Sample records for capsule biosynthesis locus

  1. The influence of IS1301 in the capsule biosynthesis locus on meningococcal carriage and disease.

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    Elisabeth Kugelberg

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that insertion of IS1301 in the sia/ctr intergenic region (IGR of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (MenC isolates from Spain confers increased resistance against complement-mediated killing. Here we investigate the significance of IS1301 in the same location in N. meningitidis isolates from the UK. PCR and sequencing was used to screen a collection of more than 1500 meningococcal carriage and disease isolates from the UK for the presence of IS1301 in the IGR. IS1301 was not identified in the IGR among vaccine failure strains but was frequently found in serogroup B isolates (MenB from clonal complex 269 (cc269. Almost all IS1301 insertions in cc269 were associated with novel polymorphisms, and did not change capsule expression or resistance to human complement. After excluding sequence types (STs distant from the central genotype within cc269, there was no significant difference for the presence of IS1301 in the IGR of carriage isolates compared to disease isolates. Isolates with insertion of IS1301 in the IGR are not responsible for MenC disease in UK vaccine failures. Novel polymorphisms associated with IS1301 in the IGR of UK MenB isolates do not lead to the resistance phenotype seen for IS1301 in the IGR of MenC isolates.

  2. The capsule biosynthesis locus of Haemophilus influenzae shows conspicuous similarity to the corresponding locus in Haemophilus sputorum and may have been recruited from this species by horizontal gene transfer. (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe M; de Gier, Camilla; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula; Gupta, Vikas; Hansen, Lars H; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels


    The newly described species Haemophilus sputorum has been cultured from the upper respiratory tract of humans and appears to have little pathogenic potential. The species encodes a capsular biosynthesis locus of approximately 12  kb composed of three distinct regions. Region I and III genes, involved in export and processing of the capsular material, show high similarity to the corresponding genes in capsulate lineages of the pathogenic species Haemophilus influenzae; indeed, standard bexA and bexB PCRs for detection of capsulated strains of H. influenzae give positive results with strains of H. sputorum. Three ORFs are present in region II of the sequenced strain of H. sputorum, of which a putative phosphotransferase showed homology with corresponding genes from H. influenzae serotype c and f. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from 24 Pasteurellaceae species showed that H. sputorum was only distantly related to H. influenzae. In contrast to H. influenzae, the capsule locus in H. sputorum is not associated with transposases or other transposable elements. Our data suggest that the capsule locus of capsulate lineages of H. influenzae may have been recruited relatively recently from the commensal species H. sputorum by horizontal gene transfer.

  3. Structure of the capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii 1053 having the KL91 capsule biosynthesis gene locus. (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Popova, Anastasiya V; Nikitina, Anastasia S; Babenko, Vladislav V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A


    Acinetobacter baumannii 1053 is the type strain for the maintenance of specific bacteriophage AP22, which infects a fairly broad range of A. baumannii strains circulating in Russian clinics and hospitals. A capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was isolated from cells of strain 1053 and studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the linear trisaccharide repeating unit was established: -->4)-β-D-ManpNAcA-(1-->4)-β-D-ManpNAcA-(1-->3)-α-D-FucpNAc-(1--> where ManNAcA and FucNAc indicate 2-acetamido-2-deoxymannuronic acid and 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxygalactose, respectively. A polysaccharide having the same repeating unit but a shorter chain was isolated by the phenol-water extraction of bacterial cells. Sequencing of the CPS biosynthesis gene locus showed that A. baumannii 1053 belongs to a new group designated KL91. The gene functions assigned putatively by a comparison with available databases were in agreement with the CPS structure established.

  4. The capsule biosynthesis locus of Haemophilus influenzae show conspicuous similarity to the corresponding locus in Haemophilus sputorum and may have been recruited from this species by horizontal gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Maria; de Gier, Camilla; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula;


    in export and processing of the capsular material, show high similarity to the corresponding genes in capsulate lineages of the pathogenic species Haemophilus influenzae; indeed, standard bexA and bexB PCRs for detection of capsulated strains of H. influenzae give positive results with strains of H...

  5. Analysis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in invasive disease reveals lack of the capsule locus. (United States)

    Lâm, T-T; Claus, H; Frosch, M; Vogel, U


    Among invasive Haemophilus influenzae, unencapsulated strains have largely surpassed the previously predominant serotype b (Hib) because of Hib vaccination. Isolates without the genomic capsule (cap) locus are designated non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). They are different from capsule-deficient variants that show deletion of the capsule transport gene bexA within the cap locus. The frequency of capsule-deficient variants in invasive disease is unknown. We analysed 783 unencapsulated invasive isolates collected over 5 years in Germany and found no single capsule-deficient isolate. Invasive unencapsulated strains in Germany were exclusively NTHi. A negative serotyping result by slide agglutination was therefore highly predictive for NTHi.

  6. Capsules of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria: paradigms for polysaccharide biosynthesis and regulation. (United States)

    Yother, Janet


    Capsular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides play critical roles in bacterial survival strategies, and they can have important medical and industrial applications. An immense variety of sugars and glycosidic linkages leads to an almost unlimited diversity of potential polysaccharide structures. This diversity is reflected in the large number of serologically and chemically distinct polysaccharides that have been identified among both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Despite this diversity, however, the genetic loci and mechanisms responsible for polysaccharide biosynthesis exhibit conserved features and can be classified into a small number of groups. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, capsule synthesis occurs by one of two distinct mechanisms that involve the polymerization of either individual sugars in a processive reaction (synthase dependent) or discrete repeat units in a nonprocessive reaction (Wzy dependent). Characterization of these systems has provided novel insights that are applicable to polymers synthesized by many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as eukaryotes.

  7. Zinc disrupts central carbon metabolism and capsule biosynthesis in Streptococcus pyogenes. (United States)

    Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G


    Neutrophils release free zinc to eliminate the phagocytosed bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underpinning zinc toxicity towards this human pathogen, responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Using the globally-disseminated M1T1 GAS strain, we demonstrate that zinc stress impairs glucose metabolism through the inhibition of the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In the presence of zinc, a metabolic shift to the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway allows conversion of D-galactose to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate, partially bypassing impaired glycolytic enzymes to generate pyruvate. Additionally, zinc inhibition of phosphoglucomutase results in decreased capsule biosynthesis. These data indicate that zinc exerts it toxicity via mechanisms that inhibit both GAS central carbon metabolism and virulence pathways.

  8. The rv1184c locus encodes Chp2, an acyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyacyltrehalose lipid biosynthesis. (United States)

    Touchette, Megan H; Holsclaw, Cynthia M; Previti, Mary L; Solomon, Viven C; Leary, Julie A; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Seeliger, Jessica C


    Trehalose glycolipids are found in many bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae, but methyl-branched acyltrehaloses are exclusive to virulent species such as the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In M. tuberculosis, the acyltransferase PapA3 catalyzes the formation of diacyltrehalose (DAT), but the enzymes responsible for downstream reactions leading to the final product, polyacyltrehalose (PAT), have not been identified. The PAT biosynthetic gene locus is similar to that of another trehalose glycolipid, sulfolipid 1. Recently, Chp1 was characterized as the terminal acyltransferase in sulfolipid 1 biosynthesis. Here we provide evidence that the homologue Chp2 (Rv1184c) is essential for the final steps of PAT biosynthesis. Disruption of chp2 led to the loss of PAT and a novel tetraacyltrehalose species, TetraAT, as well as the accumulation of DAT, implicating Chp2 as an acyltransferase downstream of PapA3. Disruption of the putative lipid transporter MmpL10 resulted in a similar phenotype. Chp2 activity thus appears to be regulated by MmpL10 in a relationship similar to that between Chp1 and MmpL8 in sulfolipid 1 biosynthesis. Chp2 is localized to the cell envelope fraction, consistent with its role in DAT modification and possible regulatory interactions with MmpL10. Labeling of purified Chp2 by an activity-based probe was dependent on the presence of the predicted catalytic residue Ser141 and was inhibited by the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). THL treatment of M. tuberculosis resulted in selective inhibition of Chp2 over PapA3, confirming Chp2 as a member of the serine hydrolase superfamily. Efforts to produce in vitro reconstitution of acyltransferase activity using straight-chain analogues were unsuccessful, suggesting that Chp2 has specificity for native methyl-branched substrates.

  9. Biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli K1 group 2 polysialic acid capsule occurs within a protected cytoplasmic compartment. (United States)

    Steenbergen, Susan M; Vimr, Eric R


    Capsular polysaccharides are important virulence determinants in a wide range of invasive infectious diseases. Although capsule synthesis has been extensively investigated, understanding polysaccharide export from the cytoplasm to the external environment has been more difficult. Here we present the results of a novel protection assay indicating that synthesis and export of the Escherichia coli K1 group 2 capsular polysialic acid (K1 antigen) occur within a protected subcellular compartment designated the sialisome. In addition to the polymerase encoded by neuS, localization and complementation analyses indicated that the sialisome includes the accessory membrane protein NeuE. The requirement for NeuE was suppressed by overproducing NeuS, suggesting that NeuE functions by stabilizing the polymerase or facilitating its assembly in the sialisome. Although an interaction between NeuE and NeuS could not be demonstrated with a bacterial two-hybrid system that reconstitutes an intracellular cell-signalling pathway, interactions between NeuS and KpsC as well as other sialisome components were detected. The combined results provide direct evidence for specific protein-protein interactions in the synthesis and export of group 2 capsular polysaccharides under in vivo conditions. The approaches developed here will facilitate further dissection of the sialisome, suggesting similar methodology for understanding the biosynthesis of other group 2 capsules.

  10. Genetic and Genomic Dissection of the Cochliobolus heterostrophus Tox1 Locus Controlling Biosynthesis of the Polyketide Virulence Factor T-toxin

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    Turgeon, Barbara G.; Baker, Scott E.


    Fungal pathogenesis to plants is an intricate developmental process requiring biological components found in most fungi, as well as factors that are unique to fungal taxa that participate in particular fungus–plant interactions. The host-selective polyketide toxin known as T-toxin produced by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race T, a highly virulent pathogen of maize, is an intriguing example of the latter type of virulence determinant. The Tox1 locus, which controls biosynthesis of T-toxin, originally defined as a single genetic locus, it is, in fact, two exceedingly complex loci on two chromosomes that are reciprocally translocated with respect to their counterparts in weakly pathogenic race O. Race O lacks the Tox1 locus and does not produce T-toxin. Highly virulent race T was first recognized when it caused an epidemic of Southern Corn Leaf Blight, which devastated the US corn crop in 1970. The evolutionary origin of the Tox1 locus remains unknown.

  11. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity. (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Montes, Luis R; Clarke, Jasper G; Affleck, Julie; Li, Yi; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van der Vossen, Edwin; van der Linde, Piet; Tripathi, Yogendra; Tavares, Evanilda; Shukla, Parul; Rajasekaran, Thirunavukkarasu; van Loo, Eibertus N; Graham, Ian A


    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring 'nontoxic' provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F₂ mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F₂ plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties.

  12. Structural characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9A capsule polysaccharide reveals role of glycosyl 6-O-acetyltransferase wcjE in serotype 9V capsule biosynthesis and immunogenicity. (United States)

    Calix, Juan J; Saad, Jamil S; Brady, Allison M; Nahm, Moon H


    The putative capsule O-acetyltransferase gene wcjE is highly conserved across various Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, but the role of the gene in capsule biosynthesis and bacterial fitness remains largely unclear. Isolates expressing pneumococcal serotype 9A arise from precursors expressing wcjE-associated serotype 9V through loss-of-function mutation to wcjE. To define the biosynthetic role of 9V wcjE, we characterized the structure and serological properties of serotype 9V and 9A capsule polysaccharide (PS). NMR data revealed that both 9V and 9A PS are composed of an identical pentasaccharide repeat unit, as reported previously. However, in sharp contrast to previous studies on 9A PS being devoid of any O-acetylation, we identified O-acetylation of α-glucuronic acid and α-glucose in 9A PS. In addition, 9V PS also contained -CH(2) O-acetylation of β-N-acetylmannosamine, a modification that disappeared following in vitro recombinatorial deletion of wcjE. We also show that serotyping sera and monoclonal antibodies specific for 9V and 9A bound capsule PS in an O-acetate-dependent manner. Furthermore, IgG and to a lesser extent IgM from human donors immunized with serotype 9V PS displayed stronger binding to 9V compared with 9A PS. We conclude that serotype 9V wcjE mediates 6-O-acetylation of β-N-acetylmannosamine. This PS modification can be selectively targeted by antibodies in immunized individuals, identifying a potential selective advantage for wcjE inactivation and serotype 9A emergence.

  13. Molecular characterization of the viaB locus encoding the biosynthetic machinery for Vi capsule formation in Salmonella Typhi.

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    Michael Wetter

    Full Text Available The Vi capsular polysaccharide (CPS of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of human typhoid, is important for infectivity and virulence. The Vi biosynthetic machinery is encoded within the viaB locus composed of 10 genes involved in regulation of expression (tviA, polymer synthesis (tviB-tviE, and cell surface localization of the CPS (vexA-vexE. We cloned the viaB locus from S. Typhi and transposon insertion mutants of individual viaB genes were characterized in Escherichia coli DH5α. Phenotype analysis of viaB mutants revealed that tviB, tviC, tviD and tviE are involved in Vi polymer synthesis. Furthermore, expression of tviB-tviE in E. coli DH5α directed the synthesis of cytoplasmic Vi antigen. Mutants of the ABC transporter genes vexBC and the polysaccharide copolymerase gene vexD accumulated the Vi polymer within the cytoplasm and productivity in these mutants was greatly reduced. In contrast, de novo synthesis of Vi polymer in the export deficient vexA mutant was comparable to wild-type cells, with drastic effects on cell stability. VexE mutant cells exported the Vi, but the CPS was not retained at the cell surface. The secreted polymer of a vexE mutant had different physical characteristics compared to the wild-type Vi.

  14. Structures of three different neutral polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii, NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615, assigned to K30, K45, and K48 capsule types, respectively, based on capsule biosynthesis gene clusters. (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A


    Neutral capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) were isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615. The CPSs were found to contain common monosaccharides only and to be branched with a side-chain 1→3-linked β-d-glucopyranose residue. Structures of the oligosaccharide repeat units (K units) of the CPSs were elucidated by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Novel CPS biosynthesis gene clusters, designated KL30, KL45, and KL48, were found at the K locus in the genome sequences of NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615, respectively. The genetic content of each gene cluster correlated with the structure of the CPS unit established, and therefore, the capsular types of the strains studied were designated as K30, K45, and K48, respectively. The initiating sugar of each K unit was predicted, and glycosyltransferases encoded by each gene cluster were assigned to the formation of the linkages between sugars in the corresponding K unit.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of components of the capsule biosynthesis complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A: toward in vitro vaccine production. (United States)

    Fiebig, Timm; Freiberger, Friedrich; Pinto, Vittoria; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Black, Alan; Litschko, Christa; Bethe, Andrea; Yashunsky, Dmitry; Adamo, Roberto; Nikolaev, Andrei; Berti, Francesco; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita


    The human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis globally. A major virulence factor of Nm is the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), which in Nm serogroup A consists of N-acetyl-mannosamine-1-phosphate units linked together by phosphodiester linkages [ → 6)-α-D-ManNAc-(1 → OPO3 (-)→]n. Acetylation in O-3 (to a minor extent in O-4) position results in immunologically active polymer. In the capsule gene cluster (cps) of Nm, region A contains the genetic information for CPSA biosynthesis. Thereby the open reading frames csaA, -B, and -C are thought to encode the UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase, poly-ManNAc-1-phosphate-transferase, and O-acetyltransferase, respectively. With the aim to use a minimal number of recombinant enzymes to produce immunologically active CPSA, we cloned the genes csaA, csaB, and csaC and functionally characterized the purified recombinant proteins. If recombinant CsaA and CsaB were combined in one reaction tube, priming CPSA-oligosaccharides were efficiently elongated with UDP-GlcNAc as the donor substrate, confirming that CsaA is the functional UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase and CsaB the functional poly-ManNAc-1-phosphate-transferase. Subsequently, CsaB was shown to transfer ManNAc-1P onto O-6 of the non-reducing end sugar of priming oligosaccharides, to prefer non-O-acetylated over O-acetylated primers, and to efficiently elongate the dimer of ManNAc-1-phosphate. The in vitro synthesized CPSA was purified, O-acetylated with recombinant CsaC, and proven to be identical to the natural CPSA by (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR, and immunoblotting. If all three enzymes and their substrates were combined in a one-pot reaction, nature identical CPSA was obtained. These data provide the basis for the development of novel vaccine production protocols.

  16. Comparative genomic analysis identifies divergent genomic features of pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum including a type IC CRISPR-Cas system, a capsule locus, an epa-like locus, and putative host tissue binding proteins. (United States)

    Borst, Luke B; Suyemoto, M Mitsu; Scholl, Elizabeth H; Fuller, Fredrick J; Barnes, H John


    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is the dominant enteric commensal of adult chickens and contributes to the gut consortia of many avian and mammalian species. While EC infection is an uncommon zoonosis, like other enterococcal species it can cause life-threating nosocomial infection in people. In contrast to other enterococci which are considered opportunistic pathogens, emerging pathogenic strains of EC cause outbreaks of musculoskeletal disease in broiler chickens. Typical morbidity and mortality is comparable to other important infectious diseases of poultry. In molecular epidemiologic studies, pathogenic EC strains were found to be genetically clonal. These findings suggested acquisition of specific virulence determinants by pathogenic EC. To identify divergent genomic features and acquired virulence determinants in pathogenic EC; comparative genomic analysis was performed on genomes of 3 pathogenic and 3 commensal strains of EC. Pathogenic isolates had smaller genomes with a higher GC content, and they demonstrated large regions of synteny compared to commensal isolates. A molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated sequence divergence in pathogenic EC genomes. At a threshold of 98% identity, 414 predicted proteins were identified that were highly conserved in pathogenic EC but not in commensal EC. Among these, divergent CRISPR-cas defense loci were observed. In commensal EC, the type IIA arrangement typical for enterococci was present; however, pathogenic EC had a type IC locus, which is novel in enterococci but commonly observed in streptococci. Potential mediators of virulence identified in this analysis included a polysaccharide capsular locus similar to that recently described for E. faecium, an epa-like locus, and cell wall associated proteins which may bind host extracellular matrix. This analysis identified specific genomic regions, coding sequences, and predicted proteins which may be related to the divergent evolution and increased virulence of emerging

  17. Variation in the complex carbohydrate biosynthesis loci of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes.

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    Johanna J Kenyon

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are major immunogenic components of the bacterial cell envelope. However, little is known about their biosynthesis in the genus Acinetobacter, which includes A. baumannii, an important nosocomial pathogen. Whether Acinetobacter sp. produce a capsule or a lipopolysaccharide carrying an O antigen or both is not resolved. To explore these issues, genes involved in the synthesis of complex polysaccharides were located in 10 complete A. baumannii genome sequences, and the function of each of their products was predicted via comparison to enzymes with a known function. The absence of a gene encoding a WaaL ligase, required to link the carbohydrate polymer to the lipid A-core oligosaccharide (lipooligosaccharide forming lipopolysaccharide, suggests that only a capsule is produced. Nine distinct arrangements of a large capsule biosynthesis locus, designated KL1 to KL9, were found in the genomes. Three forms of a second, smaller variable locus, likely to be required for synthesis of the outer core of the lipid A-core moiety, were designated OCL1 to OCL3 and also annotated. Each K locus includes genes for capsule export as well as genes for synthesis of activated sugar precursors, and for glycosyltransfer, glycan modification and oligosaccharide repeat-unit processing. The K loci all include the export genes at one end and genes for synthesis of common sugar precursors at the other, with a highly variable region that includes the remaining genes in between. Five different capsule loci, KL2, KL6, KL7, KL8 and KL9 were detected in multiply antibiotic resistant isolates belonging to global clone 2, and two other loci, KL1 and KL4, in global clone 1. This indicates that this region is being substituted repeatedly in multiply antibiotic resistant isolates from these clones.

  18. Characterization of the transcriptional regulation of the tariJKL locus involved in ribitol-containing wall teichoic acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomita, S.; Lee, I.C.; Swam, van I.I.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, Jacques; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.


    Lactobacillus plantarum strains produce either glycerol (Gro)- or ribitol (Rbo)-backbone wall teichoic acid (WTA) (Gro-WTA and Rbo-WTA, respectively). The strain WCFS1 has been shown to be able to activate the tarIJKL locus involved in Rbo-WTA synthesis when the tagD1F1F2 locus for Gro-WTA synthe

  19. Characterization of the transcriptional regulation of the tarIJKL locus involved in ribitol-containing wall teichoic acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum. (United States)

    Tomita, S; Lee, I-C; van Swam, I I; Boeren, S; Vervoort, J; Bron, P A; Kleerebezem, M


    Lactobacillus plantarum strains produce either glycerol (Gro)- or ribitol (Rbo)-backbone wall teichoic acid (WTA) (Gro-WTA and Rbo-WTA, respectively). The strain WCFS1 has been shown to be able to activate the tarIJKL locus involved in Rbo-WTA synthesis when the tagD1F1F2 locus for Gro-WTA synthesis was mutated, resulting in switching of the native Gro-WTA into Rbo-WTA. Here, we identify a regulator involved in the WTA backbone alditol switching and activation of the tarIJKL locus. Promoter reporter assays of the tarI promoter (Ptar) demonstrated its activity in the Rbo-WTA-producing mutant derivative (ΔtagF1-2) but not in the parental strain WCFS1. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay using a Ptar nucleotide fragment showed that this fragment bound to Ptar-binding protein(s) in a cell-free extract of WCFS1. Three proteins were subsequently isolated using Ptar bound to magnetic beads. These proteins were isolated efficiently from the lysate of WCFS1 but not from the lysate of its ΔtagF1-2 derivative, and were identified as redox-sensitive transcription regulator (Lp_0725), catabolite control protein A (Lp_2256) and TetR family transcriptional regulator (Lp_1153). The role of these proteins in Ptar regulation was investigated by knockout mutagenesis, showing that the Δlp_1153 mutant expressed the tarI gene at a significantly higher level, supporting its role as a repressor of the tarIJKL locus. Notably, the Δlp_1153 mutation also led to reduced expression of the tagF1 gene. These results show that Lp_1153 is a regulatory factor that plays a role in WTA alditol switching in Lb. plantarum WCFS1 and we propose to rename this gene/protein wasR/WasR, for WTA alditol switch regulator.

  20. Capsule endoscopy (United States)

    ... It is about the size of a large vitamin pill. The person swallows the capsule, and it takes pictures all the way through ... can be started in the doctor's office. The capsule is the size of a large vitamin pill, about an inch (2.5 centimeters) long ...

  1. Integration of E.coli aroG-pheA tandem genes into Corynebacterium glutamicum tyrA locus and its effect on L-phenylalanine biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Xin Liu; Chang-Sheng Fan; Ju-Hong Tao; Guo-Xin Liang; Shan-E Gao; Hai-Jiao Wang; Xin Li; Da-Xin Song


    AIM: To study the effect of integration of tandem aroG-pheA genes into the tyrA locus of Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) on the production of L-phenylalanine.METHODS: By nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, five pfluorophenylalanine (FP)-resistant mutants of C.glutamicurm FP were selected. The tyrA gene encoding prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) of C.glutamicum was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned on the plasmid pPR. Kanamycin resistance gene (Km) and the PBF-aroGpheA-T (GA) fragment of pGA were inserted into tyrA gene to form targeting vectors pTK and pTGAK, respectively. Then,they were transformed into C.glutamicum FP respectively by electroporation. Cultures were screened by a medium containing kanamycin and detected by PCR and phenotype analysis. The transformed strains were used for L-phenylalanine fermentation and enzyme assays.RESULTS: Engineering strains of C.glutamicum (Tyr-) were obtained. Compared with the original strain, the transformed strain C. glutamicum GAK was observed to have the highest elevation of L-phenylalanine production by a 1.71-fold,and 2.9-, 3.36-, and 3.0-fold in enzyme activities of chorismate mutase, prephenate dehydratase and 3-deoxy-Darabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase, respectively.CONCLUSION: Integration of tandem aroG-pheA genes into tyrA locus of C. glutamicum chromosome can disrupt tyrA gene and increase the yield of L-phenylalanine production.

  2. Unique lipid anchor attaches Vi antigen capsule to the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. (United States)

    Liston, Sean D; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Whitfield, Chris


    Polysaccharide capsules are surface structures that are critical for the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the etiological agent of typhoid fever. It produces a capsular polysaccharide known as "Vi antigen," which is composed of nonstoichiometrically O-acetylated α-1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronic acid residues. This glycan is a component of currently available vaccines. The genetic locus for Vi antigen production is also present in soil bacteria belonging to the genus Achromobacter Vi antigen assembly follows a widespread general strategy with a characteristic glycan export step involving an ATP-binding cassette transporter. However, Vi antigen producers lack the enzymes that build the conserved terminal glycolipid characterizing other capsules using this method. Achromobacter species possess a Vi antigen-specific depolymerase enzyme missing in S enterica Typhi, and we exploited this enzyme to isolate acylated Vi antigen termini. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed a reducing terminal N-acetylhexosamine residue modified with two β-hydroxyl acyl chains. This terminal structure resembles one half of lipid A, the hydrophobic portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. The VexE protein encoded in the Vi antigen biosynthesis locus shares similarity with LpxL, an acyltransferase from lipid A biosynthesis. In the absence of VexE, Vi antigen is produced, but its physical properties are altered, its export is impaired, and a Vi capsule structure is not assembled on the cell surface. The structure of the lipidated terminus dictates a unique assembly mechanism and has potential implications in pathogenesis and vaccine production.

  3. Capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas


    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a simple, safe, non-invasive, reliable technique, well accepted and tolerated by the patients, which allows complete exploration of the small intestine. The advent of CE in 2000 has dramatically changed the diagnosis and management of many diseases of the small intestine, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, polyposis syndromes, etc. CE has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of most diseases of the small bowel. Lately this technique has also been used for esophageal and colonic diseases.

  4. Esophageal capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Raul Armendariz; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas


    Capsule endoscopy is now considered as the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Esophageal capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected esophageal disorders is feasible and safe,and could be also an alternative procedure in those patients refusing upper endoscopy.Although large-scale studies are needed to confirm its utility in GERD and cirrhotic patients,current results are encouraging and open a new era in esophageal examination.

  5. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas


    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  6. Wzy-dependent bacterial capsules as potential drug targets. (United States)

    Ericsson, Daniel J; Standish, Alistair; Kobe, Bostjan; Morona, Renato


    The bacterial capsule is a recognized virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. It likely works as an antiphagocytic barrier by minimizing complement deposition on the bacterial surface. With the continual rise of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is an increasing need for novel drugs. In the Wzy-dependent pathway, the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is regulated by a phosphoregulatory system, whose main components consist of bacterial-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) and their cognate phosphatases. The ability to regulate capsule biosynthesis has been shown to be vital for pathogenicity, because different stages of infection require a shift in capsule thickness, making the phosphoregulatory proteins suitable as drug targets. Here, we review the role of regulatory proteins focusing on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli and discuss their suitability as targets in structure-based drug design.

  7. K19 capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii is produced via a Wzy polymerase encoded in a small genomic island rather than the KL19 capsule gene cluster. (United States)

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sofya N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Siniagina, Maria N; Malanin, Sergey Y; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A


    Polymerization of the oligosaccharides (K units) of complex capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) requires a Wzy polymerase, which is usually encoded in the gene cluster that directs K unit synthesis. Here, a gene cluster at the Acinetobacter K locus (KL) that lacks a wzy gene, KL19, was found in Acinetobacter baumannii ST111 isolates 28 and RBH2 recovered from hospitals in the Russian Federation and Australia, respectively. However, these isolates produced long-chain capsule, and a wzy gene was found in a 6.1 kb genomic island (GI) located adjacent to the cpn60 gene. The GI also includes an acetyltransferase gene, atr25, which is interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) in RBH2. The capsule structure from both strains was →3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→4)-α-d-GalpNAcA-(1→3)-β-d-QuipNAc4NAc-(1→, determined using NMR spectroscopy. Biosynthesis of the K unit was inferred to be initiated with QuiNAc4NAc, and hence the Wzy forms the β-(1→3) linkage between QuipNAc4NAc and GalpNAc. The GalpNAc residue is 6-O-acetylated in isolate 28 only, showing that atr25 is responsible for this acetylation. The same GI with or without an IS in atr25 was found in draft genomes of other KL19 isolates, as well as ones carrying a closely related CPS gene cluster, KL39, which differs from KL19 only in a gene for an acyltransferase in the QuiNAc4NR synthesis pathway. Isolates carrying a KL1 variant with the wzy and atr genes each interrupted by an ISAba125 also have this GI. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of genes involved in capsule biosynthesis normally found at the KL located elsewhere in A. baumannii genomes.

