0.5 ka and a modern sample. Middens are also dominated by the same plants that occur today. In contrast, middens dated to 28.1, 21.3, 17.3, 3.7 and 0.5 ka contain more species, including Andean extralocals. Precordillera middens (c. 2700 m) show a prominent increase in plant macrofossil richness, along with the appearance of Andean extralocals and sedges at 34.5 and 18.9 ka. Six younger middens dated to 6.1–0.1 ka are similar to the modern local vegetation. Main conclusions Increased species richness and Andean extralocal plants occurred along the current lower fringes of absolute desert during the last glacial–interglacial transition and late Holocene. The absence of soil carbonates indicates the persistence of absolute desert throughout the Quaternary. Colonization by Andean plants could have been accomplished through long-distance seed

  13. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source

  14. Long-distance island hopping without dispersal stages: transportation across major zoogeographic barriers in a Southern Ocean isopod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Florian; Agrawal, Shobhit; Held, Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Species integrity is maintained only if recurrent allelic exchange between subpopulations occurs by means of migrating specimens. Predictions of this gene flow on the basis of observed or assumed mobility of marine species have proven to be error-prone. Using one mitochondrial gene and seven microsatellite markers, we studied the genetic structure and gene flow in Septemserolis septemcarinata, a strictly benthic species lacking pelagic larvae and the ability to swim. Suitable shallow-water habitats around three remote islands (South Georgia, Bouvet, and Marion Island) are geographically disjunct, isolated by more than 2,000 km of uninhabitable deep sea (east-west) and also separated by the Polar Front (north-south), which serves as a strong demarcation line in many marine taxa. Although we did find genetic differentiation among the three island populations, our results also revealed that a scenario with recent gene flow explains our data best. A model assuming no gene flow after initial colonization of the islands performs significantly worse. The tests also favor an asymmetric gene flow pattern (west to east ≫ east to west) thus mirroring the directionality of major oceanographic currents in the area. We conclude that rare long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance or human-mediated transport must be responsible for the observed patterns. As a mechanism, we propose passive rafting on floating substrata in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness of a physical barrier is not solely a function of its physical parameters but strongly depends on how organisms interact with their environment.

  15. Temporal Stability and the Effect of Transgenerational Transfer on Fecal Microbiota Structure in a Long Distance Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Kropáčková, Lucie; Petrželková, Adéla; Adámková, Marie; Tomášek, Oldřich; Martin, Jean-François; Michálková, Romana; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host’s phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome. Although this concept is widely accepted, its crucial assumptions have rarely been tested in wild vertebrate populations. We performed 16S rRNA metabarcoding on an extensive set of fecal microbiota (FM) samples from an insectivorous, long-distance migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Our data revealed clear differences in FM among juveniles and adults as regards taxonomic and functional composition, diversity and co-occurrence network complexity. Multiple FM samples from the same juvenile or adult collected within single breeding seasons exhibited higher similarity than expected by chance, as did adult FM samples over two consecutive years. Despite low effect sizes for FM stability over time at the community level, we identified an adult FM subset with relative abundances exhibiting significant temporal consistency, possibly inducing long-term effects on the host phenotype. Our data also indicate a slight maternal (but not paternal) effect on FM composition in social offspring, though this is unlikely to persist into adulthood. We discuss our findings in the context of both evolution and ecology of microbiota vs. host interactions and barn swallow biology. PMID:28220109

  16. Effects of pre-shipping marbofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in healthy Thoroughbreds transported a long distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Omura, Takaya; Nakai, Kenji; Korosue, Kenji; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Hobo, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) ≤1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation.

  17. Imaging long distance propagating calcium signals in intact plant leaves with the BRET-based GFP-Aequorin reporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tou Cheu eXiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ is a second messenger involved in many plant signalling processes. Biotic and abiotic stimuli induce Ca2+ signals within plant cells, which, when decoded, enable these cells to adapt in response to environmental stresses. Multiple examples of Ca2+ signals from plants containing the fluorescent yellow cameleon sensor (YC have contributed to the definition of the Ca2+ signature in some cell types such as root hairs, pollen tubes and guard cells. YC is, however, of limited use in highly autofluorescent plant tissues, in particular mesophyll cells. Alternatively, the bioluminescent reporter aequorin enables Ca2+ imaging in the whole plant, including mesophyll cells, but this requires specific devices capable of detecting the low amounts of emitted light. Another type of Ca2+ sensor, referred to as GFP-aequorin (G5A, has been engineered as a chimeric protein, which combines the two photoactive proteins from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, the green fluorescent protein (GFP and the bioluminescent protein aequorin. The Ca2+-dependent light-emitting property of G5A is based on a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET between aequorin and GFP. G5A has been used for over 10 years for enhanced in vivo detection of Ca2+ signals in animal tissues.Here, we apply G5A in Arabidopsis and show that G5A greatly improves the imaging of Ca2+ dynamics in intact plants. We describe a simple method to image Ca2+ signals in autofluorescent leaves of plants with a cooled charge-coupled device (cooled CCD camera. We present data demonstrating how plants expressing the G5A probe can be powerful tools for imaging of Ca2+ signals. It is shown that Ca2+ signals propagating over long distances can be visualized in intact plant leaves and are visible mainly in the veins.

  18. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sabatini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  19. Coupling between apical tension and basal adhesion allow epithelia to collectively sense and respond to substrate topography over long distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaders, Kyle E; Cerchiari, Alec E; Gartner, Zev J

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial sheets fold into complex topographies that contribute to their function in vivo. Cells can sense and respond to substrate topography in their immediate vicinity by modulating their interfacial mechanics, but the extent to which these mechanical properties contribute to their ability to sense substrate topography across length scales larger than a single cell has not been explored in detail. To study the relationship between the interfacial mechanics of single cells and their collective behavior as tissues, we grew cell-sheets on substrates engraved with surface features spanning macroscopic length-scales. We found that many epithelial cell-types sense and respond to substrate topography, even when it is locally nearly planar. Cells clear or detach from regions of local negative curvature, but not from regions with positive or no curvature. We investigated this phenomenon using a finite element model where substrate topography is coupled to epithelial response through a balance of tissue contractility and adhesive forces. The model correctly predicts the focal sites of cell-clearing and epithelial detachment. Furthermore, the model predicts that local tissue response to substrate curvature is a function of the surrounding topography of the substrate across long distances. Analysis of cell-cell and cell-substrate contact angles suggests a relationship between these single-cell interfacial properties, epithelial interfacial properties, and collective epithelial response to substrate topography. Finally, we show that contact angles change upon activation of oncogenes or inhibition of cell-contractility, and that these changes correlate with collective epithelial response. Our results demonstrate that in mechanically integrated epithelial sheets, cell contractility can be transmitted through multiple cells and focused by substrate topography to affect a behavioral response at distant sites.

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE DYNAMICS OF AFFECTIVE MANIFESTATIONS IN MIDDLE DISTANCE AND LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS, IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS OF MENTAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAREŞ GABRIEL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction. High performance in track and field is constantly conditioned by the athletes' reaction to different stress factors. The analysis of mental stress on athletes in different situations has made certain specialists to say that the psychological effect of a stress agent (seen as a response of the athlete is less predictable than the physiological effect, one reason being the complex and difficult nature of objectively predicting the response provoked by the effect of the stress factor, considering the fact that high performance athletes react differently to the pressure of complex situations during training and competitions. Methodology. The research was conducted on 12 subjects with different experience in high performance track and field/athletics, and in this specific event. The subjects were given three psychological tests, within a period of six months, during three different stress situations: two tests (initial and final before two major competitions (the national championships - selection competitions, and an intermediate testing (halfway between the two competitions, when the subjects were in full training process for the second competition. During these six months the previously planned training program was followed, but with a larger emphasis (in comparison with other training periods on the psychological training of the athletes.Results. The statistical analysis of the values for the studied variables has shown the existence of significant differences only in the manifestations associated with certain psychological states of the ones we studied, during different tests. Conclusions The affective manifestations of the middle distance-long distance runners during different situations of mental stress present an oscillatory dynamics with a slightly descendant curve, showing a complexity of the psycho-affective states and reactions.

  1. Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerdi, Daniela; Bossi, Simone; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2009-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum MSA35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic Fusarium that lives in association with a consortium of bacteria belonging to the genera Serratia, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas in an Italian soil suppressive to Fusarium wilt. Typing experiments and virulence tests provided evidence that the F. oxysporum isolate when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms identical to those caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Here, we demonstrate that small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the WT strain negatively influence the mycelial growth of different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, these VOCs repress gene expression of two putative virulence genes in F. oxysporum lactucae strain Fuslat10, a fungus against which the WT strain MSA 35 has antagonistic activity. The VOC profile of the WT and CU fungus shows different compositions. Sesquiterpenes, mainly caryophyllene, were present in the headspace only of WT MSA 35. No sesquiterpenes were found in the volatiles of ectosymbiotic Serratia sp. strain DM1 and Achromobacter sp. strain MM1. Bacterial volatiles had no effects on the growth of the different ff. spp. of F. oxysporum examined. Hyphae grownwithVOCfrom WT F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae strain MSA 35 were hydrophobic whereas those grown without VOCs were not, suggesting a correlation between the presence of volatiles in the atmosphere and the phenotype of the mycelium. This is the first report of VOC production by antagonistic F. oxysporum MSA35 and their effects on pathogenic F. oxysporum. The results obtained in this work led us to propose a new potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonism by F. oxysporum MSA 35 mediated by VOCs. Antagonism could be the consequence of both reduction of pathogen mycelial growth and inhibition of pathogen virulence gene expression.

  2. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  3. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    , half of these were juveniles. The median time an individual was present in the sewers was 4 months with maxima up to 22 months. Abundance ranged from 2 to 44 animals per sewer system and the dynamics showed no regular fluctuations. Rats were distributed throughout the study area, regardless of sewer...... dimensions. Juvenile rats were captured more in the smaller and drier sewer sections. Activity areas of rats of both sexes overlapped partially, and observations of bite wounds were rare, suggesting a high degree of tolerance. The average maximal distance covered by rats was ~200 m for both sexes. Day...... a surface area of 30 Ha. Multiple-capture live traps were placed in manholes in public sewers; animals were marked individually and data were collected every fourth week for a period of almost 3 years. Key results.: In total, 332 individual rats were trapped. Approximately one-third were only caught once...

  4. Diverse spore rains and limited local mixing shaped fern genetic diversity in a recent habitat colonized by long-distance dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de G.A.; During, H.J.; Ansell, S.W.; Schneider, H.; Wubs, E.R.J.; Maas, J.W.; Korpelainen, H.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Populations established by long-distance colonization are expected to show low levels of genetic variation per population, but strong genetic differentiation among populations. Whether isolated populations indeed show this genetic signature of isolation depends on the amount and

  5. Foraging conditions 'at the end of the world' in the context of long-distance migration and population declines in red knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, G.; Navedo, J.G.; Piersma, T.; de Goeij, P.; Edelaar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The long-distance migrant red knot (Calidris canutus ssp. rufa Scolopacidae) alternates between the northern and southern ends of the New World, one of the longest yearly migrations of any bird and paradoxically overflying apparently suitable habitat at lower latitudes. This subspecies is sharply de

  6. The fate of a colonizer: successful but lonely? The establishment of inter- and intra-specific diversity in ferns by means of long-distance dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Global changes currently result in strong declines in species richness and population-genetic diversity. For maintenance of diversity in protected areas and developing new diversity in restored or newly created areas, immigration by long-distance dispersal (LDD) is of vital importance, as it allows

  7. Long-distance translocation of protein during morphogenesis of the fruiting body in the filamentous fungus, Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Woolston

    phenomenon of long-distance protein translocation in A. bisporus that has potential application in recombinant protein expression and biotechnological approaches for crop improvement.

  8. Long distance observations with the ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager: Eroded Mount Sharp deposits on Gale Crater floor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Horton; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bridges, Nathan; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jacob, Samantha; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's ChemCam includes a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) to provide context for the laser pits, to obtain long-range images, and for passive reflectance spectra (400-840 nm). Use of the RMI has been enhanced by a new autofocus algorithm using onboard analysis of RMI images. The RMI has the finest pixel scale on the rover with 19.6 μrad/pixel (1024x1024 grayscale), compared to Mastcam M100 color images (74 μrad/pixel). The pixel scale for RMI images is ~2 cm at 1 km, and ~26 cm at 12 km, beyond which HiRISE orbital resolution (25 cm/pixel) is better. Note: useful resolution of geological features requires 3-5 pixels. A major question for Gale Crater (age 3.6 BY), is whether the presently truncated deposits on Mt. Sharp originally extended across the crater floor, prior to the deposition of Peace Vallis and other fans at 3.2 BY? HiRISE imagery shows early, partly eroded deposits in the vicinity of the Peace Vallis fan, but the materials could have been impact related. Long distance RMI images of the deposits, however, confirm the presence of eroded buttes with at least 8-10 horizontal layers (0.8-1.6 m thick) in one example, consistent with a sedimentary origin. The layered buttes rise as much as 12 meters above the surrounding deposits. The later deposits embay the lower portions of the buttes and are probably a phase of the later Peace Vallis fan. The RMI images show the presence of blocks in this fan unit of about 50-80 cm, consistent with an enhanced retention of craters that has been noted for this unit. Another RMI observation just above the Peace Vallis channel shows an eroded bench or series of layered hills at the same level, that could also indicate early sediment deposits prior to Peace Vallis fan. Conclusions - The RMI images (and HiRISE images of other crater floor deposits) suggest at least some deposits possibly related to Mt. Sharp were present on the crater floor near the Peace Vallis fan and now are highly eroded, but their original thickness is

  9. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

  10. The Motivation and Physiological Survey Analysis of Weifang Zhiynan Long--distance Running Club Members' Participation in Long--distance Running%潍坊致远长跑俱乐部成员参与长跑运动的动因及生理指标调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华刚

    2011-01-01

    对潍坊市致远长跑俱乐部的成员进行了基本情况调查和常规的运动生理指标测试,通过对大量数据的统计分析,探讨长跑运动对人体健康产生的影响,为长跑健身提供相应的科学依据。%On the general survey and conventional exercise physiological tests of weifang zhiyuan long--distance running club members, this paper probes into the impact of long--distance running on human health through the analysis of large amounts of data, providing the relevant scientific basis for long--distance running and fitness.

  11. Oil collecting bees and Byrsonima cydoniifolia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae) interactions: the prevalence of long-distance cross pollination driving reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazan, Morgana S; Bezerra, Antonio Diego M; Freitas, Breno M

    2014-03-01

    Oil-collecting bees are the natural pollinators of oil-flower plants, but little is known about the pollination process and the effectiveness of their pollination service to the reproductive success of their host plants. In species of Byrsonima the reproductive system have been described as auto-compatible or self-incompatible. We studied the reproductive system of Byrsonima cydoniifolia, the fructification by means of short, medium and long-distance cross pollinations, the morphology and floral biology and the pollination interactions with species of oil-collecting bees. By means of controlled pollinations we found self-incompatibility caused by abortion of most self-pollinated flowers and demonstrated that the prevailing cross pollination ensuring the reproductive success of B. cydoniifolia is the long-distance cross pollination and Centridini bees; Epicharis nigrita, particularly, are the pollinators promoting the gene flow between genetically distinct populations.

  12. PC与Trane CH530控制器的长距离通讯方案%Long distance RS232 Communication for Trane CH530 and PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金勇

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a long distance RS232 communication between Trance CH530 control er and PC,it also can be used for other long distance RS232 communication requirement,but should change the line-connection depend on device.%介绍PC与Trane CH530控制器的长距离通讯方案及具体实现方法。该方案也可用于类似的有长距离RS232串行通讯要求的场合,在实际应用中需要根据终端设备调整交叉线的接线方法。

  13. Local and long-distance district heating of buildings - on the advance or retreat?; Nah- und Fernwaermeversorgung von Gebaeuden. Aus- oder Rueckbau?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagnow, Kati [Hochschule Magdeburg (Germany); Wolff, Dieter [Ostfalia Hochschule Wolfenbuettel (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    If the climate protection goals in the federal government's energy concept for 2050 are to come true, then only with a large contribution from the building sector. Indirectly the energy concept banks on an expansion of local and long-distance heating networks for building heating, and in many cases this seems to make good sense from today's viewpoint. However, a look at the wider picture reveals the continued expansion of local and long-distance heating networks to be a step in the wrong direction. The present article uses a concrete example to show that when looking towards the future one must always consider electricity and heating systems together and in doing so take all specific loss ratios into account.