  8. Distribution of the ompA-types among ruminant and swine pneumonic strains of Pasteurella multocida exhibiting various cap-locus and toxA patterns. (United States)

    Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Siarkou, V; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L


    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen in food-producing animals and numerous virulence genes have been identified in an attempt to elucidate the pathogenesis of pasteurellosis. Currently, some of these genes including the capsule biosynthesis genes, the toxA and the OMPs-encoding genes have been suggested as epidemiological markers. However, the number of studies concerning ruminant isolates is limited, while, no attempt has ever been made to investigate the existence of ompA sequence diversity among P. multocida isolates. The aim of the present study was the comparative analysis of 144 P. multocida pneumonic isolates obtained from sheep, goats, cattle and pigs by determining the distribution of the ompA-types in conjunction with the cap-locus and toxA patterns. The ompA genotypes of the isolates were determined using both a PCR-RFLP method and DNA sequence analysis. The most prevalent capsule biosynthesis gene among the isolates was capA (86.1%); a noticeable, however, rate of capD-positive isolates (38.6%) was found among the ovine isolates that had been associated primarily with the capsule type A in the past. Moreover, an unexpectedly high percentage of toxA-positive pneumonic isolates was noticed among small ruminants (93.2% and 85.7% in sheep and goats, respectively), indicating an important epidemiological role of toxigenic P. multocida for these species. Despite their great heterogeneity, certain ompA-genotypes were associated with specific host species, showing evidence of a host preference. The OmpA-based PCR-RFLP method developed proved to be a valuable tool in typing P. multocida strains.

  9. Engineering Stable Hollow Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Scientists at the CAS Institute of Chemistry have been succeeded in fabricating stable hollow capsules by extending covalent layer-by-layer self-assembly(CSA)technique from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional systems.

  10. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN


    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  11. The capsule of Porphyromonas gingivalis reduces the immune response of human gingival fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Winkelhoff Arie J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodontitis is a bacterial infection of the periodontal tissues. The Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a major causative agent. One of the virulence factors of P. gingivalis is capsular polysaccharide (CPS. Non-encapsulated strains have been shown to be less virulent in mouse models than encapsulated strains. Results To examine the role of the CPS in host-pathogen interactions we constructed an insertional isogenic P. gingivalis knockout in the epimerase-coding gene epsC that is located at the end of the CPS biosynthesis locus. This mutant was subsequently shown to be non-encapsulated. K1 capsule biosynthesis could be restored by in trans expression of an intact epsC gene. We used the epsC mutant, the W83 wild type strain and the complemented mutant to challenge human gingival fibroblasts to examine the immune response by quantification of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 transcription levels. For each of the cytokines significantly higher expression levels were found when fibroblasts were challenged with the epsC mutant compared to those challenged with the W83 wild type, ranging from two times higher for IL-1β to five times higher for IL-8. Conclusions These experiments provide the first evidence that P. gingivalis CPS acts as an interface between the pathogen and the host that may reduce the host's pro-inflammatory immune response. The higher virulence of encapsulated strains may be caused by this phenomenon which enables the bacteria to evade the immune system.

  12. Genetic analysis of the capsular biosynthetic locus from all 90 pneumococcal serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Bentley


    Full Text Available Several major invasive bacterial pathogens are encapsulated. Expression of a polysaccharide capsule is essential for survival in the blood, and thus for virulence, but also is a target for host antibodies and the basis for effective vaccines. Encapsulated species typically exhibit antigenic variation and express one of a number of immunochemically distinct capsular polysaccharides that define serotypes. We provide the sequences of the capsular biosynthetic genes of all 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and relate these to the known polysaccharide structures and patterns of immunological reactivity of typing sera, thereby providing the most complete understanding of the genetics and origins of bacterial polysaccharide diversity, laying the foundations for molecular serotyping. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a complete repertoire of capsular biosynthetic genes has been available, enabling a holistic analysis of a bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis system. Remarkably, the total size of alternative coding DNA at this one locus exceeds 1.8 Mbp, almost equivalent to the entire S. pneumoniae chromosomal complement.

  13. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.


    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  14. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. De Smidt


    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  15. Wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Mata; J Llach; JM Bordas


    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new technique that allows complete exploration of the small bowel without external wires. Its role has been analyzed in many small bowel diseases such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease and gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes with promising results. Studies on other pathologies (I.e. Small bowel tumour, celiac disease) are under evaluation to define the role of this technique.

  16. Kingella kingae Expresses Four Structurally Distinct Polysaccharide Capsules That Differ in Their Correlation with Invasive Disease (United States)

    Porsch, Eric A.; Seed, Patrick C.; Heiss, Christian; Naran, Radnaa; Amit, Uri; Yagupsky, Pablo; Azadi, Parastoo; St. Geme, Joseph W.


    Kingella kingae is an encapsulated gram-negative organism that is a common cause of osteoarticular infections in young children. In earlier work, we identified a glycosyltransferase gene called csaA that is necessary for synthesis of the [3)-β-GalpNAc-(1→5)-β-Kdop-(2→] polysaccharide capsule (type a) in K. kingae strain 269–492. In the current study, we analyzed a large collection of invasive and carrier isolates from Israel and found that csaA was present in only 47% of the isolates. Further examination of this collection using primers based on the sequence that flanks csaA revealed three additional gene clusters (designated the csb, csc, and csd loci), all encoding predicted glycosyltransferases. The csb locus contains the csbA, csbB, and csbC genes and is associated with a capsule that is a polymer of [6)-α-GlcpNAc-(1→5)-β-(8-OAc)Kdop-(2→] (type b). The csc locus contains the cscA, cscB, and cscC genes and is associated with a capsule that is a polymer of [3)-β-Ribf-(1→2)-β-Ribf-(1→2)-β-Ribf-(1→4)-β-Kdop-(2→] (type c). The csd locus contains the csdA, csdB, and csdC genes and is associated with a capsule that is a polymer of [P-(O→3)[β-Galp-(1→4)]-β-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-α-GlcpNAc-1-] (type d). Introduction of the csa, csb, csc, and csd loci into strain KK01Δcsa, a strain 269–492 derivative that lacks the native csaA gene, was sufficient to produce the type a capsule, type b capsule, type c capsule, and type d capsule, respectively, indicating that these loci are solely responsible for determining capsule type in K. kingae. Further analysis demonstrated that 96% of the invasive isolates express either the type a or type b capsule and that a disproportionate percentage of carrier isolates express the type c or type d capsule. These results establish that there are at least four structurally distinct K. kingae capsule types and suggest that capsule type plays an important role in promoting K. kingae invasive disease. PMID:27760194

  17. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupay KL


    Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder 

  18. Capsule-train stability (United States)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.


    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  19. Capsule endoscopy in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Video capsule endoscopy is an attractive and patient- friendly tool that provides high quality images of the small bowel. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is the primary and most evaluated indication to capsule endoscopy; however, indications are expanding and a small number of preliminary reports have been presented concerning the role of video capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge and to hypothesize on future perspectives of the use of video capsule endoscopy in patients with celiac disease.

  20. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production. (United States)

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato


    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  1. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J Standish

    Full Text Available Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  2. Characterization of the Kingella kingae polysaccharide capsule and exopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly F Starr

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that Kingella kingae produces a polysaccharide capsule. In an effort to determine the composition and structure of this polysaccharide capsule, in the current study we purified capsular material from the surface of K. kingae strain 269-492 variant KK01 using acidic conditions to release the capsule and a series of steps to remove DNA, RNA, and protein. Analysis of the resulting material by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo, and galactose (Gal. Further analysis by NMR demonstrated two distinct polysaccharides, one consisting of GalNAc and Kdo with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and the other containing galactose alone with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. Disruption of the ctrA gene required for surface localization of the K. kingae polysaccharide capsule resulted in elimination of GalNAc and Kdo but had no effect on the presence of Gal in bacterial surface extracts. In contrast, deletion of the pamABCDE locus involved in production of a reported galactan exopolysaccharide eliminated Gal but had no effect on the presence of GalNAc and Kdo in surface extracts. Disruption of ctrA and deletion of pamABCDE resulted in a loss of all carbohydrates in surface extracts. These results establish that K. kingae strain KK01 produces a polysaccharide capsule with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and a separate exopolysaccharide with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. The polysaccharide capsule and the exopolysaccharide require distinct genetic loci for surface localization.

  3. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ubbi, Kuldip


    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.

  4. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.


    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  5. Evidence for a role of the polysaccharide capsule transport proteins in pertussis pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Hoo

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (PS capsules are important virulence determinants for many bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, produces a surface associated microcapsule but its role in pertussis pathogenesis remained unknown. Here we showed that the B. pertussis capsule locus is expressed in vivo in murine lungs and that absence of the membrane-associated protein KpsT, involved in the transport of the PS polymers across the envelope, but not the surface-exposed PS capsule itself, affects drastically B. pertussis colonization efficacy in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that absence of KpsT in B. pertussis resulted in global down-regulation of gene expression including key virulence genes regulated by BvgA/S, the master two-component system. Using a BvgS phase-locked mutant, we demonstrated a functional link between KpsT and BvgA/S-mediated signal transduction. Whereas pull-down assays do not support physical interaction between BvgS sensor and any of the capsule locus encoded proteins, absence of KpsT impaired BvgS oligomerization, necessary for BvgS function. Furthermore, complementation studies indicated that instead of KpsT alone, the entire PS capsule transport machinery spanning the cell envelope likely plays a role in BvgS-mediated signal transduction. Our work thus provides the first experimental evidence of a role for a virulence-repressed gene in pertussis pathogenesis.

  6. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  7. Asymptomatic carriage of group A streptococcus is associated with elimination of capsule production. (United States)

    Flores, Anthony R; Jewell, Brittany E; Olsen, Randall J; Shelburne, Samuel A; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Beres, Stephen B; Musser, James M


    Humans commonly carry pathogenic bacteria asymptomatically, but despite decades of study, the underlying molecular contributors remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a group A streptococcus carriage strain contains a frameshift mutation in the hasA gene resulting in loss of hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. This mutation was repaired by allelic replacement, resulting in restoration of capsule production in the isogenic derivative strain. The "repaired" isogenic strain was significantly more virulent than the carriage strain in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis and had enhanced growth ex vivo in human blood. Importantly, the repaired isogenic strain colonized the mouse oropharynx with significantly greater bacterial burden and had significantly reduced ability to internalize into cultured epithelial cells than the acapsular carriage strain. We conducted full-genome sequencing of 81 strains cultured serially from 19 epidemiologically unrelated human subjects and discovered the common theme that mutations negatively affecting capsule biosynthesis arise in vivo in the has operon. The significantly decreased capsule production is a key factor contributing to the molecular détente between pathogen and host. Our discoveries suggest a general model for bacterial pathogens in which mutations that downregulate or ablate virulence factor production contribute to carriage.

  8. Eliana Machado, Locus Brasilis


    Ramos, Domingo


    Locus Brasilis es un complejo libro de la poeta brasileña y trilingüe Eliana Machado, que actualmente radica en Europa y por primera vez publica en el Perú. El volumen, el segundo de la autora luego de Blanco en el blanco, que apareció en Sao Paulo, consta de tres partes bien definidas, que corresponden a los tres reinos de la naturaleza. En poesía esto se traslada al hombre con sus respectivos correlatos del animal como ser destructivo, pero también conciliador y hasta protector de un mundo ...

  9. Capsule endoscopy of the esophagus. (United States)

    Waterman, Matti; Gralnek, Ian M


    Video capsule endoscopy has acquired wide clinical acceptance since its the US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2001. Recently, the technology of video capsule endoscopy has been adapted to other organs in the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus and colon. In this review, we discuss esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE)-the procedure, its indications, contraindications, safety, and future applications. ECE is a minimally invasive procedure that uses special video capsules with ability to acquire images from 2 cameras with high image storing speed of 14 to 18 frames per second. A special ingestion procedure allows for prolonged esophageal transit time and an optimized view of the gastroesophageal junction. ECE has been shown to have moderately high sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis and surveillance of Barrett esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease but has not demonstrated superiority to esogastroduodenoscopy in cost-effectiveness models. In patients with portal hypertension, ECE has a sensitivity of 63% to 100% for screening of esophageal varices, but does not seem to be superior to esogastroduodenoscopy in its cost-effectiveness. No serious complications have been reported after ECE although a low rate of esophageal capsule retention (0.7% to 2.2%) has been reported, usually because of unsuspected esophageal strictures. Contraindications to capsule endoscopy include known or suspected gastrointestinal and esophageal obstruction, strictures, or fistulas, intestinal pseudoobstruction, and children under 10 years of age. It is expected that improvements in imaging technology will improve the accuracy of ECE with the development of immunological-based and chemical-based diagnostic capabilities.

  10. Capsule endoscopy in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) for the investigation of the small bowel is an approved technique both in adults and children (more than 10 years old). The present review provides data on the indications, diagnostic yield, adverse events and limitations of the WCE technique in children and tries to predict the future of WCE usage in this population of patients.

  11. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D


    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  12. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

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    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  13. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population. (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada


    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  14. Biosynthesis of 8-O-methylated benzoxazinoid defense compounds in maize (United States)

    Benzoxazinoids are important defense compounds in grasses. Here, we investigated the biosynthesis and biological roles of the 8-O-methylated benzoxazinoids, DIM2BOA-Glc and HDM2BOA-Glc. Using quantitative trait locus mapping and heterologous expression, we identified a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxy...

  15. Acetamido sugar biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea. (United States)

    Namboori, Seema C; Graham, David E


    Archaea and eukaryotes share a dolichol phosphate-dependent system for protein N-glycosylation. In both domains, the acetamido sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forms part of the core oligosaccharide. However, the archaeal Methanococcales produce GlcNAc using the bacterial biosynthetic pathway. Key enzymes in this pathway belong to large families of proteins with diverse functions; therefore, the archaeal enzymes could not be identified solely using comparative sequence analysis. Genes encoding acetamido sugar-biosynthetic proteins were identified in Methanococcus maripaludis using phylogenetic and gene cluster analyses. Proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were purified and assayed for the predicted activities. The MMP1680 protein encodes a universally conserved glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. The MMP1077 phosphomutase converted alpha-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate to alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate, although this protein is more closely related to archaeal pentose and glucose phosphomutases than to bacterial glucosamine phosphomutases. The thermostable MJ1101 protein catalyzed both the acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate and the uridylyltransferase reaction with UTP to produce UDP-GlcNAc. The MMP0705 protein catalyzed the C-2 epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc, and the MMP0706 protein used NAD(+) to oxidize UDP-N-acetylmannosamine, forming UDP-N-acetylmannosaminuronate (ManNAcA). These two proteins are similar to enzymes used for proteobacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and gram-positive bacterial capsule production, suggesting a common evolutionary origin and a widespread distribution of ManNAcA. UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA biosynthesis evolved early in the euryarchaeal lineage, because most of their genomes contain orthologs of the five genes characterized here. These UDP-acetamido sugars are predicted to be precursors for flagellin and S-layer protein modifications and for the biosynthesis of methanogenic coenzyme B.

  16. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers. (United States)

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E


    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  17. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Review and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedel


    Full Text Available Colon capsule endoscopy utilizing PillCam COLON 2 capsule allows for visualization potentially of the entire colon and is currently approved for patients who cannot withstand the rigors of traditional optical colonoscopy (OC and associated sedation as well as those that had an OC that was incomplete for technical reasons other than a poor preparation. We will then describe the prior experience and current status of colon capsule endoscopy.

  18. Identification and characterisation of a biosynthetic locus for Moraxella bovis lipo-oligosaccharide. (United States)

    Faglin, Isabelle; Grice, I Darren; Ratnayake, S R A M Eranda; Daal, Terese-Marie; Singh, Sanjesh; Wilson, Jennifer C; Peak, Ian R


    Moraxella bovis is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium and is one of the causative agents of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. The structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from strain Epp63 was recently elucidated. In the present study a genetic locus of seven encoding genes with high similarity to glycosyltransferases has been identified. Mutation of these putative glycosyltransferase genes resulted in M. bovis mutant bacteria that expressed truncated LOS structures. The structures of the oligosaccharide (OS) expressed by the mutant strains were elucidated and demonstrated the role of the glycosyltransferase enzymes in the LOS biosynthesis of M. bovis. The glycosyltransferase genes designated lgt1, lgt3, and lgt6 are highly similar to the genes in the related bacterium M. catarrhalis. In addition, there are syntenic similarities with the corresponding LOS biosynthesis locus in M. catarrhalis and other members of Moraxellaceae.


    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.


    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  20. Xyloglucan and its biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Zabotina


    Full Text Available The hemicellulosic polysaccharide xyloglucan (XyG, found in the primary cell walls of most plant tissues, is important for structural organization of the cell wall and regulation of growth and development. Significant recent progress in structural characterization of XyGs from different plant species has shed light on the diversification of XyG during plant evolution. Also, identification of XyG biosynthetic enzymes and examination of their interactions suggests the involvement of a multiprotein complex in XyG biosynthesis. This mini-review presents an updated overview of the diversity of XyG structures in plant taxa and recent findings on XyG biosynthesis.

  1. Fis is essential for capsule production in Pasteurella multocida and regulates expression of other important virulence factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Steen


    Full Text Available P. multocida is the causative agent of a wide range of diseases of animals, including fowl cholera in poultry and wild birds. Fowl cholera isolates of P. multocida generally express a capsular polysaccharide composed of hyaluronic acid. There have been reports of spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida, but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. In this study, we identified three independent strains that had spontaneously lost the ability to produce capsular polysaccharide. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that these strains had significantly reduced transcription of the capsule biosynthetic genes, but DNA sequence analysis identified no mutations within the capsule biosynthetic locus. However, whole-genome sequencing of paired capsulated and acapsular strains identified a single point mutation within the fis gene in the acapsular strain. Sequencing of fis from two independently derived spontaneous acapsular strains showed that each contained a mutation within fis. Complementation of these strains with an intact copy of fis, predicted to encode a transcriptional regulator, returned capsule expression to all strains. Therefore, expression of a functional Fis protein is essential for capsule expression in P. multocida. DNA microarray analysis of one of the spontaneous fis mutants identified approximately 30 genes as down-regulated in the mutant, including pfhB_2, which encodes a filamentous hemagglutinin, a known P. multocida virulence factor, and plpE, which encodes the cross protective surface antigen PlpE. Therefore these experiments define for the first time a mechanism for spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida and identify Fis as a critical regulator of capsule expression. Furthermore, Fis is involved in the regulation of a range of other P. multocida genes including important virulence factors.

  2. Attachment and invasion of Neisseria meningitidis to host cells is related to surface hydrophobicity, bacterial cell size and capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N Bartley

    Full Text Available We compared exemplar strains from two hypervirulent clonal complexes, strain NMB-CDC from ST-8/11 cc and strain MC58 from ST-32/269 cc, in host cell attachment and invasion. Strain NMB-CDC attached to and invaded host cells at a significantly greater frequency than strain MC58. Type IV pili retained the primary role for initial attachment to host cells for both isolates regardless of pilin class and glycosylation pattern. In strain MC58, the serogroup B capsule was the major inhibitory determinant affecting both bacterial attachment to and invasion of host cells. Removal of terminal sialylation of lipooligosaccharide (LOS in the presence of capsule did not influence rates of attachment or invasion for strain MC58. However, removal of either serogroup B capsule or LOS sialylation in strain NMB-CDC increased bacterial attachment to host cells to the same extent. Although the level of inhibition of attachment by capsule was different between these strains, the regulation of the capsule synthesis locus by the two-component response regulator MisR, and the level of surface capsule determined by flow cytometry were not significantly different. However, the diplococci of strain NMB-CDC were shown to have a 1.89-fold greater surface area than strain MC58 by flow cytometry. It was proposed that the increase in surface area without changing the amount of anchored glycolipid capsule in the outer membrane would result in a sparser capsule and increase surface hydrophobicity. Strain NMB-CDC was shown to be more hydrophobic than strain MC58 using hydrophobicity interaction chromatography and microbial adhesion-to-solvents assays. In conclusion, improved levels of adherence of strain NMB-CDC to cell lines was associated with increased bacterial cell surface and surface hydrophobicity. This study shows that there is diversity in bacterial cell surface area and surface hydrophobicity within N. meningitidis which influence steps in meningococcal pathogenesis.

  3. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K


    chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  4. The future of wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett's and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong.

  5. How helpful is capsule endoscopy to surgeons?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Ersoy; Bulent Sivri; Yusuf Bayraktar


    Capsule endoscopy is a new technology that, for the first time, allows complete, non-invasive endoscopic imaging of the small bowel. The efficacy of capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of suspected small bowel diseases has been established. Important applications for surgeons include observations of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel neoplasms.

  6. Isolation and mutagenesis of a capsule-like complex (CLC from Francisella tularensis, and contribution of the CLC to F. tularensis virulence in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloka B Bandara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis is a category-A select agent and is responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. The surface components of F. tularensis that contribute to virulence are not well characterized. An electron-dense capsule has been postulated to be present around F. tularensis based primarily on electron microscopy, but this specific antigen has not been isolated or characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A capsule-like complex (CLC was effectively extracted from the cell surface of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS lacking O-antigen with 0.5% phenol after 10 passages in defined medium broth and growth on defined medium agar for 5 days at 32°C in 7% CO₂. The large molecular size CLC was extracted by enzyme digestion, ethanol precipitation, and ultracentrifugation, and consisted of glucose, galactose, mannose, and Proteinase K-resistant protein. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that expression of genes in a putative polysaccharide locus in the LVS genome (FTL_1432 through FTL_1421 was upregulated when CLC expression was enhanced. Open reading frames FTL_1423 and FLT_1422, which have homology to genes encoding for glycosyl transferases, were deleted by allelic exchange, and the resulting mutant after passage in broth (LVSΔ1423/1422_P10 lacked most or all of the CLC, as determined by electron microscopy, and CLC isolation and analysis. Complementation of LVSΔ1423/1422 and subsequent passage in broth restored CLC expression. LVSΔ1423/1422_P10 was attenuated in BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally (IN and intraperitoneally with greater than 80 times and 270 times the LVS LD₅₀, respectively. Following immunization, mice challenged IN with over 700 times the LD₅₀ of LVS remained healthy and asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the CLC may be a glycoprotein, FTL_1422 and -FTL_1423 were involved in CLC biosynthesis, the CLC contributed to the virulence of F. tularensis LVS, and a CLC

  7. [Study on preferred retinal locus]. (United States)

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian


    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  8. [Karyosphere capsule in Tribolium castaneum oocytes]. (United States)

    Batalova, F M; Bogoliubov, D S


    Structure and composition of the karyosphere (karyosome) capsule were studied in the oocytes of a laboratory insect, Tribolium castaneum, with the use of electron microscopy and immunoelectron cytochemistry. Basing on the study of nuclear structure dynamics, we distinguished 8 stages that characterize the period of oocyte growth. At the diplotene stage, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes conjoin early into a compact karyosphere, but a significant chromatin condensation does not occur. The process of karyosphere formation is accompanied by the development of an extensive extrachromosome capsule surrounding chromatin. The capsule consists of a material of different morphological types. Significant molecular components of the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule are represented by the proteins of nuclear matrix including F-actin and lamin B. Besides the structural proteins, the Sm proteins of small nuclear (sn) RNPs and mature 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (TMG) 5'-capped snRNAs are revealed immunocytochemically in the karyosphere capsule. The obtained data can form a basis for further expansion of ideas on the functions of the karyosphere capsule as a specialized extrachromosomal nuclear domain of the oocytes. We believe that the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule plays not only a structural role, but may be involved directly in the processes related to gene expression.

  9. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R


    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device (United States)

    Nelson, Ira V.


    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  11. Upstream regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis. (United States)

    Alkhayyat, Fahad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk


    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants of food and feed products, posing a substantial health risk to humans and animals throughout the world. A plethora of filamentous fungi has been identified as mycotoxin producers and most of these fungal species belong to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the molecular mechanisms of biosynthesis of key mycotoxins and the regulatory cascades controlling toxigenesis. In many cases, the mycotoxin biosynthetic genes are clustered and regulated by one or more pathway-specific transcription factor(s). In addition, as biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites is coordinated with fungal growth and development, there are a number of upstream regulators affecting biosynthesis of mycotoxins in fungi. This review presents a concise summary of the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, focusing on the roles of the upstream regulatory elements governing biosynthesis of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin in Aspergillus.

  12. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B


    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  13. Therapeutic Capsule Endoscopy: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rasouli


    Full Text Available The increasing demand for non-invasive (or less-invasive monitoring and treatment of medical conditions has attracted both physicians and engineers to work together and investigate new methodologies. Wireless capsule endoscopy is a successful example of such techniques which has become an accepted routine for diagnostic inspection of the gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a non-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy and provides the opportunity for exploring distal areas of the small intestine which are otherwise not accessible. Despite these advantages, wireless capsule endoscopy is still limited in functionality compared to traditional endoscopy. Wireless capsule endoscopes with advanced functionalities, such as biopsy or drug delivery, are highly desirable. In this article, the current status of wireless capsule endoscopy is reviewed together with some of its possible therapeutic applications as well as the existing challenges.

  14. Dynamics of nonspherical compound capsules in simple shear flow (United States)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng


    The dynamics of an initially ellipsoidal compound capsule in a simple shear flow is investigated numerically using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model. Membrane bending resistance is included based on Helfrich's energy function besides the resistances against shear deformation and area dilatation governed by the constitutive law of Skalak et al. In this paper, we focus specifically on how the presence of a spherical inner capsule and its size affects the characteristics and transition of various dynamical states of nonspherical compound capsules (i.e., the outer capsule). Significant differences in the dynamical characteristics are observed between compound capsules and homogeneous capsules in both qualitative and quantitative terms. We find the transition from swinging to tumbling can occur at vanishing viscosity mismatch through increasing the inner capsule size alone to a critical value regardless of the initial shape of the nonspherical compound capsule (i.e., prolate or oblate). Besides, for compound capsules with viscosity mismatch, the critical viscosity ratio for the swinging-to-tumbling transition remarkably decreases by increasing the inner capsule size. It is thus concluded that the inner capsule size is a key governing parameter of compound capsule dynamics apart from the capillary number, aspect ratio, and viscosity ratio that have been long identified for homogeneous capsules. Further, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the effects of the inner capsule on the compound capsule dynamics from the viewpoint of the effective viscosity of internal fluid and find that the effects of the inner capsule on compound capsule dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of increasing the internal viscosity on homogeneous capsule dynamics. However, in quantitative terms, the compound capsule cannot be viewed as a homogeneous capsule with higher viscosity as obvious inhomogeneity in fluid stress distribution is induced by the inner membrane.

  15. Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes. (United States)

    Schirmer, Andreas; Rude, Mathew A; Li, Xuezhi; Popova, Emanuela; del Cardayre, Stephen B


    Alkanes, the major constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, are naturally produced by diverse species; however, the genetics and biochemistry behind this biology have remained elusive. Here we describe the discovery of an alkane biosynthesis pathway from cyanobacteria. The pathway consists of an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase, which together convert intermediates of fatty acid metabolism to alkanes and alkenes. The aldehyde decarbonylase is related to the broadly functional nonheme diiron enzymes. Heterologous expression of the alkane operon in Escherichia coli leads to the production and secretion of C13 to C17 mixtures of alkanes and alkenes. These genes and enzymes can now be leveraged for the simple and direct conversion of renewable raw materials to fungible hydrocarbon fuels.

  16. Engineering of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Morten Emil; Salomonsen, Bo; Halkier, Barbara Ann


    -efficient methods for identification and validation of candidate genes are needed. This chapter covers the methodology we are using for gene discovery in glucosinolate engineering, namely, guilt-by-association-based in silico methods and fast proof-of-function screens by transient expression in Nicotiana...... of glucosinolate biosynthesis, although in planta validation of candidate gene function often is hampered by time-consuming generation of knockout and overexpression lines in Arabidopsis. To better exploit the increasing amount of data available from genomic sequencing, microarray database and RNAseq, time...... benthamiana. Moreover,the lessons learned in the rapid, transient tobacco system are readily translated to our robust, versatile yeast expression platform, where additional genes critical for large-scale microbial production of glucosinolates can be identified. We anticipate that the methodology presented...

  17. Systematic Design of edical Capsule Robots


    Beccani, M; Tunc, H; Taddese, AZ; Susilo, E; Volgiesi, P; Ledeczi, A; Valdastri, P


    Medical capsule robots that navigate inside the body as diagnostic and interventional tools are an emerging and challenging research area within medical CPSs. These robots must provide locomotion, sensing, actuation, and communication within severe size, power, and computational constraints. This paper presents the first effort for an open architecture, platform design, software infrastructure, and a supporting modular design environment for medical capsule robots to further this research area.

  18. The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis. (United States)

    Bulley, Sean; Laing, William


    We review the regulation of ascorbate (vitamin C) biosynthesis, focusing on the l-galactose pathway. We discuss the regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis at the level of gene transcription (both repression and enhancement) and translation (feedback inhibition of translation by ascorbate concentration) and discuss the eight proteins that have been demonstrated to date to affect ascorbate concentration in plant tissues. GDP-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and GDP-mannose epimerase are critical steps that regulate ascorbate biosynthesis. These and other biosynthetic genes are controlled at the transcriptional level, while GGP is also controlled at the translational level. Ascorbate feedback on enzyme activity has not been observed unequivocally.