  14. Guiding of Long-Distance Electric Discharges by Combined Femtosecond and Nanosecond Pulses Emitted by Hybrid KrF Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    laser pulse initiated HV discharge with a time delay of tens nanoseconds – evidently it is developing due to an avalanche -like growth of electron...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0040 Guiding of long-distance electric discharges by combined femtosecond and nanosecond pulses emitted by...and guiding electric discharge , KrF laser, femtosecond pulse , nanosecond pulse , filamentation, plasma channel, lightning control, laser control of

  15. 远距离量子通信实验中的高维纠缠源%High-dimensional entanglement for long distance quantum communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印娟; 钱勇; 李晓强; 包小辉; 彭承志; 杨涛; 潘阁生

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a scheme to generate a high-dimensional entanglement source for long distance quantum communication. We utilize a continuous wave pump laser to produce polarization-time two-body four-dimensional entangled photon pairs. Under 20 mW of pump power, we achieve 700 entangled photon pairs per second with a fidelity of 89% ± 3% . Compared with other known high dimension entangled sources, the developed source in the paper is easy to transmit over a long distance and its phase stability is easy to achieve. Therefore, the source is more suited for the future long distance high-dimensional quantum communication tasks and testing the quantum nonlocality, for example, long distance high dimensional quantum key distribution, experimental testing two-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger theorem, implementation of two-particle quantum pseudo telepathy, etc.%设计了适用于远距离量子通信实验的高维纠缠源.利用连续激光器抽运产生了极化-时间两体四维纠缠光子对,在抽运功率20 mW下测到每秒700对符合,保真度为89%±3%.相比已有的高维纠缠源,在本文中发展的源具有传输便利、相化稳定性好等优点,适用于未来远距离高维量子通信实验和量子力学基本问题实验检验,如远距离高维量子密码实验、两粒子Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger定理检验、两粒子量子赝"心灵感应"(quantum pseudo telepathy)实验演示等.

  16. An improved grafting technique for mature Arabidopsis plants demonstrates long-distance shoot-to-root transport of phytochelatins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice; Komives, Elizabeth A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2006-05-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are peptides that function in heavy-metal chelation and detoxification in plants and fungi. A recent study showed that PCs have the ability to undergo long-distance transport in a root-to-shoot direction in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether long-distance transport of PCs can occur in the opposite direction, from shoots to roots, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) PC synthase (TaPCS1) gene was expressed under the control of a shoot-specific promoter (CAB2) in an Arabidopsis PC-deficient mutant, cad1-3 (CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3). Analyses demonstrated that TaPCS1 is expressed only in shoots and that CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 lines complement the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic metal sensitivity of cad1-3 shoots. CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants exhibited higher Cd accumulation in roots and lower Cd accumulation in shoots compared to wild type. Fluorescence HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry analyses directly detected PC2 in the roots of CAB2:TaPCS1/cad1-3 but not in cad1-3 controls, suggesting that PC2 is transported over long distances in the shoot-to-root direction. In addition, wild-type shoot tissues were grafted onto PC synthase cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double loss-of-function mutant root tissues. An Arabidopsis grafting technique for mature plants was modified to obtain an 84% success rate, significantly greater than a previous rate of approximately 11%. Fluorescence HPLC-mass spectrometry showed the presence of PC2, PC3, and PC4 in the root tissue of grafts between wild-type shoots and cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double-mutant roots, demonstrating that PCs are transported over long distances from shoots to roots in Arabidopsis.

  17. Foraging conditions 'at the end of the world' in the context of long-distance migration and population declines in red knots

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, G.; Navedo, J.G.; Piersma, T; de Goeij, P.; Edelaar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The long-distance migrant red knot (Calidris canutus ssp. rufa – Scolopacidae) alternates between the northern and southern ends of the New World, one of the longest yearly migrations of any bird and paradoxically overflying apparently suitable habitat at lower latitudes. This subspecies is sharply declining, with a major mortality event following 2000, attributed to commercial overharvesting of food resources at its Delaware Bay (USA) stop-over site. A full understandin...

  18. Coupled solar-magnetic orientation during leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) long-distance migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Zerbini, A.; Andriolo, A.; Clapham, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Determining how animals perform long-distance animal migration remains one of the most enduring and fundamental mysteries of behavioural ecology. It is widely accepted that navigation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and significant experimental research has documented a variety of viable orientation and navigation cues. However, relatively few investigations have attempted to reconcile experimentally determined orientation and navigation capacities of animals with empirical remotely sensed animal track data, leaving most theories of navigation and orientation untested. Here we show, using basic hypothesis testing, that leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migration paths are non-randomly distributed in magnetic coordinate space, with local peaks in magnetic coordinate distributions equal to fractional multiples of the angular obliquity of Earth’s axis of rotation. Time series analysis of humpback whale migratory behaviours, including migration initiation, changes in course, and migratory stop-overs, further demonstrate coupling of magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These unexpected and highly novel results indicate that diverse taxa integrate magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These results are compatible with a 'map and compass' orientation and navigation system. Humpback whale migration track geometries further indicate a map and compass orientation system is used. Several humpback whale tracks include highly directional segments (Mercator latitude vs. longitude r2>0.99) exceeding 2000 km in length, despite exposure to variable strength (c. 0-1 km/hr) surface cross-currents. Humpback whales appear to be able to compensate for surface current drift. The remarkable directional

  19. How to set-up a long-distance mentoring program: a framework and case description of mentorship in HIV clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuagbaw L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mbuagbaw,1,2 Lehana Thabane2,31Centre for the Development of Best Practices in Health (CDBPH, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Henri Dunant Avenue, Messa, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Biostatistics Unit, Father Sean O’Sullivan Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, CanadaAbstract: Mentoring plays an important role in learning and career development. Mentored researchers are more productive and more likely to publish their work. However, mentorship programs are not universally used in most settings or disciplines. Furthermore, successful and mutually beneficial mentoring relationships are not always easy to arrange. Long-distance mentoring relationships are even more difficult to handle and may break down for a wide variety of reasons. Drawing from our experiences with the first Canadian Institutes of Health Research – Canadian HIV Trials Network international postdoctoral fellowship program, we describe the roles of the context, the key mentor and the mentee attributes; goals and expectations; environments, local support, a communication plan, funding, face-to-face contact, multidisciplinary collaboration, co-mentoring, and evaluation as they apply to the successful implementation of a long-distance mentoring program.Keywords: long distance, mentoring, framework, Canada, Cameroon

  20. Are Long-Distance Migrants Constrained in Their Evolutionary Response to Environmental Change?: Causes of Variation in the Timing of Autumn Migration in a Blackcap (S. atricapilla) and Two Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.; Widmer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Long-distance migratory birds often show little phenotypic variation in the timing of life-history events like breeding, molt, or migration. It has been hypothesized that this could result from low levels of heritable variation. If this were true, the adaptability of long-distance migratory birds wo

  1. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Hoenner

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata estimated from (a highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th percentile error was 4 km for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3 and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively. This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  2. Simple and efficient methods to generate split roots and grafted plants useful for long-distance signaling studies in Medicago truncatula and other small plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassaw Tessema K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long distance signaling is a common phenomenon in animal and plant development. In plants, lateral organs such as nodules and lateral roots are developmentally regulated by root-to-shoot and shoot-to-root long distance signaling. Grafting and split root experiments have been used in the past to study the systemic long distance effect of endogenous and environmental factors, however the potential of these techniques has not been fully realized because data replicates are often limited due to cumbersome and difficult approaches and many plant species with soft tissue are difficult to work with. Hence, developing simple and efficient methods for grafting and split root inoculation in these plants is of great importance. Results We report a split root inoculation system for the small legume M. truncatula as well as robust and reliable techniques of inverted-Y grafting and reciprocal grafting. Although the split root technique has been historically used for a variety of experimental purposes, we made it simple, efficient and reproducible for M. truncatula. Using our split root experiments, we showed the systemic long distance suppression of nodulation on a second wild type root inoculated after a delay, as well as the lack of this suppression in mutants defective in autoregulation. We demonstrated inverted-Y grafting as a method to generate plants having two different root genotypes. We confirmed that our grafting method does not affect the normal growth and development of the inserted root; the composite plants maintained normal root morphology and anatomy. Shoot-to-root reciprocal grafts were efficiently made with a modification of this technique and, like standard grafts, demonstrate that the regulatory signal defective in rdn1 mutants acts in the root. Conclusions Our split root inoculation protocol shows marked improvement over existing methods in the number and quality of the roots produced. The dual functions of the

  3. Lost in Transit: Long-Distance Trafficking and Phloem Unloading of Protein Signals in Arabidopsis Homografts[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Marie-Paule; Molnar, Attila; Oparka, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to moving sugars and nutrients, the phloem transports many macromolecules. While grafting and aphid stylectomy experiments have identified many macromolecules that move in the phloem, the functional significance of phloem transport of these remains unclear. To gain insight into protein trafficking, we micrografted Arabidopsis thaliana scions expressing GFP-tagged chloroplast transit peptides under the 35S promoter onto nontransgenic rootstocks. We found that plastids in the root tip became fluorescent 10 d after grafting. We obtained identical results with the companion cell-specific promoter SUC2 and with signals that target proteins to peroxisomes, actin, and the nucleus. We were unable to detect the respective mRNAs in the rootstock, indicating extensive movement of proteins in the phloem. Outward movement from the root protophloem was restricted to the pericycle-endodermis boundary, identifying plasmodesmata at this interface as control points in the exchange of macromolecules between stele and cortex. Intriguingly, signals directing proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus from membrane-bound ribosomes were not translocated to the root. It appears that many organelle-targeting sequences are insufficient to prevent the loss of their proteins into the translocation stream. Thus, nonspecific loss of proteins from companion cells to sieve elements may explain the plethora of macromolecules identified in phloem sap. PMID:27600534

  4. Seasonal movements and migration of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus from Qinghai Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Douglas, D.C.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Palm, E.C.; Newman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the seasonal movements and migration often Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus trom Qinghai Lake to assess migratory routes and stopover areas. Each individual was captured and equipped with an 18 g solar-powered Platform Transmitter Terminal (PIT) to track its movements from September 2007 to May 2008. Six individuals remained near Qinghai Lake until the PTTs stopped transmitting. Three individuals flew 50-330 km from Qinghai Lake to nearby salt lakes. One individual departed on 8 December and flew over 1,700 km south-west to arrive at coastal Bangladesh on 9 January 2008. Two individuals flew in October to the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India, remaining in the area for at least one month until one stopped transmitting. The second individual travelled southwest to coastal Bangladesh. Of the two individuals overwintering in Bangladesh, one remained for 67 days before migrating north. The second bird departed after 96 days, and it returned to Qinghai on 10 May 2008 after 48 days in migration. Both individuals that overwintered in coastal Bangladesh arrived much later than the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HP AI H5N I) in poultry in 2007. This disparity in timing would tentatively suggest that this species was not involved in long-distance movements of the virus. Instead, the converse may be true: previous work demonstrates the potential for virus spill-over trom poultry into gulls and other wild bird species upon arrival into locations with widespread HPAI H5NI outbreaks and environmental contamination.

  5. Chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.

  6. The role of long distance migration in the rural renaissance, in gentrification, and in growth of the Sunbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J

    1980-01-01

    The author "has examined trends in interstate migration during the 1970s for the four regions of the United States and, in particular, explored the relationship of this migration with nonmetropolitan expansion and the return to the city movement. The data show that the former trend is a very real one which has persisted throughout the decade and that population growth through interstate migration in nonmetropolitan America is, on balance, the result of nonblacks moving to the South from elsewhere in the nation. Except in the West, central cities continue to experience substantial losses of population through interstate migration. Interstate migration continues to be directed toward suburbs, and is especially vigorous in the West." Data are from the March 1975 and March 1979 Current Population Surveys.

  7. Carbohydrate Intake in Form of Gel Is Associated With Increased Gastrointestinal Distress but Not With Performance Differences Compared With Liquid Carbohydrate Ingestion During Simulated Long-Distance Triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareban, Mahdi; Zügel, David; Koehler, Karsten; Hartveg, Paul; Zügel, Martina; Schumann, Uwe; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Treff, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of exogenous carbohydrates (CHO) during prolonged endurance exercise, such as long-distance triathlon, is considered beneficial with regard to performance. However, little is known about whether this performance benefit differs among different forms of CHO administration. To this end, the purpose of our study was to determine the impact of CHO ingestion from a semisolid source (GEL) on measures of performance and gastrointestinal (GI) comfort compared with CHO ingestion from a liquid source (LIQ). Nine well-trained triathletes participated in this randomized crossover study. Each participant completed a 60-min swim, 180-min bike exercise, and a 60-min all-out run in a laboratory environment under 2 conditions, once while receiving 67.2 ± 7.2 g · h-1 (M ± SD) of CHO from GEL and once while receiving 67.8 ± 4.2 g · h-1 of CHO from LIQ. The amount of fluid provided was matched among conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose, and lactate as well as GI discomfort were assessed at regular intervals during the experiment. The distance covered during the final all-out run was not significantly different among participants ingesting GEL (11.81 ± 1.38 km) and LIQ (11.91 ± 1.53 km; p = .89). RER, blood glucose, and lactate did not differ significantly at any time during the experiment. Seven participants reported GI discomfort with GEL, and no athlete reported GI discomfort with LIQ (p = .016). This study suggests that administration of GEL does not alter long-distance triathlon performance when compared with LIQ, but GEL seems to be associated with reduced GI tolerance. Athletes should consider this a potential disadvantage of GEL administration during long-distance triathlon.

  8. Multilocus phylogeography (mitochondrial, autosomal and Z-chromosomal loci) and genetic consequence of long-distance male dispersal in Black-throated tits (Aegithalos concinnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Wang, W; Lei, F

    2013-05-01

    Multilocus data from the different genomes are essential to understand the phylogeographic history of species, particularly when a species has the male-biased dispersal pattern. Although Black-throated tits (Aegithalos concinnus) are socially monogamous and cooperatively breeding birds, limited observational data suggested that males may have the ability of long-distance dispersal. We have previously detected three highly supported mitochondrial populations within two subspecies of Black-throated tits (A. c. concinnus and A. c. talifuensis). Here, we used several genetic markers with different inheritance patterns to gain insights about their phylogeographic history. Phylogenetic and individual-based Bayesian analysis showed weak geographical structure amongst nuclear sequences (autosomal and Z-chromosomal loci). Coalescent analysis revealed high levels of gene flow among mitochondrial populations, even between allopatric populations. These results strongly suggested that male-biased gene flow was responsible for the discordant cytonuclear phylogeographic patterns. Consistent with expectation on the genetic consequence of long-distance male dispersal, mantel tests revealed a significant pattern of isolation by distance for mitochondrial sequences, but failed to provide a similar pattern for nuclear genes within a continuous population; female Black-throated tits showed a stronger but not significantly different relationship of isolation by distance than males when using mitochondrial DNA alone. We discussed the contribution of male juveniles with delayed dispersal to the non-significantly different IBD patterns between sexes. Our results using multilocus genetic data revealed aspects of the complex evolutionary history of Black-throated tits and the important role of long-distance male dispersal in the population structuring.

  9. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S.; Schamber, Jason L.; Ward, David H.; Nicolai, Christopher A.; Conant, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California—Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)—and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997–1998 El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997–1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding.

  10. Progress in Spiral Saw Steel Pipe Manufacturing Technology Promotes Construction of Oil/Gas Long-Distance Pipelines in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since the tremendous development of oil and gas exploration achieved in West China at the beginning of 1990's, it is demanded to build several long-distance oil/gas pipelines to transmit the crude oil and natural gas from Tarimu Basin, Tuha Basin, Junggar Basin as well as Shaan-Gan-Ning Basin to the cities of Urumuqi,Klamayi, Xi'an and Beijing (details see Table 1). The total length of pipelines is more than 3 200 km, and the natural conditions along the pipelines are very harsh. This raises a challenge to the Chinese pipe manufacturing industry.

  11. 长距离粉矿仓布料小车自动控制系统%Long-distance Powder ore bin discharging car automatic control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松; 张庆伟

    2014-01-01

    针对长距离粉矿仓均匀布料问题,提出自动化仪表结合PLC系统的解决方案,实现了粉矿仓自动均匀布料,减轻工人劳动强度,提高设备工作效率。%In view of the problems of long-distance powder ore bin of uniform feeding, the solution is improved by automation instrument and PLC system, achieved the powder ore bin of uniform and automatic feeding, reduced labor intensity, improved equipment eficiency.

  12. 加油锥套远距图像的Hough-LS快速检测%Hough-LS Rapid Detection for Long-distance Refueling Drogue Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博文; 孙永荣; 黄斌; 王勇; 刘建业

    2015-01-01

    在视觉辅助软管式空中加油系统中,如何在实时图像序列中将加油锥套从复杂背景环境中快速分离出来,对锥套进行快速检测与识别,是一个亟需解决的问题。论文针对加油锥套远距图像目标检测与定位问题,提出了一种基于形状信息的Hough-LS两级锥套目标检测与定位方法。文中首先采用快速霍夫梯度法(FHGM)进行加油锥套预检测,而后利用中心八向搜索法进行锥套边缘提取,最后基于最小二乘椭圆拟合实现加油锥套远距图像目标区域精确定位。实验结果表明,本文可对远距(7~25 m)时的加油锥套图像快速进行识别处理,并将锥套目标定位到精确的区域边界。%In the visual-based aerial refueling assistance system, how to separate the refueling drogue from the complex background and do rapid detection of drogue area is an urgent problem. How to detect and locate refueling drogue over a long distance in real-time, a refueling drogue detection and location over a long distance method based on Hough-LS was presented. First, did pre-detection on refueling drogue based on Fast Hough Gradient Method (FHGM), and then extracted taper sleeve edge based on the method of Search in eight directions from the center. Finally, realized refueling taper sleeve detection over a long distance by the least squares fitting ellipse. Experimental results show that, the method has good detection effect for long distance (7 to 25 meters) taper sleeve target and it can locate the precise area boundary.

  13. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  14. High pressure long distance pipelines: technical - economic analysis; Les conduites a haute pression pour le transport a grande distance de gaz naturel: analyse technico-economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, E.; Ercolani, D. [Snamprogetti (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Over the second half of the Nineties, Snamprogetti and Snam, with the cooperation of ENI Divisione Agip, Saipem and EniTecnologie, have been working for a new concept of long distance (LD) transportation of natural gas via cross country pipelines, based on high pressure (HP) larger than the traditional 7.5 to 10 MPa, here called low pressure (LP), and advanced technologies. This paper describes the economic advantages of the new long distance high pressure (LDHP) gas transportation concept, in terms of investment and operating costs; the findings of the application of a mathematical model developed for the determination of the optimum pipe diameter and number of compression stations for both HP and LP alternatives are discussed. The economic comparison, referred to a representative case i.e. a transmission system of 5,000 km for a specified transport capacity of 15 to 30 x 10{sup 9} Sm{sup 3}/y, shows that the competitiveness of LDHP transportation increases with the increase of the flow rates, reaching a very remarkable advantage for quantities exceeding 10 x 10{sup 9} Sm{sup 3}/y. At present ENI Group companies are engaged in further development focused on the application of high grade steels (X-100), and aiming at obtaining further cost reduction while both ensuring the required system reliability and meeting the specified safety requirements. (authors)

  15. Flow dynamics in mid-Jurassic dikes and sills of the Ferrar large igneous province and implications for long-distance magma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Giulia M.; Muirhead, James D.; Long, Sylvan M.; Zanella, Elena; White, James D. L.

    2016-06-01

    Magma flow paths in sill-fed dikes of the Ferrar large igneous province (LIP), contrast with those predicted by classic models of dike transport in LIPs and magmatic rift settings. We examine anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) flow paths in dike networks at Terra Cotta Mountain and Mt. Gran, which intruded at paleodepths of ~ 2.5 and ~ 1.5 km. These intrusions (up to 30 m thick) exhibit irregular, interconnected dike-sill geometries and adjoin larger sills (~ 200-300 m thick) at different stratigraphic levels. Both shallowly dipping and sub-vertical magma flow components are interpreted from AMS measurements across individual intrusions, and often match macroscopic flow indicators and variations in dike attitudes. Flow paths suggest that intrusive patterns and magma flow directions depended on varying stress concentrations and rotations during dike and sill propagation, whereas a regional extensional tectonic control was negligible or absent. Unlike giant dike swarms in LIPs elsewhere (e.g., 1270 Ma MacKenzie LIP), dikes of the Ferrar LIP show no regionally consistent vertical or lateral flow patterns, suggesting these intrusion were not responsible for long-distance transport in the province. In the absence of regionally significant, colinear dike swarms, or observed intrusions at crustal depths ≥ 4 km, we suggest that long distance magma transport occurred in sills within Beacon Supergroup sedimentary rocks. This interpretation is consistent with existing geochemical data and thermal constraints, which support lateral magma flow for ~ 3,500 km across the Gondwana supercontinent before freezing.

  16. A Cross-Layer Wireless Sensor Network Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Real-Time Monitoring of the Long-Distance Electric Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes has become a critical link that constrains the engineering application of the smart grid due to the fact that the smart grid is characterized by long-distance transmission in a special environment. The paper proposes a linear hierarchical network topological structure specific to WSN energy conservation in environmental monitoring of the long-distance electric transmission lines in the smart grid. Based on the topological structural characteristics and optimization of network layers, the paper also proposes a Topological Structure be Layered Configurations (TSLC routing algorithm to improve the quality of WSN data transmission performance. Coprocessing of the network layer and the media access control (MAC layer is achieved by using the cross-layer design method, accessing the status for the nodes in the network layer and obtaining the status of the network nodes of the MAC layer. It efficiently saves the energy of the whole network, improves the quality of the network service performance, and prolongs the life cycle of the network.

  17. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.

  18. Water quality model parameter identification of an open channel in a long distance water transfer project based on finite difference, difference evolution and Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongguo; Yang, Haidong; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Biyu

    2014-01-01

    A new method is proposed based on the finite difference method (FDM), differential evolution algorithm and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation to identify water quality model parameters of an open channel in a long distance water transfer project. Firstly, this parameter identification problem is considered as a Bayesian estimation problem and the forward numerical model is solved by FDM, and the posterior probability density function of the parameters is deduced. Then these parameters are estimated using a sampling method with differential evolution algorithm and MCMC simulation. Finally this proposed method is compared with FDM-MCMC by a twin experiment. The results show that the proposed method can be used to identify water quality model parameters of an open channel in a long distance water transfer project under different scenarios better with fewer iterations, higher reliability and anti-noise capability compared with FDM-MCMC. Therefore, it provides a new idea and method to solve the traceability problem in sudden water pollution accidents.

  19. Site management of engineering survey in long-distance pipeline%浅谈长输管道工程勘察现场管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继超; 桑有明

    2014-01-01

    现场管理是长输管道工程勘察的重要环节。针对如何做好长输管道工程勘察现场管理,提出从项目策划入手,加强勘察技术质量管理和HSE管理,突出团队协作意识、制度的执行力和科学合理的动态管理,重视勘察过程每一细节,确保按时保质地完成勘察任务。%Site management is an important part of long-distance pipeline engineering survey. How to do the site management of engi-neering survey in long-distance pipeline,this paper proposes that the first step is to project planning,the next is to strengthen the sur-vey quality management and HSE (Health,Safe,Environment)management,outstand team cooperation consciousness,the execution of system,scientific and reasonable dynamic management.Pay attention to every detail in survey process,to ensure the timely completion with good quality.

  20. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.

  1. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  2. Capturing Hotspots For Constrained Indoor Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Finding the hotspots in large indoor spaces is very important for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation and guidance. The tracking data coming from indoor tracking are huge in volume and not readily available for finding hotspots. This paper presents a graph-...

  3. Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  4. A New Development of Biometric Identification-Long-Distance Iris Recognition%生物特征识别技术新发展--远距离虹膜识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高霖

    2014-01-01

    虹膜识别技术目前已经发展至远距离虹膜识别分支。文章介绍了远距离虹膜识别概念的起源,定义时所考虑的主要因素,并阐述了不同阶段远距离虹膜识别的不同定义,和当前广泛使用的远距离虹膜识别解决方案。%With the development of iris recognition technology, long-distance iris recognition branch has been develped. This paper introduces origins of the concept of long-distance iris recognition as wel as the main factors for its defination, elaborated on different definitions of the different stages of long-distance iris recognition, and introduces a widely used long-distance iris recognition solution.

  5. Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

  6. LNG长输管道中间液化站流程分析%Analysis on Liquefaction Station Along Long-Distance LNG Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李征帛; 陈保东; 刘杰; 官学源; 莫海元; 张纯静; 杜义朋

    2012-01-01

    由于石油、煤炭等化石燃料的不断减少,加之环境污染和温室效应等问题的不断加剧,天然气作为一种高效、清洁的能源,日益受到世界各国的重视与青睐.天然气的液化及储存,是开发及利用天然气的关键技术.最新的理论研究表明,建设长距离液化天然气(LNG)输送管道技术上是可行的,经济上也是合理的.但是,对LNG长输管道中间液化站进行的研究还很少,液化站的流程及相关设备的选取问题还没有得到解决.通过对逆向卡诺循环进行的分析,结合丙烷、乙烯、甲烷等制冷剂的制冷特性,提出了LNG长输管道中间液化站的液化流程及所选取的相关设备.%As the declining of oil. coal and other fossil fuel, and the rising of environmental pollution and greenhouse's effect, natural gas, as a kind of high efficient and clean energy, has been given a great attention and favour by the countries all over the world. Natural gas liquefaction and storage technology is key to its use and development. The latest theory research shows that the construction of long distance LNG pipeline is feasible in technology and reasonable in the economy. However the researches of the liquefaction station of long distance LNG pipeline are few. The liquefaction process of the liquefaction station along the long distance LNG pipelines was discussed. Through the analysis on the reverse Carnot cycle, combined with cooling characteristics of refrigerant such as propane, ethylene, methane, liquefaction process of liquefaction station along longdistance LNG pipeline was proposed and related equipments were selected.

  7. Incised valley filling deposits: an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration——a case study of the Fulaerji Oilfield in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Renchen; Liu Hao; Li Guifan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, incised valley filling deposits, which formed an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration, are discussed in detail based on core and logging data. The sequence SQy23 of the Cretaceous Yaojia Formation is the main hydrocarbon-beating layer in the Fulaerji Oilfield. The hydrocarbon source of the oilfield is the Qijia-Gulong Sag which is about 80 km away from the Fulaerji Oilfield. The transport layer of long-distance hydrocarbon migration is the overlapped sandstone complex which fills the incised valley. The incised valley developed during the depositional period from the late Qingshankou Formation to the early Yaojia Formation of Cretaceous (SQqn4-SQy1)was about 70 km long and 20 km wide, and extended in the NW-SE direction. The overlapped filling of the incised valley mainly occurred in the expanding system tract of the third-order sequence SQy23 (ESTy23). Towards the basin, incised valley filling deposits overlapped on the delta developed in the early period, and towards the basin margin, incised valley filling deposits were covered by the shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar developed in the maximum flooding period. All of the delta, the incised valley filling and the shore-shallow sandy beach bar are sandstone-rich, and have high porosity and permeability, and can form an effective hydrocarbon migration and accumulation system. Deltaic sand bodies collected and pumped hydrocarbon from the active source, incised valley filling depositional system completed the long-distance hydrocarbon migration, and lithological traps of shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar accumulated hydrocarbon. The incised valley filling sequences are multi-cycle: an integrated short- term filling cycle was developed on the erosion surface, and the sequences upward were mud-gravel stone, medium-fine sandstone containing terrigenous gravels and muddy pebbles with cross bedding, silty mudstone with ripple bedding, and mudstone. The incised valley

  8. Gate manipulation of DNA capture into nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Fan, Chun; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2011-10-25

    Understanding biophysics governing DNA capture into a nanopore and establishing a manipulation system for the capture process are essential for nanopore-based genome sequencing. In this work, the functionality of extended electric field and electroosmotic flow (EOF) during the capture stage and their dependence on gate voltage, U(G), are investigated. We demonstrate that while both the electric field and EOF within a cis chamber make long-distance contributions to DNA capture around the pore mouth, the former effect is always capturing, while the latter causes trapping or blocking of the molecule depending on the magnitude of the gate voltage, U(G): an anionic EOF induced by high U(G) is capable of doubling the DNA trapping speed and thus the absorption radius in the cis chamber, whereas a cationic EOF by low U(G) would substantially offset the trapping effort by the electric field and even totally block DNA entrance into the pore. Based on the analysis, a gate regulation is proposed with the objective of achieving a high DNA capture rate while maintaining a low error rate.

  9. Waveguides of two-soliton solutions for the coupled KdV equations with variable coefficients in long-distance communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, H. I.; Tantawy, M.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the collision between the long surface water waves. This is done by considering the coupled KdV equations with the relevant constrains on the variable coefficients. The extended rational traveling wave solutions are obtained. Various solutions of solitary waves, via soliton, periodic, elliptic and two-soliton solutions has also found. The waveguide properties of the characterizing two-soliton are shown to be a graded-index with reflection component and transmission with periodic distributions in long-distance communication. Here the linear refractive index and transmission are been shown to evolute towards solitonic waves enable to confirm data transverse by restricting expansion in low-cost telecommunications systems.

  10. Propagation and stability characteristics of a 500-m-long laser-based fiducial line for high-precision alignment of long-distance linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Masanori; Telada, Souichi; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-09-01

    A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators.

  11. 长输管道低温施工的技术问题分析%Technical problems of long distance pipeline construction analysis at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫云

    2015-01-01

    这篇文章是关于降低温度的环境问题影响长输管道的施工的影响,提出了焊接、下沟、管沟爆破、防腐、回填、管沟开挖等施工技术的保障办法,列举了较低温度下的施工机械和施工人员的防冻保护事项。%This article is about the influence of the construction of long distance pipeline to reduce the temperature of the impact of environmental issues,the welding pipe ditch,ditch,blasting,anti-corrosion,back fill,pipe trench excavation construction technology security measures,lists the antifreeze protection issues of construction machinery and construction workers at lower temperature.

  12. 基于Internet/WWW的远程数据库访问技术与实现%Technology of Visiting Long-distance Database Based on Internet/ WWW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆芸

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of visiting the long-distance database based on the Browser/Server model and JDBC under the environment of Intranet/ WWW. It also introduces the server program frame and client program frame of a system based on this theory. This system has a great reference value about building Intranet/Internet network.%阐述了基于Internet网络WWW环境下远程数据库访问的Browser/Server模型 及JDBC等的技术原理,介绍了基于此原理所实现的一个查询系统的服务器方及客户机方的程序 框架。

  13. TO COMPARE THE EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY WITH STRETCHING VERSUS TAPING WITH STRETCHING ON ILIOTIBIAL BAND FRICTION SYNDROME IN LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS is the most common injury of the lateral side of the knee in runners. Runners typically complain of persistent lateral knee pain not associated with swelling, usually it occurs due to one to two miles of running and further worsening of the pain during running on the downhill. The popularity of running is still growing and, as participation increases, the incidence of running-related injuries will also increase. The Iliotibial track (ITT or the band is an anatomical structure of the lateral upper leg that recently has been highly published as an overused structure during sports. A friction syndrome has been attributed to excessive distance running, inappropriate running regimens and worn footwear [1] . Hence we have taken up this study to study about the effect of cryotherapy and kinesio taping technique with stretching exercise in patients with iliotibial band friction syndrome in long distance runners.