  19. Putatively novel serotypes and the potential for reduced vaccine effectiveness: capsular locus diversity revealed among 5405 pneumococcal genomes (United States)

    van Tonder, Andries J.; Bray, James E.; Quirk, Sigríður J.; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Hoffmann, Steen; Bentley, Stephen D.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Brueggemann, Angela B.


    The pneumococcus is a leading global pathogen and a key virulence factor possessed by the majority of pneumococci is an antigenic polysaccharide capsule (‘serotype’), which is encoded by the capsular (cps) locus. Approximately 100 different serotypes are known, but the extent of sequence diversity within the cps loci of individual serotypes is not well understood. Investigating serotype-specific sequence variation is crucial to the design of sequence-based serotyping methodology, understanding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) effectiveness and the design of future PCVs. The availability of large genome datasets makes it possible to assess population-level variation among pneumococcal serotypes and in this study 5405 pneumococcal genomes were used to investigate cps locus diversity among 49 different serotypes. Pneumococci had been recovered between 1916 and 2014 from people of all ages living in 51 countries. Serotypes were deduced bioinformatically, cps locus sequences were extracted and variation was assessed within the cps locus, in the context of pneumococcal genetic lineages. Overall, cps locus sequence diversity varied markedly: low to moderate diversity was revealed among serogroups/types 1, 3, 7, 9, 11 and 22; whereas serogroups/types 6, 19, 23, 14, 15, 18, 33 and 35 displayed high diversity. Putative novel and/or hybrid cps loci were identified among all serogroups/types apart from 1, 3 and 9. This study demonstrated that cps locus sequence diversity varied widely between serogroups/types. Investigation of the biochemical structure of the polysaccharide capsule of major variants, particularly PCV-related serotypes and those that appear to be novel or hybrids, is warranted. PMID:28133541

  20. Diverse inhibitors of aflatoxin biosynthesis. (United States)

    Holmes, Robert A; Boston, Rebecca S; Payne, Gary A


    Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, extensive research has been focused on identifying compounds that inhibit its biosynthesis. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts containing activity inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis have been reported. Only recently, however, have tools been available to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these inhibitors affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many inhibitors are plant-derived and a few may be amenable to pathway engineering for tissue-specific expression in susceptible host plants as a defense against aflatoxin contamination. Other compounds show promise as protectants during crop storage. Finally, inhibitors with different modes of action could be used in comparative transcriptional and metabolomic profiling experiments to identify regulatory networks controlling aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  1. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Pennazio; Emanuele Rondonotti; Roberto de Franchis


    Until recently,diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques.An array of new methods has recently been developed,increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage.Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ,since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized.Highquality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and fiat lesions recognized,without exposure to radiation.Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range,1.6%-2.4%)and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant;many were unsuspected and not found by other methods.However,it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion's endoscopic appearance.Despite its limitations,CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management.Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms,ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings,remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies.

  2. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots. (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan


    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-2) m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  3. Lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. (United States)

    Cheriyan, Thomas; Guo, Lifei; Orgill, Dennis P; Padera, Robert F; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron


    Capsular contraction is the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery. While presence of the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is considered among the causes of capsular contraction, the exact etiology and pathophysiology is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of lubricin in capsular formation and contraction by determining the presence and distribution of the lubricating protein lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. Related aims were to evaluate select histopathologic features of the capsules, and the percentage of cells expressing α-SMA, which reflects the myofibroblast phenotype. Capsules from tissue expanders were obtained from eight patients. Lubricin, at the tissue-implant interface, in the extracellular matrix, and in cells, and α-SMA-containing cells were evaluated immunohistochemically. The notable finding was that lubricin was identified in all tissue expander capsules: as a discrete layer at the tissue-implant interface, extracellular, and intracellular. There was a greater amount of lubricin in the extracellular matrix in the intimal-subintimal zone when compared with the tissue away from the implant. Varying degrees of synovial metaplasia were seen at the tissue-implant interface. α-SMA-containing cells were also seen in all but one patient. The findings might help us better understand factors involved in capsule formation.

  4. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape (United States)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.


    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  5. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas


    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  6. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters (United States)

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.


    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies [J. F. Hansen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013504 (2008)]. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of 2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of 2-3 keV. We will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  7. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay


    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  8. Endotoxin, capsule, and bacterial attachment contribute to Neisseria meningitidis resistance to the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. (United States)

    Jones, Allison; Geörg, Miriam; Maudsdotter, Lisa; Jonsson, Ann-Beth


    Pathogenic bacteria have evolved numerous mechanisms to evade the human immune system and have developed widespread resistance to traditional antibiotics. We studied the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and present evidence of novel mechanisms of resistance to the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. We found that bacteria attached to host epithelial cells are resistant to 10 microM LL-37 whereas bacteria in solution or attached to plastic are killed, indicating that the cell microenvironment protects bacteria. The bacterial endotoxin lipooligosaccharide and the polysaccharide capsule contribute to LL-37 resistance, probably by preventing LL-37 from reaching the bacterial membrane, as more LL-37 reaches the bacterial membrane on both lipooligosaccharide-deficient and capsule-deficient mutants whereas both mutants are also more susceptible to LL-37 killing than the wild-type strain. N. meningitidis bacteria respond to sublethal doses of LL-37 and upregulate two of their capsule genes, siaC and siaD, which further results in upregulation of capsule biosynthesis.

  9. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease (United States)

    Collins, Paul D


    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  10. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release. (United States)

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena


    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  11. Capsule endoscopy: Current status in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Gupta; Nageshwar Duvvuru Reddy


    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a safe, non invasive diagnostic modality for the evaluation of small bowel lesions. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is one of the most important indications of capsule endoscopy.Capsule endoscopy has a very high diagnostic yield especially if the bleeding is ongoing. This technique appears to be superior to other techniques for the detection of suspected lesions and the source of bleeding. Capsule endoscopy has been shown to change the outcome in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI)bleed.

  12. Functional Characterization of 4′OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis (United States)

    Gurkok, Tugba; Ozhuner, Esma; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Özcan, Sebahattin; Turktas, Mine; İpek, Arif; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Okay, Sezer; Unver, Turgay


    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes remain to be revealed. In this study, expressions of 3-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4′–methyltransferase (4′OMT) and reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (7OMT) genes were subjected to manipulation to functionally characterize their roles in BIA biosynthesis. Measurements of alkaloid accumulation were performed in leaf, stem, and capsule tissues accordingly. Suppression of 4′OMT expression caused reduction in the total alkaloid content in stem tissue whereas total alkaloid content was significantly induced in the capsule. Silencing of the 7OMT gene also caused repression in total alkaloid content in the stem. On the other hand, over-expression of 4′OMT and 7OMT resulted in higher morphine accumulation in the stem but suppressed amount in the capsule. Moreover, differential expression in several BIA synthesis genes (CNMT, TYDC, 6OMT, SAT, COR, 4′OMT, and 7OMT) were observed upon manipulation of 4′OMT and 7OMT expression. Upon silencing and overexpression applications, tissue specific effects of these genes were identified. Manipulation of 4′OMT and 7OMT genes caused differentiated accumulation of BIAs including morphine and noscapine in capsule and stem tissues. PMID:26909086

  13. Functional Characterization of 4´OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba eGurkok


    Full Text Available Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes remain to be revealed. In this study, expressions of 3-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4´-O-methyltransferase (4´OMT and reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (7OMT genes were subjected tomanipulation to functionally characterize their roles in BIA biosynthesis. Measurements of alkaloid accumulation were performed in leaf, stem and capsule tissues accordingly. Suppression of 4´OMT expression caused reduction in the total alkaloid content in stem tissue whereas total alkaloid content was significantly induced in the capsule. Silencing of the 7OMT gene also caused repression in total alkaloid content in the stem. On the other hand, over-expression of 4´OMT and 7OMT resulted in higher morphine accumulation in the stem but suppressed amount in the capsule. Moreover, differential expression in several BIA synthesis genes (CNMT, TYDC, 6OMT, SAT, COR, 4´OMT and 7OMT were observed upon manipulation of 4´OMT and 7OMT expression. Upon silencing and overexpression applications, tissue specific effects of these genes were identified. Manipulation of 4´OMT and 7OMT genes caused differentiated accumulation of BIAs including morphine and noscapine in capsule and stem tissues.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  15. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras. (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua


    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  16. Electrohydrodynamic deformation of capsules in electric field (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Thaokar, Rochish


    Micron size capsules are abundant in natural, technological and biological processes but they still require extensive investigation for better understanding of their mechanical behavior. A spherical capusle containing a Newtonian fluid bounded by a viscoelastic membrane and immersed in another Newtonian fluid, and subject to electric field is considered. Discontinuity of electrical properties such as conductivity and permittivity leads to a net Maxwell stress at the capsule interface. In response the capsule undergoes elastic deformation, leading to strain fields and elastic stresses that can balance the applied forces. We investigate this problem with fully resolved hydrodynamics in the Stokes flow limit and electrostatics using the capacitance model. Effect of AC, DC and pulsed DC fields is investigated. Our results show that membrane electrical properties have a huge impact on the equilibrium deformation as well as on the break up of capsules. Our results match with the literature results in the limit of high conductance of the membrane. Analytical theory is employed using spherical harmonics and numerical investigations are conducted using the Boundary integral method.

  17. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608 (United States)

    Blazer, Christie


    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  18. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms. (United States)

    Korasick, David A; Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C


    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development.

  19. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam


    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Mayoral


    Full Text Available Este es un artículo científico acerca del Locus de Distribución, surgido de un estudio realizado con una población de docentes y alumnos universitarios. Respecto de los primeros, se ha indagado acerca de las atribuciones que se realizaban en torno a las recompensas y sanciones, que ellos distribuían a sus alumnos. Respecto de los segundos, se ha buscado determinar la valoración que estos realizaban de sus profesores, en términos de aquellas atribuciones. Para ello, se utilizaron dos paradigmas clásicamente empleados para verificar la existencia de una norma: el paradigma de la autopresentación (docentes, y el paradigma de los juicios (alumnos. La cuestión planteada fue determinar si en el caso de los comportamientos distributivos de refuerzos, las causas se atribuían a variables externas -en particular a los receptores de esos refuerzos- y si esas formas de atribución eran conocidas y valoradas o no, por los alumnos. De los resultados, surgió la confirmación de nuestra hipótesis de explicaciones externas en materia de comportamientos distributivos de sanciones en el ámbito de la docencia y la valoración positiva de estas atribuciones por los alumnos.

  1. Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis. (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko


    Higher plants produce a large variety of low-molecular weight secondary compounds. Among them, nitrogen-containing alkaloids are the most biologically active and are often used pharmaceutically. Whereas alkaloid chemistry has been intensively investigated, alkaloid biosynthesis, including the relevant biosynthetic enzymes, genes and their regulation, and especially transcription factors, is largely unknown, as only a limited number of plant species produce certain types of alkaloids and they are difficult to study. Recently, however, several groups have succeeded in isolating the transcription factors that are involved in the biosynthesis of several types of alkaloids, including bHLH, ERF, and WRKY. Most of them show Jasmonate (JA) responsiveness, which suggests that the JA signaling cascade plays an important role in alkaloid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize the types and functions of transcription factors that have been isolated in alkaloid biosynthesis, and characterize their similarities and differences compared to those in other secondary metabolite pathways, such as phenylpropanoid and terpenoid biosyntheses. The evolution of this biosynthetic pathway and regulatory network, as well as the application of these transcription factors to metabolic engineering, is discussed.

  2. Biosynthesis and transport of terpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ting, H.M.


    Terpenoids are the largest class of natural product that are produced by plants, with functions that range from a role in plant development to direct defence against pathogens and indirect defence against insects through the attraction of natural enemies. While terpene biosynthesis genes have been w

  3. Identification of a siderophore utilization locus in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seale Thomas W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilus influenzae has an absolute aerobic growth requirement for either heme, or iron in the presence of protoporphyrin IX. Both iron and heme in the mammalian host are strictly limited in their availability to invading microorganisms. Many bacterial species overcome iron limitation in their environment by the synthesis and secretion of small iron binding molecules termed siderophores, which bind iron and deliver it into the bacterial cell via specific siderophore receptor proteins on the bacterial cell surface. There are currently no reports of siderophore production or utilization by H. influenzae. Results Comparative genomics revealed a putative four gene operon in the recently sequenced nontypeable H. influenzae strain R2846 that encodes predicted proteins exhibiting significant identity at the amino acid level to proteins involved in the utilization of the siderophore ferrichrome in other bacterial species. No siderophore biosynthesis genes were identified in the R2846 genome. Both comparative genomics and a PCR based analysis identified several additional H. influenzae strains possessing this operon. In growth curve assays strains containing the genes were able to utilize ferrichrome as an iron source. H. influenzae strains lacking the operon were unable to obtain iron from ferrichrome. An insertional mutation in one gene of the operon abrogated the ability of strains to utilize ferrichrome. In addition transcription of genes in the identified operon were repressible by high iron/heme levels in the growth media. Conclusions We have identified an iron/heme-repressible siderophore utilization locus present in several nontypeable H. influenzae strains. The same strains do not possess genes encoding proteins associated with siderophore synthesis. The siderophore utilization locus may enable the utilization of siderophores produced by other microorganisms in the polymicrobial environmental niche of the human nasopharynx

  4. A conserved UDP-glucose dehydrogenase encoded outside the hasABC operon contributes to capsule biogenesis in group A Streptococcus. (United States)

    Cole, Jason N; Aziz, Ramy K; Kuipers, Kirsten; Timmer, Anjuli M; Nizet, Victor; van Sorge, Nina M


    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific bacterial pathogen responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule of GAS is a major virulence factor, contributing to bloodstream survival through resistance to neutrophil and antimicrobial peptide killing and to in vivo pathogenicity. Capsule biosynthesis has been exclusively attributed to the ubiquitous hasABC hyaluronan synthase operon, which is highly conserved across GAS serotypes. Previous reports indicate that hasA, encoding hyaluronan synthase, and hasB, encoding UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, are essential for capsule production in GAS. Here, we report that precise allelic exchange mutagenesis of hasB in GAS strain 5448, a representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 serotype, did not abolish HA capsule synthesis. In silico whole-genome screening identified a putative HasB paralog, designated HasB2, with 45% amino acid identity to HasB at a distant location in the GAS chromosome. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated that recombinant HasB2 is a functional UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase enzyme. Mutagenesis of hasB2 alone slightly decreased capsule abundance; however, a ΔhasB ΔhasB2 double mutant became completely acapsular. We conclude that HasB is not essential for M1T1 GAS capsule biogenesis due to the presence of a newly identified HasB paralog, HasB2, which most likely resulted from gene duplication. The identification of redundant UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenases underscores the importance of HA capsule expression for M1T1 GAS pathogenicity and survival in the human host.

  5. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.


    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  6. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.


    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  7. Genomics of glycopeptidolipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium abscessus and M. chelonae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Gilles


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outermost layer of the bacterial surface is of crucial importance because it is in constant interaction with the host. Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs are major surface glycolipids present on various mycobacterial species. In the fast-grower model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis, GPL biosynthesis involves approximately 30 genes all mapping to a single region of 65 kb. Results We have recently sequenced the complete genomes of two fast-growers causing human infections, Mycobacterium abscessus (CIP 104536T and M. chelonae (CIP 104535T. We show here that these two species contain genes corresponding to all those of the M. smegmatis "GPL locus", with extensive conservation of the predicted protein sequences consistent with the production of GPL molecules indistinguishable by biochemical analysis. However, the GPL locus appears to be split into several parts in M. chelonae and M. abscessus. One large cluster (19 genes comprises all genes involved in the synthesis of the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety, the glycosylation of the lipopeptide and methylation/acetylation modifications. We provide evidence that a duplicated acetyltransferase (atf1 and atf2 in M. abscessus and M. chelonae has evolved through specialization, being able to transfer one acetyl at once in a sequential manner. There is a second smaller and distant (M. chelonae, 900 kb; M. abscessus, 3 Mb cluster of six genes involved in the synthesis of the fatty acyl moiety and its attachment to the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety. The other genes are scattered throughout the genome, including two genes encoding putative regulatory proteins. Conclusion Although these three species produce identical GPL molecules, the organization of GPL genes differ between them, thus constituting species-specific signatures. An hypothesis is that the compact organization of the GPL locus in M. smegmatis represents the ancestral form and that evolution has scattered various pieces throughout the

  8. Locus of control and decision to abort. (United States)

    Dixon, P N; Strano, D A; Willingham, W


    The relationship of locus of control to deciding on an abortion was investigated by administering Rotter's Locus of Control Scale to 118 women immediately prior to abortion and 2 weeks and 3 months following abortion. Subjects' scores were compared across the 3 time periods, and the abortion group's pretest scores were compared with those of a nonpregnant control, group. As hypothesized, the aborting group scored significantly more internal than the general population but no differences in locus of control were found across the 3 time period. The length of delay in deciding to abort an unwanted pregnancy following confirmation was also assessed. Women seeking 1st trimester abortions were divided into internal and external groups on the Rotter Scale and the lengths of delay were compared. The hypothesis that external scores would delay the decision longer than internal ones was confirmed. The results confirm characteristics of the locus of control construct and add information about personality characteristics of women undergoing abortion.

  9. Basic ammonothermal GaN growth in molybdenum capsules (United States)

    Pimputkar, S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.


    Single crystal, bulk gallium nitride (GaN) crystals were grown using the basic ammonothermal method in a high purity growth environment created using a non-hermetically sealed molybdenum (Mo) capsule and compared to growths performed in a similarly designed silver (Ag) capsule and capsule-free René 41 autoclave. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed transition metal free (<1×1017 cm-3) GaN crystals. Anomalously low oxygen concentrations ((2-6)×1018 cm-3) were measured in a {0001} seeded crystal boule grown using a Mo capsule, despite higher source material oxygen concentrations ((1-5)×1019 cm-3) suggesting that molybdenum (or molybdenum nitrides) may act to getter oxygen under certain conditions. Total system pressure profiles from growth runs in a Mo capsule system were comparable to those without a capsule, with pressures peaking within 2 days and slowly decaying due to hydrogen diffusional losses. Measured Mo capsule GaN growth rates were comparable to un-optimized growth rates in capsule-free systems and appreciably slower than in Ag-capsule systems. Crystal quality replicated that of the GaN seed crystals for all capsule conditions, with high quality growth occurring on the (0001) Ga-face. Optical absorption and impurity concentration characterization suggests reduced concentrations of hydrogenated gallium vacancies (VGa-Hx).

  10. Search, Effort, and Locus of Control


    McGee, Andrew; McGee, Peter


    We test the hypothesis that locus of control – one's perception of control over events in life – influences search by affecting beliefs about the efficacy of search effort in a laboratory experiment. We find that reservation offers and effort are increasing in the belief that one's efforts influence outcomes when subjects exert effort without knowing how effort influences the generation of offers but are unrelated to locus of control beliefs when subjects are informed about the relationship b...

  11. Culture, gender and locus of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control.......The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control....

  12. Gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberlla fujikuroi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S.W.; Coolbaugh, R.C. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA))


    Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of plant growth hormones which were first isolated from the fungus Gibberella fujikuori. We have examined the biosynthesis of GAs in this fungus in liquid cultures using HPLC followed by GC-MS. Furthermore we have used cell-free enzyme extracts with {sup 14}C-labeled intermediates to examine the regulation of specific parts of the biosynthetic pathway. GA{sub 3} is the predominant GA in well aerated cultures. GA{sub 4} and GA{sub 7}, intermediates in GA{sub 3} biosynthesis, accumulate in cultures with low levels of dissolved oxygen, but are not detectable in more aerated cultures. Light stimulates GA production in G. fujikuroi cultures grown from young stock. Cell-free enzyme studies indicate that light has no effect on incorporation of mevalonic acid into kaurene, but does significantly stimulate the oxidation of kaurenoic acid.

  13. Role of glucose and CcpA in capsule expression and virulence of Streptococcus suis. (United States)

    Willenborg, J; Fulde, M; de Greeff, A; Rohde, M; Smith, H E; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R


    Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and is also an emerging zoonotic agent. After crossing the epithelial barrier, S. suis causes bacteraemia, resulting in meningitis, endocarditis and bronchopneumonia. Since the host environment seems to be an important regulatory component for virulence, we related expression of virulence determinants of S. suis to glucose availability during growth and to the sugar metabolism regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA). We found that expression of the virulence-associated genes arcB, representing arcABC operon expression, cps2A, representing capsular locus expression, as well as sly, ofs, sao and epf, differed significantly between exponential and early stationary growth of a highly virulent serotype 2 strain. Deletion of ccpA altered the expression of the surface-associated virulence factors arcB, sao and eno, as well as the two currently proven virulence factors in pigs, ofs and cps2A, in early exponential growth. Global expression analysis using a cDNA expression array revealed 259 differentially expressed genes in early exponential growth, of which 141 were more highly expressed in the CcpA mutant strain 10ΔccpA and 118 were expressed to a lower extent. Interestingly, among the latter genes, 18 could be related to capsule and cell wall synthesis. Correspondingly, electron microscopy characterization of strain 10ΔccpA revealed a markedly reduced thickness of the capsule. This phenotype correlated with enhanced binding to porcine plasma proteins and a reduced resistance to killing by porcine neutrophils. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CcpA has a significant effect on the capsule synthesis and virulence properties of S. suis.

  14. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel. (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P


    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  15. Capsule formation and asymbiotic seed germination in some hybrids of Phalaenopsis, influenced by pollination season and capsule maturity. (United States)

    Balilashaki, Khosro; Gantait, Saikat; Naderi, Roohangiz; Vahedi, Maryam


    We explored the influence of pollination season and maturity of capsule on post-pollination capsule formation and in vitro asymbiotic seed germination, respectively. Three Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids, namely, 'Athens', 'Moscow' and 'Lusaka' flowers were artificially self-pollinated during winter, spring, summer and fall seasons and the impact of the pollination seasons was evident during capsule formation. It was observed that winter was the most suitable season for pollination of all the three Phalanaeopsis hybrids resulting in 80-88 % capsule formation. During summer, the pollination success rate was 24-28 %, but resulted in successful capsule formation. Season of pollination further delimited the germination efficiency of seeds harvested from capsules of variable maturity levels. Invariably, seeds collected from winter-pollinated capsules performed best in germination compared to other seasons, for instance, 'Moscow' seeds took less than 14 days to germinate from capsules developed following winter-pollination. Regarding the influence of capsule maturity on seed germination, we observed that seeds derived from 5-month mature capsules, invariably took least time to germinate than that of the 3-month or 7-month in all three hybrids, e.g., for 'Moscow' it was 13.9 days with a maximum of 90.3 % germination.

  16. Regional multiaxial mechanical properties of the porcine anterior lens capsule. (United States)

    David, G; Pedrigi, R M; Heistand, M R; Humphrey, J D


    The lens capsule of the eye plays fundamental biomechanical roles in both normal physiological processes and clinical interventions. There has been modest attention given to the mechanical properties of this important membrane, however, and prior studies have focused on 1-D analyses of the data. We present results that suggest that the porcine anterior lens capsule has a complex, regionally dependent, nonlinear, anisotropic behavior. Specifically, using a subdomain inverse finite element method to analyze data collected via a new biplane video-based test system, we found that the lens capsule is nearly isotropic (in-plane) near the pole but progressively stiffer in the circumferential compared to the meridional direction as one approaches the equator. Because the porcine capsule is a good model of the young human capsule, there is strong motivation to determine if similar regional variations exist in the human lens capsule for knowledge of such complexities may allow us to improve the design of surgical procedures and implants.

  17. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects (United States)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.


    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  18. Expanding role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Capsule endoscopy has been shown to detect small bowel inflammatory changes better than any other imaging modality. Selection criteria have been optimized to increase the yield of capsule endoscopy in patients suspected to have Crohn's disease. Capsule endoscopy allows for earlier diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel and improved diagnosis of colitis in patients where it is unclear if they suffer from Crohn's or ulcerative colitis. A test capsule is available to assess for small bowel strictures and thus avoid capsule retention. A common language has been developed and a new scoring index will be added to capsule software. It is envisioned that the manner in which we treat Crohn's disease in the future will change, based on earlier diagnosis and treatment aimed at mucosal healing rather than symptom improvement.

  19. Analysis Of Wetted-Foam ICF Capsule Perormance (United States)

    Peterson, R.; Olson, R.; Zylstra, A.; Haines, B.; Yi, A.; Bradley, P.; Yin, L.; Leeper, R.; Kline, J.


    The performance of wetted-foam ICF capsules is investigated with the RAGE Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. We are developing an experimental platform on NIF that employs a wetted foam liquid DT fuel layer ICF capsules. By varying the capsule temperature, the vapor density in the capsule can be prescribed, and the hot spot convergence ratio (CR) of the capsule implosion can be controlled. This allows us to investigate the fidelity of RAGE in modeling of capsule implosions as the value of CR is varied. In the NIF experiments, CR can be varied from 12 to 25. This presentation will cover simulations with RAGE of three NIF shots performed in 2016; a DD and a DT liquid fuel shot with CR =14 and a DT shot with CR =16. It will also discuss analysis of future experiments. This work was performed under auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL.

  20. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others


    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  1. Polar tent for reduced perturbation of NIF ignition capsules (United States)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Stadermann, M.; Field, J.; Robey, H.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V.


    In simulations, a tent that contacts the capsule near the poles and departs tangential to the capsule surface greatly reduces the capsule perturbation, and the resulting mass injected into the hot-spot, compared to current capsule support methods. Target fabrication appears feasible with a layered tent (43-nm polyimide + 8-nm C) for increased stiffness. We are planning quantitative measurements of the resulting shell- ρR perturbation near peak implosion velocity (PV) using enhanced self-emission backlighting, achieved by adding 1% Ar to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He + H). Layered DT implosions are also planned for an integrated test of capsule performance. We will describe the design and simulation predictions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Regulation of ferulate-5-hydroxylase expression in Arabidopsis in the context of sinapate ester biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegger, M.; Meyer, K.; Cusumano, J.C.; Chapple, C. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry


    Sinapic acid is an intermediate in syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, and in some taxa serves as a precursor for soluble secondary metabolites. The biosynthesis and accumulation of the sinapate esters sinapoylglucose, sinapolymalate, and sinapolycholine are developmentally regulated in Arabidopsis and other members of the Brassicaceae. The FAH1 locus of Arabidopsis encodes the enzyme ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in syringyl lignin biosynthesis and is required for the production of sinapate esters. Here the authors show that F5H expression parallels sinapate ester accumulation in developing siliques and seedlings, but is not rate limiting for their biosynthesis. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of F5H mRNA is distinct from that of other phenylpropanoid genes. Efforts to identify constructs capable of complementing the sinapate ester-deficient phenotype of fah1 mutants demonstrated that F5H expression in leaves is dependent on sequences 3{prime} of the F5H coding region. In contrast, the positive regulatory function of the downstream region is not required for F5H transcript or sinapolycholine accumulation in embryos.

  3. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Sang Hyo


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule.

  4. Locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia: Evidence for the existence of a fifth locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrazin, J.; Rouleau, G.A. [Montreal General Hospital, Quebec (Canada); Andermann, E. [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Quebec (Canada)] [and others


    The autosomal dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, four loci have been identified: the SCA-1 locus (on chromosome (chr) 6p), the SCA-2 locus (on chr 12q), the SCA-3/MJD locus (on chr 14q), and more recently an SCA-4 locus was described (chr 16q) in a Utah kindred. We have studied one large French Canadian kindred with four generations of living affected individuals segregating an autosomal dominant form of SCA. Linkage analysis using anonymous DNA markers which flank the four previously described loci significantly excludes the French Canadian kindred from the SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-3/MJD and SCA-4 loci. Therefore a fifth, still unmapped, SCA locus remains to be identified.

  5. Lignin biosynthesis and its molecular regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Lignin biosynthesis has become increasingly highlighted because it plays an important role in the growth and development of plant, in the systematic evolution of plant and in the human life. Due to the progress in the field of lignin studies in recent years, the lignin biosynthesis pathway has been 修订日期:. Here we discuss some genetic engineering approaches on lignin biosynthesis, and conceive strategy to regulate lignin biosynthesis in order to use lignin resource more efficiently in agricultural and industrial productions.