  14. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  15. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. Objectives This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners and sedentary subjects. Materials and Methods The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR, 9 long-distance runners (LDR, and 8 sedentary subjects (SS. Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test, the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test. Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. Results A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Conclusions Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  16. Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust II. Combination of surface and upper-level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K. L.; Geils, B. W.; Kalkstein, L. S.; Thistle, H. W.

    2008-09-01

    An invasive forest pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, white pine blister rust (WPBR), is believed to have arrived in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico about 1970. Epidemiological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that introduction was the result of long-distance dispersal (LDD) by atmospheric transport from California. This study applies a method to identify the atmospheric conditions favorable for rust transport and infection. An upper level synoptic classification (ULSC) identifies patterns of upper-level flow favorable for the transport of rust spores from a source to a target. Transport data are coupled with data for surface conditions favorable for infection at a designated target. A resulting calendar lists likelihood classes for establishment by four-times-daily observations during a dispersal season from April through July in the years 1965 to 1974. The single most-favorable period for transport and infection at the New Mexico site was identified as 1 15 June 1969. Five additional sites in the western United States with susceptible white pine populations and known infestation status were then evaluated to verify the model. Only the infested sites exhibit an establishment likelihood of “high” or “very high.” This suggests that the methodology correctly identifies locations with elevated establishment likelihood. Finally, likelihoods at nine additional points in the southwestern United States are determined and used to map regional patterns of transport, infection and establishment. The ULSC combined with appropriate surface meteorological data could be used to further investigate transport and infection, identify other areas at risk, assess the potential for gene flow of WPBR and evaluate long-distance dispersal of other pathogens.

  17. Long-distance dispersal by sea-drifted seeds has maintained the global distribution of Ipomoea pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryeganeh, Matin; Takayama, Koji; Tateishi, Yoichi; Kajita, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae), a pantropical plant with sea-drifted seeds, is found globally in the littoral areas of tropical and subtropical regions. Unusual long-distance seed dispersal has been believed to be responsible for its extraordinarily wide distribution; however, the actual level of inter-population migration has never been studied. To clarify the level of migration among populations of I. pes-caprae across its range, we investigated nucleotide sequence variations by using seven low-copy nuclear markers and 272 samples collected from 34 populations that cover the range of the species. We applied coalescent-based approaches using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods to assess migration rates, direction of migration, and genetic diversity among five regional populations. Our results showed a high number of migrants among the regional populations of I. pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis, which suggests that migration among distant populations was maintained by long-distance seed dispersal across its global range. These results also provide strong evidence for recent trans-oceanic seed dispersal by ocean currents in all three oceanic regions. We also found migration crossing the American continents. Although this is an apparent land barrier for sea-dispersal, migration between populations of the East Pacific and West Atlantic regions was high, perhaps because of trans-isthmus migration via pollen dispersal. Therefore, the migration and gene flow among populations across the vast range of I. pes-caprae is maintained not only by seed dispersal by sea-drifted seeds, but also by pollen flow over the American continents. On the other hand, populations of subsp. pes-caprae that are restricted to only the northern part of the Indian Ocean region were highly differentiated from subsp. brasiliensis. Cryptic barriers that prevented migration by sea dispersal between the ranges of the two subspecies and/or historical differentiation that caused local adaptation

  18. Long-distance dispersal by sea-drifted seeds has maintained the global distribution of Ipomoea pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis (Convolvulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matin Miryeganeh

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae, a pantropical plant with sea-drifted seeds, is found globally in the littoral areas of tropical and subtropical regions. Unusual long-distance seed dispersal has been believed to be responsible for its extraordinarily wide distribution; however, the actual level of inter-population migration has never been studied. To clarify the level of migration among populations of I. pes-caprae across its range, we investigated nucleotide sequence variations by using seven low-copy nuclear markers and 272 samples collected from 34 populations that cover the range of the species. We applied coalescent-based approaches using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods to assess migration rates, direction of migration, and genetic diversity among five regional populations. Our results showed a high number of migrants among the regional populations of I. pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis, which suggests that migration among distant populations was maintained by long-distance seed dispersal across its global range. These results also provide strong evidence for recent trans-oceanic seed dispersal by ocean currents in all three oceanic regions. We also found migration crossing the American continents. Although this is an apparent land barrier for sea-dispersal, migration between populations of the East Pacific and West Atlantic regions was high, perhaps because of trans-isthmus migration via pollen dispersal. Therefore, the migration and gene flow among populations across the vast range of I. pes-caprae is maintained not only by seed dispersal by sea-drifted seeds, but also by pollen flow over the American continents. On the other hand, populations of subsp. pes-caprae that are restricted to only the northern part of the Indian Ocean region were highly differentiated from subsp. brasiliensis. Cryptic barriers that prevented migration by sea dispersal between the ranges of the two subspecies and/or historical differentiation that

  19. Web Based Design of Long-Distance Supervising System for VRFF%基于Web的VRFF远程监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜秀霞; 李平康

    2009-01-01

    The design and realization of the website project based on the output data of the vacuum rabble foundry furnace(VRFF) system is introducted. The technology of ASP(active server pages), the language of HTML and the real time database are used to construct the supervising website.The real time data is transferred from DB(database of LiKong) to the database of the web by compiling SQL(Structured Query Language) and setting the LiKong's.And the homepage of supervising to refresh the web to receive the dynamic data are discussed. Through setting the IIS of Windows XP and using TCP/IP, the website is published in LAN, which can actualize the function of long-distance supervising, user checking and common browser exploring. A whole long distance supervising website is designed and the applications is successfully realized.%介绍了利用力控工控组态软件进行真空搅拌铸造炉(VRFF)[BFQB]远程计算机控制的设计与实现.探讨了利用ASP技术及HTML语言编写小型监测网站的技术,包括对远程计算机与真空搅拌铸造炉测控系统的实时数据交换,利用IIS的设置及TCP/IP协议实现远程访问等WEB工程应用技术.给出了通过主页登陆,用户核实等功能,构成一个完整安全的工业远程监测系统的实现实例.

  20. "Long-distance" H/D isotopic self-organization phenomena in scope of the infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded terephthalic and phthalic acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakus, Henryk T.; Hachuła, Barbara.; Hołaj-Krzak, Jakub T.; Al-Agel, Faisal A.; Rekik, Najeh

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical studies of abnormal properties of terephthalic acid (TAC) and phthalic acid (PAC) crystals manifested in the H/D isotopic exchange. The widely utilized deuteration routine appeared to be insufficiently effective in the case of the h6-TAC isotopomer. In the case of the d4-TAC derivative the isotopic exchange process occurred noticeably more effectively. In contrast, both isotopomers of PAC, h6 and d4, appeared much more susceptible for deuteration. A theoretical model was elaborated describing "long-distance" dynamical co-operative interactions involving hydrogen bonds in TAC and PAC crystals. The model assumes extremely strong dynamical co-operative interactions of hydrogen bonds from the adjacent (COOH)2 cycles. This leads to an additional stabilization of h6-TAC molecular chains. The interaction energies affect the chemical equilibrium of the H/D isotopic exchange. The model predicts a differentiated influence of the H and D atoms linked to the aromatic rings on to the process. In this approach the totally-symmetric Csbnd H bond stretching vibrations and the proton stretching totally symmetric vibrations couple with the π-electronic motions. It was also shown that identical hydrogen isotope atoms, H or D, in whole TAC molecules, noticeably enlarge the energy of the dynamical co-operative interactions in the crystals, in contrast to the case of different hydrogen isotopes present in the carboxyl groups and linked to the aromatic rings. The "long-distance" dynamical co-operative interactions in PAC crystals were found of a minor importance due to the electronic properties of PAC molecules.

  1. Phylogeny and biogeography of exacum (gentianaceae): a disjunctive distribution in the Indian ocean basin resulted from long distance dispersal and extensive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yong-Ming; Wohlhauser, Sébastien; Möller, Michael; Klackenberg, Jens; Callmander, Martin; Küpfer, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    Disjunctive distributions across paleotropical regions in the Indian Ocean Basin (IOB) often invoke dispersal/vicariance debates. Exacum (Gentianaceae, tribe Exaceae) species are spread around the IOB, in Africa, Madagascar, Socotra, the Arabian peninsula, Sri Lanka, India, the Himalayas, mainland Southeast Asia including southern China and Malaysia, and northern Australia. The distribution of this genus was suggested to be a typical example of vicariance resulting from the breakup of the Gondwanan supercontinent. The molecular phylogeny of Exacum is in principle congruent with morphological conclusions and shows a pattern that resembles a vicariance scenario with rapid divergence among lineages, but our molecular dating analysis demonstrates that the radiation is too recent to be associated with the Gondwanan continental breakup. We used our dating analysis to test the results of DIVA and found that the program predicted impossible vicariance events. Ancestral area reconstruction suggests that Exacum originated in Madagascar, and divergence dating suggests its origin was not before the Eocene. The Madagascan progenitor, the most recent common ancestor of Exacum, colonized Sri Lanka and southern India via long-distance dispersals. This colonizer underwent an extensive range expansion and spread to Socotra-Arabia, northern India, and mainland Southeast Asia in the northern IOB when it was warm and humid in these regions. This widespread common ancestor retreated subsequently from most parts of these regions and survived in isolation in Socotra-Arabia, southern India-Sri Lanka, and perhaps mainland Southeast Asia, possibly as a consequence of drastic climatic changes, particularly the spreading drought during the Neogene. Secondary diversification from these surviving centers and Madagascar resulted in the extant main lineages of the genus. The vicariance-like pattern shown by the phylogeny appears to have resulted from long-distance dispersals followed by extensive

  2. 基于RS-485长距离数据传输系统设计%A Long Distance Data Transmission System Designed Based on RS-485

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洋; 杨俊峰; 宋克柱

    2013-01-01

    为了满足现在大型核物理实验中数据传输的需要,设计了一种基于RS-485、异步串口通信协议的长距离数据传输系统;系统采用现场可编程门阵列(Field programmable gate array,FPGA)作为主控芯片,在FPGA的内部实现异步串口通信协议编解码、时钟数据恢复,同时使用RS485收发芯片Max3467来增强差分信号的驱动能力,提高了该系统在长距离数据传输中的可靠性;目前该系统可以20.48 Mbps的单线波特率在100 m双绞线电缆上实现无误码数据传输.%A long distance data transmission system based on RS-485 and Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) is designed for long distance data transmission in large physics experiments.This system used Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as main control chip.UART and Clock Data Recovery (CDR) were implemented in FPGA.And the chips,Max3467,were used to drive electric signal on cables.All these improved reliability of the system in data transmission part.This system worked on 100 meters long cable and at data rate of 20.48 Mbps with no errors.

  3. 长输天然气管道泄漏回收研究%Research on Recovery of Natural Gas in Pipeline During Long-Distance Pipeline Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马焱; 刘德俊; 李小月; 高钊; 王芙; 高吉庆; 孙皓

    2013-01-01

    长输天然气管道作为重要的能源运输工具,在保障安全高效性输送的同时,全面拉动了我国天然气城市化进程。国内处理管道泄露问题时,通常先放空管道内天然气再进行抢修工作,这样就造成了对天然气的大量浪费。设计了一套对长输管道放空天然气进行回收的车载压缩机组,并进行经济可行性分析。当发生泄露后,车量迅速到达截断阀室现场,将泄露段天然气回收注入至下一段管道,既节约能源,又减少了由于放空天然气带来的环境污染。%As important energy transportation means, the long-distance natural gas pipeline promotes the natural gas urbanization process in China as it can ensure safe efficiency natural gas transmission. When dealing with the problem of pipeline leak in China, natural gas in the pipeline is usually vented before carrying out the repair work,which can cause a lot of waste of natural gas. A set of vehicle compressor was designed, it can recover natural gas in long distance pipeline, and its economic feasibility was analyzed. When a leak occurs, recycling car will quickly reach the cut-off valve room scene, recycle natural gas of leak section and inject it into the next section of pipeline. It can save energy, and reduce the environmental pollution caused by venting natural gas.

  4. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    a household. Due to a high share of corner solutions among the expenditures on plane tickets and package travelling, the expenditures on these specific commodities are examined with a Tobit approach. The model results find both plane tickets and travel packages to be luxury goods. It also states that travel...

  5. Long-Distance Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Joseph

    1999-04-01

    One of the goals of physics education is to instill a sense of wonder in our students. We hope our natural curiosity will rub off on them and that they will apply the critical thinking skills we teach them to other aspects of their lives outside the classroom. As an example of this, consider the situation described in Milton's epic poem ``Paradise Lost''. Milton wrote that when the devil was cast out of heaven, he fell for nine days before landing in hell. In Milton's universe, hell is a separate place from Earth, but many people place hell at the center of the Earth. Based on these ideas, we can apply Newton's laws of motion to calculate the distance from heaven to Earth. This exercise is an example of the kind of intellectual exercise a physicist (or a physics student) might carry out when confronted with such information. We apply the basic principles of physics to a situation described in work of literature while making no attempt to validate or refute any philosophy, theology or ideology.

  6. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yancong; Yang, Jiachen; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-21

    The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems-toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration-are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting.

  7. Technology and Application of Long Distance Pipeline Corrosion Defects Detection%长输管道腐蚀缺陷检测技术与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方舟

    2016-01-01

    我国一般采用多频管中电流法(RD400-PCM检测仪)对长输管道防腐层破损点进行检测定位,检测结果准确率达到100%;对管体壁厚的检测一般采用超声波检测技术,其精度要高于漏磁检测技术,点蚀达到5 mm2,10%管道壁厚的腐蚀量均能定量检测。埋地管道土壤环境评价指标包括土壤的电阻率、氧化还原电位、pH值、土壤含盐量以及含水量,根据各项指标确定了管道腐蚀级别,土壤含水量小于10%为宜,否则土壤对管道的腐蚀速率变大。将上述腐蚀检测体系在长庆油田某14 km的长输管道上进行了应用,结果表明:长输管道防腐层整体质量较好,管体腐蚀较为严重,其中坪五转外输腐蚀剩余管道壁厚最小,为3.81 mm,较大部分管线剩余壁厚均在4.31 mm左右。结合土壤环境,对使用年限较长的管道进行了更换,对有腐蚀现象的管段进行了维护,以延长管道使用寿命,降低长输管道运行风险。%Generally using multi- frequency tube in our country in current method (RD400-PCM detector) to test the coating damage point positioning, test result accuracy by 100%;Detection of pipe wall thickness generally uses the ultrasonic testing technology, its precision is higher than magnetic flux leakage detection technology, achieve 5 mm2 pitting, 10% amount of corrosion of pipe wall thickness can quantitative detection. Buried pipeline soil environmental evaluation index including soil resistivity,redox potential,pH value,soil salt content and water content, according to the size of the indicators to determine the level of pipeline corrosion, soil moisture content was less than 10% advisable, otherwise the soil corrosion rate of pipeline will increase. Then the corrosion inspection system application on a 14 km long distance pipeline in Changqing oil field, result shows that long-distance pipeline anticorrosive coating is in a good quality, the pipe

  8. Modeling long distance dispersal of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus as a polydisperse aerosol - Application to the emergence of a new strain from Egypt to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Ziv; Klement, Eyal; Fattal, Eyal

    2015-12-01

    Long distance dispersal (LDD) of airborne aerosol of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was extensively modeled in the literature. Most studies modeled this aerosol in simplistic approach as a passive tracer, neglecting physical and biological mechanisms that affect bio-aerosols such as the FMD aerosol. This approach was justified either because under persistent wind these mechanisms lower the extant of downwind hazard or on the grounds that the effect of some of the physical mechanisms on particles as small as the FMD particles (0.015-20 μm) is supposed to be negligible compared to the effect of atmospheric turbulence. Even when the FMD aerosol was treated as aerosol, it was assumed that it is monodisperse, i.e., all its particles are of the same size. The aim of the study is to examine whether these simplistic approaches are indeed justified when dealing with LDD of a bio-aerosol under actual atmospheric conditions. In order to do so, the influence of a more realistic modeling of the FMD aerosol as a polydisperse aerosol was compared to passive tracer and to monodisperse aerosol. The comparison refers to a case of a widespread FMD outbreak that occurred in 2012 in Egypt. This outbreak involved the emergence of a new serotype in Egypt, SAT2 and concern was raised that this serotype will advance further to Asia and Europe. Israel is located on the land bridge between Africa, Asia and Europe, and shares a long desert border with Egypt as well as a long Mediterranean shore adjacent to Egypt's shore. This unique location as well as the fact that Israel does not have any cattle trade with its neighboring countries make Israel an interesting test case for the examination of the necessary conditions for the long distance dispersal (LDD) of a new FMD strains from Africa to Europe. The analysis in this study shows that under quasi-stationary wind conditions modeling FMD dispersal as a passive tracer results in a significantly longer hazard distance. Under non

  9. Uso de álcool e anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros de estrada Alcohol and amphetamines use among long-distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Costa do Nascimento

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a incidência do uso de álcool e anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros de estrada. Foram estudados 91 sujeitos, abordados em um posto de combustíveis em Passos, MG, em novembro de 2005. Os dados dos participantes foram obtidos por meio de um questionário contendo 19 questões de múltipla escolha. Utilizou-se para a análise dos dados estatística descritiva, teste do qui-quadrado e o coeficiente de correlação de Cramér. Os resultados indicaram que 66% dos caminhoneiros usavam anfetaminas durante os percursos de viagens, principalmente em postos de combustíveis (54% à beira das rodovias. O álcool era utilizado por 91% deles, dos quais 43% consumiam a bebida nos postos de combustíveis. Concluiu-se que há a necessidade de campanhas preventivas e informativas voltadas para esta categoria profissional nos postos de combustíveis e empresas de transportes, alertando sobre os riscos de ingestão dessas substâncias no período de trabalho.The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence of alcohol and amphetamine use among long-distance truck drivers. There were studied 91 truck drivers at the gas station in Passos, Southeastern Brazil, in November 2005. Data was collected using a questionnaire comprising 19 multiple choice questions. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Cramér's correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. The results indicated that 66% of the long-distance truck drivers used amphetamines during their travels, mainly at gas stations along the highways (54%. Alcohol was consumed by 91% of them and 43% of them consumed it at gas stations. It is concluded that there is a need of preventive and education campaigns targeting this occupation category at gas stations and transportation companies, focusing on the risks of these substances use during working hours.