  6. New reduced volume preparation regimen in colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuo Kakugawa; Kazuhide Higuchi; Shinji Tanaka; Hideki Ishikawa; Hisao Tajiri; Yutaka Saito; Shoichi Saito; Kenji Watanabe; Naoki Ohmiya; Mitsuyuki Murano; Shiro Oka; Tetsuo Arakawa; Hidemi Goto


    AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed bowel preparation method for colon capsule endoscopy.METHODS:A pilot,multicenter,randomized controlled trial compared our proposed "reduced volume method" (group A) with the "conventional volume method" (group B) preparation regimens.Group A did not drink polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEGELS) the day before the capsule procedure,while group B drank 2 L.During the procedure day,groups A and B drank 2 L and 1 L of PEG-ELS,respectively,and swallowed the colon capsule (PillCam COLON(R) capsule).Two hours later the first booster of 100 g magnesium citrate mixed with 900 mL water was administered to both groups,and the second booster was administered six hours post capsule ingestion as long as the capsule had not been excreted by that time.Capsule videos were reviewed for grading of cleansing level.RESULTS:Sixty-four subjects were enrolled,with results from 60 analyzed.Groups A and B included 31 and 29 subjects,respectively.Twenty-nine (94%) subjects in group A and 25 (86%) subjects in group B had adequate bowel preparation (ns).Twenty-two (71%) of the 31 subjects in group A excreted the capsule within its battery life compared to 16 (55%) of the 29 subjects in group B (ns).Of the remaining 22 subjects whose capsules were not excreted within the battery life,all of the capsules reached the left side colon before they stopped functioning.A single adverse event was reported in one subject who had mild symptoms of nausea and vomiting one hour after starting to drink PEG-ELS,due to ingesting the PEG-ELS faster than recommended.CONCLUSION:Our proposed reduced volume bowel preparation method for colon capsule without PEG-ELS during the days before the procedure was as effective as the conventional volume method.

  7. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system. (United States)


    ... § 876.1300 Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system. (a) Identification. An ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system is used for visualization of the small bowel... Special Controls Guidance Document: Ingestible Telemetric Gastrointestinal Capsule Imaging Systems;...

  8. Analysis of the Protein Kinase A-Regulated Proteome of Cryptococcus neoformans Identifies a Role for the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Capsule Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. H. Geddes


    Full Text Available The opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis in immunocompromised individuals. The expression of virulence factors, including capsule and melanin, is in part regulated by the cyclic-AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway. In this study, we investigated the influence of PKA on the composition of the intracellular proteome to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the regulation that underpins virulence. Through quantitative proteomics, enrichment and bioinformatic analyses, and an interactome study, we uncovered a pattern of PKA regulation for proteins associated with translation, the proteasome, metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and virulence-related functions. PKA regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in C. neoformans showed a striking parallel with connections between PKA and protein degradation in chronic neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases. Further investigation of proteasome function with the inhibitor bortezomib revealed an impact on capsule production as well as hypersusceptibility for strains with altered expression or activity of PKA. Parallel studies with tunicamycin also linked endoplasmic reticulum stress with capsule production and PKA. Taken together, the data suggest a model whereby expression of PKA regulatory and catalytic subunits and the activation of PKA influence proteostasis and the function of the endoplasmic reticulum to control the elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule. Overall, this study revealed both broad and conserved influences of the cAMP/PKA pathway on the proteome and identified proteostasis as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cryptococcosis.

  9. Insertion sequence IS1016 and absence of Haemophilus capsulation genes in the Brazilian purpuric fever clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. (United States)

    Dobson, S R; Kroll, J S; Moxon, E R


    Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) strains of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius form a clone of organisms distinct from more innocuous, conjunctivitis-associated isolates. There has been controversy over whether the virulence of BPF strains might derive from the presence of a polysaccharide capsule analogous to that found in conventional invasive H. influenzae, a controversy fuelled by the observation (G. M. Carlone, L. Gorelkin, L. L. Gheesling, A. L. Erwin, S. K. Hoiseth, M. H. O. Mulks, S. P. Connor, R. S. Weyant, J. Myrick, L. Rubin, R. S. Mumford III, E. H. White, R. J. Arko, B. Swaminathan, L. M. Graves, L. W. Mayer, M. K. Robinson, S. P. Caudill, and the Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group, J. Clin, Microbiol. 27:609-614, 1989) that a capsulation DNA probe from H. influenzae type b hybridized uniquely to BPF strains. In this work, the basis for this hybridization has been established as the possession by BPF strains, but not by non-BPF strains, of the Haemophilus insertion element IS1016. Although IS1016 is associated with the capsulation locus in some Haemophilus spp., a Southern hybridization study suggests that in BPF strains there are no capsulation genes.

  10. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule (United States)

    Weston, Kenneth C.


    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  11. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Ju Tsai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.

  12. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.


    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  13. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis. (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P


    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  14. Identification of the UBP1 locus as a critical blood pressure determinant using a combination of mouse and human genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutnikova, Hana; Laakso, Markku; Lu, Lu;


    Hypertension is a major health problem of largely unknown genetic origins. To identify new genes responsible for hypertension, genetic analysis of recombinant inbred strains of mice followed by human association studies might prove powerful and was exploited in our current study. Using a set of 2...... that UBP1 and its functional partners are components of a network controlling blood pressure....... recombinant BXD strains of mice we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure (BP) on distal chromosome 9. The association analysis of markers encompassing the syntenic region on human chromosome 3 gave in an additive genetic model the strongest association for rs17030583 C/T and rs2291897...... complementarities of mouse and human genetic approaches, identifies the UBP1 locus as a critical blood pressure determinant. UBP1 plays a role in cholesterol and steroid metabolism via the transcriptional activation of CYP11A, the rate-limiting enzyme in pregnenolone and aldosterone biosynthesis. We suggest...

  15. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W


    Full Text Available Wanan Yang,1 Houde Dai,2 Yong He,1 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 2Quanzhou Institute of Equipment Manufacturing, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Quanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. Keywords: wireless capsule endoscope, magnet ring, magnetic driving, spiral structure, torque  

  16. Risk factors for incomplete small-bowel capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Koornstra, Jan J.


    Background: In 20% to 30% of capsule endoscopy (CE) procedures, the capsule does not reach the cecum within recording time, with incomplete imaging of the small bowel, which limits the value of CE. Objective: To identify possible risk factors for incomplete small-bowel CE examinations. Design: Data

  17. Experimental modulation of capsule size in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza Oscar


    Full Text Available Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for experimental modulation of capsule size in this yeast and describe improved methods to induce capsule size changes. The response of the yeast to the various stimuli is highly dependent on the cryptococcal strain. A high CO2 atmosphere and a low iron concentration have been used classically to increase capsule size. Unfortunately, these stimuli are not reliable for inducing capsular enlargement in all strains. Recently we have identified new and simpler conditions for inducing capsule enlargement that consistently elicited this effect. Specifically, we noted that mammalian serum or diluted Sabouraud broth in MOPS buffer pH 7.3 efficiently induced capsule growth. Media that slowed the growth rate of the yeast correlated with an increase in capsule size. Finally, we summarize the most commonly used media that induce capsule growth in C. neoformans.

  18. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho


    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  19. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in Eruca sativa. (United States)

    Katsarou, Dimitra; Omirou, Michalis; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Tsikou, Daniela; Delis, Costas; Garagounis, Constantine; Krokida, Afrodite; Zambounis, Antonis; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K


    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a highly important group of secondary metabolites in the Caparalles order, both due to their significance in plant-biome interactions and to their chemoprotective properties. This study identified genes involved in all steps of aliphatic and indolic GSL biosynthesis in Eruca sativa, a cultivated plant closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana with agronomic and nutritional value. The impact of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability on GSL biosynthetic pathways at a transcriptional level, and on the final GSL content of plant leaf and root tissues, was investigated. N and S supply had a significant and interactive effect on the GSL content of leaves, in a structure-specific and tissue-dependent manner; the metabolites levels were significantly correlated with the relative expression of the genes involved in their biosynthesis. A more complex effect was observed in roots, where aliphatic and indolic GSLs and related biosynthetic genes responded differently to the various nutritional treatments suggesting that nitrogen and sulfur availability are important factors that control plant GSL content at a transcriptional level. The biological activity of extracts derived from these plants grown under the specific nutritional schemes was examined. N and S availability were found to significantly affect the cytotoxicity of E. sativa extracts on human cancer cells, supporting the notion that carefully designed nutritional schemes can promote the accumulation of chemoprotective substances in edible plants.

  20. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger


    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  1. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank


    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  2. Expression and mapping of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in carrot. (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehtap; Willis, David K; Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Iorizzo, Massimo; Abak, Kazim; Simon, Philipp W


    Anthocyanin gene expression has been extensively studied in leaves, fruits and flowers of numerous plants. Little, however, is known about anthocyanin accumulation in roots of carrots or other species. We quantified expression of six anthocyanin biosynthetic genes [phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL3), chalcone synthase (CHS1), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR1), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX2), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT)] in three carrot inbreds with contrasting root color: solid purple (phloem and xylem); purple outer phloem/orange xylem; and orange phloem and xylem. Transcripts for five of these genes (CHS1, DFR1, F3H, LDOX2, PAL3) accumulated at high levels in solid purple carrots, less in purple-orange carrot, and low or no transcript in orange carrots. Gene expression coincided with anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, UFGT expression was comparable in purple and orange carrots and relatively unchanged during root development. In addition, five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes [FLS1 (flavonol synthase), F3H, LDOX2, PAL3, and UFGT] and three anthocyanin transcription factors (DcEFR1, DcMYB3 and DcMYB5) were mapped in a population segregating for the P 1 locus that conditions purple root color. P 1 mapped to chromosome 3 and of the eight anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, only F3H and FLS1 were linked to P 1. The gene expression and mapping data suggest a coordinated regulatory control of anthocyanin expression in carrot root and establish a framework for studying the anthocyanin pathway in carrots, and they also suggest that none of the genes evaluated is a candidate for P 1.

  3. Identification of a Xylogalacturonan Xylosyltransferase Involved in Pectin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus; Sorensen, Susanne Oxenboll; Harholt, Jesper; Geshi, Naomi; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Moller, Isabel; Zandleven, Joris; Bernal, Adriana J.; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Sorensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Jacob K.; Beldman, Gerrit; Willats, William G.T.; Scheller, Henrik


    Xylogalacturonan (XGA) is a class of pectic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. The Arabidopsis thaliana locus At5g33290 encodes a predicted Type II membrane protein, and insertion mutants of the At5g33290 locus had decreased cell wall xylose. Immunological studies, enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides, monosaccharide linkage analysis, and oligosaccharide mass profiling were employed to identify the affected cell wall polymer. Pectic XGA was reduced to much lower levels in mutant than in wild-type leaves, indicating a role of At5g33290 in XGA biosynthesis. The mutated gene was designated xylogalacturonan deficient1 (xgd1). Transformation of the xgd1-1 mutant with the wild-type gene restored XGA to wild-type levels. XGD1 protein heterologously expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana catalyzed the transfer of xylose from UDP-xylose onto oligogalacturonides and endogenous acceptors. The products formed could be hydrolyzed with an XGA-specific hydrolase. These results confirm that the XGD1 protein is a XGA xylosyltransferase. The protein was shown by expression of a fluorescent fusion protein in N. benthamiana to be localized in the Golgi vesicles as expected for a glycosyltransferase involved in pectin biosynthesis.

  4. A suppressor locus for MODY3-diabetes (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Carette, Claire; Bagattin, Alessia; Chiral, Magali; Makinistoglu, Munevver Parla; Garbay, Serge; Prévost, Géraldine; Madaras, Cécile; Hérault, Yann; Leibovici, Michel; Pontoglio, Marco


    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 3 (MODY3), linked to mutations in the transcription factor HNF1A, is the most prevalent form of monogenic diabetes mellitus. HNF1alpha-deficiency leads to defective insulin secretion via a molecular mechanism that is still not completely understood. Moreover, in MODY3 patients the severity of insulin secretion can be extremely variable even in the same kindred, indicating that modifier genes may control the onset of the disease. With the use of a mouse model for HNF1alpha-deficiency, we show here that specific genetic backgrounds (C3H and CBA) carry a powerful genetic suppressor of diabetes. A genome scan analysis led to the identification of a major suppressor locus on chromosome 3 (Moda1). Moda1 locus contains 11 genes with non-synonymous SNPs that significantly interacts with other loci on chromosomes 4, 11 and 18. Mechanistically, the absence of HNF1alpha in diabetic-prone (sensitive) strains leads to postnatal defective islets growth that is remarkably restored in resistant strains. Our findings are relevant to human genetics since Moda1 is syntenic with a human locus identified by genome wide association studies of fasting glycemia in patients. Most importantly, our results show that a single genetic locus can completely suppress diabetes in Hnf1a-deficiency. PMID:27667715

  5. Locus of Equity and Brand Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)


    textabstractPrevailing wisdom assumes that brand equity increases when a brand touts its desirable attributes. We report conditions under which the use of attribute information to promote a product can shift the locus of equity from brand to attribute, thereby reducing the attractiveness of extensio

  6. RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States); Carter, Robert G. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W. T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)


    This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin

  7. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules (United States)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng


    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  8. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Joo Song


    Full Text Available During video capsule endoscopy (VCE, several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG- based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE.

  9. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue. (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera


    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  10. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit. (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried


    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  11. In vitro study on sustained release capsule formulation of acetazolamide. (United States)

    Pandey, V P; Kannan, K; Manavalan, R; Desai, N


    In the present study formulation of sustained release capsule of acetazolamide 250 mg was tried using nonpareil seeds. Nonpareil seeds were coated with drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glyceryl monostearate, microcrystalline wax, and glyceryl distearate either individually or in combination to achieve sustained release capsule 250 mg. In successful formulation 20% drug coated pellets and 80% wax coated pellets were taken. Wax coated pellets for successful formulation contained coating of microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate on drug coated pellets of the same concentration of 1.6% w/w. Successful formulated sustained release capsule 250 mg of acetazolamide was compared in in vitro study with theoretical sustained release formulation suggested by wagner and one marketed sustained release capsule 250 mg. Formulated capsule showed result superior to or on par with marketed capsule. For successful formulation pellets were filled in '1' size hard gelatin capsule and stability study was carried out in hot air over at room temperature and 45 degrees C for 5 weeks. The formulation was found stable in respect of drug content and release rate.

  12. Patency(C) and agile(C) capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    àngel Caunedo-àlvarez; Javier Romero-Vazquez; Juan M Herrerias-Gutierrez


    Small bowel strictures can be missed by current diagnostic methods.The Patency capsule is a new non-endoscopic dissolvable capsule which has as an objective of checking the patency of digestive tract,in a non-invasive manner.The available clinical trials have demonstrated that the Patency(C) capsule is a good tool for assessment of the functional patency of the small bowel,and it allows identification of those patients who can safely undergo a capsule endoscopy,despite clinical and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction.Some cases of intestinal occlusion have been reported with the Patency(C) capsule,four of them needed surgery.So,a new capsule with two timer plugs (Agile(C) capsule) has been recently developed in order to minimize the risk of occlusion.This new device stars its dissolution process earlier (30 h after ingestion) and its two timer plugs have been designed to begin the disintegration even when the device is blocked in a tight stricture.

  13. Solid State Stability of Extemporaneously Prepared Levothyroxine Aliquots and Capsules. (United States)

    Fortner, Jeff; Salton, Jason; Carlson, Christie; Wheeler, Rich; Cote, Brianna; Rao, Deepa


    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and compare stability data for levothyroxine (T4) powder in the anhydrous and pentahydrate form when prepared as an aliquot and in capsules. Two different compounding pharmacies, Central Iowa Compounding and Gateway Medical Pharmacy, used different forms of T4 and aliquot formulations, which were studied to determine the beyond-use date at ±5% or ±10% of labeled strength. T4 was extracted from aliquot and capsule formulations and assessed using reverse-phase high- performance liquid chromatography validated to differentiate between the degraded and original forms of T4. The results indicate that T4 1:100 aliquot formulation prepared with silica gel or Avicel as filler are stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency, but at ±5% labeled potency, the silica gel and Avicel aliquot formulations are stable for 45 and 30 days, respectively. The silica gel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency and 90 days at ±5% labeled potency, while the Avicel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Avicel capsules prepared from old aliquot (120 days) and fresh aliquot (1 day) were also compared for stability. The old aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 14 days at ±5% labeled potency and 150 days at ±10% labeled potency, while new aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Based on our data, there can be significant variation in the beyond-use dates assigned to T4 capsules based on the diluents used for aliquots, the final capsule formulations, and the potency standards applied. These results also indicate that pharmacists must exercise caution when using older aliquots and may have to assign shorter beyond-use dates.

  14. Researches on Magnetic Localization for Detecting Capsule in Gastrointestinal Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wen-hui; YAN Guo-zheng; GUO Xu-dong; WANG Kun-dong


    Recently, the capsule detection for examination of gastrointestinal (GI) tract became a novel noninvasive system, but it was still a problem for capsule's location.This paper examined various technologies used for measuring position based on magnetic method of the capsule in GI tract, while some new methods were investigated and their efficiency and complexity were analyzed.The results show that the radio frequency location is only practicable, but the tri-coil stimulating magnetic method and magnetic marker method can help to acquire a high precise, simplified, efficient and localized device.

  15. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)


    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  16. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi


    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  17. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Jongedijk, E.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der A.R.


    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana

  18. Biosynthesis and Genetic Engineering of Polyketides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiang-Cheng; WANG Qiao-Mei; SHEN Yue-Mao; DU Liang-Cheng; HUFFMAN Justin; GERBER Ryan; LOU Li-Li; XIE Yun-Xuan; LIN Ting; JORGENSON Joel; MARESCH Andrew; VOGELER Chad


    Polyketides are one of the largest groups of natural products produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. Many of these metabolites have highly complex chemical structures and very important biological activities, including antibiotic, anticancer, immunosuppressant, and anti-cholesterol activities. In the past two decades, extensive investigations have been carried out to understand the molecular mechanisms for polyketide biosynthesis. These efforts have led to the development of various rational approaches toward engineered biosynthesis of new polyketides. More recently, the research efforts have shifted to the elucidation of the three-dimentional structure of the complex enzyme machineries for polyketide biosynthesis and to the exploitation of new sources for polyketide production, such as filamentous fungi and marine microorganisms. This review summarizes our general understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms and the progress in engineered biosynthesis of polyketides.

  19. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis (United States)

    Weete, J. D.


    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  20. Multiaxial mechanical behavior of the porcine anterior lens capsule. (United States)

    Heistand, M R; Pedrigi, R M; Delange, S L; Dziezyc, J; Humphrey, J D


    The biomechanics of the lens capsule of the eye is important both in physiologic processes such as accommodation and clinical treatments such as cataract surgery. Although the lens capsule experiences multiaxial stresses in vivo, there have been no measurements of its multiaxial properties or possible regional heterogeneities. Rather all prior mechanical data have come from 1-D pressure-volume or uniaxial force-length tests. Here, we report a new experimental approach to study in situ the regional, multiaxial mechanical behavior of the lens capsule. Moreover, we report multiaxial data suggesting that the porcine anterior lens capsule exhibits a typical nonlinear pseudo-elastic behavior over finite strains, that the in situ state is pre-stressed multi-axially, and that the meridional and circumferential directions are principal directions of strain, which is nearly equi-biaxial at the pole but less so towards the equator. Such data are fundamental to much needed constitutive formulations.

  1. Capsule endoscopy of the future: What's on the horizon? (United States)

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro


    Capsule endoscopes have evolved from passively moving diagnostic devices to actively moving systems with potential therapeutic capability. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art, define the current shortcomings of capsule endoscopy, and address research areas that aim to overcome said shortcomings. Developments in capsule mobility schemes are emphasized in this text, with magnetic actuation being the most promising endeavor. Research groups are working to integrate sensor data and fuse it with robotic control to outperform today's standard invasive procedures, but in a less intrusive manner. With recent advances in areas such as mobility, drug delivery, and therapeutics, we foresee a translation of interventional capsule technology from the bench-top to the clinical setting within the next 10 years.

  2. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van


    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial hypo

  3. The mechanical properties of the human hip capsule ligaments. (United States)

    Hewitt, John D; Glisson, Richard R; Guilak, Farshid; Vail, T Parker


    The human hip capsule is adapted to facilitate upright posture, joint stability, and ambulation, yet it routinely is excised in hip surgery without a full understanding of its mechanical contributions. The objective of this study was to provide information about the mechanical properties of the ligaments that form the hip capsule. Cadaver bone-ligament-bone specimens of the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and femoral arcuate ligaments were tested to failure in tension. The hip capsule was found to be an inhomogeneous structure and should be recognized as being composed of discrete constituent ligaments. The anterior ligaments, consisting of the 2 arms of the iliofemoral ligament, were much stronger than the posterior ischiofemoral ligament, withstanding greater force at failure and exhibiting greater stiffness. Knowledge of the anatomy and mechanical properties of the capsule may help the hip surgeon choose an appropriate surgical approach or repair strategy.

  4. Wireless capsule video endoscopy:Three years of experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rami Eliakim


    AIM: To review and summerize the current literatue regarding M2A wireless capsule endoscopy.METHODS: Peer reviewed publications regarding the use of capsule endoscopy as well as our personal experience were reviewed.RESULTS: Review of the literature dearly showed that capsule endoscopy was superior to enteroscopy, small bowel follow through and computerized tomography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, iron deficiency anemia,or suspected Crohn′s disease. It was very sensitive for the diagnosis of small bowel tumors and for survailance of small bowel pathology in patients with Gardner syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Its role in celiac disease and in patients with known Crohn′s disease was currently being investigated.CONCLUSION: Capsule video endoscopy is a superior and more sensitive diagnostic tool than barium follow through,enteroscopy and entero- CT in establishing the diagnosis of many small bowel pathologies.

  5. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule. (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J


    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  6. Research on Technology of Filling Sodium into Fuel Test Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Chi; XIE; Chun; WANG; Shu-xing; MI; Zheng-feng; YU; Tuan-jie; CUI; Chao; WANG; Ming-zheng


    In order to provide a high pure sodium environment for properties testing in the fuel research for fast reactor,it is essential to fill sodium into fuel testing capsules.By the method of vacuum,temperature-controlling and inert gas protection,quantificational sodium had been filled into the fuel testing capsules.Fig.1shows the schematic diagram of sodium filling device.Table 1shows

  7. Study of Contact Melting Inside Isothermally Heated Vertical Cylindrical Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenWenzhen; ChengShangmo; 等


    Close-contact melting processes of phase change material(PCM) inside vertical cylindrical capsule are studied.PCM are heated bhy the capsule isothermalyy at the bottom and side.The theoretical formulas of the melting rate and thickness of liquid layer during the heat transfer process are obtained by analysis,which are convenient for engineering predictions.Finally,the factors that affect melting are discussed.and conclusions are drawn.

  8. Determining the Optimum Font Size for Braille on Capsule Paper


    Watanabe, Tetsuya


    Braille fonts allow us to easily make braille labels on capsule paper. For legibility, fonts should be printed at optimum sizes. To find the optimum sizes for Japanese braille fonts, we conducted an experiment in which a Japanese braille font was printed at various sizes on capsule paper and read and rated by young braille users. The results show that braille printed at 17 and 18 point sizes were read faster and evaluated higher than those printed at smaller or bigger sizes.

  9. Biosynthesis of coral settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole in marine bacteria by a uniquely adapted brominase-thioesterase enzyme pair. (United States)

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Diethelm, Stefan; Rahman, Imran; Schorn, Michelle A; Sneed, Jennifer M; Louie, Gordon V; Whalen, Kristen E; Mincer, Tracy J; Noel, Joseph P; Paul, Valerie J; Moore, Bradley S


    Halogenated pyrroles (halopyrroles) are common chemical moieties found in bioactive bacterial natural products. The halopyrrole moieties of mono- and dihalopyrrole-containing compounds arise from a conserved mechanism in which a proline-derived pyrrolyl group bound to a carrier protein is first halogenated and then elaborated by peptidic or polyketide extensions. This paradigm is broken during the marine pseudoalteromonad bacterial biosynthesis of the coral larval settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole (1), which arises from the substitution of the proline-derived carboxylate by a bromine atom. To understand the molecular basis for decarboxylative bromination in the biosynthesis of 1, we sequenced two Pseudoalteromonas genomes and identified a conserved four-gene locus encoding the enzymes involved in its complete biosynthesis. Through total in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthesis of 1 using purified enzymes and biochemical interrogation of individual biochemical steps, we show that all four bromine atoms in 1 are installed by the action of a single flavin-dependent halogenase: Bmp2. Tetrabromination of the pyrrole induces a thioesterase-mediated offloading reaction from the carrier protein and activates the biosynthetic intermediate for decarboxylation. Insights into the tetrabrominating activity of Bmp2 were obtained from the high-resolution crystal structure of the halogenase contrasted against structurally homologous halogenase Mpy16 that forms only a dihalogenated pyrrole in marinopyrrole biosynthesis. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the proposed substrate-binding pocket of Bmp2 led to a reduction in the degree of halogenation catalyzed. Our study provides a biogenetic basis for the biosynthesis of 1 and sets a firm foundation for querying the biosynthetic potential for the production of 1 in marine (meta)genomes.

  10. Pickering Emulsion-Based Marbles for Cellular Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Zhang


    Full Text Available The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient atmosphere. Stable Pickering emulsion (water in oil was prepared while utilizing dichloromethane (containing poly(l-lactic acid and partially hydrophobic silica particles as oil phase and stabilizing agents respectively. Then, the Pickering emulsion marbles were formed by dropping emulsion into a petri dish containing silica particles with a syringe followed by rolling. The cellular capsules were finally obtained after the complete vaporization of both oil and water phases. The technique of scanning electron microscope (SEM was employed to research the microstructure and surface morphology of the prepared capsules and the results showed the cellular structure as expected. An in vitro drug release test was implemented which showed a sustained release property of the prepared cellular capsules. In addition, the use of biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid and the biocompatible silica particles also made the fabricated cellular capsules of great potential in the application of sustained drug release.

  11. MALDI-MS-imaging of whole human lens capsule. (United States)

    Ronci, Maurizio; Sharma, Shiwani; Chataway, Tim; Burdon, Kathryn P; Martin, Sarah; Craig, Jamie E; Voelcker, Nicolas H


    The ocular lens capsule is a smooth, transparent basement membrane that encapsulates the lens and is composed of a rigid network of interacting structural proteins and glycosaminoglycans. During cataract surgery, the anterior lens capsule is routinely removed in the form of a circular disk. We considered that the excised capsule could be easily prepared for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) analysis. MALDI-MSI is a powerful tool to elucidate the spatial distribution of small molecules, peptides, and proteins within tissues. Here, we apply this molecular imaging technique to analyze the freshly excised human lens capsule en face. We demonstrate that novel information about the distribution of proteins by MALDI-MSI can be obtained from this highly compact connective tissue, having no evident histo-morphological characteristics. Trypsin digestion carried out on-tissue is shown to improve MALDI-MSI analysis of human lens capsules and affords high repeatability. Most importantly, MALDI-MSI analysis reveals a concentric distribution pattern of proteins such as apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and collagen IV alpha-1 on the anterior surface of surgically removed lens capsule, which may indicate direct or indirect effects of environmental and mechanical stresses on the human ocular lens.

  12. Electromagnetic wave propagation of wireless capsule endoscopy in human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; Eng-Gee; 王炤; 陈瑾慧; TILLO; Tammam; MAN; Ka-lok


    Wireless capsule endoscopy(WCE) is a promising technique which has overcome some limitations of traditional diagnosing tools, such as the comfortlessness of the cables and the inability of examining small intestine section. However, this technique is still far from mature and asks for the feasible improvements. For example, the relatively low transmission data rate and the absence of the real-time localization information of the capsule are all important issues. The studies of them rely on the understanding of the electromagnetic wave propagation in human body. Investigation of performance of WCE communication system was carried out by studying electromagnetic(EM) wave propagation of the wireless capsule endoscopy transmission channel. Starting with a pair of antennas working in a human body mimic environment, the signal transmissions and attenuations were examined. The relationship between the signal attenuation and the capsule(transmitter) position, and direction was also evaluated. These results provide important information for real-time localization of the capsule. Moreover, the pair of antennas and the human body were treated as a transmission channel, on which the binary amplitude shift keying(BASK) modulation scheme was used. The relationship between the modulation scheme, data rate and bit error rate was also determined in the case of BASK. With the obtained studies, it make possible to provide valuable information for further studies on the selection of the modulation scheme and the real-time localization of the capsules.

  13. Pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna in wireless capsule endoscopy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondili Kohitha Bai


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy is a best option for exploring inaccessible areas of small intestine for inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This technique brings less pain compare to conventional endoscopy technique. The wireless endoscopy system comprises of three main modules: an ingestible capsule that is swallowed by the patient, an external control unit and display device for image display. In this paper we proposed pentagonal shape microstrip patch antenna for wireless capsule endoscopy system. Inhibiting characteristics of a single microstrip patch like low gain, light weight, thin thickness and smaller bandwidth, make it more popular. This kind of antenna is aggressive miniaturized to meet the requirements of the wireless capsule endoscope. The simulation results show that the designed Circular Polarization (CP pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna gives axial ratio of 0.6023 at 2.38 GHz and CP axial ratio bandwidth of 36MHz with 1.5%. The antenna designed for wireless capsule endoscopy is a proposed one, which may work effectively when compared to other antennas in the capsule.