  10. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra RM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ram Manohar Mishra,1 Madhulika Dube,2 Niranjan Saggurti,1 Arvind Pandey,3 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,1 Sowmya Ramesh11Population Council, New Delhi, 2Department of Statistics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 3National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066 undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1 low (duration ≤ 6 years and (2 high experience (duration ≥ 7 years. Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry < 18 complete years or adult entrants (age at entry ≥ 18 complete years. In the low-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were more likely than the adult entrants to have sex with paid female partners (42.6% versus 27.2%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–2.9 and to practice inconsistent condom use with such partners (69.1% versus 26.8%, respectively; adjusted OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 2.4–11.6. However, no significant differences were found in STI and HIV prevalence between the adolescent and the adult entrants in this cohort. In the high-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were about two times more likely than the adult entrants to practice inconsistent condom use with paid female partners (38.5% versus

  11. RNA silencing movement in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glykeria Mermigka; Frederic Verret; Kriton Kalantidis

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms, like higher plants, need to coordinate their growth and development and to cope with environmental cues. To achieve this, various signal molecules are transported between neighboring cells and distant organs to control the fate of the recipient cells and organs. RNA silencing produces cell non-autonomous signal molecules that can move over short or long distances leading to the sequence specific silencing of a target gene in a well defined area of cells or throughout the entire plant, respectively. The nature of these signal molecules, the route of silencing spread, and the genes involved in their production, movement and reception are discussed in this review. Additionally, a short section on features of silencing spread in animal models is presented at the end of this review.

  12. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  13. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...... affect the movements. Furthermore, I discuss differences in movement organization, and visual information from striking movements....

  14. Green hydrophilic modification of PE hollow fiber membranes in a module scale via long-distance and dynamic low-temperature H2O plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Sheng; Zhao, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Ming-Xing

    2016-11-01

    A green chemistry process, long-distance and dynamic low-temperature (LDDLT) H2O plasma, was developed to modify PE hollow fiber membranes in a module scale using our modified LDDLT plasma setup. The modification degree of LDDLT-H2O plasma was 2 times greater than that of Ar plasma, but the effective treatment distance achieved by LDDLT-Ar plasma was about two times of that obtained by LDDLT-H2O plasma (22 cm). Under the suitable conditions, the effective treatment distance can reach over 54 cm after LDDLT-H2O plasma treatment from the double inlets, closed to some industrial module sizes. The improvement in surface hydrophilicity was because of the introduction of numerous oxygen-containing groups. High concentrations of OH radicals in H2O plasma played a major role in the membrane surface hydroxylation. This directly resulted in a great enhancement in the pure water flux. It increased from about 6 L m-2 h-1 to 45 L m-2 h-1 after treatment. Also, the H2O plasma-treated membrane module exhibited good hydrophilic stability during 285 days storage.

  15. Changes in haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and pig-MAP during a housing period following long distance transport in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamano, Germana; Mellia, Elisabetta; Candiani, Denise; Ingravalle, Francesco; Bruno, Renato; Ru, Giuseppe; Doglione, Luca

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a housing period following long distance transport on haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and pig major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) in swine. After transportation, 80 gilts were allotted to group A, B, C, or D. Blood samples were collected on arrival and 28 days later; additional samples were collected from Group C on day 14, and from Group D on days 3, 5 and 14. Acute phase proteins (APPs) in Group A were significantly lower on day 28 than on day 1; the opposite occurred in Group B because of a tail biting episode. In Group C, values remained elevated on day 14 and showed a reduction on day 28; in Group D elevated levels detected on day 14 were preceded by a decrease from days 1 to 5. The results indicate that stressors associated with transportation and new accommodation can cause an increase in APPs that could be useful indicators of welfare during transport and routine management.

  16. Type of sport is related to injury profile: a study on cross country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players. A retrospective 12-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristolainen, L; Heinonen, A; Turunen, H; Mannström, H; Waller, B; Kettunen, J A; Kujala, U M

    2010-06-01

    This 12-month retrospective questionnaire compared the occurrence of sports injuries in 149 cross country skiers, 154 swimmers, 143 long-distance runners and 128 soccer players aged 15-35 years. Soccer had significantly more injuries (5.1 injuries/1000 exposure hour) than other sports (2.1-2.8, Psoccer players reported overuse injuries (59% vs 42%, P=0.005), locating typically in the foot in runners, soccer players and skiers. Swimmers reported overuse injuries in the shoulder more commonly than skiers (40% vs 1%, Psoccer and running the absence time from sport because of injuries was significantly longer than in skiing and swimming. No severe permanent disabilities occurred due to injury but seven women quit sports because of injury. In conclusion, type of loading is strictly associated with the anatomical location of an overuse injury as shown by the difference in shoulder injury incidence between swimmers and cross country skiers. In some sports, a significant proportion of acute injuries occur in other than the main event.

  17. Acellular spinal cord scaffold seeded with mesenchymal stem cells promotes long-distance axon regeneration and functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Jian; Liu, Bin; Yang, Cuilan; Xie, Denghui; Zheng, Xiaochen; Xu, Song; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Zhongmin; Bai, Xiaochun; Jin, Dadi

    2013-02-15

    The stem cell-based experimental therapies are partially successful for the recovery of spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, acellular spinal cord (ASC) scaffolds which mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM) have been successfully prepared. This study aimed at investigating whether the spinal cord lesion gap could be bridged by implantation of bionic-designed ASC scaffold alone and seeded with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) respectively, and their effects on functional improvement. A laterally hemisected SCI lesion was performed in adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=36) and ASC scaffolds seeded with or without hUCB-MSCs were implanted into the lesion immediately. All rats were behaviorally tested using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test once a week for 8weeks. Behavioral analysis showed that there was significant locomotor recovery improvement in combined treatment group (ASC scaffold and ASC scaffold+hUCB-MSCs) as compared with the SCI only group (pspinal cord cavity and promote long-distance axon regeneration and functional recovery in SCI rats.

  18. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  19. Comparison of Changes in Biochemical Markers for Skeletal Muscles, Hepatic Metabolism, and Renal Function after Three Types of Long-distance Running: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-A; Park, Ki Deok; Ahn, Jaeki; Park, Yongbum; Kim, Young-Joo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in biochemical markers for the skeletal muscles, hepatic metabolism, and renal function based on extreme long-distance running.Among healthy amateur endurance athletes who participated in a marathon, 100 km-, or 308 km ultramarathon, 15 athletes with similar physical and demographic characteristics were chosen to be the subjects in this study, upon completion of each course. The subjects' blood was collected before and after the course to identify biochemical markers for the skeletal muscles, hepatic metabolism, and renal function.After all of the courses, creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine were found to be significantly increased compared with values obtained before the race (P running a 308 km race, which is low-intensity running compared with a marathon, and a temporary decline in renal function was higher after completing a 100 km race, which is medium-to-high intensity.

  20. Superclone Expansion, Long-Distance Clonal Dispersal and Local Genetic Structuring in the Coral Pocillopora damicornis Type β in Reunion Island, South Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Pauline; Fauvelot, Cécile; Mehn, Vincent; Bureau, Sophie; Rouzé, Héloïse; Magalon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis type β is known to present a mixed reproduction mode: through sexual reproduction, new genotypes are created, while asexual reproduction insures their propagation. In order to investigate the relative proportion of each reproduction mode in P. damicornis type β populations from Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, clonal propagation along the west coast was assessed through four sampling sites with increasing geographical distance between sites. Coral colonies were sampled either exhaustively, randomly or haphazardly within each site, and genotypic diversity was assessed using 13 microsatellite loci over a total of 510 P. damicornis type β determined a posteriori from their mtDNA haplotype (a 840 bp sequenced fragment of the Open Reading Frame). Overall, 47% of all the sampled colonies presented the same multi-locus genotype (MLG), a superclone, suggesting that asexual propagation is extremely important in Reunion Island. Within each site, numerous MLGs were shared by several colonies, suggesting local clonal propagation through fragmentation. Moreover, some of these MLGs were found to be shared among several sites located 40 km apart. While asexual reproduction by fragmentation seems unlikely over long distances, our results suggest a production of parthenogenetic larvae. Despite shared MLGs, two differentiated clusters were enclosed among populations of the west coast of Reunion Island, revealing the necessity to set up appropriate managing strategies at a local scale. PMID:28068406

  1. Influence of long-distance seed dispersal on the genetic diversity of seed rain in fragmented Pinus densiflora populations relative to pollen-mediated gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hajime; Watanabe, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds has a critical impact on species survival in patchy landscapes. However, relative to pollen dispersal, empirical data on how seed LDD affects genetic diversity in fragmented populations have been poorly reported. Thus, we attempted to indirectly evaluate the influence of seed LDD by estimating maternal and paternal inbreeding in the seed rain of fragmented 8 Pinus densiflora populations. In total, the sample size was 458 seeds and 306 adult trees. Inbreeding was estimated by common parentage analysis to evaluate gene flow within populations and by sibship reconstruction analysis to estimate gene flow within and among populations. In the parentage analysis, the observed probability that sampled seeds had the same parents within populations was significantly larger than the expected probability in many populations. This result suggested that gene dispersal was limited to within populations. In the sibship reconstruction, many donors both within and among populations appeared to contribute to sampled seeds. Significant differences in sibling ratios were not detected between paternity and maternity. These results suggested that seed-mediated gene flow and pollen-mediated gene flow from outside population contributed some extent to high genetic diversity of the seed rain (H E > 0.854). We emphasize that pine seeds may have excellent potential for gene exchange within and among populations.

  2. Use of long-distance migration patterns of an endangered species to inform conservation planning for the world's largest marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Esteban, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Large marine protected areas (MPAs), each hundreds of thousands of square kilometers, have been set up by governments around the world over the last decade as part of efforts to reduce ocean biodiversity declines, yet their efficacy is hotly debated. The Chagos Archipelago MPA (640,000 km(2) ) (Indian Ocean) lies at the heart of this debate. We conducted the first satellite tracking of a migratory species, the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), within the MPA and assessed the species' use of protected versus unprotected areas. We developed an approach to estimate length of residence within the MPA that may have utility across migratory taxa including tuna and sharks. We recorded the longest ever published migration for an adult cheloniid turtle (3979 km). Seven of 8 tracked individuals migrated to distant foraging grounds, often ≥1000 km outside the MPA. One turtle traveled to foraging grounds within the MPA. Thus, networks of small MPAs, developed synergistically with larger MPAs, may increase the amount of time migrating species spend within protected areas. The MPA will protect turtles during the breeding season and will protect some turtles on their foraging grounds within the MPA and others during the first part of their long-distance postbreeding oceanic migrations. International cooperation will be needed to develop the network of small MPAs needed to supplement the Chagos Archipelago MPA.

  3. 天然气长输管道计量系统设计%Design of Metering System in Long-Distance Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋

    2016-01-01

    计量系统是天然气长输管道中的重要组成部分,介绍了长输管道计量系统中常用流量计特点,给出了计量系统仪表选型及设计的一般过程,详细说明了精度考虑、口径考虑、流速计算及回路配置等问题的设计原则及计算方法。给出了以气体超声流量计、在线气体色谱分析仪、流量计算机等构建的体积流量和能量流量的计量系统的典型配置。%Flow measurement system is an important component in long-distance natural gas transportation pipe; flowmeters usually used in gas metering are introduced and compared in this paper. Meter selection and general design procedure are also given out including accuracy consideration,diameter consideration,velocity calculation,loop configration,etc.A typical metering system based on ultrasonic meter,online chromatographic analyzer,flow computer is constructed.

  4. Quantitative analysis of short- and long-distance racing performance in young and adult horses and association analysis with functional candidate genes in Spanish Trotter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro Rama, S; Valera, M; Membrillo, A; Gómez, M D; Solé, M; Menendez-Buxadera, A; Anaya, G; Molina, A

    2016-10-01

    The association of five candidate genes with sporting performance in young and adult Spanish Trotter horses (STHs) was performed according to a previous selection based on quantitative analysis of the trait time per kilometre (TPK). A total of 334 516 records of TPK from 5958 STHs were used to estimate the estimated breeding values (EBVs) at different age groups (young and adults horses) throughout the range of distances (1600-2700 m) using a bicharacter random regression model. The heritability estimated by distance ranged from 0.16 to 0.40, with a different range for the two age groups. Considering the animals with the best and the worst deregressed EBV, 321 STHs were selected for SNP genotyping in MSTN, COX4I2, PDK4, DMRT3 and CKM genes. An association analysis based on ridge and logistic regression revealed that the young trotters with genotype GG in PDK4 (p < 0.05) and AA of DMRT3 (p < 0.001) SNPs show the best potential in short-distance races, while those carrying the genotype AA in DMRT3 (p < 0.001) and CC in CKM (p < 0.05) genes seem to be the best in long-distance races. Adult trotters with genotype AA in DMRT3 also display greater speed (p < 0.05) and endurance (p < 0.001).

  5. Intrapersonal Achievement Goals and Underlying Reasons among Long Distance Runners: Their Relation with Race Experience, Self-Talk, and Running Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Delrue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of long distance runners, we examined the role of type of intrapersonal achievement goals (i.e., approach versus avoidance and type of underlying reasons (i.e., autonomous and controlled, assessed prior to the race, as predictors of both pre-race (e.g., race appraisals and post-race (e.g., flow experience outcomes. Of 221 (62.4% males runners, 111 reported pursuing an intrapersonal-approach goal (i.e., doing better than before as their dominant or preferred achievement goal for the race, while 86 prioritized intrapersonal-avoidance goals (i.e., avoiding to perform worse than before. Regression and path analyses showed that the type of achievement goals predicted none of the outcomes except for running time, with approach goals predicting better performance when compared to avoidance goals. Path analyses revealed that autonomous reasons underlying intrapersonal goal pursuit related positively to pre-race challenge appraisals, performance and, via need satisfaction, to flow experience. Interestingly, controlled reasons positively related to pre-race threat appraisals and positively predicted both positive and negative self-talk, with both yielding opposing relations with flow. These findings complement past research on the intersection between the Achievement Goal Approach and Self-Determination Theory and highlight the value of studying the reasons underlying intrapersonal achievement goals.

  6. [Rates of breathing values and kinetics of respiration response in critical patterns of muscular activity in middle and long distance running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, N I; Kornienko, T G; Tambovtseva, R V

    2014-01-01

    Parameters of ventilation influx, ventilation debt and ventilation demand of exercise were calculated on the basis of heart rate dynamics and parameters of external breathing during the testing procedure and recovery of elite runners during of the maximum workout. It was established that all of external breathing values closely reproduce changes of basic parameters of oxygen demand during the exercises at high intensity and duration and can be used for quantification and valuation of exercise loads in sport. During the conducted at the research it was experimentally proved that high level of sporting achievements in middle and long distance running is defined by three major factors of an aerobic exchange in an organism: 1. General ratio of increase in level of pulmonary ventilation (VE), consumption of oxygen (VO2) and allocation of carbon dioxide (CO2); 2. During the expiration--rate and of supply speed of oxygen (O2) from lungs to working muscles; 3. Rate of oxygenation (StO2) and total speed of the blood-groove.

  7. An fMRI Study Dissociating Distance Measures Computed by Broca’s Area in Movement Processing: Clause boundary vs Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP similar to the dependency head intervene the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca’s area, showing that activity in Broca’s area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca’s area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca’s area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG. Therefore, the involvement of Broca’s area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (ie, NP intervention.

  8. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  9. Nitric oxide and iron modulate heme oxygenase activity as a long distance signaling response to salt stress in sunflower seedling cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Bhatla, Satish C

    2016-02-29

    Nitric oxide is a significant component of iron signaling in plants. Heme is one of the iron sensors in plants. Free heme is highly toxic and can cause cell damage as it catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its catabolism is carried out by heme oxygenase (HOs; EC 1.14.99.3) which uses heme both as a prosthetic group and as a substrate. Two significant events, which accompany adaptation to salt stress in sunflower seedlings, are accumulation of ROS and enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) in roots and cotyledons. Present investigations on the immunolocalization of heme oxygenase distribution in sunflower seedling cotyledons by confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging provide new information on the differential spatial distribution of the inducible form of HO (HO-1) as a long distance in response to NaCl stress. The enzyme is abundantly distributed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals (SCs) in seedling cotyledons. Abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins has also been observed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals in cotyledons derived from salt stressed seedlings. The spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins and HO-1 expression further correlates with the abundance of mitochondria in these cells. Present findings, thus, highlight a link among distribution of HO-1 expression, abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins and mitochondria in specialized cells around the secretory canal as a long distance mechanism of salt stress tolerance in sunflower seedlings. Enhanced spatial distribution of HO-1 in response to NaCl stress in seedling cotyledons is in congruence with the observed increase in specific activity of HO-1 in NaCl stressed conditions. The enzyme activity is further enhanced by hemin (HO-1 inducer) both in the absence or presence of NaCl stress and inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin. Western blot analysis of cotyledon homogenates using anti-HO-1 polyclonal antibody shows one major band (29

  10. Long-Distance Wind-Dispersal of Spores in a Fungal Plant Pathogen: Estimation of Anisotropic Dispersal Kernels from an Extensive Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieux, Adrien; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Bonnot, François; Klein, Etienne K.; Ngando, Josue E.; Mehl, Andreas; Ravigne, Virginie; Carlier, Jean; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Given its biological significance, determining the dispersal kernel (i.e., the distribution of dispersal distances) of spore-producing pathogens is essential. Here, we report two field experiments designed to measure disease gradients caused by sexually- and asexually-produced spores of the wind-dispersed banana plant fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Gradients were measured during a single generation and over 272 traps installed up to 1000 m along eight directions radiating from a traceable source of inoculum composed of fungicide-resistant strains. We adjusted several kernels differing in the shape of their tail and tested for two types of anisotropy. Contrasting dispersal kernels were observed between the two types of spores. For sexual spores (ascospores), we characterized both a steep gradient in the first few metres in all directions and rare long-distance dispersal (LDD) events up to 1000 m from the source in two directions. A heavy-tailed kernel best fitted the disease gradient. Although ascospores distributed evenly in all directions, average dispersal distance was greater in two different directions without obvious correlation with wind patterns. For asexual spores (conidia), few dispersal events occurred outside of the source plot. A gradient up to 12.5 m from the source was observed in one direction only. Accordingly, a thin-tailed kernel best fitted the disease gradient, and anisotropy in both density and distance was correlated with averaged daily wind gust. We discuss the validity of our results as well as their implications in terms of disease diffusion and management strategy. PMID:25116080

  11. Long-Distance Electron Transfer Coupled to Proton Pumping and Energy Transduction in Biological Systems: A Semiempirical First-Principles Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuehe; Ly, Ngan M.; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    2007-12-01

    The first-principles method of electron tunneling currents for electron transfer was previously used to compute the electron coupling matrix in the Marcus theory as well as the tunneling pathway at the extended Huckel level of theory of electronic structure for the redox centers in some living systems such as cytochrome c oxidase. We present here the work in recent development of electron tunneling currents theory that implements in its formalism the inherent systematic ZDO approximation used in ZINDO/S quantum chemical model of electronic structure. Together with the molecular orbitals so calculated semiempirically we develop an approach that is consistent in its approximation, more accurate than the previous methodology and particularly applicable to large biological systems which cannot yet be fully treated ab initio. We calibrate this approach with ab initio results for a small model system of protein, the donor-bridge-acceptor complex of (His)2 (Met)Cu+-(Cys)-(Gly5)-(His)Ru3+bpy5Im, and make predictive calculations for the real biological electron transfer systems of His126 Ru-modified blue copper protein Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin and cytochrome c oxidase. Furthermore, the coupling between electron transfer and energy transfer is demonstrated with the thermal motion in protein dynamics for the case of DNA repair by photolyase. Continuing work is underway on the newly crystallized structure of NADH dehydrogenase, the electron entrance to the cellular electron transport respiratory chain. Combining both the rigor of tunneling currents theory and the expedience of ZINDO/S quantum chemical model our approach offers a useful computational method for long-distance electron transfer in biological systems.

  12. The Heavy Vehicle Study: a case-control study investigating risk factors for crash in long distance heavy vehicle drivers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grunstein Ron R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy vehicle transportation continues to grow internationally; yet crash rates are high, and the risk of injury and death extends to all road users. The work environment for the heavy vehicle driver poses many challenges; conditions such as scheduling and payment are proposed risk factors for crash, yet the precise measure of these needs quantifying. Other risk factors such as sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnoea have been shown to increase crash risk in motor vehicle drivers however the risk of heavy vehicle crash from this and related health conditions needs detailed investigation. Methods and Design The proposed case control study will recruit 1034 long distance heavy vehicle drivers: 517 who have crashed and 517 who have not. All participants will be interviewed at length, regarding their driving and crash history, typical workloads, scheduling and payment, trip history over several days, sleep patterns, health, and substance use. All participants will have administered a nasal flow monitor for the detection of obstructive sleep apnoea. Discussion Significant attention has been paid to the enforcement of legislation aiming to deter problems such as excess loading, speeding and substance use; however, there is inconclusive evidence as to the direction and strength of associations of many other postulated risk factors for heavy vehicle crashes. The influence of factors such as remuneration and scheduling on crash risk is unclear; so too the association between sleep apnoea and the risk of heavy vehicle driver crash. Contributory factors such as sleep quality and quantity, body mass and health status will be investigated. Quantifying the measure of effect of these factors on the heavy vehicle driver will inform policy development that aims toward safer driving practices and reduction in heavy vehicle crash; protecting the lives of many on the road network.

  13. 远程自动抄表系统及其效益分析%LONG-DISTANCE AUTOMATICAL COPY AMMETER DATA SYSTEM AND ITS BENEFICAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃达

    2000-01-01

    随着我国社会、经济的发展,居民用电越来越普及,且用电量日益剧增,传统的人工抄表收取电费方式,已经不能满足现代化管理的要求。为此,我们根据远程数据通信与台区内载波通信联络相接合的技术原理,开发了远程自动抄表系统,该系统功能齐全,操作方便,安装简易。经过-年多的运行,系统工作稳定,计费及时、准确、可靠,产生了显著的经济效益。本文介绍系统的设计思想和系统各部分单元的工作原理及其技术性能和特点。%With social economic develop ment electric power is used by dwellers popularly and the amount of electric power is used increasingly. Traditional charge of electric fare by manual labour can't satisfy the demand for modem managrnent. Thus according to teachnical principle of jointing teledata communications with station carrier wave liaison, we had devised long-distance automatic copy ammeter data system. This system function is complete, its operation is convenient, and its install ment is facile. After one year operation, the system' s steady, the counting is in time with credibility, bringing remarkable economical benefit. In this paper we introduce systematic designing idea and work principle of every unit and technical capability.

  14. Long-distance wind-dispersal of spores in a fungal plant pathogen: estimation of anisotropic dispersal kernels from an extensive field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rieux

    Full Text Available Given its biological significance, determining the dispersal kernel (i.e., the distribution of dispersal distances of spore-producing pathogens is essential. Here, we report two field experiments designed to measure disease gradients caused by sexually- and asexually-produced spores of the wind-dispersed banana plant fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Gradients were measured during a single generation and over 272 traps installed up to 1000 m along eight directions radiating from a traceable source of inoculum composed of fungicide-resistant strains. We adjusted several kernels differing in the shape of their tail and tested for two types of anisotropy. Contrasting dispersal kernels were observed between the two types of spores. For sexual spores (ascospores, we characterized both a steep gradient in the first few metres in all directions and rare long-distance dispersal (LDD events up to 1000 m from the source in two directions. A heavy-tailed kernel best fitted the disease gradient. Although ascospores distributed evenly in all directions, average dispersal distance was greater in two different directions without obvious correlation with wind patterns. For asexual spores (conidia, few dispersal events occurred outside of the source plot. A gradient up to 12.5 m from the source was observed in one direction only. Accordingly, a thin-tailed kernel best fitted the disease gradient, and anisotropy in both density and distance was correlated with averaged daily wind gust. We discuss the validity of our results as well as their implications in terms of disease diffusion and management strategy.

  15. Dancing in the Diaspora: Cultural Long-Distance Nationalism and the Staging of Chineseness by San Francisco’s Chinese Folk Dance Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau-ling C. Wong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This essay analyzes the history of a San Francisco Bay Area cultural institution over a period of more than four decades, and, applying to it the concept of "cultural long-distance nationalism," it attempts to tease apart the complexity of cultural practice in diaspora. The organization in question is the Chinese Folk Dance Association (CFDA, founded in 1959, a pro-People’s Republic of China (PRC troupe of amateur dancers and musicians playing Chinese instruments. As someone who was peripherally involved with the group in the mid-1970s and early 1980s and was a friend or acquaintance of a few members of the group, I became curious about the changes in its activities, its performance programs, its roles in the Bay Area community, and its self-perceived relationship to the homeland over time. I have examined the CFDA’s performance programs, photographs, and press coverage since the 1970s (earlier archival material was not available to me, as well as interviewed three of its key figures and spoken on several occasions with one of the three, the long-time executive director of the group and a friend from graduate school. What I have found is that the changes undergone by the group reveal the multiplicity of factors that go into the staging of Chineseness in diaspora and the challenges inherent in such a process. The challenges are especially acute given how rapidly the nation-state to which a specific cultural presentation is tied—the People’s Republic of China (PRC—has itself been undergoing rapid and radical transformations.

  16. Dancing in the Diaspora: Cultural Long-Distance Nationalism and the Staging of Chineseness by San Francisco’s Chinese Folk Dance Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau-ling C. Wong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the history of a San Francisco Bay Area cultural institution over a period of more than four decades, and, applying to it the concept of "cultural long-distance nationalism," it attempts to tease apart the complexity of cultural practice in diaspora. The organization in question is the Chinese Folk Dance Association (CFDA, founded in 1959, a pro-People’s Republic of China (PRC troupe of amateur dancers and musicians playing Chinese instruments. As someone who was peripherally involved with the group in the mid-1970s and early 1980s and was a friend or acquaintance of a few members of the group, I became curious about the changes in its activities, its performance programs, its roles in the Bay Area community, and its self-perceived relationship to the homeland over time. I have examined the CFDA’s performance programs, photographs, and press coverage since the 1970s (earlier archival material was not available to me, as well as interviewed three of its key figures and spoken on several occasions with one of the three, the long-time executive director of the group and a friend from graduate school. What I have found is that the changes undergone by the group reveal the multiplicity of factors that go into the staging of Chineseness in diaspora and the challenges inherent in such a process. The challenges are especially acute given how rapidly the nation-state to which a specific cultural presentation is tied—the People’s Republic of China (PRC—has itself been undergoing rapid and radical transformations.

  17. Battlefield Tourism at Gallipoli: The Revival of Collective Memory, the Construction of National Identity and the Making of a Long-distance Tourism Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Yeneroglu Kutbay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Battle of the Dardanelles (Çanakkale, also known as the Gallipoli Campaign, played a crucial role in the construction and endorsement of national identity, irrespective of the immediate consequences such as the prolongation of the war or the resignation of Winston Churchill upon failure. The Battle of the Dardanelles is commemorated every year in Turkey, Australia and New Zealand, as a day of remembrance. The battlefields at Dardanelles were reinstated as the Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park in 1973. The park covers numerous cemeteries of soldiers from both sides, memorials, museums and the battlefields in an area of 33,000 hectares. The park provides a vivid setting and depiction of the war experience, and stands out as the most important battlefield site in Turkey.The aim of this paper is to analyze battlefield tourism in Çanakkale in terms of its components and its impact on domestic and international tourism in Turkey. Battlefield tourism in Çanakkale encompasses not only the battlefield itself, but also the Çanakkale Victory Day in Turkey, March 18th, and the Anzac Day in Australia, April 25th. While domestic tourism contributes to the revival of collective memory and to the building of national identity, international tourism provides representations of national heritage as a source of political legitimacy. Unique to this case, battlefield tourism plays a significant role in the construction of a long-distance tourism network between Australia, and Turkey. The annual flow of descendants of ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps soldiers is an important source of tourism activity in the area.

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  19. University Library of Modern Long-distance Education Services in a Cloud Computing Environment Mode%云计算环境下高校图书馆现代远程教育服务模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2013-01-01

      Cloud technology in the field of education, to promote the rapid development of education information, change the traditional mode of modern long-distance education. Articles from the current situation of the development of modern long-distance education in domestic and foreign universities to build a university library of modern long-distance education service mode-“Cloud classroom” and “Cloud classroom” four impacts of the modern long-distance education mode of service of the University Library.%  云技术在教育领域的应用,推进了教育信息化的飞速发展,改变了传统的现代远程教育模式。文章从国内外高校现代远程教育的发展现状出发,构建了高校图书馆现代远程教育服务模式——“云课堂”,并分析了“云课堂”对高校图书馆现代远程教育服务模式的四种影响。

  20. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W; Komives, Elizabeth A; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I

    2008-04-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC-Cd and glutathione-Cd complexes.