  14. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan


    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  15. Genetic control of pungency in C. chinense via the Pun1 locus. (United States)

    Stewart, Charles; Mazourek, Michael; Stellari, Giulia M; O'Connell, Mary; Jahn, Molly


    Capsaicin, the pungent principle in hot peppers, acts to deter mammals from consuming pungent pepper pods. Capsaicinoid biosynthesis is restricted to the genus Capsicum and results from the acylation of the aromatic compound, vanillylamine, with a branched-chain fatty acid. The presence of capsaicinoids is controlled by the Pun1 locus, which encodes a putative acyltransferase. In its homozygous recessive state, pun1/pun1, capsaicinoids are not produced by the pepper plant. HPLC analysis confirmed that capsaicinoids are only found in the interlocular septa of pungent pepper fruits. Immunolocalization studies showed that capsaicinoid biosynthesis is uniformly distributed across the epidermal cells of the interlocular septum. Capsaicinoids are secreted from glandular epidermal cells into subcuticular cavities that swell to form blisters along the epidermis. Blister development is positively associated with capsaicinoid accumulation and blisters are not present in non-pungent fruit. A genetic study was used to determine if the absence of blisters in non-pungent fruit acts independently of Pun1 to control pungency. Screening of non-pungent germplasm and genetic complementation tests identified a previously unknown recessive allele of Pun1, named pun1(2). Sequence analysis of pun1(2) revealed that a four base pair deletion results in a frameshift mutation and the predicted production of a truncated protein. Genetic analysis revealed that pun1(2) co-segregated exactly with the absence of blisters, non-pungency, and a reduced transcript accumulation of several genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Collectively, these results establish that blister formation requires the Pun1 allele and that pun1(2) is a recessive allele from C. chinense that results in non-pungency.

  16. Capsule Endoscopy for Portal Hypertensive Enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ran Jeon


    Full Text Available Portal hypertensive enteropathy (PHE is a mucosal abnormality of the small bowel that is observed in patients with portal hypertension (PH and can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. The pathogenesis is still not completely understood. The introduction of new endoscopic methods, including capsule endoscopy (CE or balloon-assisted enteroscopy, has increased the detection of these abnormalities. CE can also serve as a road map for deciding subsequent interventions and evaluating the treatment effect. The prevalence of PHE is reportedly 40–70% in patients with PH. Endoscopic findings can be roughly divided into vascular and nonvascular lesions such as inflammatory-like lesions. Traditionally, PHE-associated factors include large esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy or colopathy, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B or C, a history of variceal treatment, and acute gastrointestinal bleeding. More recently, on using scoring systems, a high computed tomography or transient elastography score was reportedly PHE-related factors. However, the prevalence of PHE and its related associated factors remain controversial. The management of PHE has not yet been standardized. It should be individualized according to each patient’s situation, the availability of therapy, and each institutional expertise.

  17. Internal capsule stroke in the common marmoset. (United States)

    Puentes, S; Kaido, T; Hanakawa, T; Ichinohe, N; Otsuki, T; Seki, K


    White matter (WM) impairment and motor deficit after stroke are directly related. However, WM injury mechanisms and their relation to motor disturbances are still poorly understood. In humans, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) irrigates the internal capsule (IC), and stroke to this region can induce isolated motor impairment. The goal of this study was to analyze whether AChA occlusion can injure the IC in the marmoset monkey. The vascular distribution of the marmoset brain was examined by colored latex perfusion and revealed high resemblance to the human brain anatomy. Next, a new approach to electrocoagulate the AChA was developed and chronic experiments showed infarction compromising the IC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (day 4) and histology (day 11). Behavioral analysis was performed using a neurologic score previously developed and our own scoring method. Marmosets showed a decreased score that was still evident at day 10 after AChA electrocoagulation. We developed a new approach able to induce damage to the marmoset IC that may be useful for the detailed study of WM impairment and behavioral changes after stroke in the nonhuman primate.

  18. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Douglas Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grim, Gary P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilke, Mark D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, George L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Loomis, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilde, Carl H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fatherley, Valerie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clark, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Tai - Sen F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Danly, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, Steven H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patel, M [LLNL; Sepke, S [LLNL; Hatarik, R [LLNL; Fittinghoff, D [LLNL; Bower, D [LLNL; Marinak, M [LLNL; Munro, D [LLNL; Moran, M [LLNL; Hilko, R [NSTEC; Frank, M [LLNL; Buckles, R [NSTEC


    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the increased stress tolerance of saccharomyces cerevisiae encapsulated in liquid core alginate-chitosan capsules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan O Westman

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate or alginate-chitosan liquid core capsules have been shown to have an enhanced tolerance towards complex dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates and the lignocellulose-derived inhibitor furfural, as well as towards high temperatures. The underlying molecular reasons for these effects have however not been elucidated. In this study we have investigated the response of the encapsulation on the proteome level in the yeast cells, in comparison with cells grown freely in suspension under otherwise similar conditions. The proteomic analysis was performed on whole cell protein extracts using nLC-MS/MS with TMT® labelling and 2-D DIGE. 842 and 52 proteins were identified using each method, respectively. The abundances of 213 proteins were significantly different between encapsulated and suspended cells, with good correlation between the fold change ratios obtained by the two methods for proteins identified in both. Encapsulation of the yeast caused an up-regulation of glucose-repressed proteins and of both general and starvation-specific stress responses, such as the trehalose biosynthesis pathway, and down-regulation of proteins linked to growth and protein synthesis. The encapsulation leads to a lack of nutrients for cells close to the core of the capsule due to mass transfer limitations. The triggering of the stress response may be beneficial for the cells in certain conditions, for example leading to the increased tolerance towards high temperatures and certain inhibitors.

  20. A Clostridium difficile Cell Wall Glycopolymer Locus Influences Bacterial Shape, Polysaccharide Production and Virulence (United States)

    Bertolo, Lisa; Monteiro, Mario A.; Agellon, Al; Viswanathan, V. K.; Vedantam, Gayatri


    Clostridium difficile is a diarrheagenic pathogen associated with significant mortality and morbidity. While its glucosylating toxins are primary virulence determinants, there is increasing appreciation of important roles for non-toxin factors in C. difficile pathogenesis. Cell wall glycopolymers (CWGs) influence the virulence of various pathogens. Five C. difficile CWGs, including PSII, have been structurally characterized, but their biosynthesis and significance in C. difficile infection is unknown. We explored the contribution of a conserved CWG locus to C. difficile cell-surface integrity and virulence. Attempts at disrupting multiple genes in the locus, including one encoding a predicted CWG exporter mviN, were unsuccessful, suggesting essentiality of the respective gene products. However, antisense RNA-mediated mviN downregulation resulted in slight morphology defects, retarded growth, and decreased surface PSII deposition. Two other genes, lcpA and lcpB, with putative roles in CWG anchoring, could be disrupted by insertional inactivation. lcpA- and lcpB- mutants had distinct phenotypes, implying non-redundant roles for the respective proteins. The lcpB- mutant was defective in surface PSII deposition and shedding, and exhibited a remodeled cell surface characterized by elongated and helical morphology, aberrantly-localized cell septae, and an altered surface-anchored protein profile. Both lcpA- and lcpB- strains also displayed heightened virulence in a hamster model of C. difficile disease. We propose that gene products of the C. difficile CWG locus are essential, that they direct the production/assembly of key antigenic surface polysaccharides, and thereby have complex roles in virulence. PMID:27741317

  1. Genetic analysis of the capsule polysaccharide (K antigen and exopolysaccharide genes in pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6

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    Morris J Glenn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus has undergone rapid changes in both K- and O-antigens, making detection of outbreaks more difficult. In order to understand these rapid changes, the genetic regions encoding these antigens must be examined. In Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, both O-antigen and capsular polysaccharides are encoded in a single region on the large chromosome; a similar arrangement in pandemic V. parahaemolyticus would help explain the rapid serotype changes. However, previous reports on "capsule" genes are controversial. Therefore, we set out to clarify and characterize these regions in pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 by gene deletion using a chitin based transformation strategy. Results We generated different deletion mutants of putative polysaccharide genes and examined the mutants by immuno-blots with O and K specific antisera. Our results showed that O- and K-antigen genes are separated in V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6; the region encoding both O-antigen and capsule biosynthesis in other vibrios, i.e. genes between gmhD and rjg, determines the K6-antigen but not the O3-antigen in V. parahaemolyticus. The previously identified "capsule genes" on the smaller chromosome were related to exopolysaccharide synthesis, not K-antigen. Conclusion Understanding of the genetic basis of O- and K-antigens is critical to understanding the rapid changes in these polysaccharides seen in pandemic V. parahaemolyticus. This report confirms the genetic location of K-antigen synthesis in V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 allowing us to focus future studies of the evolution of serotypes to this region.

  2. Structure, biosynthesis, and function of bacterial capsular polysaccharides synthesized by ABC transporter-dependent pathways. (United States)

    Willis, Lisa M; Whitfield, Chris


    Bacterial capsules are formed primarily from long-chain polysaccharides with repeat-unit structures. A given bacterial species can produce a range of capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) with different structures and these help distinguish isolates by serotyping, as is the case with Escherichia coli K antigens. Capsules are important virulence factors for many pathogens and this review focuses on CPSs synthesized via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent processes in Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria utilizing this pathway are often associated with urinary tract infections, septicemia, and meningitis, and E. coli and Neisseria meningitidis provide well-studied examples. CPSs from ABC transporter-dependent pathways are synthesized at the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane through the concerted action of glycosyltransferases before being exported across the inner membrane and translocated to the cell surface. A hallmark of these CPSs is a conserved reducing terminal glycolipid composed of phosphatidylglycerol and a poly-3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) linker. Recent discovery of the structure of this conserved lipid terminus provides new insights into the early steps in CPS biosynthesis.

  3. Insulin biosynthesis and diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Permutt, A; Chirgwin, J; Giddings, S; Kakita, K; Rotwein, P


    This review reports the use of recombinant DNA techniques in the study of the structure and regulation of expression of insulin genes in man and experimental animals. Insulin biosynthesis by pancreatic islet cells is predominantly regulated by change in plasma glucose concentration. Using a cell-free protein synthesizing system as an assay of functional proinsulin messenger RNA (mRNA), and hybridization analysis with a cloned DNA complementary to proinsulin mRNA, it has been determined that through changes in proinsulin mRNA levels. Insulin genes of the rat, chicken and human have been isolated and sequenced. The 5' ends of the genes have similar sequences suggesting areas important for regulation of transcription. There are two non-allelic insulin genes in the rat, but only one in chickens and humans. Intervening sequences, areas of DNA transcribed into precursor mRNA but which do not appear in mature mRNA, have been described within insulin genes. The insulin gene resides on chromosome 11 of humans as determined by DNA hybridization analysis of mouse human hybrid cells. The structure of the insulin gene in genomic DNA of humans has been analyzed in diabetics and non-diabetics. Insertions of DNA between 1500 and 3400 base pairs have been detected near the transcription initiation site in 65% of type II diabetics, and 25-30% of non-diabetics (this difference is significant at the p less than 0.001 level). Limitation of these insertions to this potential promotor region of the insulin gene suggests that they may alter gene expression in type II diabetes. These insertions of DNA may prove to be useful genetic markers for diabetes.

  4. Analytical Quality check of oil based blend in Flaxilip capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Rane


    Full Text Available Analysis of capsules containing blend in the powder form is easy, but it is bit difficult to analyse the soft gelatin capsule containing oil based blend. The purpose of this study was to develop test parameters to determine and supervise the quality of such herbal capsule formulation. Five different lots of soft gelatin Flaxilip capsule containing Linseed oil, Guggulu processed with linseed oil, Garlic oil, Fenugreek oil along with Soyabean oil as an excipient , were selected for the study. All the five lots were subjected to general capsule tests such as determination of average weight and disintegration time. Results obtained were around 1.3500g and 10minutes respectively. Specific test parameters applicable for oils like specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value were applied quantitatively for quality evaluation. Standardised suitable classical methods were applied. Results in all the five lots were found to be well within inhouse limit. All the samples were subjected to heavy metals and microbiological testing. Compliance of corresponding findings with the standard pharmacopoeial guidelines assure the safe intake of the drug. For getting the better effect, the Guggulu that is Commiphora mukul used in the formulation was processed with linseed oil. Its presence was confirmed by carrying out HPTLC for E and Z guggulu sterone. Resemblance of spots at Rf ranging from 0.36 to 0.38 and 0.43 to 0.45 in Toluene : Acetone (9:1 system showed the presence of gugulu in blends of all the lots. Hence by applying all these test parameters one can ensure the quality of the soft gelatin ayurvedic capsule formulation containing oily base like in Flaxilip capsule.

  5. Regulatory organization of the staphylococcal sae locus. (United States)

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Novick, Richard P


    This paper describes an investigation of the complex internal regulatory circuitry of the staphylococcal sae locus and the impact of modifying this circuitry on the expression of external genes in the sae regulon. The sae locus contains four genes, the saeR and S two-component signalling module (TCS), and saeP and Q, two upstream genes of hitherto unknown function. It is expressed from two promoters, P(A)sae, which transcribes only the TCS, and P(C)sae, which transcribes the entire locus. A bursa aurealis (bursa) transposon insertion in saeP in a derivative of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 has a profound effect on sae function. It modifies the activity of the TCS, changing the expression of many genes in the sae regulon, even though transcription of the TCS (from P(A)sae) is not interrupted. Moreover, these effects are not due to disruption of saeP since an in-frame deletion in saeP has essentially no phenotype. The phenotype of S. aureus strain Newman is remarkably similar to that of the saeP : : bursa and this similarity is explained by an amino acid substitution in the Newman saeS gene that is predicted to modify profoundly the signalling function of the protein. This concurrence suggests that the saeP : : bursa insertion affects the signalling function of saeS, a suggestion that is supported by the ability of an saeQR clone, but not an saeR clone, to complement the effects of the saeP : : bursa insertion.

  6. Locus of control and online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suretha Esterhuysen


    Full Text Available The integration of online learning in university courses is considered to be both inevitable and necessary. Thus there is an increasing need to raise awareness among educators and course designers about the critical issues impacting on online learning. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the differences between two groups of first-year Business Sciences learners (online and conventional learners in terms of biographic and demographic characteristics and locus of control. The study population consisted of 586 first-year learners of whom 185 completed the Locus of Control Inventory (LCI. The results show that the two groups of learners do not differ statistically significantly from each other with respect to locus of control. The findings and their implications are also discussed. Opsomming Die integrasie van aanlyn-leer in universiteitskursusse word beskou as sowel onafwendbaar as noodsaaklik. Daar is dus ’n toenemende behoefte om bewustheid onder opvoedkundiges en kursusontwerpers te kweek oor die kritiese aspekte wat ’n impak op aanlyn-leer het (Morgan, 1996. Daarom was die doel van hierdie ondersoek om die verskille tussen twee groepe eerstejaarleerders in Bestuurs- en Ekonomiese Wetenskap (aanlyn en konvensionele leerders te bepaal ten opsigte van biografiese en demografiese eienskappe en lokus van beheer. Die populasie het bestaan uit 586 eerstejaarleerders waarvan 185 die Lokus van Beheer Vraelys voltooi het. Die resultate toon dat die twee groepe leerders nie statisties beduidend van mekaar verskil het met betrekking tot lokus van beheer nie. Die bevindinge en implikasies word ook bespreek.

  7. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: A green approach. (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Ikram, Saiqa; Yudha S, Salprima


    Nanotechnology is an immensely developing field due to its extensive range of applications in different areas of technology and science. Different types of methods are employed for synthesis of nanoparticles due to their wide applications. The conventional chemical methods have certain limitations with them either in the form of chemical contaminations during their syntheses procedures or in later applications and use of higher energy. During the last decade research have been focussed on developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost effective and eco-friendly protocols for synthesis of nanoparticles. In order to get this objective, biosynthesis methods have been developed in order to fill this gap. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is simple, single step, eco-friendly and a green approach. The biochemical processes in biological agents reduce the dissolved metal ions into nano metals. The various biological agents like plant tissues, fungi, bacteria, etc. are used for biosynthesis for metal nanoparticles. In this review article, we summarised recent literature on biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles which have revolutionised technique of synthesis for their applications in different fields. Due to biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles, it has find its applications in biomedical applications. The protocol and mechanism of biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles along with various applications have also been discussed.

  8. Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; Cotter; Francisca; Dias; de; Castro; Joana; Magalhes; Maria; Joo; Moreira; Bruno; Rosa


    AIM:To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer(RTV)and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations(IE)and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy(SBCE).METHODS:Prospective single center interventional study,from June 2012 to February 2013.Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV.If it remained in the stomach,the patient received 10 mg domperidone per os and the location of the capsule was rechecked after 30 min.If the capsule remained in the stomach a second dose of10 mg of domperidone was administered orally.After another 30 min the position was rechecked and if the capsule remained in the stomach,it was passed into the duodenum by upper gastrointestinal(GI)endoscopy.The rate of IE and diagnostic yield of SBCE were compared with those of examinations performed before the use of RTV or domperidone in our Department(control group,January 2009-May 2012).RESULTS:Both groups were similar regarding age,sex,indication,inpatient status and surgical history.The control group included 307 patients,with 48(15.6%)IE.The RTV group included 82 patients,with3(3.7%)IE,P=0.003.In the control group,average gastric time was significantly longer in patients with IE than in patients with complete examination of the small bowel(77 min vs 26 min,P=0.003).In the RTV group,the capsule remained in the stomach one hour after ingestion in 14/82 patients(17.0%)vs 48/307(15.6%)in the control group,P=0.736.Domperidone did not significantly affect small bowel transit time(260min vs 297 min,P=0.229).The capsule detected positive findings in 39%of patients in the control group and 49%in the RTV group(P=0.081).CONCLUSION:The use of RTV and selective administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule significantly reduces incomplete examinations,with no effect on small bowel transit time or diagnostic yield.

  9. Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease

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    Niv Y


    Full Text Available Yaron NivDepartment of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, IsraelAbstract: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn’s disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn’s ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing

  10. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules (United States)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko


    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  11. Implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation and heartbeat. (United States)

    Kuwana, K; Dohi, T; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, K; Shimoyama, I


    In this study, we have developed an implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring heartbeat. The capsule has three main functions, monitoring vital signs, transmitting the vital signs, and receiving energy for driving the capsule without wires. We used two wavelengths of LEDs and a photodiode sensitive to the two wavelengths for heartbeat sensor. The arterial oxygen saturation is calculated from the amplitude of the heartbeat signal. We fabricated an FM transmitter whose carrier frequency was 80 MHz. Though the GHz range frequency is generally used in transmission, the attenuation in the human body is large. The size of a common linear antenna is about a quarter of its operating wavelength. We employed a coil-based antenna which can reduce size below the quarter of the wavelength. We fabricated a miniaturized transmitter with the coil-based antenna at lower frequency. Our capsule was driven intermittently. We used a rechargeable battery. When the battery ran down, the battery was charged by wireless using the induced electromotive force. This means that the capsule is capable of monitoring vital signs over the long term. We measured the heartbeat from the middle finger of hand in a water tank as a model of a human body.

  12. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others


    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  13. Regional material properties of the human hip joint capsule ligaments. (United States)

    Hewitt, J; Guilak, F; Glisson, R; Vail, T P


    The hip joint capsule functions to constrain translation between the femur and acetabulum while allowing rotational and planar movements. Despite the crucial role it plays in the pathogenesis of hip instability, little is known about its biomechanical properties. The goal of this study was to determine the regional material properties of the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments of the capsule. Ten human cadaveric specimens of each ligament were tested to failure in tension. The stress at failure, strain at failure, strain energy density at failure, toe- and linear-region elastic moduli, and the Poisson's ratio were measured for each ligament. The strain to failure was greatest in the ischiofemoral ligament, while no significant difference was noted in failure stress by region or ligament. The Young's moduli of elasticity ranged from 76.1 to 285.8 MPa among the different ligaments, and were generally consistent with properties previously reported for the shoulder capsule. The elastic moduli and strain energy density at failure differed by region. No significant differences in Poisson's ratio were found by region or ligament. The average Poisson's ratio was approximately 1.4, consistent with anisotropic behavior of ligamentous tissues. Understanding the material properties of the hip capsule may help the orthopaedic surgeon better understand normal ligament function, and thereby choose a surgical approach or strategy of repair. Furthermore, knowledge of the normal mechanical function of the hip capsule ligaments could assist in the evaluation of the success of a repair.

  14. Indications of capsule endoscopy in Crohn´s disease. (United States)

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Suárez-Callol, Patricia; Medina-Chuliá, Enrique


    Capsule endoscopy currently plays a relevant role for Crohn´s disease. This manuscript will discuss the current indications and practical uses of capsule endoscopy in this disease. It is a non-invasive technique that represents a significant advance in the endoscopic diagnosis of small bowel conditions. These circumstances, together with its diagnostic yield and excellent tolerability, make it considerably acceptable by both patients and physicians. This paper discusses the current evidence on the specific circumstances where capsule endoscopy may be indicated for three specific scenarios: Suspected Crohn´s disease, indeterminate colitis, and established Crohn´s disease, where it plays an extensive role. Furthermore, the impact and implications of capsule endoscopy results for follow-up are reviewed. These recommendations must be interpreted and applied in the setting of the integral, individual management of these patients. Understanding its appropriate use in daily clinical practice and an analysis of results may define endoscopic scoring systems to assess activity and mucosal healing in this condition. The present role of capsule endoscopy for Crohn´s disease is subject to ongoing review, and appropriate usage uncovers novel applications likely to result in relevant changes for the future management of these patients.

  15. Relationships between locus of control and paranormal beliefs. (United States)

    Newby, Robert W; Davis, Jessica Boyette


    The present study investigated the associations between scores on paranormal beliefs, locus of control, and certain psychological processes such as affect and cognitions as measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Analysis yielded significant correlations between scores on Locus of Control and two subscales of Tobacyk's (1988) Revised Paranormal Beliefs Scale, New Age Philosophy and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs. A step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that Locus of Control was significantly related to New Age Philosophy. Other correlations were found between Tobacyk's subscales, Locus of Control, and three processes measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count.

  16. Hepatotoxicity of piperazine designer drugs: up-regulation of key enzymes of cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis. (United States)

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Melega, Simone; Stöber, Regina; Schug, Markus; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Cadenas, Cristina; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carmo, Helena; Hengstler, Jan G


    The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which piperazine designer drugs induce hepatotoxicity and whether they act by a common pathway is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a gene array study with rat hepatocytes incubated with the four designer drugs. Non-cytotoxic concentrations were chosen that neither induce a decrease in reduced glutathione or ATP depletion. Analysis of the gene array data showed a large overlap of gene expression alterations induced by the four drugs. This 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' included 101 up-regulated and 309 down-regulated probe sets (p cholesterol biosynthesis represented a dominant overrepresented motif. Key enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis up-regulated by all four piperazine drugs include sterol C4-methyloxidase, isopentyl-diphosphate-Δ-isomerase, Cyp51A1, squalene epoxidase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Additionally, glycoprotein transmembrane nmb, which participates in cell adhesion processes, and fatty acid desaturase 1, an enzyme that regulates unsaturation of fatty acids, were also up-regulated by the four piperazine designer drugs. Regarding the down-regulated probe sets, only one gene was common to all four piperazine derivatives, the betaine-homocysteine-S-methyltransferase 2. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites of the 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' identified the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) as strongly overrepresented in the up-regulated genes. SREBP transcription factors are known to regulate multiple genes of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study shows that piperazine designer drugs act by up-regulating key

  17. The genetic organisation of the capsule biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 6, 7, and 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessing, Stine Graakjær; Ahrens, Peter; Inzana, Thomas J.


    C of A.pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 contained a high degree of homology. At the amino acid level Cps6D revealed a high degree of homology to Cps8D, whereas Cps7D contained a high degree of homology to the Cps2D. The deduced gene product of the partially sequenced cps6E gene showed...

  18. Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, Biological functions and Biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lorena eFalcone Ferreyra


    Full Text Available Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. The elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways, as well as their regulation by MYB, bHLH and WD40-type transcription factors, has allowed metabolic engineering of plants through the manipulation of the different final products with valuable applications. The present review describes the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as the biological functions of flavonoids in plants, such as in defense against UV-B radiation and pathogen infection, nodulation, pollen fertility. In addition, we discuss different strategies and achievements through the genetic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis with implication in the industry and the combinatorial biosynthesis in microorganisms by the reconstruction of the pathway to obtain high amounts of specific compounds.

  19. The Spatial Organization of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nintemann, Sebastian

    . However, questions concerning the spatial arrangement of the glucosinolate biosynthetic machinery and the consequential distribution of the metabolites remain. Different types of glucosinolates require specialized enzymes for certain steps in their biosynthetic pathways and whether these act in the same...... cells is an open question. Likewise, it is not known how glucosinolate biosynthesis is orchestrated at the subcellular level. These open questions were addressed with several approaches in this project, with the aim of shedding light on the spatial organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis from...... between the individual classes of glucosinolates under constitutive and induced conditions and identified the source tissues of these defense compounds. Protein-protein interaction studies were carried out to investigate the subcellular organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis. We identified a family...

  20. The Terpenoid Biosynthesis Toolkit of Trichoderma. (United States)

    Bansal, Ravindra; Mukherjee, Prasun Kumar


    The widely used biotechnologically important fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma are rich sources of secondary metabolites. Even though the genomes of several Trichoderma spp. have been published, and data are available on the genes involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, no genome-wide data are available for the terpenoid biosynthesis machinery in these organisms. In the present study, we have identified the genes involved in terpene biosynthesis in the genomes of three Trichoderma spp., viz., T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. While the genes involved in the condensation steps are highly conserved across the three species, these fungi differed in the number and organization of terpene cyclases. T. virens genome harbours eleven terpene cyclases, while T. atroviride harbours seven, and T. reeseisix in their genomes; seven, three and two being part of putative secondary metabolism related gene clusters.

  1. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.


    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  2. Erythrocentaurin, Biosynthesis Postulation and Biomimetic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI,Jun; YUAN,Xiang-Hui; LIU,Zhu-Lan; LIU,Jian-Li


    @@ Erythrocentaurin is a relatively simple nature product isolated from the root of Gentiana macrophylla Pall.[1] The co-existed of gentiopicroside from the same species led to speculation that erythrocentaurin is a biosynthesis product of gentiopicroside. The transformation of secologanin to carbocyclic aglycone under biomimetic condition has already known (Scheme 1).[2,3] The postulated biosynthesis pathway of erythrocentaurin may be in the same way. In the process the cyclic hemiacetal of the aglycone opened to the dialdehyde which then undergoes a vinylogous aldol reaction, and then dehydroxylation and double bond migration to the title compound (Scheme 2).

  3. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology. (United States)

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong


    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.

  4. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)


    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  5. Plant science. Morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy requires a P450-oxidoreductase fusion protein. (United States)

    Winzer, Thilo; Kern, Marcelo; King, Andrew J; Larson, Tony R; Teodor, Roxana I; Donninger, Samantha L; Li, Yi; Dowle, Adam A; Cartwright, Jared; Bates, Rachel; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A


    Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.

  6. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei


    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new rou...

  7. Rayleigh Taylor Instability Growth in NIC Capsules with Engineered Defects (United States)

    Peterson, K. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Clark, D. S.; Farley, D. R.; Landen, O. L.; Scott, H.; Moreno, K.; Vesey, R. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Nakhleh, C. W.; Golovkin, I.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.


    In order to achieve thermonuclear burn and energy gain in ICF capsules, the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities must be understood and controlled. Experiments are planned to measure time dependent hydrodynamic instability growth of engineered defects on the surface of NIC capsules using x-ray radiography. We will present an analysis of synthetic radiography from 2D and 3D HYDRA simulations with various x-ray drive fluxes and show how these results will be used to assess code predictions of instability growth and mix. We will also discuss how these results correlate with capsule performance and observables from hot spot self emission imaging and Ge spectroscopy. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Inhibitive Effects of Quercetin on Rabbit Tenon Capsule Fibroblasts Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Lin Chen


    Purpose:To study the inhibitive effects of quercetin (QU) on the fibroblasts proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule and its mechanism.Methods: Cultured fibroblasts were exposed to different concentrations of QU solution and investigated by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The effect of QU was obser ved on cells cycle using the flow cytometer. Besults: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency.Flow cytometer results showed 26.92% cell increase in G1 phase, 23.50% decrease in S phase and 3.42% decrease in G2 phase.Conclusions: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency. QU may effect all phase of cell cycle and inhibit cell proliferation by inhibiting G1 phase transitting to S phase and G2 phase.

  9. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  10. Demonstration of bacteroides capsules by light microscopy and ultrastructural cytochemistry. (United States)

    Strohm, H; Payne, C M; Ryan, K J


    Forty-six anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, including 26 members of the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG), were examined for capsules by the India ink technic. Thirty-five were encapsulated, including all the BFG strains. As a follow-up, seven of these isolates and two previously studied reference strains (B. fragilis ATCC 23745 and Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482) were examined for capsules by ultrastructural cytochemistry. Using the periodic acid thiocarbohydrazide silver proteinate (PATCSP) method of Thiéry, all the BFG examined were encapsulated. In addition to the reference strains, this included one strain of B. fragilis and four of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. One non-BFG strain showed no capsular material. Differences between these results and those reported previously with the ruthenium red technic may reflect species differences in the chemical composition of Bacteroides capsules.

  11. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D.


    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  12. Development of Beryllium-Copper Alloy Ignition Capsules (United States)

    Cooley, Jason; Alexander, David; Thoma, Daniel; Field, Robert; Day, Robert; Cameron, Bernard; Nobile, Arthur; Rivera, Gerald; Kelly, Ann; Papin, Pallas; Schulze, Roland; Dauelsberg, Lawrence; Alexander, Neil; Galix, Remy


    Cu-doped Be capsules are being developed for ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our fabrication approach is based on bonding of cylindrical parts containing precision machined hemispherical cavities, followed by machining an external spherical contour to produce a spherical shell. While we have demonstrated this approach, there are several key issues that need to be resolved before a shell meeting NIF specifications can be produced. These issues are synthesis of high purity small grain size Be0.9at%Cu alloy, formation of a strong hemishell bond that will allow the capsule to contain its 400 atm fill gas at room temperature, precision machining and polishing of the capsule to meet stringent specifications for surface finish and spherical quality, and filling with DT. In this paper we report on the progress that has been made in resolving these key issues.

  13. Cloning of type 8 capsule genes and analysis of gene clusters for the production of different capsular polysaccharides in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Sau, S; Lee, C Y


    Eleven serotypes of capsular polysaccharide from Staphylococcus aureus have been reported. We have previously cloned a cluster of type 1 capsule (cap1) genes responsible for type 1 capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in S. aureus M. To clone the type 8 capsule (cap8) genes, a plasmid library of type 8 strain Becker was screened with a labelled DNA fragment containing the cap1 genes under low-stringency conditions. One recombinant plasmid containing a 14-kb insert was chosen for further study and found to complement 14 of the 18 type 8 capsule-negative (Cap8-) mutants used in the study. Additional library screening, subcloning, and complementation experiments showed that all of the 18 Cap8- mutants were complemented by DNA fragments derived from a 20.5-kb contiguous region of the Becker chromosome. The mutants were mapped into six complementation groups, indicating that the cap8 genes are clustered. By Southern hybridization analyses under high-stringency conditions, we found that DNA fragments containing the cap8 gene cluster show extensive homology with all 17 strains tested, including type 1 strains. By further Southern analyses and cloning of the cap8-related homolog from strain M, we show that strain M carries an additional capsule gene cluster different from the cap1 gene cluster. In addition, by using DNA fragments containing different regions of the cap8 gene cluster as probes to hybridize DNA from different strains, we found that the central region of the cap8 gene cluster hybridizes only to DNAs from certain strains tested whereas the flanking regions hybridize to DNAs of all strains tested. Thus, the cap8 gene clusters and its closely related homologs are likely to have organizations similar to those of the encapsulation genes of other bacterial systems.

  14. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.


    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  15. Silicone Oil Tamponade Combined with Lensectomy Preserving Anterior Lens Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuL; YangJ


    Purpose:To investigate the therapeutic effect and indicatio n of silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule.Methods:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule was performed in 33 cases (33 eyes)of high myopia ,proliferative vitroretinopathy(PVR)D grade and giant retinal tear(GRT).10 cases were onlyeye and 11 cases had harder nucleus of lens.The surgical methods included:1.smashing lens nucleus and lensectomy preserving complete anterior capsule;2,vitrectomy and membrane peeling;3,usage of liquid perfluorocarbin or retinotomy or drainage;4.silicone oil tamponade;5.postoperative Nd;YAG laser for anterior capsulectomy. Results:Follow-up time was 6 months or more in 29 cases.Total retinal reattachment was achieved in 22 cases,macular retinal reattachment in 5 cases.The visual acuity was 20/800 to 20/200 in 13 cases,20/100 to 20/50 in 12 cases.Visual acuity was significantly improved in GRT group(P<0.05).Complications included unexpected anterior capsule break intraoperatively,anterior capsule opacity,silicone oil emulsification and liquid perfluorocarbin remainig postoperatively.Conclusions:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior capsule was safe and can reduce the operative complications.The indications included:1.GRT complicated with high myopia;2,advanced PVR cases complicated with high myopia in which silicone oil must be used;3.severe lens opacity cases in which silicone oil must be used;4.complex retinal detachment of only ye.

  16. Effect of small bowel preparation with simethicone on capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-hong FANG; Chun-xiao CHEN; Bing-ling ZHANG


    Background: Capsule endoscopy is a novel non-invasive method for visualization of the entire small bowel. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy depends on the quality of visualization of the small bowel mucosa and its complete passage through the small bowel. To date, there is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. The addition ofsimethicone in the bowel preparation for the purpose of reducing air bubbles in the intestinal lumen had only been studied by a few investigators. Methods: Sixty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups to receive a bowel preparation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (Group 1) and both PEG solution and simethicone (Group 2). The PEG solution and sime-thicone were taken the night before and 20 min prior to capsule endoscopy, respectively. Frames taken in the small intestine were examined and scored for luminal bubbles by two professional capsule endoscopists. Gastric emptying time and small bowel transit time were also recorded. Results: Simethicone significantly reduced luminal bubbles both in the proximal and distal small intes-tines. The mean time proportions with slight bubbles in the proximal and distal intestines in Group 2 were 97.1% and 99.0%, respectively, compared with 67.2% (P<0.001) and 68.8% (P<0.001) in Group 1. Simethicone had no effect on mean gastric emptying time, 32.08 min in Group 2 compared with 30.88 min in Group 1 (P=0.868), but it did increase mean small intestinal transit time from 227.28 to 281.84 min (P=0.003). Conclusion: Bowel preparation with both PEG and simethicone significantly reduced bubbles in the intestinal lumen and improved the visualization of the small bowel by capsule endoscopy without any side effects observed.

  17. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  18. Steady state heat transfer in ORR irradiation capsules. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R.C.; Michaels, S.L.; Wilkes, G.R.


    The mathematical model developed by Stiros for prediction of temperature profiles in ORR irradiation capsules was modified and a numerical solution obtained. A Fortran computer program was written to solve the generalized finite difference equations applied to a fixed lattice system superimposed on the capsule cross section. The Liebmann iterative method was employed. The solution accounts for changes in internal heat generation, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity induced by both temperature and fluence. The computed temperatures deviated from actual experimental measurements in the fuel rods by less than 2.0 percent.

  19. A novel localization method for noninvasive monitoring capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wenhui; Yan Guozheng; Jiang Pingping; Guo Xudong


    Noninvasive monitoring capsule for gastrointestinal tract can be swallowed by patient. It is of great importance for the physician to monitor the precise position of capsule in gastrointestinal tract. The authors investigated a novel method for it. Using three coils with DC current to excite magnetic field and one triaxial magnetoresistive sensor to measure the excited magnetic vectors, they tried to solve the problem.The authors provided the localization principle of the method and analyzed it by an experiment, too. The method may be applied in practice in the future though it is still immature now.

  20. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline. (United States)

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G


    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting.

  1. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei


    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation.

  2. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis☆ (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei


    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. PMID:25206695

  3. Capsule implosions driven by dynamic hohlraum x-rays (United States)

    Bailey, James


    Dynamic hohlraum experiments at the Z facility already implode capsules with up to 80 kJ absorbed x-ray energy. However, many challenging issues remain for ICF. The present experiments use diagnostic capsules to address two of these issues: symmetry measurement and control and building understanding of the capsule/hohlraum implosion system. A suite of x-ray spectrometers record time and space resolved spectra emitted by Ar tracer atoms in the implosion core, simultaneously from up to three different quasi-orthogonal directions. Comparing the results with simulation predictions provide severe tests of understanding. These data also can used to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the time resolved core temperature and density profiles. X-ray and neutron diagnostics are used to examine how the implosion conditions change as the capsule design changes. The capsule design changes include variations in CH wall thickness and diameter, Ge-doped CH shells, and SiO2 shells. In addition, a new campaign investigating Be capsule implosions is beginning. Be capsules may offer superior performance for dynamic hohlraum research and it may be possible to investigate NIF-relevant Be implosion issues such as the fill tube effects, sensitivity to columnar growth associated with sputtered Be capsule fabrication, and the effect of Cu dopants on implosion conditions. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. * In collaboration with G.A. Rochau, G.A. Chandler, S.A. Slutz, P.W. Lake, G. Cooper, G.S. Dunham, R.J. Leeper, R. Lemke, T.A. Mehlhorn, T.J. Nash, D.S. Nielsen, K. Peterson, C.L. Ruiz, D.B. Sinars, J. Torres, W. Varnum, Sandia; R.C. Mancini, T.J. Buris-Mog, UNR; I. Golovkin, J.J. MacFarlane, PRISM; A. Nikro, D. Steinman, J.D. Kilkenny, H. Xu, General Atomics; M. Bump, T.C. Moore, K-tech; D.G. Schroen, Schafer

  4. A parametric study on ice formation inside a spherical capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Silva, T.M. da [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos - FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122, CEP 13083-970, SP, Campinas (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica - DEMEC, UFPE, CEP 50740-530, PE, Recife (Brazil)


    This paper reports the results of a numerical study on the heat transfer during the process of solidification of water inside a spherical capsule. The governing equations of the problem and associated boundary conditions were formulated and solved using a finite difference approach and a moving grid scheme. The model was optimized and the numerical predictions were validated by comparison with experimental results realized by the authors. The model was also used to investigate the effects of the size and material of the shell, initial temperature of the phase change material and the external temperature of the spherical capsule on the solidified mass fraction and the time for the complete solidification. (authors)

  5. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangning Li; Yongping Fan; Tao Yang; Lei Wang


    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation.

  6. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François;


    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding...... the domain to have disk topology. We test our method for tori of revolution and compare our results to the benchmark ones from [2]. The method, however, is generic and can be easily adapted to construct cut loci for other manifolds of genera other than 1....... the lines of self-intersections of the front in the parametric space. This becomes possible by using the deformable simplicial complexes (DSC, [1]) method for deformable interface tracking. DSC provide a simple collision detection mechanism, allows for interface topology control, and does not require...

  7. Sign Stability via Root Locus Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Travis E


    With the rise of network science old topics in ecology and economics are resurfacing. One such topic is structural stability (often referred to as qualitative stability or sign stability). A system is deemed structurally stable if the system remains stable for all possible parameter variations so long as the parameters do not change sign. This type of stability analysis is appealing when studying real systems as the underlying stability result only requires the scientist or engineer to know the sign of the parameters in the model and not the specific values. The necessary and sufficient conditions for qualitative stability however are opaque. In order to shed light on those conditions root locus analysis is employed. This technique allows us to illustrate the necessary conditions for qualitative stability.

  8. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  9. Locus of Control, Attitudes toward Education, and Teaching Behaviors. (United States)

    Kremer, Lya


    Tests 191 elementary school teachers in northern Israel for the relationships among locus of control, traditional and progressive educational attitudes, and related teaching behaviors. Finds external and internal locus of control explain the variance in traditional and progressive attitudes, respectively, and teaching behaviors. (Author/LC)

  10. Metacognition: As a Predictor of One's Academic Locus of Control (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet


    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The correlations and…

  11. Locus of Control and Marital Stability: A Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Constantine, John A.; Bahr, Stephen J.


    Investigated relationship between locus of control and marital stability of young men. Factors derived from locus of control measures included leadership, personal, and fate scales. Results indicated the only significant difference was on the leadership scale between men remaining married and those who did not. (RC)

  12. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;


    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  13. Locus of Control in Underachieving and Achieving Gifted Students. (United States)

    McClelland, Robert; And Others


    This study, with 87 underachieving and 77 achieving gifted students in grades 6-9, found that general locus of control measures did not differentiate between the 2 groups, that both scored significantly higher on positive internal than on negative internal locus of control, and that there were no gender or grade effects. (Author/DB)

  14. Bile acid biosynthesis and its regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areta Hebanowska


    Full Text Available Bile acid biosynthesis is the main pathway of cholesterol catabolism. Bile acids are more soluble than cholesterol so are easier to excrete. As amphipathic molecules they participate in lipid digestion and absorption in the intestine and they help to excrete free cholesterol with bile. They are also ligands for nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Interconversion of cholesterol into bile acids is an important point of its homeostasis. Seventeen enzymes are engaged in this process and many of them are cytochromes P450. Bile acid synthesis initiation may proceed with the “classical” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C7α position or the “alternative” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C27 position. Two additional pathways are possible, though their quantitative significance is small (initiated with cholesterol hydroxylations of C24 and C25 positions. Oxysterols produced are not only intermediates of bile acid biosynthesis but also important regulators of metabolism. Bile acid biosynthesis takes place in the liver, but some enzymes are also present in other organs, where they participate in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Those enzymes are potential targets for new drugs against cholesterol metabolism disturbances. This article is a brief description of the bile acid biosynthesis pathway and participating enzymes.

  15. Biosynthesis of sphinganine-analog mycotoxins. (United States)

    Du, L; Zhu, X; Gerber, R; Huffman, J; Lou, L; Jorgenson, J; Yu, F; Zaleta-Rivera, K; Wang, Q


    Sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMT) are polyketide-derived natural products produced by a number of plant pathogenic fungi and are among the most economically important mycotoxins. The toxins are structurally similar to sphinganine, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of ceramides and sphingolipids, and competitive inhibitors for ceramide synthase. The inhibition of ceramide and sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with several fatal diseases in domestic animals and esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans. SAMT contains a highly reduced, acyclic polyketide carbon backbone, which is assembled by a single module polyketide synthase. The biosynthesis of SAMT involves a unique polyketide chain-releasing mechanism, in which a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme catalyzes the termination, offloading and elongation of the polyketide chain. This leads to the introduction of a new carbon-carbon bond and an amino group to the polyketide chain. The mechanism is fundamentally different from the thioesterase/cyclase-catalyzed polyketide chain releasing found in bacterial and other fungal polyketide biosynthesis. Genetic data suggest that the ketosynthase domain of the polyketide synthase and the chain-releasing enzyme are important for controlling the final product structure. In addition, several post-polyketide modifications have to take place before SAMT become mature toxins.

  16. Combinatorial biosynthesis of medicinal plant secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julsing, Mattijs K.; Koulman, Albert; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver


    Combinatorial biosynthesis is a new tool in the generation of novel natural products and for the production of rare and expensive natural products. The basic concept is combining metabolic pathways in different organisms on a genetic level. As a consequence heterologous organisms provide precursors

  17. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules


    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy; Ashley, Kevin


    An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were ...

  18. Effects of preferred retinal locus placement on text navigation and development of advantageous trained retinal locus. (United States)

    Watson, Gale R; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William R; Watkins, Erica


    Sixty readers were evaluated for visual function and text-navigation ability. The visual field and preferred retinal locus (PRL) were measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). We found significant differences in text-navigation ability based on scotoma and PRL placement. Readers with a PRL to the left of or above a scotoma had significantly less text-navigation abilities. Readers with a PRL to the left of a scotoma tended to misread words with similar beginnings and omit the last word on a line. Readers with a PRL above a scotoma tended to skip a line or reread the same line twice. In a follow-up study, seven subjects with a nonadvantageous PRL quickly developed a trained retinal locus (TRL) during instruction with an SLO. Although the readers developed the TRL in about 15 minutes, they read slower with the TRL than the PRL. This TRL research provides promising pilot data.

  19. Escala de Locus de controle ELCO/TELEBRÁS Scale of Locus of control - ELCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pasquali


    Full Text Available Com base na teoria de Rotter e Escala de Levenson foi elaborada uma escala de Locus de Controle Organizacional (ELCO, composta por 28 itens. A escala foi validada com uma amostra de 350 empregados do Sistema Telebrás. Verificou-se a presença dos 2 fatores previstos na teoria, a saber: internalidade e externalidade, aparecendo a escala de externalidade, com 18 itens, bem estruturada (alfa = 0.81 e a de internalidade, com 10 itens, deixando a desejar no que se refere à consistência interna (alfa = 0.66. Com os dados desta pesquisa foi feita também análise do Locus de Controle desses mesmos empregados. A constatação mais saliente foi a de que o nível de internalidade caiu com o aumento do nível escolar e o aumento da experiência profissional desses mesmos empregados. Estes resultados surpreendentes foram interpretados em termos da situação típica da empresa, que está passando por um período de transição, a saber: a passagem da condição de empresa estatal para empresa privada, o que seria motivo da perda de confiança dos empregados na própria competência, particularmente por parte daqueles com maior competência intelectual e maior experiência profissional. Fez-se igualmente reparos na qualidade psicométrica da escala e da própria teoria do Locus de controle, no sentido de que esta precisa ser melhor axiomatizada para possibilitar a elaboração de escalas mais precisas para a medida dos construtos que propõe.A scale with 28 items, the Organizational Locus of Control (ELCO, was built based on Rotter’s theory and Levenson’s scale. ELCO was validated on a sample of 350 employees of Telebrás, a governmental firm in Brazil. As foreseen from the theory, a principal-axis factoring showed the presence of the expected two factors, namely internal and external locus of control. The external locus of control factor, composed of 18 items, showed good internal consistency (alpha =.81 whereas the internal factor, with 10 items

  20. 77 FR 66621 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendation for Lenalidomide Capsules; Availability (United States)


    ... availability of revised draft BE recommendations for lenalidomide capsules. Revlimid (lenalidomide capsules.... Revlimid is designated as the reference listed drug, and therefore any ANDAs for generic lenalidomide capsules must demonstrate BE to the Revlimid prior to approval. There are no approved ANDAs for...

  1. Les Habitats: Culture Capsules in English for Use in Beginning French Classes. (United States)

    Hofts, Jan; And Others

    Eight culture capsules describing various aspects of French housing are presented. Each capsule includes a French-American contrast and gives ideas for classroom presentation and student activities. The capsules deal with: le logement, les immeubles, les exterieurs, la minuterie, les portes, la salle de bain, le refrigerateur, and culture grains…

  2. Homeodomain Protein Scr Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in the Silkworm. (United States)

    Meng, Meng; Liu, Chun; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Qian, Heying; Tian, Ling; Li, Jiarui; Dai, Dandan; Xu, Anying; Li, Sheng; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun


    The silkworm Dominant trimolting (Moltinism, M³) mutant undergoes three larval molts and exhibits precocious metamorphosis. In this study, we found that compared with the wild-type (WT) that undergoes four larval molts, both the juvenile hormone (JH) concentration and the expression of the JH-responsive gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) began to be greater in the second instar of the M³ mutant. A positional cloning analysis revealed that only the homeodomain transcription factor gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is located in the genomic region that is tightly linked to the M³ locus. The expression level of the Scr gene in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (Br-CC-CA) complex, which controls the synthesis of JH, was very low in the final larval instar of both the M³ and WT larvae, and exhibited a positive correlation with JH titer changes. Importantly, luciferase reporter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the Scr protein could promote the transcription of genes involved in JH biosynthesis by directly binding to the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of homeodomain protein on their promoters. These results conclude that the homeodomain protein Scr is transcriptionally involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis in the silkworm.

  3. PapA3 is an acyltransferase required for polyacyltrehalose biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Hatzios, Stavroula K; Schelle, Michael W; Holsclaw, Cynthia M; Behrens, Christopher R; Botyanszki, Zsofia; Lin, Fiona L; Carlson, Brian L; Kumar, Pawan; Leary, Julie A; Bertozzi, Carolyn R


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses an unusual cell wall that is replete with virulence-enhancing lipids. One cell wall molecule unique to pathogenic M. tuberculosis is polyacyltrehalose (PAT), a pentaacylated, trehalose-based glycolipid. Little is known about the biosynthesis of PAT, although its biosynthetic gene cluster has been identified and found to resemble that of the better studied M. tuberculosis cell wall component sulfolipid-1. In this study, we sought to elucidate the function of papA3, a gene from the PAT locus encoding a putative acyltransferase. To determine whether PapA3 participates in PAT assembly, we expressed the protein heterologously and evaluated its acyltransferase activity in vitro. The purified enzyme catalyzed the sequential esterification of trehalose with two palmitoyl groups, generating a diacylated product similar to the 2,3-diacyltrehalose glycolipids of M. tuberculosis. Notably, PapA3 was selective for trehalose; no activity was observed with other structurally related disaccharides. Disruption of the papA3 gene from M. tuberculosis resulted in the loss of PAT from bacterial lipid extracts. Complementation of the mutant strain restored PAT production, demonstrating that PapA3 is essential for the biosynthesis of this glycolipid in vivo. Furthermore, we determined that the PAT biosynthetic machinery has no cross-talk with that for sulfolipid-1 despite their related structures.

  4. A non-canonical peptide synthetase adenylates 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid for auriculamide biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braga


    Full Text Available Auriculamide is the first natural product known from the predatory bacterium Herpetosiphon aurantiacus. It is composed of three unusual building blocks, including the non-proteinogenic amino acid 3-chloro-L-tyrosine, the α-hydroxy acid L-isoleucic acid, and a methylmalonyl-CoA-derived ethane unit. A candidate genetic locus for auriculamide biosynthesis was identified and encodes four enzymes. Among them, the non-canonical 199 kDa four-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase, AulA, is extraordinary in that it features two consecutive adenylation domains. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinantly produced AulA. The observed activation of 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid by the enzyme supports the hypothesis that it participates in the biosynthesis of auriculamide. An artificially truncated version of AulA that lacks the first adenylation domain activated this substrate like the full-length enzyme which shows that the first adenylation domain is dispensable. Additionally, we provide evidence that the enzyme tolerates structural variation of the substrate. α-Carbon substituents significantly affected the substrate turnover. While all tested aliphatic α-keto acids were accepted by the enzyme and minor differences in chain size and branches did not interfere with the enzymatic activity, molecules with methylene α-carbons led to low turnover. Such enzymatic plasticity is an important attribute to help in the perpetual search for novel molecules and to access a greater structural diversity by mutasynthesis.

  5. Investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding : capsule endoscopy or double balloon enteroscopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, J.; Weersma, R. K.; Koornstra, J. J.


    The possibility to visualise the small bowel has dramatically improved with the introduction of capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE). CE and DBE have become standard practice in investigating suspected diseases of the small bowel. An important reason to perform small bowel inv

  6. Treatment of hyperlipoidemia by Xiaozhi capsule: a clinical efficacy research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To observe the clinical effect and efficacy of Xiaozhi Capsule (XZC) ,a Chinese medicine preparation for tonifying Gan-Shen,invigorating Pi to dissipate dampness (TGSIPDD) on total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride (TG) ,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) ,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ,and

  7. Motion of an elastic capsule in a constricted microchannel

    CERN Document Server

    Touchard, Antoine; Zhu, Lailai; Brandt, Luca


    We study the motion of an elastic capsule through a microchannel characterized by a localized constriction. We consider a capsule with a stress-free spherical shape and impose its steady state configuration in an infinitely long straight channel as the initial condition for our calculations. We report how the capsule deformation, velocity, retention time, and maximum stress of the membrane are affected by the capillary number, Ca, and the constriction shape. We estimate the deformation by measuring the variation of the three-dimensional surface area and a series of alternative quantities easier to extract from experiments. These are the Taylor parameter, the perimeter and the area of the capsule in the spanwise plane. We find that the perimeter is the quantity that reproduces the behavior of the three-dimensional surface area the best. We observe that, in general, area-deformation correlated quantities grow linearly with Ca, while velocity-correlated quantities saturate for large Ca but display a steeper incr...

  8. At a watershed? Technical developments in wireless capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Swain, Paul


    This article reviews some of the technical developments that allowed the introduction of the wireless capsule 10 years ago into human usage. Technical advances and commercial competition have substantially improved the performance of clinical capsule endoscopy, especially in optical quality. Optical issues including the airless environment, depth of focus, dome reflection, the development of white light light-emitting diodes, exposure length and the advent of adaptive illumination are discussed. The competition between charge coupled devices and complementary metal oxide silicone technologies for imaging, lens improvements and the requirements for different frame rates and their associated power management strategies and battery type choices and the introduction of field enhancement methods into commercial capsule technology are considered. Capsule technology stands at a watershed. It is mainly confined to diagnostic small intestinal imaging. It might overtake other forms of conventional diagnostic endoscopy, especially colonoscopy but also gastroscopy and esophagoscopy but has to improve both technically and compete in price. It might break out of its optical diagnostic confinement and become a therapeutic modality. To make this leap there have to be several technical advances especially in biopsy, command, micromechanical internal movements, remote controlled manipulation and changes in power management, which may include external power transmission.

  9. Conservative integrated treatment of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (United States)



    Purpose the aim of this study was to present the results of a conservative treatment for adhesive capsulitis based on an original protocol of combined pharmacological and rehabilitation treatment. Methods fifty-two patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis were enrolled in the present study. The treatment protocol included the use of hyaluronic acid and anaesthetic periarticular and intra-articular injections followed by a specific program of capsule and muscle stretching. Results the results of this treatment showed complete recovery of range of motion (ROM) in 50 of the 52 cases. The mean pre-treatment ROM values were: 85° for forward elevation, 75° for abduction, 25° for external rotation, and 15° for internal rotation. The post-treatment mean ROM values showed marked improvements: 175° for forward elevation, 175° for abduction, 87.5° for external rotation and 75° for internal rotation. Conclusions conservative treatment of adhesive capsulitis based on a combined pharmacological and rehabilitation approach was found to be effective in resolving pain and stiffness in 96% of the patients. Level of evidence level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25606536

  10. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    structure, responsive to microwave electromagnetic radiation, is attached to a first wall portion of the capsule wall structure which comprises a lossy dielectric material. At least a predetermined segment of the first wall portion is heated by received microwave electromagnetic radiation to trigger...

  11. Theranostic Multilayer Capsules for Ultrasound Imaging and Guided Drug Delivery. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Alford, Aaron; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Liu, Fei; Xue, Bing; Hoyt, Kenneth; Kharlampieva, Eugenia


    Despite the accessibility of ultrasound, the clinical potential of ultrasound-active theranostic agents has not been fully realized because it requires combining sufficient imaging contrast, high encapsulation efficiency, and ultrasound-triggered release in one entity. We report on theranostic polymer microcapsules composed of hydrogen-bonded multilayers of tannic acid and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) that produce high imaging contrast and deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin upon low-power diagnostic or high-power therapeutic ultrasound irradiation. These capsules exhibit excellent imaging contrast in both brightness and harmonic modes and show prolonged contrast over six months, unlike commercially available microbubbles. We also demonstrate low-dose gradual and high-dose fast release of doxorubicin from the capsules by diagnostic (∼100 mW/cm(2)) and therapeutic (>10 W/cm(2)) ultrasound irradiation, respectively. We show that the imaging contrast of the capsules can be controlled by varying the number of layers, polymer type (relatively rigid tannic acid versus more flexible poly(methacrylic acid)), and polymer molecular weight. In vitro studies demonstrate that 50% doxorubicin release from ultrasound-treated capsules induces 97% cytotoxicity to MCF-7 human cancer cells, while no cytotoxicity is found without the treatment. Considering the strong ultrasound imaging contrast, high encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility, and tunable drug release, these microcapsules can be used as theranostic agents for ultrasound-guided chemotherapy.

  12. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)


    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  13. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  14. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging. (United States)

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G


    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Isaac Jason


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on various physiotherapy management for adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. Methods: A search of the literature was conducted using Clinical Key, ProQuest and PEDro databases up to September 2015. Search limits included the English language and human studies. Search terms included adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, Physical therapy, Physiotherapy etc. Inclusion criteria: Systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs in English language were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (a patients with adhesive capsulitis were included, (b results on pain and function were reported, and (c a study period of at least two weeks was reported. Articles were assessed using the Jadad (1 scale and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale. ‘High-quality’ was defined as a “yes” score of 50% in Jadad scale and a PEDro rating of 5 out of 10. Totally 17 studies were selected for this systematic review. Conclusion: This study has found sufficient level of evidence for physiotherapy in the treatment of adhesive capsulitis the shoulder. In particular, manual treatment must be combined with commonly indicated exercise or conventional physiotherapy, as it remains the standard care.

  16. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909 (United States)

    Blazer, Christie


    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…


    This is a SITE Technology Capsule. The MACTEC, Inc. (MACTEC), NoVOCs(TM) in-well volatile organic compounds (VOC) stripping technology is an in-situ groundwater remediation technology designed for the cleanup of groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The NoVOCs(TM) technology was ev...

  18. Mechanism of film formation during granules capsulation in fluidized bed


    Ostroha, Ruslan; Yukhymenko, Mykola


    It is proposed to perform granules capsulation process in the device of fluidized bed. Analysis of different approaches to mathematical description of granules growth kinetics was made. Equation of size determination of received granules in the device is proposed including granules growth rate and changes of density of granules distribution according to sizes in film forming process.