  1. Research and Simulated Calculation of Long-distance Hydraulic-fiuid Supply System for Coal Mine%煤矿远距离供液系统仿真计算与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊伟; 赵利杰; 马芬芝

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve mining efficiency, reduce the amount of the Roadway Excavation,enhance the mine production safety, based on distributed parameter model, the paper make scientific researches on Long-distance Hydraulic-fiuid Supply. the AMESIM Software is used to establish Long -distance Hydraulic -fiuid supply model, then according to various situations were simulated, finally design Long -distance Hydraulic -fiuid Supply scheme. Through the research, the distance of Long -distance Hydraulic-fiuid Supply scheme for Fully-mechanized Mining Faceis 1500 meters,thatbasically meet the needs of the mining area face of my company.%为了提高回采效率,减小巷道掘进量,增强矿井生产的安全性,基于分布式参数模型,本文对工作面远距离供液技术进行研究。首先使用 AMESIM 软件建立远距离供液模型,然后针对各种情况进行仿真计算,最后设计远距离供液方案。通过研究,远距离供液方案,可以为综采工作面提供1500m 的供液距离,基本满足采区工作面的需要。

  2. Long-Distance IEEE 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks: A Survey%基于IEEE 802.11的长距离无线Mesh网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增华; 王楠; 窦志斌; 张连芳; 舒炎泰

    2012-01-01

    基于IEEE 802.11的长距离无线Mesh网络(LDmesh)的单跳链路长度在几十到上百公里,具有带宽高、成本低、覆盖广等优点,可广泛应用于偏远乡村或人口分布稀疏地区的无线宽带接入等.LDmesh网络是点到点的链路,链路的干扰特性和传输特性与传统无线Mesh网络有显著不同,原有的基于CSMA的MAC协议不再适用,进而影响到上层协议的设计.分析了LDmesh网络的研究进展,从链路性能、MAC协议、路由协议及网络管理等方面深入论述了LDmesh网络面临的挑战和进一步研究方向.%Long-distance IEEE 802. 11 wireless Mesh networks (LDmesh) have been emerged in recent years for its high bandwidth, low cost and large coverage. It can be applied in rural regions or sparse-populated areas to provide high-bandwidth Internet access. In LDmesh networks, links are point-to-point and as long as tens to hundreds of kilometers. To achieve the long range, the wireless nodes are usually equipped with high-power (e. g. 400 mW) 802. 11 wireless cards and high-gain (e. g. 32dBi) directional antennas. The links in one node cannot transmit or receive da-ta simultaneously because of the inter-link interference. The traditional CSMA/CA MAC proto-col suffers poor performance in such a network for its long propagation delay, ACK timeout and inter-link interference. Therefore new TDMA-type MAC protocols have been proposed to solve the above issues, such as 2P MAC, WiLDNet and JazzyMac. The upper layer protocols such as routing and network management thus face great challenges and appeal new design diagram. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental concepts of LDmesh networks, survey the research ac-tivities in recent years, and discuss in depth the challenges in terms of link performance, MAC protocols, routing protocols and network management. The future work is also discussed.

  3. GPS 长距离高程传递方法研究%Research on Height Transferring with GPS in Long Distance Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成国辉; 谭奇峰

    2013-01-01

    Based on the “remove-restore” principle , with the aid of GPS astronomical leveling theory , this paper proposed a method to transfer the height .By the means of gravity field model ,the low-frequency part of anomaly can be removed ,and a residual surface of Geoid can be obtained .With the quadratic surface fitting ,we can obtain the Geoid re-sidual surface shape and the angle deviation ,and calculate the residual anomaly difference between the datum points and observation points.Finally,to get the normal height difference between the datum points and observation points ,based on the same height datum .In this paper ,a real tests is given ,and showed that the method close to the accuracy of the third order Leveling .Meanwhile ,long distance height transfer , such as across the river , across the sea elevation transfer has some reference value .%基于“移去-恢复”原理,借助GPS天文水准理论,本文提出了一种GPS高程传递方法。首先,通过重力场模型移去高程异常中的低频部分,得到似大地水准面的残余面;其次,通过二次曲面拟合,获取似大地水准面的残余面形状和夹角偏差,并计算基准高程点和观测点间剩余高程异常差;最后,获取两点间正常高差。试验表明,该方法可获得三等水准测量的高程传递精度,对长距离高程传递,如跨河、跨海高程传递具有借鉴作用。

  4. Risk of severe knee and hip osteoarthritis in relation to level of physical exercise: a prospective cohort study of long-distance skiers in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Michaëlsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To complete long-distance ski races, regular physical exercise is required. This includes not only cross-country skiing but also endurance exercise during the snow-free seasons. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of physical exercise is associated with future risk of severe osteoarthritis independent of previous diseases and injuries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a cohort that consisted of 48 574 men and 5 409 women who participated in the 90 km ski race Vasaloppet at least once between 1989 and 1998. Number of performed races and finishing time were used as estimates of exercise level. By matching to the National Patient Register we identified participants with severe osteoarthritis, defined as arthroplasty of knee or hip due to osteoarthritis. With an average follow-up of 10 years, we identified 528 men and 42 women with incident osteoarthritis. The crude rate was 1.1/1000 person-years for men and 0.8/1000 person-years for women. Compared with racing once, participation in ≥ 5 races was associated with a 70% higher rate of osteoarthritis (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.33 to 2.22. The association was dose-dependent with an adjusted HR of 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13 for each completed race. A faster finishing time, in comparison with a slow finishing time, was also associated with an increased rate (adjusted HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.01. Contrasting those with 5 or more ski races and a fast finish time to those who only participated once with a slow finish time, the adjusted HR of osteoarthritis was 2.73, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.18. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Participants with multiple and fast races have an increased risk of subsequent arthroplasty of knee and hip due to osteoarthritis, suggesting that intensive exercise may increase the risk.

  5. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A Reperant

    likelihood of migratory take-off, this may favor the spread of HPAIV H5N1 by migratory birds over long distances.

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, Leslie A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Buehler, Debbie M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Piersma, Theunis; Kuiken, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    migratory take-off, this may favor the spread of HPAIV H5N1 by migratory birds over long distances.

  7. Naturalistic arm movements during obstacle avoidance in 3D and the identification of movement primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Britta; Lipinski, John; Schöner, Gregor

    2012-10-01

    By studying human movement in the laboratory, a number of regularities and invariants such as planarity and the principle of isochrony have been discovered. The theoretical idea has gained traction that movement may be generated from a limited set of movement primitives that would encode these invariants. In this study, we ask if invariants and movement primitives capture naturalistic human movement. Participants moved objects to target locations while avoiding obstacles using unconstrained arm movements in three dimensions. Two experiments manipulated the spatial layout of targets, obstacles, and the locations in the transport movement where an obstacle was encountered. We found that all movement trajectories were planar, with the inclination of the movement plane reflecting the obstacle constraint. The timing of the movement was consistent with both global isochrony (same movement time for variable path lengths) and local isochrony (same movement time for two components of the obstacle avoidance movement). The identified movement primitives of transport (movement from start to target position) and lift (movement perpendicular to transport within the movement plane) varied independently with obstacle conditions. Their scaling accounted for the observed double peak structure of movement speed. Overall, the observed naturalistic movement was astoundingly regular. Its decomposition into primitives suggests simple mechanisms for movement generation.

  8. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of Endotoxin Levels in Novice Long Distance Triathletes, and the Effects of a Multi-Strain Probiotic/Prebiotic, Antioxidant Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Roberts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS. This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB4ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day−1 containing 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157, 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156, 9.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL-20 (NCIMB 30172 and 0.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL-34 (NCIMB 30153/55.8 mg·day−1 fructooligosaccharides/ 400 mg·day−1 α-lipoic acid, 600 mg·day−1 N-acetyl-carnitine; matched pro/prebiotic (LAB4 or placebo (PL for 12 weeks preceding a long-distance triathlon. Plasma endotoxin units (via Limulus amebocyte lysate chromogenic quantification and GI permeability (via 5 h urinary lactulose (L: mannitol (M recovery were assessed at baseline, pre-race and six days post-race. Endotoxin unit levels were not significantly different between groups at baseline (LAB4ANTI: 8.20 ± 1.60 pg·mL−1; LAB4: 8.92 ± 1.20 pg·mL−1; PL: 9.72 ± 2.42 pg·mL−1. The use of a 12-week LAB4ANTI intervention significantly reduced endotoxin units both pre-race (4.37 ± 0.51 pg·mL−1 and six days post-race (5.18 ± 0.57 pg·mL−1; p = 0.03, ηp2 = 0.35, but only six days post-race with LAB4 (5.01 ± 0.28 pg·mL−1; p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.43. In contrast, endotoxin units remained unchanged with PL. L:M significantly increased from 0.01 ± 0.01 at baseline to 0.06 ± 0.01 with PL only (p = 0.004, ηp2 = 0.51. Mean race times (h:min:s were not statistically different between groups despite faster times with both pro/prebiotoic groups (LAB4ANTI: 13:17:07 ± 0:34:48; LAB4: 12

  10. Explore Off Valve Water Hammer Problem with Long-distance Lines Filling Water Supply Project%长距离供水工程的关阀水锤与线路充填问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚财鸿

    2015-01-01

    主要分析了长距离供水工程中关阀水锤特性和出现的线路填充现象,在无摩阻输水系统水锤公式的基础上,分别探讨了长距离供水系统的直接水锤和间接水锤,以期能为相关管道设计和运行调度提供理论参考。%The analysis of the long-distance water supply project hammer feature off valve and the emergence of the phenomenon of filling lines, water supply systems on the basis of non-friction formula on water hammer, water hammer, respectively, discussed the direct and indirect long-distance water supply system hammer, with a view to provide theoretical reference for the associated piping design and operation scheduling.

  11. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, p<0.001) and Site 2 (χ2 = 1896.1, df = 45, p<0.001); however, the preferred habitats differed between the two sites. BTF moved further than expected on the basis of current knowledge, with three individuals being resighted over 15 km from the banding location. However, BTF maintain small home ranges over short time-frames. Occasional long-distance movements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management

  12. 现代远程教育背景下劳模教学模式的探索%Exploration of Model Workers Teaching Mode under the Condition of Modern Long--distance Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃凤梅

    2012-01-01

    Exploring model workers teaching mode in modern long--distance education has profound significance. In this paper, we explore its construction style from theory support,mode selection and strategy application according to its main characteris- tics.%探索现代远程教育劳模教学模式意义深远,我们根据它的主要特点,从理论支撑、模式选择、策略运用等三个方面认真探索其构建方式。

  13. 双线扫描CCD测量远距离闪光点平均高度%Mean Height of Long Distance Burst Measurement Based on Double High Speed Line Scanning CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡怀宇; 杨光; 李秀明; 朱猛; 黄战华

    2015-01-01

    为了准确测量远距离炸点平均高度,采用了双线扫描 CCD 成像的方法并建立了测量系统理论模型。首先采用了望远式成像光学系统对远距离炸点进行成像,采用柱面镜进行成像变换;采用Zemax软件对成像光路进行了模拟,模拟点列图结果表明了系统在物距为20 m时,能够在5 m范围内有效测量炸点光的平均高度。最后,采用曲线拟合的方法求出光斑中心位置并对测量系统进行了线性标定。经实验验证本测量系统可以在物距为20 m处测量炸点的平均高度最高约为3 m,测量精度可以达到1.95%。所设计的炸点平均高度测量系统满足了远距离、大范围的测量要求,系统运行稳定、可靠,采用双线阵CCD的测量方法有效的消除了物距不能确定的影响。%In order to measure the mean height of long distance burst, a double line scanning CCD measurement system is established and its theoretical model is built. First, telescopic optical system is used to image the burst, and the image is transformed by a cylindrical lens. Then, Zemax software is used to simulate the optical system, whose spot diagram show that the system can effectively measure the mean height of burst within 5 meters at a long distance of 20m. Finally, the spot center is acquired by means of the curve fitting and linear calibration is carried out for uncertain parameters of the system. Experimental results indicate that the maximal height is 3 m approximately at a long distance of 20 m. The mean error is 1.95%. The presented system can reach the acquirement of long distance and wide range. Furthermore, the uncertainty of distance can be eliminated naturally by using the double line scanning CCD system.

  14. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...... levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  15. Une mémoire à distances A long-distance memory. Veterans of the Great War and the memory of the 1917 mutiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Offenstadt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nombreux sont les anciens combattants qui ont participé aux mutineries de 1917 ou vécu ces événements avec une grande proximité. Pour autant, la transmission de la mémoire s’avère d’une grande complexité tant il est difficile d’assumer pleinement un mouvement collectif de désobéissance en pleine guerre, de lui affecter un sens stabilisé ou consensuel. Les AC témoignent des mutineries parce qu’ elles font partie de leur expérience de guerre et qu’ ils refusent en général toutes les formes de « bobards » qui enjolivent par trop ce qu’ils ont vécu. En même temps, leurs récits des révoltes de 1917 se font le plus souvent avec une mise à distance ici étudiée. On peut donc conclure à une forme de dualité mémorielle des mutineries.Many are the veterans who took part in the 1917 mutinies or who experienced them at close range. Yet, transmitting that memory proves extremely complex, so difficult it is to fully accept a mass movement of disobedience in wartime and award it a stable or consensual significance. The veterans bear witness to the 1917 mutinies as these were part of their war experience and because they generally reject any sort of «nonsense» that makes the past prettier than it actually was. At the same time, when they tell of these rebellions they usually mark their distance from their narrative - which is what is under study here. One might therefore conclude that these mutinies have become a sort of double memory.

  16. 长输油气管道焊缝无损检测标准分析%Analysis of NDT Standard for Long Distance Oil and Gas Pipeline Weld Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景人; 王晓桥; 夏锋社

    2014-01-01

    通过对现行的长输管道无损检测验收标准对比分析,认为 SY/T 4109比 JB/T 4730在射线检测验收时,未熔合、未焊透和条形缺陷级别评定上要求宽松;而在超声波检测时灵敏度要求过低,且缺陷等级评定时也明显低于 JB/T 4730的要求,不利于提高长输管道的本质安全,并提出相应的建议。%The level of radiographic testing evaluation about the incomplete fusion, lack of penetration and bar defects of the weld joint in the SY/T 4109 is not as strict as that in the JB/T 4730,through comparison of the current long distance pipeline analysis of NDT methods and acceptance standard. The sensitivity requirement and defect rating are improper comparing to the JB/T 4730.This is not conducive to improve the security of long distance oil and gas pipeline, and the corresponding suggestion is put forward.

  17. Analysis and Treatment of GOV Abnormal Shutoff in Long Distance Natural Gas Pipelines%长输天然气管道干线截断阀异常关断事件分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯超波; 刘钊; 王旭

    2015-01-01

    干线截断阀在长输天然气管道中运用十分广泛,近年来由 Shafer 气液联动机构失效导致的干线截断阀异常关断事件时有发生,对长输天然气管道平稳运行造成重要影响。基于此,在介绍干线截断阀组成结构和动作原理的基础上,选取典型案例探讨干线截断阀关断事件原因及其处理要点,最后并提出相应的干线截断阀维检修建议。%GOVs are widely used in long distance natural gas pipelines; however GOV abnormal Shutoff caused by Shafer pneumatic hydraulic actuator failure often occurs in recent years, which has a significant influence on stable running of long distance natural gas pipelines. In this paper, focusing on GOV abnormal shutoff, the composition structure and action principle of GOV were introduced. Then through selecting a typical case, reasons and treatment measures of GOV abnormal shutoff were discussed. At the end, some maintenance suggestions were put forward.

  18. Feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment; Sabaku chiiki wo riyoshita taiyoko hatsuden chokyori yuso gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A workshop was held at Tokyo in March, 1997 on the research and development and feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic (PV) power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment. Two speakers from the USA, one from Italy, and two from China were invited, and four speakers in Japan presented papers. A total of 48 persons participated. In the technical sessions, `World energy demand and PV system potential` by Prof. Kurokawa, `Long distance transmission of PV power` by Mr. A. Invenizzi, `Case studies of large scale PV systems distributed throughout desert areas of the world` by Mr. Hirasawa, `Linking renewable energy resources around the world` by Mr. P. Meisen, `Properties of large scale PV plant in the USA` by Mr. J. Benner, `Future prospect of PV electrification in China` by Mr. Kong Li, `Application of large-scale PV systems in deserts in China` by Mr. Isomura, and `Effects of large-scale PV power plant in a climatic desert areas` by Prof. Ihara were presented. 38 refs., 62 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Application of ATV1100 MV Drives in Mining Long Distance Belt Conveyer%ATV1100高压变频器在煤矿长距离皮带机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登山; 王海天; 余博

    2012-01-01

    Long distance belt conveyer is the key equipment of coal transportation, coal is transported by belt conveyer through coal laneway when be excavated. This thesis presented Schneider MV drives ATV1100 application in coal mining long distance conveyer,described the requirement of belt conveyer equipment to MV drives according to system control diagram,and discussed how to use ATV1100 integrated function to fulfill these requirements. Meanwhile, ATV1100 MV drives technical advantage in coal mining belt conveyer application was summarized.%长距离带式输送机是煤碳运输的关键设备,矿井采煤机掘进出来的煤通过煤大巷带式输送机直接将原煤送入主斜井皮带.介绍了施耐德ATV1100高压变频器在矿井长距离皮带机上的应用.根据控制系统框图描述了带式皮带机对高压变频设备的具体要求,并论述了如何利用ATV1100内置的功能设计实现这些要求.同时,总结了ATV1100高压变频器在矿井皮带机应用中的技术优势.