  19. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie


    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  20. Channa striatus capsules induces cytokine conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Paliliewu


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether Channa striatus capsule induces sputum and cytokine conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study was conducted to pulmonary TB patients who admitted to Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. A total of 36 pulmonary TB patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 18 including one group received standart antituberculosis drugs plus Channa striatus capsule and another group received standart antituberculosis drugs plus placebo. Channa striatus capsule was given at a dose of 2 g each time, 3 times per day, for 12 weeks. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-10 were analyses using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: The rate of positive sputum smear decline was more pronounced in the Channa striatus group but did not reach statistically different value between groups. The levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 were not significantly different in Channa striatus group compared to placebo group at baseline (week 0. But at week 12, the supplementation of Channa striatus capsule significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 levels compared to baseline. In placebo groups, there were no significant differences for IL-10 levels at week 12, but the levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ significantly decreased. Conclusion: Adjunctive supplementation of Channa striatus capsules accelerated the beneficial therapeutic effect of TB chemotherapy by improving cytokine response. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 237-242

  1. Solution Based Deposition of Polyimide Ablators for NIF Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R


    Between June 1997 and March 2002 Luxel Corporation was contracted to explore the possibility of preparing NIF scale capsules with polyimide ablators using solution-based techniques. This work offered a potential alternative to a vapor deposition approach talking place at LLNL. The motivation for pursuing the solution-based approach was primarily two-fold. First, it was expected that much higher strength capsules (relative to vapor deposition) could be prepared since the solution precursors were known to produce high strength films. Second, in applying the ablator as a fluid it was expected that surface tension effects would lead to very smooth surfaces. These potential advantages were offset by expected difficulties, primary among them that the capsules would need to be levitated in some fashion (for example acoustically) during coating and processing, and that application of the coating uniformly to thicknesses of 150 pm on levitated capsules would be difficult. Because of the expected problems with the coupling of levitation and coating, most of the initial effort was to develop coating and processing techniques on stalk-mounted capsules. The program had some success. Using atomizer spray techniques in which application of {approx}5 {micro}m fluid coatings were alternated with heating to remove solvent resulted in up to 70 {micro}m thick coatings that were reasonably smooth at short wavelengths, and showed only about a 1 {micro}m thickness variation over long wavelengths. More controlled deposition with an inkjet devise was also developed. However difficult technical problems remained, and these problems coupled with the relative success of the vapor deposition approach led to the termination of the solution-based work in 2002. What follows is a compilation of the progress reports submitted by Luxel for this work which spanned a number of separate contracts. The reports are arranged chronologically, the last report in the collection has a modest summary of what

  2. An ultra-low-power image compressor for capsule endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Ping-Kuo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy has been popularly applied for the diagnosis of diseases of the alimentary canal including Crohn's Disease, Celiac disease and other malabsorption disorders, benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine, vascular disorders and medication related small bowel injury. The wireless capsule endoscope has been successfully utilized to diagnose diseases of the small intestine and alleviate the discomfort and pain of patients. However, the resolution of demosaicked image is still low, and some interesting spots may be unintentionally omitted. Especially, the images will be severely distorted when physicians zoom images in for detailed diagnosis. Increasing resolution may cause significant power consumption in RF transmitter; hence, image compression is necessary for saving the power dissipation of RF transmitter. To overcome this drawback, we have been developing a new capsule endoscope, called GICam. Methods We developed an ultra-low-power image compression processor for capsule endoscope or swallowable imaging capsules. In applications of capsule endoscopy, it is imperative to consider battery life/performance trade-offs. Applying state-of-the-art video compression techniques may significantly reduce the image bit rate by their high compression ratio, but they all require intensive computation and consume much battery power. There are many fast compression algorithms for reducing computation load; however, they may result in distortion of the original image, which is not good for use in the medical care. Thus, this paper will first simplify traditional video compression algorithms and propose a scalable compression architecture. Conclusion As the result, the developed video compressor only costs 31 K gates at 2 frames per second, consumes 14.92 mW, and reduces the video size by 75% at least.

  3. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)


    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  4. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS) (United States)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve


    near future. We describe the current instrument configuration of LOCUS, and give a first preview of the expected science return such a mission would yield. The LOCUS instrument concept calls for four spectral bands, a first band at 4.7 THz to target atomic oxygen (O), a second band at 3.5 THz to target hydroxyl (OH), a third band at 1.1 THz to cover several diatomic species (NO, CO, O3, H2O) and finally a fourth band at 0.8 THz to retrieve pointing information from molecular oxygen (O2). LOCUS would be the first satellite instrument to measure atomic oxygen on a global scale with a precision that will allow the retrieval of the global O distribution. It would also be the first time that annual and diurnal changes in O are measured. This will be a significant step forward in understanding the chemistry and dynamics of the MLT. Current indications (derived from CRISTA measurement) lead us to believe that current models only give a poor representation of upper atmospheric O. The secondary target species can help us to address additional scientific questions related to both Climate (distribution of climate relevant gases, highly geared cooling of the MLT in response to Climate change, increased occurrence of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC), etc) and Space Weather (precipitation of electrically charged particles and impact on NOx chemistry, fluctuations of solar Lyman-alpha flux through shown in the the distribution of photochemically active species, etc).

  5. Variation suggestive of horizontal gene transfer at a lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynthetic locus in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice (United States)

    Patil, Prabhu B; Sonti, Ramesh V


    Background In animal pathogenic bacteria, horizontal gene transfer events (HGT) have been frequently observed in genomic regions that encode functions involved in biosynthesis of the outer membrane located lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As a result, different strains of the same pathogen can have substantially different lps biosynthetic gene clusters. Since LPS is highly antigenic, the variation at lps loci is attributed to be of advantage in evading the host immune system. Although LPS has been suggested as a potentiator of plant defense responses, interstrain variation at lps biosynthetic gene clusters has not been reported for any plant pathogenic bacterium. Results We report here the complete sequence of a 12.2 kb virulence locus of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) encoding six genes whose products are homologous to functions involved in LPS biosynthesis and transport. All six open reading frames (ORFs) have atypical G+C content and altered codon usage, which are the hallmarks of genomic islands that are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The lps locus is flanked by highly conserved genes, metB and etfA, respectively encoding cystathionine gamma lyase and electron transport flavoprotein. Interestingly, two different sets of lps genes are present at this locus in the plant pathogens, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac). The genomic island is present in a number of Xoo strains from India and other Asian countries but is not present in two strains, one from India (BXO8) and another from Nepal (Nepal624) as well as the closely related rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoor). TAIL-PCR analysis indicates that sequences related to Xac are present at the lps locus in both BXO8 and Nepal624. The Xoor strain has a hybrid lps gene cluster, with sequences at the metB and etfA ends, being most closely related to sequences from Xac and the tomato pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato respectively


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayoral Luisa


    Full Text Available Resumen: Este es un artículo científico acerca del Locus de Distribución, surgido de un estudio realizado con una población de docentes y alumnos universitarios. Respecto de los primeros, se ha indagado acerca de las atribuciones que se realizaban en torno a las recompensas y sanciones, que ellos distribuían a sus alumnos.Respecto de los segundos, se ha buscado determinar la valoración que estos realizaban de sus profesores, en términos de aquellas atribuciones. Para ello, se utilizaron dos paradigmas clásicamente empleados para verificar la existencia de una norma: el paradigma de la autopresentación (docentes, y el paradigma de los j uicios (alumnos. La cuestión planteada fue determinar si en el caso de los comportamientos distributivos de refuerzos, las causas se atribuían a variables externas -en particular a los receptores de esos refuerzos- y si esas formas de atribución eran conocidas y valoradas o no, por los alumnos. De los resultados, surgió la confirmación de nuestra hipótesis de explicaciones externas en materia de comportamientos distributivos de sanciones en el ámbito de la docencia y la valoración positiva de estas atribuciones por los alumnos.Abstract:This one is a scientific article brings over of the Locus of Distribution, arisen from a study realized with a population of teachers and university pupils. Respect of the first ones, it has been investigated brings over of the attributions that were concerning around the reinforcements which they were distributing to pupils. Respect of the second ones, one has sought to determine the valuation that these realized of the teachers, in terms of those attributions. For it, two paradigms were in use classic used to check the existence of a norm: the paradigm of the auto-presentation (teachers, and the paradigm of the judgments (pupils The raised question was to determine if in case of the distributive behaviours of reinforcements, the reasons were assuming to external

  7. Species in the Cryptococcus gattii Complex Differ in Capsule and Cell Size following Growth under Capsule-Inducing Conditions (United States)

    Fernandes, Kenya E.; Dwyer, Christine; Campbell, Leona T.


    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus gattii causes invasive fungal infections that have been increasing in incidence and global distribution in recent years. The major molecular genotypes of C. gattii that were previously classified as VGI to VGIV have recently been described as four new species: C. gattii (VGI), C. deuterogattii (VGII), C. bacillisporus (VGIII), and C. tetragattii (VGIV). The main driver for their classification has been phylogeny, and phenotypic diversity has not yet been extensively characterized. This study examines variation in attributes related to virulence and pathogenicity, including capsule thickness, cell size, tolerance to temperature, oxidative and osmotic stress, and cell wall integrity. A capsule induction agar using diluted Sabouraud medium revealed significant differences in capsule and cell size across the C. gattii species complex and produced irregularly shaped elongated cells in a number of strains. C. gattii/VGI strains possessed the largest capsules of all species but had smaller cells, while C. deuterogattii/VGII strains possessed the largest cells of all species but had smaller capsules. Overall thermotolerance was highest in C. deuterogattii/VGII strains, while a number of C. bacillisporus/VGIII, and C. tetragattii/VGIV strains had substantially reduced growth at 37°C. There was no significant difference among species in their tolerances to oxidative or osmotic stresses, and there was no evidence for defects in cell wall integrity in strains producing irregular cells. These data support the division of the C. gattii species complex into distinctly identified species and suggest underlying reasons for their differences in virulence, epidemiology, and host preference. IMPORTANCE Infections with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii have been increasing in recent years. Recently, four different species have been described within C. gattii, which correspond to four previously known molecular genotypes (VGI to VGIV). Examining

  8. Buckling and its effect on the confined flow of a model capsule suspension (United States)

    Bryngelson, Spencer; Freund, Jonathan


    The rheology of confined flowing suspensions, such as blood, depend upon the dynamics of the components, which can be particularly rich when they are elastic capsules. Using boundary integral methods, we simulate a two-dimensional model channel through which flows a dense suspension of fluid-filled capsules. A parameter of principal interest is the equilibrium membrane perimeter, which ranges from round capsules to capsules with an elongated dog-bone-like equilibrium shape. It is shown that the minimum effective viscosity occurs for capsules with a biconcave equilibrium shape, similar to that of a red blood cell. The rheological behavior changes significantly over this range; transitions are linked to specific changes in the capsule dynamics. Most noteworthy is an abrupt change in behavior when capsules transition to a dog-bone-like equilibrium shape, which correlates with the onset of capsule buckling. The buckled capsules have a more varied orientation and make significant rotational (rotlet) contributions to the capsule-capsule interactions. Supported under NSF Grant No. CBET 13-36972.

  9. Fabrication of Non-instrumented capsule for DUPIC simulated fuel irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.G.; Kang, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Shin, Y.T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    In order to develope DUPIC nuclear fuel, the irradiation test for simulated DUPIC fuel was planed using a non-instrumented capsule in HANARO. Because DUPIC fuel is highly radioactive material the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO was designed to remotely assemble and disassemble in hot cell. And then, according to the design requirements the non-instrumented DUPIC capsule was successfully manufactured. Also, the manufacturing technologies of the non-instrumented capsule for irradiating the nuclear fuel in HANARO were established, and the basic technology for the development of the instrumented capsule technology was accumulated. This report describes the manufacturing of the non-instrumented capsule for simulated DUPIC fuel. And, this report will be based to develope the instrumented capsule, which will be utilized to irradiate the nuclear fuel in HANARO. 26 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  10. Locus of control and cerebral asymmetry. (United States)

    De Brabander, B; Boone, C; Gerits, P


    Data about the lack of synchronism of flexor carpi ulnaris peak EMG values of bimanual reactions during a semantic and during a visuospatial discrimination reaction time task are reported. The effects of type of task as well as the presence or absence of an unexpected stimulus preceding the reaction stimulus on lack of synchronism clearly depend upon the locus of control of the subjects, as measured on Rotter's I-E scale. On the basis of several arguments it is proposed that the measure of lack of synchronism reflects in an opposite sense the amount of dopaminergic activation or motor readiness in the sense in which Pribram and McGuinness in 1975 and Tucker and Williamson in 1984 have defined these concepts. The results for 15 women and 18 men show that more internally oriented subjects are more activated by a semantic task and by an unexpected preparatory stimulus in this type of task than more externally oriented subjects. The opposite appears to hold on the visuospatial task and unexpected preparatory stimuli therein. Together with earlier findings about reaction times and a number of relevant findings in the literature, the results are interpreted as indicative of basic differences in asymmetric tonic activation of the cerebral hemispheres between more internally and more externally oriented subjects. A model is proposed to explain phasic activating effects which ensue when tonically more left- or right-activated subjects perform left- or right-hemisphere tasks and when supplementary irrelevant stimuli are received.

  11. Biosynthesis and toxicological effects of patulin. (United States)

    Puel, Olivier; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P


    Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children. Exposure to this mycotoxin is associated with immunological, neurological and gastrointestinal outcomes. Assessment of the health risks due to patulin consumption by humans has led many countries to regulate the quantity in food. A full understanding of the molecular genetics of patulin biosynthesis is incomplete, unlike other regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes and fumonisins), although the chemical structures of patulin precursors are now known. The biosynthetic pathway consists of approximately 10 steps, as suggested by biochemical studies. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes involved in patulin biosynthesis was reported, containing characterized enzymes, a regulation factor and transporter genes. This review includes information on the current understanding of the mechanisms of patulin toxinogenesis and summarizes its toxicological effects.

  12. Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast. (United States)

    Galanie, Stephanie; Thodey, Kate; Trenchard, Isis J; Filsinger Interrante, Maria; Smolke, Christina D


    Opioids are the primary drugs used in Western medicine for pain management and palliative care. Farming of opium poppies remains the sole source of these essential medicines, despite diverse market demands and uncertainty in crop yields due to weather, climate change, and pests. We engineered yeast to produce the selected opioid compounds thebaine and hydrocodone starting from sugar. All work was conducted in a laboratory that is permitted and secured for work with controlled substances. We combined enzyme discovery, enzyme engineering, and pathway and strain optimization to realize full opiate biosynthesis in yeast. The resulting opioid biosynthesis strains required the expression of 21 (thebaine) and 23 (hydrocodone) enzyme activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. This is a proof of principle, and major hurdles remain before optimization and scale-up could be achieved. Open discussions of options for governing this technology are also needed in order to responsibly realize alternative supplies for these medically relevant compounds.

  13. Chemical genetics to examine cellulose biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eDebolt


    Full Text Available Long-term efforts to decode plant cellulose biosynthesis via molecular genetics and biochemical strategies are being enhanced by the ever-expanding scale of omics technologies. An alternative approach to consider are the prospects for inducing change in plant metabolism using exogenously supplied chemical ligands. Cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors (CBI have been identified among known herbicides, during diverse combinatorial chemical libraries screens, and natural chemical screens from microbial agents. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the inhibitory effects of CBIs and further group them by how they influence fluorescently tagged cellulose synthase A (CESA proteins. Additional attention is paid to the continuing development of the CBI toolbox to explore the cell biology and genetic mechanisms underpinning effector molecule activity.

  14. Microbial Exopolysaccharides: Biosynthesis and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Madhuri


    Full Text Available Many bacteria synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs with commercially significant physiological and therapeutic activities. Microbial polysaccharides have also been reported to have potential therapeutic applications. Recently, much attention has been devoted to the microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs due to their numerous health benefits.EPSs from lactic acid bacteria are reported to possess antitumor effects, immunostimulatory activity, and the ability to lower blood cholesterol. EPSs also offer an alternative class of biothickeners that are widely used in the food and dairy industries and have been proven to provide strong emulsifying activity, which is important in many food formulations. It is also important to understand the mechanism of microbial biosynthesis of EPSs in order to enhance their production by genetic alterations. The potential applications and the mode of microbial biosynthesis of the EPSs have been presented in this article.

  15. Carotenoid Metabolism: Biosynthesis, Regulation,and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Lu; Li Li


    Carotenoids are Indispensable to plants and play a critical role in human nutrition and health. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of carotenoid metabolism in plants. The biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied.Nearly all the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes have been isolated and characterized from various organisms. In recent years, there is an increasing body of work on the signaling pathways and plastid development, which might provide global control of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation. Herein, we will highlight recent progress on the biosynthesis,regulation, and metabolic engineering of carotenoids in plants, as well as the future research towards elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and metabolic network that control carotenoid metabolism.

  16. Functional specialization in proline biosynthesis of melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica De Ingeniis

    Full Text Available Proline metabolism is linked to hyperprolinemia, schizophrenia, cutis laxa, and cancer. In the latter case, tumor cells tend to rely on proline biosynthesis rather than salvage. Proline is synthesized from either glutamate or ornithine; both are converted to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C, and then to proline via pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases (PYCRs. Here, the role of three isozymic versions of PYCR was addressed in human melanoma cells by tracking the fate of (13C-labeled precursors. Based on these studies we conclude that PYCR1 and PYCR2, which are localized in the mitochondria, are primarily involved in conversion of glutamate to proline. PYCRL, localized in the cytosol, is exclusively linked to the conversion of ornithine to proline. This analysis provides the first clarification of the role of PYCRs to proline biosynthesis.

  17. Functional Specialization in Proline Biosynthesis of Melanoma (United States)

    Richardson, Adam D.; Scott, David A.; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; De, Surya K.; Kazanov, Marat; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Ronai, Ze'ev; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.


    Proline metabolism is linked to hyperprolinemia, schizophrenia, cutis laxa, and cancer. In the latter case, tumor cells tend to rely on proline biosynthesis rather than salvage. Proline is synthesized from either glutamate or ornithine; both are converted to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and then to proline via pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases (PYCRs). Here, the role of three isozymic versions of PYCR was addressed in human melanoma cells by tracking the fate of 13C-labeled precursors. Based on these studies we conclude that PYCR1 and PYCR2, which are localized in the mitochondria, are primarily involved in conversion of glutamate to proline. PYCRL, localized in the cytosol, is exclusively linked to the conversion of ornithine to proline. This analysis provides the first clarification of the role of PYCRs to proline biosynthesis. PMID:23024808

  18. Circular bacteriocins: biosynthesis and mode of action. (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B


    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides.

  19. Natural rubber biosynthesis in plants: rubber transferase. (United States)

    Cornish, Katrina; Xie, Wenshuang


    Rubber biosynthesis in plants is a fascinating biochemical system, which evolved at the dawn of the dicotyledoneae and is present in at least four of the dictolydonous superorders. Rubber biosynthesis is catalyzed by a membrane complex in a monolayer membrane envelope, requires two distinct substrates and a divalent cation cofactor, and produces a high-molecular-weight isoprenoid polymer. A solid understanding of this system underpins valuable papers in the literature. However, the published literature is rife with unreliable reports in which the investigators have fallen into traps created by the current incomplete understanding of the biochemistry of rubber synthesis. In this chapter, we attempt to guide both new and more established researchers around these pitfalls.

  20. Plant Terpenoids: Biosynthesis and Ecological Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Xia Cheng; Yong-Gen Lou; Ying-Bo Mao; Shan Lu; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen


    Among plant secondary metabolites terpenoids are a structurally most diverse group; they function as phytoalexins in plant direct defense, or as signals in indirect defense responses which involves herbivores and their natural enemies. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the investigation of the ecological role of plant terpenoids. The biosynthesis pathways of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes include the synthesis of C5 precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its allylic isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the synthesis of the immediate diphosphate precursors, and the formation of the diverse terpenoids. Terpene synthases (TPSs) play a key role in volatile terpene synthesis. By expression of the TPS genes, significant achievements have been made on metabolic engineering to increase terpenoid production. This review mainly summarizes the recent research progress in elucidating the ecological role of terpenoids and characterization of the enzymes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis. Spatial and temporal regulations of terpenoids metabolism are also discussed.

  1. Characterization of Bacterial Polysaccharide Capsules and Detection in the Presence of Deliquescent Water by Atomic Force Microscopy


    Su, Hai-Nan; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Sheng-Bo; Qiao, Li-Ping; Chen, Xiu-Lan; He, Hai-Lun; Zhao, Xian; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong


    We detected polysaccharide capsules from Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecular organization of the capsules at the single-polysaccharide-chain level was reported. Furthermore, we found that with ScanAsyst mode the polysaccharide capsules could be detected even in the presence of deliquescent water covering the capsule.

  2. Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway. (United States)

    Strijbis, Karin; Vaz, Frédéric M; Distel, Ben


    The water-soluble zwitterion carnitine is an essential metabolite in eukaryotes required for fatty acid oxidation as it functions as a carrier during transfer of activated acyl and acetyl groups across intracellular membranes. Most eukaryotes are able to synthesize carnitine endogenously, besides their capacity to take up carnitine from the diet or extracellular medium through plasma membrane transporters. This review discusses the current knowledge on carnitine homeostasis with special emphasis on the enzymology of the four steps of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway.

  3. Biosynthesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone


    Butcher, Rebecca A.; Ragains, Justin R.; Li, Weiqing; RUVKUN, GARY; Clardy, Jon; Mak, Ho Yi


    To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant is the only known mutant defective in dauer pheromone production. Here, we show that daf-22 encodes a homolog of human sterol carrier protein...

  4. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Swarup, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Das, Tapan Kumar [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Maiti, Guru Prasad [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Department of Anesthesiology, Texas Tech University Health science Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Basu, Utpal [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India)


    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Biosynthesis in Helicobacter pylori. (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liao, Tingting; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Tang, Hong; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Benghezal, Mohammed


    This review covers the current knowledge and gaps in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and biosynthesis. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the luminal surface of the human gastric epithelium. Both a constitutive alteration of the lipid A preventing TLR4 elicitation and host mimicry of the Lewis antigen decorated O-antigen of H. pylori LPS promote immune escape and chronic infection. To date, the complete structure of H. pylori LPS is not available, and the proposed model is a linear arrangement composed of the inner core defined as the hexa-saccharide (Kdo-LD-Hep-LD-Hep-DD-Hep-Gal-Glc), the outer core composed of a conserved trisaccharide (-GlcNAc-Fuc-DD-Hep-) linked to the third heptose of the inner core, the glucan, the heptan and a variable O-antigen, generally consisting of a poly-LacNAc decorated with Lewis antigens. Although the glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for the biosynthesis of the H. pylori O-antigen chains have been identified and characterized, there are many gaps in regard to the biosynthesis of the core LPS. These limitations warrant additional mutagenesis and structural studies to obtain the complete LPS structure and corresponding biosynthetic pathway of this important gastric bacterium.

  6. Transcellular biosynthesis of eicosanoid lipid mediators. (United States)

    Capra, Valérie; Rovati, G Enrico; Mangano, Paolo; Buccellati, Carola; Murphy, Robert C; Sala, Angelo


    The synthesis of oxygenated eicosanoids is the result of the coordinated action of several enzymatic activities, from phospholipase A2 that releases the polyunsaturated fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, to primary oxidative enzymes, such as cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, to isomerases, synthases and hydrolases that carry out the final synthesis of the biologically active metabolites. Cells possessing the entire enzymatic machinery have been studied as sources of bioactive eicosanoids, but early on evidence proved that biosynthetic intermediates, albeit unstable, could move from one cell type to another. The biosynthesis of bioactive compounds could therefore be the result of a coordinated effort by multiple cell types that has been named transcellular biosynthesis of the eicosanoids. In several cases cells not capable of carrying out the complete biosynthetic process, due to the lack of key enzymes, have been shown to efficiently contribute to the final production of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins. We will review in vitro studies, complex functional models, and in vivo evidences of the transcellular biosynthesis of eicosanoids and the biological relevance of the metabolites resulting from this unique biosynthetic pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  7. [Regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomycetes]. (United States)

    Matseliukh, B P


    The review of literature presents the modern data about cascade regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomycetes including basal and global levels. The first regulatory level is presented by related proteins of SARP family playing the role of positive transcription factors of pathway-specific genes of clusters of antibiotic biosynthesis. In their turn these regulatory genes are under the control of higher regulatory level represented by bldA- and A-factor-dependent cascade regulation and two-component signal transduction system (AfsK-AfsR, AbsAl-AbsA2, AfsQ1-AfsQ2 and others), consisting of sensor protein kinase and response regulator protein.Streptomycetes, in contrast to other microorganisms, have dozens of protein kinases and related regulator proteins that testifies to the great importance of protein phosphorylation in regulation of secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in cell response to internal and external signals. The role of camp, ppGpp and other proteins in regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis was also considered in this review.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshman Vijayashree


    Full Text Available Previous research studies have demonstrated that internal/external locus of control impacts jobsatisfaction. The present study thus aims to analyze type of locus of control and its relation with jobsatisfaction. The study will be of great help for organization to understand and know what type oflocus of control their employees has and how it has an impact on job satisfaction.The objectives of this study were: 1- To identify the type of Locus of Control (i.e. Internal orExternal present in Public Sector Units (PSU in Bangalore and 2- To analyze the impact of differenttype of Locus of Control on job satisfaction of PSU Employees. Further hypothesis was also set tocheck the relationship between locus of control and job satisfaction. In addition, the relationshipbetween different demographic factors was also examined. The tool used for this study was LocoInventory. The concept of locus of control by Levenson (1972 was used to develop Loco Inventory(Locus of Control in Organization Inventory. The survey used a questionnaire, which had thirty fivestatements which highlights the factors that determine the locus of control and job satisfaction levelof the employees. The Ratio, ANOVA, and Correlation analysis were used as statistical techniquesfor analysis.The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between internal locus of control and jobsatisfaction as well as between External (other locus of control and job satisfaction. And in case ofExternal (Chance locus of control and job satisfaction there exists partial positive correlation. As perthis study Job satisfaction level among the employees is also good as the mean is 17, which is closerto maximum scale value of 25. As per ANOVA table there is a significant variance betweeninternality and age as well as between externality (chance and age. There is no significantrelationship between internality and demographic factors like gender and education. There is nosignificant relationship between

  9. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Aabakken, Lars [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo (Norway)


    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  10. Polyp Detection and Segmentation from Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Surya Prasath


    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is used widely nowadays for visualizing the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Capsule endoscopy exams are prescribed usually as an additional monitoring mechanism and can help in identifying polyps, bleeding, etc. To analyze the large scale video data produced by VCE exams, automatic image processing, computer vision, and learning algorithms are required. Recently, automatic polyp detection algorithms have been proposed with various degrees of success. Though polyp detection in colonoscopy and other traditional endoscopy procedure based images is becoming a mature field, due to its unique imaging characteristics, detecting polyps automatically in VCE is a hard problem. We review different polyp detection approaches for VCE imagery and provide systematic analysis with challenges faced by standard image processing and computer vision methods.

  11. [A newly-developed capsule endoscope in Japan]. (United States)

    Ogata, Haruhiko


    A new video capsule endoscope (VCE) developed by Olympus Medical Systems provides upgrade resolution, depth of the field, and brightness of the image, by improving the optical system, contained with the new function to adjust the level of lighting automatically coordinate with the brightness around, and the original handy displayed real-time viewer. Clinical trial using this capsule demonstrated the significantly higher diagnostic yield compared with barium contrast radiography of small bowel, especially for vascular involvement. Real-time viewer could be useful for detecting the gastric transit abnormality as well as for increasing the likelihood of a complete small-bowel examination with metoclopramide administration. Together with balloon-equipped enteroscopy, VCE is a new device which contributes to the diagnosis and the treatment of the small bowel lesion.

  12. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R P


    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  13. A microfluidic device to sort capsules by deformability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, L; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandt, Luca


    Guided by extensive numerical simulations, we propose a microfluidic device that can sort elastic capsules by their deformability. The device consists of a duct embedded with a semi-cylindrical obstacle, and a diffuser which further enhances the sorting capability. We demonstrate that the device can operate reasonably well under changes in the initial position of the the capsule. The efficiency of the device remains essentially unaltered under small changes of the obstacle shape (from semi-circular to semi-elliptic cross-section). Confinement along the direction perpendicular to the plane of the device increases its efficiency. This work is the first numerical study of cell sorting by a realistic microfluidic device.

  14. Arthroscopic capsule reconstruction in the hip using iliotibial band allograft. (United States)

    Trindade, Christiano A C; Sawyer, Gregory A; Fukui, Kiyokazu; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J


    The hip capsule has been identified as an important static stabilizer of the hip joint. Despite the intrinsic bony stability of the hip socket, the capsule plays a key role in hip stability, particularly at the extremes of motion, and the iliofemoral ligament is the most important stabilizer in extension and external rotation. Patients who do not undergo capsular closure or plication may continue to complain of hip pain and dysfunction postoperatively, likely because of microinstability or muscle invagination into the capsular defect, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance arthrography will identify the capsular defect. Seen primarily in the revision setting, capsular defects can cause recurrent stress at the chondrolabral junction. An attempt at secondary closure can be challenging because of capsular limb adherence to the surrounding soft tissues. Therefore reconstruction may be the only possible surgical solution for this problem. We describe our new surgical technique for arthroscopic hip capsular reconstruction using iliotibial band allograft.