  20. Summary on Selection of Young Athlete of Middle and Long Distance Race%中长跑项目青少年运动员科学选材综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文通; 裴广

    2011-01-01

    Applying document literature,research has been done from six aspects: selection through family investigation,morphology selection,functional selection,bone age selection,selection by sports psychology,and genetic selection,centered on the physical fitness,body patterning,psychological quality,physiological function,technical characteristics,tactical and intelligent features of middle and long distance athletes,which comes down to the selection model of middle and long distance athletes.%运用文献资料法,围绕中长跑运动员的身体素质、身体形态、心理素质、生理机能、技术特点、战术和智能特点等专项竞技特征,通过家系调查选材、形态学选材、机能学选材、骨龄选材、运动心理选材、基因选材六个方面的研究,综述了中长跑运动员的选材模式。

  1. 长距离超高扬程输水系统水锤防护模拟研究%Study on optimal surge protection for high-undulate long-distance water transmission pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 刁美玲; 王春艳; 陈晨; 高金良

    2012-01-01

    为研究长距离、超高扬程、一次加压提升的长距离输水系统水锤防护问题,结合我国西北地区某工程实例,针对超高扬程达370 m、一次加压提升的长距离输水系统建立了水锤防护设备模型.以特征线法对其进行求解,分别以两阶段控制阀、单向调压塔、气压罐为水锤防护设备方案,建立水锤防护设备模型,分别模拟分析事故停泵管线水锤防护效果,最终通过综合对比技术性能和经济性能来确定最优的水锤防护方案.结果表明,对于超高扬程、一次加压提升的长距离输水系统,在水泵出口处设置气压罐进行水锤防护,能够有效缓解过高和过低的水锤压力,水锤防护效果好.针对不同长距离输水工程特点,建立各种水锤防护设备模型,以特征线法进行求解,其求解结果有效指导水锤防护方案的优选.%For the study of long distance, high lift, a pressurization hoisting for long distance water system water hammer protection problems in Northwest China, combined with an engineering example, the high lift up to 370 m, a pressurization hoisting for long distance water system was established for the water hammer protection device model. The characteristic line method to solve the model, respectively to two stage control valve, one-way pressure regulating tower, pressure tank for water hammer protection equipment plan, establishment of water hammer protection equipment model, respectively, simulation analysis of accidental pump stop pipeline water hammer protection effect, ultimately through the comprehensive comparison of technical and economic performance to determine the optimal water hammer protection scheme. The results showed that, for high lift, a pressurization hoisting long distance water transfer system, the pump outlet pressure tank for water hammer protection settings, could effectively alleviate the high and low water pressure, water hammer protection effect was good

  2. Movement patterns of stream-dwelling fishes from Mata Atlântica, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Rosana; Iglesias-Rios, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range) of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called "Long Movement Group" and the second one was called "Short Movement Group". The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that fish movement could explain

  3. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  4. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  5. Antinuclear movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hee; Im, Jaeg Yeong

    1988-08-15

    This book is for antinuclear movement. So, this book introduces many articles on nuclear issues of Asia and the pacific area. The titles of articles are the crusades of Reagan by Werner Plaha, contending between super powers in Europe by Alva Reimer Myrdal, claims of resistance by Daniel Ellsberg, nuclear and the Korean Peninsula by Go, Seung Woo, Liberation but of belief of nuclear weapon by Lee, Young Hee and nuclear weapon in Korea by peter Haze.

  6. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  7. The Migration Matrix: Marine Vertebrate Movements in Magnetic Coordinate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Clapham, P. J.; Zerbini, A. N.; Andriolo, A.; Hays, G. C.; Egevang, C.; Domeier, M. L.; Lucas, N.

    2011-12-01

    Determining how vertebrates navigate during their long-distance migrations remains one of the most enduring and fundamental challenges of behavioral ecology. It is widely accepted that spatial orientation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and a variety of viable positional and directional orientation cues, including the sun, stars, and magnetic field, have been documented experimentally. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Are empirically observed migratory movements compatible with modern theoretical frameworks of spatial orientation? To address this question, we analysed leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) track maps, frequency distribution diagrams and time-series plots of animal locations in spherical magnetic coordinate space. Our analyses indicates that, although individual migration tracks are spatially and temporally distinct, vertebrate movements are non-randomly distributed in all three spherical magnetic coordinates (i.e. intensity, inclination, and declination). Stop-over locations, migratory destinations, and re-orientation points occur at similar magnetic coordinate locations, relative to tagging areas, in all four species, suggesting that a common system of magnetic orientation likely informs the navigational behaviors of these phylogenetically diverse taxa. Although our analyses demonstrate that the experiment-derived 'magnetic map' goal orientation theoretical framework of animal navigation is compatible with remotely-sensed migration track data, they also indicate that magnetic information is complemented by spatially and temporally contingent celestial stimuli during navigation.

  8. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  9. 超长输水隧洞多种类传感器数据传输方式%Information communication method of multiple sensors for super long distance water delivery tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范光亚; 何勇军; 李宏恩; 李铮; 郭晓红

    2015-01-01

    为了解决超长输水隧洞安全监测工程数据传输距离远以及因安装不同类型传感器导致监测数据格式多样的问题,在对水利工程安全监测系统常用数据传输方式进行优劣比较的基础上,提出适用于光纤传感器和常规传感器交叉组合监测的GPRS数据传输方式,探讨其在超长输水隧洞工程监测信息传输中的适用性和可行性,并在西南某超长输水隧洞工程中进行应用验证。根据超长输水隧洞工程通常无交流电供电的特点,提出风光电互补供电的方式,能够满足监测系统长期供电需求。%In this study it is introduced the general packet radio service( GPRS) information communication method, which combining fiber sensors and common sensors, for the long transmission distance of safety monitoring engineering data in super long distance water delivery tunnel and different data formats(resulted from multiple sensors). And it is compared with the common information communication methods about safety monitoring system in hydraulic engineering practice. Besides, it is discussed the applicability and feasibility of the information communication method for super long distance water delivery tunnel as well as tested in an engineering practice in the Southwest China. Due to the fact that alternating current is not available for outdoor projects of super long distance water delivery tunnel, it is proposed the power supply mode of solar, wind, and electrical energy, which are able to meet the power supply demand of monitoring system for a long time.

  10. 天然气长输管道火炬放空扩散规律研究%Study on Diffusion Law of Gas During Long Distance Gas Pipeline Venting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁俊奕

    2016-01-01

    天然气的放空扩散非常危险,研究天然气长输管道火炬放空扩散的规律,可以为其安全放空提供指导依据。PHAST 软件是公认的最权威最准确的后果分析软件,可以用于长输管道的天然气放空扩散计算。采用该软件建立天然气长输管道系统的亚临界流不点火放空的扩散模型,确定天然气在不点火放空过程中可能燃烧的危险区域。以某实际长输管道为例,计算两种工况下天然气扩散规律。结果显示,在放空过程中风速影响天然气的扩散。低风速时,天然气会向上扩散,在高风速时,天然气向水平方向扩散。天然气50%LFL 云团水平距离随风速的增大而增加,云团高度随风速的增加而减小。%Diffusion of gas is very dangerous during flare venting. The research on the diffusion law of gas during long distance gas pipeline flare venting can provide guidance for gas blowdown.PHAST is recognized as the most authoritative and accurate consequence analysis software and can be used to calculate the flare venting. The software is adopted to establish subcritical flow diffusion model of gas during long distance gas pipeline venting. Danger zone of gas ignition can be determined. In this paper, taking a practical long-distance pipeline as an example, diffusion law of natural gas was calculated under the two conditions. The results show that wind speed can affect the gas diffusion.The gas upward diffuses when wind speed is low; the gas horizontally diffuses when wind speed is high.Natural gas 50%LFL cloud horizontal distance increases with the increase of wind speed and cloud height decreases with the increase of wind speed.

  11. 长距离平坦输水管线负压防护措施分析%Analysis on Protective Measures of Negative Pressure in Flat Long-distance Water Transmission Pileline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑成志; 高金良; 王焕君; 金溪

    2012-01-01

    In order to economically and effectively achieve water hammer prevention in long-distance water transmission pipeline, the performance of water hammer arrester was analyzed, and after many simulations, the water hammer prevention problem in one flat long-distance water transmission project in northwest China was solved using water hammer arrester and some other protection devices. For the flat long-distance water transmission pipeline, the negative pressure is a prominent reason for pump stoppage due to accident, and the water hammer arrester can effectively achieve this water hammer prevention. To increase elevation in some nodes of the flat water transmission pipeline can reduce the risk of water hammer. When there are two parallel pipelines, it is necessary to check water hammer prevention measures in special conditions. In addition, "the installation of air valves on submerged pipeline is discussed.%为了经济高效地实现长距离输水管线的水锤防护,分析了抗水锤气压罐的性能,并经过模拟计算,综合运用抗水锤气压罐及其他水锤防护设备,解决了我国西北某长距离平坦输水管线工程的水锤防护问题.模拟表明,长距离平坦输水管线事故停泵的突出问题是管线负压,抗水锤气压罐能有效实现该类水锤的防护;在平坦的输水管线局部增加管线高程,能降低水锤危害;当双线输水时,有必要对特殊运行工况下的水锤防护措施进行校核.此外,还讨论了淹没管道上空气阀的设置问题.

  12. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  13. 长距离胶带机在水电工程砂石料系统工程中的应用%Application of Long-distance Rubber Belt Conveyor in Aggregate & Sand Processing System of Hydropower Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    文章从长距离胶带机的设计、施工要求及在国内外各个工地的砂石料生产中的应用等方面,对长距离胶带机的使用进行综合性比较,论证了长距离胶机在水电工程中应用的推广意义。%Application of the long-distance rubber belt conveyor is comprehensively compared, and the development significance of the conveyor in the hydropower projects is demonstrated in terms of its design, construction requirements and its applications in the aggregate&sand processing operation on the hydropower projects site both at home and abroad.

  14. Technical Research of Middle and Long Distance Local Ventilation in Huipodi Colliery%回坡地煤矿掘进中长距离局部通风技术改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕旭东

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the existing technical problems of local ventilation in coal mines ,it is important to consider not only from perspective of safety management ,but also improving passive situation and putting for‐ward effective strategies of future ventilation .The paper has studied on middle and long distance local ventilation technology in Huipodi Colliery .%为了解决井巷掘进中长距离局部通风中存在的问题,对掘进中长距离局部通风情况进行了分析,提出了局部通风技术改进措施,为矿井掘进中长距离局部通风积累了一定的经验。

  15. Research of pouring the coal bunker quickly with long-distance pumping concrete%远距离泵送混凝土快速浇筑煤仓研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬峰

    2014-01-01

    结合九龙矿北一煤仓的浇筑整修工程,简述了远距离泵送混凝土在浇筑煤仓实例中的施工技术,指出利用该技术节约了成本,缩短了工期,掘进和回采工作面提前恢复了生产,施工效率和经济效益明显。%Based on a repaired Beiyi coal bunker of Jiulong mine, this paper briefly describes the long-distance pumping concrete application in the pouring of coal bunker, points out the technology saving the cost and shorten the time limit for a project, excavation and stoping face resumed production in advance, the construction efficiency and economic benefit is obvious.

  16. 基于nRF24L01、单片机的小区远距离无线传呼%Residential Long-distance Wireless Paging Based on NRF24L01&MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烨

    2011-01-01

    nRF24L01-based wireless communication module long-distance paging,the paging signal through the single-chip processing,sending data through the wireless module,another module to receive data through wireless single-chip processing,paging and display the call where the floor.%介绍了基于nRF24L01无线通信模块实现远距离传呼,将传呼信号经过单片机处理,通过无线模块发送数据,另外一个无线模块接收数据并通过单片机处理,实现传呼及显示呼叫所在楼层。

  17. Media Stream Server and It's Ap plicat ion in Long Distance Education%流式多媒体服务器及其在远程教育中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁鸿雁

    2001-01-01

    The fast development of Internet promoted the long distance educat ion. The multimedia is the major medium. The media stream server can accelerate t he transferring of multimedia content.%因特网技术的发展极大的促进了远程教育的发展.在远程教学中,多媒体课件是主要的教学手段.新式流式多媒体服务器的出现,极大地改善了多媒体信息在网络中的传播,在未来的远程教育中,将具有广阔的应用前景.

  18. On the Employment Intention for the Long-distance Migrant Youth-Take Shunde,Guangdong for Example%异地务工青年就业意愿调查研究--以广东顺德为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁韵妍

    2016-01-01

    Since the"twelfth five-year"development period,3 main working tasks of city upgrading,industrial transformation and reform innovation of shunde city have raised the urbanization speed,long distance migrant youth has become the main body of foreign workers,their pursuit of development has a strong thirst for knowledge and consciousness of creation.Taking shunde, guangdong as an example,this research mainly concerns with the study of differences in different rural youth individual factors on the on the purpose of employment and the impact of planning,hoping to cause the attention of government and enterprise that be targeted for long-distance migrant youth protection and provide better service.%进入“十二五”发展时期以来,顺德区以城市升级、产业转型、改革创新三大工作主线提高城市化进程速度,异地务工青年已经成为了异地务工人员的主体,他们追求发展、具有强烈的求知欲和创业意识。本调研主要是以广东顺德为例,研究异地务工青年个体因素的差异对外出就业的目的和规划产生的影响,希望引起政府和企业的重视,有针对性地为异地务工青年提供更好的保障和服务。

  19. Optimal dispatch of long distance and large scale wind-hydro complementation system%远距离大容量风水互补系统的优化调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建伟; 胡兆光; 吴俊勇; 周景宏

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively deal with energy crisis and climate change, power system should integrate renewable energies as much as possible. The uncertainties of wind power and hydro power are investigated, and a long distance with large scale grid-connected wind-hydro complementation system is developed based on the complementation characteristics between wind energy resource and water energy resource. Under certain amount of wind energy resource and water energy resource condition, optimal wind-hydro complementation dispatching model is developed and the chaos differential evolution algorithm is used to solve the problem. Simulation on modified IEEE 30-bus system demonstrates that long distance wind-hydro complementation system can mitigate the output fluctuation of wind power,and greatly reduce fuel expense of thermal units, as well as the energy-saving and emission-reduction effect is significant.%为了有效应对能源危机和气候变化,电力系统应尽可能的吸纳可再生能源并网发电.本文分析了风力发电和水力发电的不确定性,根据风能资源和水能资源的互补特点构建了远距离大容量风水互补系统.在一定的风能资源和水能资源条件下设计了风水互补系统的优化调度模型,并采用混沌微分进化算法求解.修改后的IEEE-30节点算例结果表明:远距离风水互补系统可以平抑风电出力波动,大大减少系统火电机组燃料耗费,节能减排效果显著.

  20. Influence of relative parameters on quality of long distance diffraction-free beam%相关参数对长距离近似无衍射光束质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维涛; 吴逢铁; 张前安; 程治明

    2012-01-01

    The influence of relative parameters,such as the focal length of the convergence lens and the distance between the convergence lens and the axicon, on the propagation distance of long distance diffraction-free beam generated by two axicons is analyzed using ray-tracing method. Numerical simulation is carried out with Mathcad. The results show that, while other conditions are invariable, the propagation distance of long distance diffraction-free beam decreases as the focal length of the convergence lens increases, and rises with the increasing of the distance between the convergence lens and the axicon. The theory is verified by experiment, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical analysis.%利用光线追迹法分析了会聚透镜焦距及会聚透镜与轴棱锥的距离等相关参数对双轴棱锥产生的长距离近似无衍射光束传播距离的影响,运用Mathcad对其进行了数值模拟.结果显示:在其他条件不变的情况下,近似无衍射光束的传播距离随会聚透镜焦距的增大而减小,随会聚透镜与轴棱锥之间距离的增大而增大.通过实验对理论进行了验证,所得结果与理论分析相吻合.