  15. Compounding of slow-release niacinamide capsules: feasibility and characterization. (United States)

    Radojkovic, Branko; Milić, Jela; Calija, Bojan


    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of extemporaneous compounding of slow-release oral dosage form of niacinamide and to evaluate its release kinetics. The model formulation (preparation) was developed in the form of powder-filled hard gelatin capsules. Two slow-release preparations with different ratios of hypromellose have been prepared and evaluated in comparison with an immediate-release preparation. The dissolution tests were performed as per United States Pharmacopoeia requirements: Type I Apparatus, over 7 hours. Both slow-release preparations, containing 40% and 60% v/v hypromellose, respectively, have showed slow release kinetics. The dissolution profiles were significantly different, with similarity factor f2niacinamide capsules can be successfully compounded using hypromellose as a sole release rate modifier, and that the release mechanism is comparable to hydrophilic polymer matrix-based systems.

  16. Adhesive capsulitis of the wrist. Diagnosis and treatment. (United States)

    Hanson, E C; Wood, V E; Thiel, A E; Maloney, M D; Sauser, D D


    Adhesive capsulitis occurs as a pathologic entity in the shoulder, hip, and ankle joints. Thickening and contracture of the wrist joint capsule were demonstrated on arthrograms performed on ten patients ranging in age from 20 to 82 years. The patients had pain and limited range of motion in the wrist. The findings included: (1) resistance to the injection of smaller than normal volumes of contrast material, (2) obliteration of recesses, and (3) extravasation of the contrast agent along the needle tract. Closed manipulation under general anesthesia of the wrist on four patients resulted in some improvement in range of motion. A distal ulna fracture in one older patient occurred as a complication of manipulation. Careful technique and judicious patient selection are of paramount importance.

  17. Modeling performance of a two-dimensional capsule in a microchannel flow: long-term lateral migration. (United States)

    Li, Hua; Ma, Gang


    The long-term lateral migration of a two-dimensional elastic capsule in a microchannel is studied numerically in this paper. The numerical method combines a finite volume technique for solving the fluid problem with a front tracking technique for capturing and tracking the capsule membrane. The capsule is modeled as a liquid medium enclosed by a thin membrane which has linear elastic properties. The capsule, whose initial shape is circle and which starts from a near-center position or a near-wall position, experiences tilting and membrane tank-treading, and migrates laterally when moving along the surrounding flow. The lateral migration demonstrates the existence of lift effect of surrounding flow on moving capsule. Before capsule approaches to the microchannel centerline closely, lower membrane dilation modulus and lower viscosity ratio tend to result in faster lateral migration. The initial position also influences the performance behavior of capsule, despite the lateral migration of capsule is a quasisteady process. Small difference in capsule behavior when capsule is not near to the microchannel centerline might lead to significant difference in capsule behavior when capsule approaches closely to the centerline. When capsules are near to microchannel wall, the effect of the wall on capsule behavior might dominate, leading to relatively faster lateral migration. When capsules are not far from microchannel centerline, the effect of the nonlinearity of Poiseuille flow might dominate, resulting in relatively slower lateral movement. When capsules are located closely to the centerline, they behave differently, where the reason still remains poorly understood and it will be one of our future studies. The comparison between the capsule behavior from the present simulation and that by the migration law proposed by Coupier [Phys. Fluids 20, 111702 (2008)] shows that the behavioral agreement for near-wall capsule is better than that for near-center capsule, and the best

  18. A Functional Bikaverin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Rare Strains of Botrytis cinerea Is Positively Controlled by VELVET (United States)

    Schumacher, Julia; Gautier, Angélique; Morgant, Guillaume; Studt, Lena; Ducrot, Paul-Henri; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Azeddine, Saad; Fillinger, Sabine; Leroux, Pierre; Tudzynski, Bettina; Viaud, Muriel


    The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the red polyketidic pigment bikaverin has only been characterized in Fusarium ssp. so far. Recently, a highly homologous but incomplete and nonfunctional bikaverin cluster has been found in the genome of the unrelated phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study, we provided evidence that rare B. cinerea strains such as 1750 have a complete and functional cluster comprising the six genes orthologous to Fusarium fujikuroi ffbik1-ffbik6 and do produce bikaverin. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the whole cluster was acquired from Fusarium through a horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In the bikaverin-nonproducing strain B05.10, the genes encoding bikaverin biosynthesis enzymes are nonfunctional due to deleterious mutations (bcbik2-3) or missing (bcbik1) but interestingly, the genes encoding the regulatory proteins BcBIK4 and BcBIK5 do not harbor deleterious mutations which suggests that they may still be functional. Heterologous complementation of the F. fujikuroi Δffbik4 mutant confirmed that bcbik4 of strain B05.10 is indeed fully functional. Deletion of bcvel1 in the pink strain 1750 resulted in loss of bikaverin and overproduction of melanin indicating that the VELVET protein BcVEL1 regulates the biosynthesis of the two pigments in an opposite manner. Although strain 1750 itself expresses a truncated BcVEL1 protein (100 instead of 575 aa) that is nonfunctional with regard to sclerotia formation, virulence and oxalic acid formation, it is sufficient to regulate pigment biosynthesis (bikaverin and melanin) and fenhexamid HydR2 type of resistance. Finally, a genetic cross between strain 1750 and a bikaverin-nonproducing strain sensitive to fenhexamid revealed that the functional bikaverin cluster is genetically linked to the HydR2 locus. PMID:23308280

  19. A functional bikaverin biosynthesis gene cluster in rare strains of Botrytis cinerea is positively controlled by VELVET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schumacher

    Full Text Available The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the red polyketidic pigment bikaverin has only been characterized in Fusarium ssp. so far. Recently, a highly homologous but incomplete and nonfunctional bikaverin cluster has been found in the genome of the unrelated phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study, we provided evidence that rare B. cinerea strains such as 1750 have a complete and functional cluster comprising the six genes orthologous to Fusarium fujikuroi ffbik1-ffbik6 and do produce bikaverin. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the whole cluster was acquired from Fusarium through a horizontal gene transfer (HGT. In the bikaverin-nonproducing strain B05.10, the genes encoding bikaverin biosynthesis enzymes are nonfunctional due to deleterious mutations (bcbik2-3 or missing (bcbik1 but interestingly, the genes encoding the regulatory proteins BcBIK4 and BcBIK5 do not harbor deleterious mutations which suggests that they may still be functional. Heterologous complementation of the F. fujikuroi Δffbik4 mutant confirmed that bcbik4 of strain B05.10 is indeed fully functional. Deletion of bcvel1 in the pink strain 1750 resulted in loss of bikaverin and overproduction of melanin indicating that the VELVET protein BcVEL1 regulates the biosynthesis of the two pigments in an opposite manner. Although strain 1750 itself expresses a truncated BcVEL1 protein (100 instead of 575 aa that is nonfunctional with regard to sclerotia formation, virulence and oxalic acid formation, it is sufficient to regulate pigment biosynthesis (bikaverin and melanin and fenhexamid HydR2 type of resistance. Finally, a genetic cross between strain 1750 and a bikaverin-nonproducing strain sensitive to fenhexamid revealed that the functional bikaverin cluster is genetically linked to the HydR2 locus.

  20. Molecular analysis of the glucocerebrosidase gene locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, S.L.; Martin, B.M.; Fandino, A. [Clinical Neuroscience Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others


    Gaucher disease is due to a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Both the functional gene for this enzyme and a pseudogene are located in close proximity on chromosome 1q21. Analysis of the mutations present in patient samples has suggested interaction between the functional gene and the pseudogene in the origin of mutant genotypes. To investigate the involvement of regions flanking the functional gene and pseudogene in the origin of mutations found in Gaucher disease, a YAC clone containing DNA from this locus has been subcloned and characterized. The original YAC containing {approximately}360 kb was truncated with the use of fragmentation plasmids to about 85 kb. A lambda library derived from this YAC was screened to obtain clones containing glucocerebrosidase sequences. PCR amplification was used to identify subclones containing 5{prime}, central, or 3{prime} sequences of the functional gene or of the pseudogene. Clones spanning the entire distance from the last exon of the functional gene to intron 1 of the pseudogene, the 5{prime} end of the functional gene and 16 kb of 5{prime} flanking region and approximately 15 kb of 3{prime} flanking region of the pseudogene were sequenced. Sequence data from 48 kb of intergenic and flanking regions of the glucocerebrosidase gene and its pseudogene has been generated. A large number of Alu sequences and several simple repeats have been found. Two of these repeats exhibit fragment length polymorphism. There is almost 100% homology between the 3{prime} flanking regions of the functional gene and the pseudogene, extending to about 4 kb past the termination codons. A much lower degree of homology is observed in the 5{prime} flanking region. Patient samples are currently being screened for polymorphisms in these flanking regions.

  1. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes]. (United States)

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F


    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  2. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control. (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A


    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  3. An Innovative Wireless Endoscopic Capsule With Spherical Shape. (United States)

    Fontana, Rossella; Mulana, Francesca; Cavallotti, Carmen; Tortora, Giuseppe; Vigliar, Mario; Vatteroni, Monica; Menciassi, Arianna


    This paper aims to contribute to the advancement of the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) field for ColoRectal Cancer (CRC) screening, by developing all electronic circuits to build an innovative wireless endoscopic capsule with a spherical shape, conceived to reduce the friction during its locomotion and thus improving patient's acceptability. The proposed capsule embeds an image sensor with optics and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), a control unit with a telemetry module, an actuation system, a battery with a smart recharging circuit able to recharge in 20 minutes, a smart power-on circuit and a localization module. Everything is devised to fit in a small spherical shape with a diameter of 26 mm and a weight of 12.70 g. The authors present a description of the sub-modules involved in the capsule development, together with the firmware and hardware integration. In order to reduce the bandwidth for matching the specifications of the target commercial telemetry, the firmware interfacing of a custom encoder was performed, which is able to compress the incoming images with a negligible loss of information and occupying a number of Look Up-Tables (LUTs) less than 1780. As a preliminary work, a versatile Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based demo-board system has been developed in order to test and optimize the functionalities and the performance of the single sub-modules and wireless vision chain system. This work allows to demonstrate the feasibility of a complex biomedical system, with severe constraints by highlighting the necessity to enhance the frame rate in the future.

  4. 3D Numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics



    published in Journal of Computational Physics; International audience; Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes while inextensible capsules are in addition endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs). Boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green's function techniques are used to describe their dynamics, that falls into the category of highly nonlinear and nonlocal dynamics. Numerical solutions raise several obstacles and challenges...

  5. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in 2007: Indications, risks and limitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Capsule endoscopy has revoluzionized the study of the small bowel by providing a reliable method to evaluate,endoscopically, the entire small bowel. In the last six years several papers have been published exploring the possible role of this examination in different clinical conditions. At the present time capsule endoscopy is generally recommended as a third examination, after negative bidirectional endoscopy, in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A growing body of evidence suggests also an important role for this examination in other clinical conditions such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, small bowel polyposis syndromes or small bowel tumors. The main complication of this examination is the retention of the device at the site of a previously unknown small bowel stricture. However there are also some other open issues mainly due to technical limitations of this tool (which is not driven from remote control, is unable to take biopsies, to insufflate air, to suck fluids or debris and sometimes to correctly size and locate lesions).The recently developed double balloon enteroscope, owing to its capability to explore a large part of the small bowel and to take targeted biopsies, although being invasive and time consuming,can overcome some limitations of capsule endoscopy.At the present time, in the majority of clinical conditions (i.e. obscure GI bleeding), the winning strategy seems to be to couple these two techniques to explore the small bowel in a painless, safe and complete way (with capsule endoscopy) and to define and treat the lesions identified (with double balloon enteroscopy).

  6. Video capsule endoscopy and the hidden gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Ahmed


    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE has recently been introduced to fill the gap between examinations of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, mainly to examine the small bowel (SB for sources of obscure bleeding in addition to many other indications. VCE represents a minute endoscope, embedded in a swallowable capsule that is propelled by peristalsis and achieves the journey to the right colon in 5-8 hours. Images captured by the capsule are recorded on a hard drive attached to the patient′s belt. Many studies have recently shown that the diagnostic yield of VCE is superior to that of push enteroscopy. This mini-review contains information on the technical aspects, indications, safety and tolerance of VCE. It is well known that radiological investigations of the small bowel (SB have a limited diagnostic yield, are relatively invasive, and often lead to late discovery of diseases, especially malignancy and profuse bleeding, at a worse stage. Also, push enteroscopy is limited by the depth of the insertion of the instrument to the proximal jejunum and, in the retrograde, to the last 50-80 cm of the terminal ileum, with an ability to visualize the entire SB only in 10-70% of cases. Introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE is therefore regarded a significant advance in investigating intestinal diseases, and closes the gap in evaluating the SB, "the black box" of endoscopy(1. This mini-review describes the current indications of VCE and the prerequisites for accurate examination, and briefly discusses its tolerance and safety.

  7. Acetylene bubble-powered autonomous capsules: towards in situ fuel. (United States)

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Wang, Hong; Pumera, Martin


    A fuel-free autonomous self-propelled motor is illustrated. The motor is powered by the chemistry of calcium carbide and utilising water as a co-reactant, through a polymer encapsulation strategy. Expulsion of acetylene bubbles powers the capsule motor. This is an important step, going beyond the toxic hydrogen peroxide fuel used normally, to find alternative propellants for self-propelled machines.

  8. The development and application of wireless capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Glukhovsky, A; Jacob, H


    The introduction of the Video Capsule Endoscope (VCE) by Given Imaging Ltd. (Yoqneam, Israel) in 2001, and its subsequent approval by the FDA as a first line tool in the detection of abnormalities of the small bowel, is indicative of the rapid acceptance of capsule endoscopy by the practicing gastroenterological community. An extensive clinical trials program consistently revealed a high diagnostic yield of the VCE when compared to other diagnostic modalities of the small intestine. The capsule endoscope contains a miniature color video camera, illumination sources, lens, transmitter/controller, antenna, and a power source. It is small enough to easily swallow (11 x 26 mm), and it is propelled through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by peristalsis. Its development was enabled by a series of technological breakthroughs that occurred at the close of the 20th century. The VCE is one of the most exciting examples of the recent trend for minimally invasive autonomous medical tools in diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic applications. Expanding applications of the VCE to additional parts of the GI tract, adding physiological sensors, and--in the more remote future--addition of therapeutic capabilities will likely occur as this new branch of endoscopy develops.

  9. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules (United States)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.


    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  10. Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow. (United States)

    Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T


    Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient.

  11. Investigation of fMRI activation in the internal capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer Kimberley D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in white matter has long been considered controversial. Recently, this viewpoint has been challenged by an emerging body of evidence demonstrating white matter activation in the corpus callosum. The current study aimed to determine whether white matter activation could be detected outside of the corpus callosum, in the internal capsule. Data were acquired from a 4 T MRI using a specialized asymmetric spin echo spiral sequence. A motor task was selected to elicit activation in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Results White matter fMRI activation was examined at the individual and group levels. Analyses revealed that activation was present in the posterior limb of the internal capsule in 80% of participants. These results provide further support for white matter fMRI activation. Conclusions The ability to visualize functionally active tracts has strong implications for the basic scientific study of connectivity and the clinical assessment of white matter disease.

  12. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon


    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  13. Modeling of NIF Wetted-Foam Capsule Experiments (United States)

    Peterson, Robert; Olson, Richard; Kline, John


    Wetting of a foam with liquid DT or DD in an ICF capsule provides a mechanism of directly controlling the convergence ratio of the implosion. The density of the DD or DT vapor in the central void in the CH foam is set by the temperature of the liquid fuel, so the convergence ratio is easily adjustable. The capsule is driven by a two step laser pulse on NIF. The ablator is made of high density carbon in these experiments, but it could be beryllium. The experiments will test how well the modeling computer codes agree with experiment as the convergence ratio increases. It is possible that has the convergence ratio increases, a point will be reached were the modeling no longer agree with experiment. We wish to find this limit. In the presentation we will present computer model simulations in 1-D of the performance of NIF wetted-foam capsules, where the vapor density, the ablator type, and the choice of fuel (DD or DT) are varied.

  14. Comparison of esophageal capsule endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy for diagnosis of esophageal varices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine T Frenette; John G Kuldau; Donald J Hillebrand; Jill Lane; Paul J Pockros


    AIM: To investigate the utility of esophageal capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and grading of esophageal varices.METHODS: Cirrhotic patients who were undergo-ing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for variceal screening or surveillance underwent capsule endos-copy. Two separate blinded investigators read each capsule endoscopy for the following results: variceal grade, need for treatment with variceal banding or prophylaxis with beta-blocker therapy, degree of portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric varices.RESULTS: Fifty patients underwent both capsule and EGD. Forty-eight patients had both procedures on the same day, and 2 patients had capsule endoscopy within 72 h of EGD. The accuracy of capsule endos-copy to decide on the need for prophylaxis was 74%,with sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 82%. Inter-rater agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.56). Agree-ment between EGD and capsule endoscopy on grade of varices was 0.53 (moderate). Inter-rater reliability was good (kappa = 0.77). In diagnosis of portal hyper.tensive gastropathy, accuracy was 57%, with sensitiv-ity of 96% and specificity of 17%. Two patients had gastric varices seen on EGD, one of which was seen on capsule endoscopy. There were no complications from capsule endoscopy.CONCLUSION: We conclude that capsule endoscopy has a limited role in deciding which patients would benefit from EGD with banding or beta-blocker thera-py. More data is needed to assess accuracy for staging esophageal varices, PHG, and the detection of gastric varices.

  15. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cohen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis.

  16. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study (United States)

    Cohen, Carina; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises; Ejnisman, Benno; Faloppa, Flávio


    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:27438566

  17. Hexameric Capsules Studied by Magic Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Identifying Solvent Molecules in Pyrogallol[4]arene Capsules. (United States)

    Avram, Liat; Goldbourt, Amir; Cohen, Yoram


    Powders of pyrogallol[4]arene hexamers were produced by evaporation from organic solvents and were studied, for the first time, by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR (MAS ssNMR). Evaporation selectively removed non-encapsulated solvent molecules leaving stable hexameric capsules encapsulating solvent molecules. After exposure of the powder to solvent vapors, (1)H/(13)C heteronuclear correlation MAS ssNMR experiments were used to assign the signals of the external and encapsulated solvent molecules. The formed capsules were stable for months and the process of solvent encapsulation was reversible. According to the ssNMR experiments, the encapsulated solvent molecules occupy different sites and those sites differ in their mobility. The presented approach paves the way for studying guest exchange, guest affinity, and gas storage in hexamers of this type in the solid state.

  18. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Baten


    Full Text Available Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular.

  19. Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 serovar E gne but not galE is essential for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and virulence. (United States)

    Valiente, Esmeralda; Jiménez, Natalia; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M; Amaro, Carmen


    This work aimed to establish the role of gne (encoding UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase activity) and galE (encoding UDP-Gal-4-epimerase activity) in the biosynthesis of surface polysaccharides, as well as in the virulence for eels and humans of the zoonotic serovar of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2, serovar E. DNA sequence data revealed that gne and galE are quite homologous within this species (> or =90% homology). Mutation in gne of strain CECT4999 increased the surface hydrophobicity, produced deep alterations in the outer membrane architecture, and resulted in noticeable increases in the sensitivity to microcidal peptides (MP), to eel and human sera, and to phagocytosis/opsonophagocytosis. Furthermore, significant attenuation of virulence for eels and mice was observed. By contrast, mutation in galE did not alter the cellular surface, did not increase the sensitivity to MP, serum, or phagocytosis, and did not affect the virulence for fish and mice. The change in the attenuated-virulence phenotype produced by a mutation in gne was correlated with the loss of the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while the capsule was maintained. Complementation of a gne-deficient mutant restored the LPS structure together with the whole virulence phenotype. In conclusion, gne, but not galE, is essential for LPS biosynthesis and virulence in the zoonotic serovar of V. vulnificus biotype 2.

  20. Biosynthesis of Nitrogenase FeMoco


    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.


    Biosynthesis of nitrogenase FeMoco is a highly complex process that requires, minimally, the participation of nifS, nifU, nifB, nifE, nifN, nifV, nifH, nifD and nifK gene products. Previous genetic analyses have identified the essential factors for the assembly of FeMoco; however, the exact functions of these factors and the precise sequence of events during the assembly process had remained unclear until recently, when a number of the biosynthetic intermediates of FeMoco were identified and ...

  1. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A


    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  2. Green biosynthesis of floxuridine by immobilized microorganisms. (United States)

    Rivero, Cintia W; Britos, Claudia N; Lozano, Mario E; Sinisterra, Jose V; Trelles, Jorge A


    This work describes an efficient, simple, and green bioprocess for obtaining 5-halogenated pyrimidine nucleosides from thymidine by transglycosylation using whole cells. Biosynthesis of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (floxuridine) was achieved by free and immobilized Aeromonas salmonicida ATCC 27013 with an 80% and 65% conversion occurring in 1 h, respectively. The immobilized biocatalyst was stable for more than 4 months in storage conditions (4 °C) and could be reused at least 30 times without loss of its activity. This microorganism was able to biosynthesize 2.0 mg L(-1) min(-1) (60%) of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine in 3 h. These halogenated pyrimidine 2'-deoxynucleosides are used as antitumoral agents.

  3. Structure of capsule around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum from uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards of two species. (United States)

    Skorobrechova, Ekaterina M; Nikishin, Vladimir P; Lisitsyna, Olga I


    Micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsule forming around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum in uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards Lacerta agilis and Lacerta viridis-have been studied. Experimental infestation of the lizards by acanthocephalans obtained from naturally infested sea fishes showed that only small amount of parasites occurred in the intestine of the host was able to migrate into body cavity and to be encapsulated. Micromorphology of capsules of different ages from different species of lizards and micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsules at the age of 1.5 and 10 days appeared to be similar. In the capsule's structure cells of inflammatory rank were prevailing: mononuclear and multinuclear macrophages, eosinophils, and basophils. Fibroblasts were not numerous and were located only in the outer part of a capsule; exocellular collagen fibers were absent. Inflammatory character of capsule confirms the idea that lizards are unsuitable paratenic hosts for corynosomes.

  4. Effects of Toutongning capsule on enkephalin expression in a rat migraine headache model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Yao; Yuhong Man; Jingjing Qi; Tingmin Yu; Dihui Ma


    Toutongning capsule is used for the treatment of migraine headaches, and has yielded therapeutically beneficial effects. However, whether Toutongning capsule exerts its effects via endogenous opioid peptides remains poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of Toutongning capsule on enkephalin expression in the midbrain of rats with nitroglycerin-induced migraine headache at the mRNA and protein levels. Results confirmed that proenkephalin mRNA levels were significantly upregulated following treatment with Toutongning capsule. The numbers of methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin-positive cells were significantly greater in the migraine headache rats following treatment with Toutongning capsule compared with the model group. Taken together, these results show that Toutongning capsule exerts potentially beneficial effects by promoting enkephalin expression in nitroglycerin-induced migraine headache rats.

  5. Shuganjieyu capsule increases neurotrophic factor expression in a rat model of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Fu; Yingjin Zhang; Renrong Wu; Yingjun Zheng; Xianghui Zhang; Mei Yang; Jingping Zhao; Yong Liu


    Shuganjieyu capsule has been approved for clinical treatment by the State Food and Drug Ad-ministration of China since 2008. In the clinic, Shuganjieyu capsule is often used to treat mild to moderate depression. In the rat model of depression established in this study, Shuganjieyu capsule was administered intragastrically daily before stress. Behavioral results conifrmed that depressive symptoms lessened after treatment with high-dose (150 mg/kg) Shuganjieyu capsule. Immunohistochemistry results showed that high-dose Shuganjieyu capsule signiifcantly increased phosphorylation levels of phosphorylation cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA3 area. Overall, our results suggest that in rats, Shuganjieyu capsule effec-tively reverses depressive-like behaviors by increasing expression levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain.

  6. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule. (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C


    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  7. Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review. (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D


    Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule's performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of alginate/shellac aqueous-core capsules: Influence of membrane architecture on riboflavin release. (United States)

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Probst, Laurent; Jeandel, Carole; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Desobry, Stéphane


    To enhance physico-chemical properties of alginate liquid-core capsules, shellac was incorporated into the membrane (composite capsules) or as an additional external layer (coated capsules). The influence of pH, coating time, shellac concentration and preparation mechanism (acid or calcium precipitation) were investigated. Results showed that shellac significantly influenced the capsules properties. The feasibility of shellac incorporation was closely related to the preparation conditions as confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy. Optical, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, highlighted different capsules and membranes architectures. In contrast to simple and composite capsules, coated capsules showed a pH-dependent release of the entrapped vitamin especially after shellac crosslinking with calcium. Heating of coated capsules above the glass transition temperature investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, led to irreversible structural change due to thermoplastic behavior of shellac and enhanced riboflavin retention under acidic conditions. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism of low molecular weight molecules from macro and micro-capsules.

  9. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules. (United States)

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie


    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration.

  10. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview



    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion...

  11. Photostability of Mecobalamin in Tablet and Capsule at the Dispensing Level


    佐伯, 孝雄; 片桐, 義博; Hirano, Hidenari; 直良, 浩司


    Photostability of mecobalamin in solid dosage forms was investigated at dispensing level. Commercial products of one tablet and five capsules were used in packaged and bared conditions. The sample products were exposed to light for 20 days at 1500 lux. Assay was by high-performance liquid chromatography. The amount of mecobalamin in tablet and capsules decreased with lapse of photoirradiation time. Significant difference in the rate of photodegradation was observed between the capsule dosage ...

  12. Taenia solium: inhibition of spontaneous evagination of cysticerci by the host inflammatory capsule. (United States)

    Ostrosky, L; Correa, D; Faradji, R; Garcia, H; Flisser, A


    The effect of the host's inflammatory capsule or of physical restraint on the spontaneous evagination capacity of Taenia solium cysticerci was evaluated. Parasites obtained from infected pig muscle, in which the surrounding inflammatory capsule was not eliminated, were unable to evaginate spontaneously after 12 or 60 h of culture. This phenomenon was not abolished when the capsule was eliminated and the parasites were cultured in semi-solid agar or in liquid medium.

  13. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi genomic chimera: a model to study Vi polysaccharide capsule function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Jansen


    Full Text Available The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi(+, harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-7, which encodes the Vi locus. S. Typhimurium C5.507 Vi(+ colonised and persisted in mice at similar levels compared to the parent strain, S. Typhimurium C5. However, the innate immune response to infection with C5.507 Vi(+ and SGB1, an isogenic derivative not expressing Vi, differed markedly. Infection with C5.507 Vi(+ resulted in a significant reduction in cellular trafficking of innate immune cells, including PMN and NK cells, compared to SGB1 Vi(- infected animals. C5.507 Vi(+ infection stimulated reduced numbers of TNF-α, MIP-2 and perforin producing cells compared to SGB1 Vi(-. The modulating effect associated with Vi was not observed in MyD88(-/- and was reduced in TLR4(-/- mice. The presence of the Vi capsule also correlated with induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, a factor that impacted on chemotaxis and the activation of immune cells in vitro.

  14. Mutation at the Human D1S80 Minisatellite Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppareddi Balamurugan


    Full Text Available Little is known about the general biology of minisatellites. The purpose of this study is to examine repeat mutations from the D1S80 minisatellite locus by sequence analysis to elucidate the mutational process at this locus. This is a highly polymorphic minisatellite locus, located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 1. We have analyzed 90,000 human germline transmission events and found seven (7 mutations at this locus. The D1S80 alleles of the parentage trio, the child, mother, and the alleged father were sequenced and the origin of the mutation was determined. Using American Association of Blood Banks (AABB guidelines, we found a male mutation rate of 1.04×10-4 and a female mutation rate of 5.18×10-5 with an overall mutation rate of approximately 7.77×10-5. Also, in this study, we found that the identified mutations are in close proximity to the center of the repeat array rather than at the ends of the repeat array. Several studies have examined the mutational mechanisms of the minisatellites according to infinite allele model (IAM and the one-step stepwise mutation model (SMM. In this study, we found that this locus fits into the one-step mutation model (SMM mechanism in six out of seven instances similar to STR loci.

  15. Biomimetic/Bioinspired Design of Enzyme@capsule Nano/Microsystems. (United States)

    Shi, J; Jiang, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, D; Jiang, Z


    Enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, which refer to the enzyme-immobilized capsules, have received tremendous interest owing to the combination of the high catalytic activities of encapsulated enzymes and the hierarchical structure of the capsule. The preparation of capsules and simultaneous encapsulation of enzymes is recognized as the core process for the rational design and construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. The strategy used has three major steps: (a) generation of the templates, (b) surface coating on the templates, and (c) removal of the templates, and it has been proven to be effective and versatile for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. Several conventional methods, including layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, liquid crystalline templating method, etc., were used to design and construct enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, but these have two major drawbacks. One is the low mechanical stability of the systems and the second is the harsh conditions used in the construction process. Learning from nature, several biomimetic/bioinspired methods such as biomineralization, biomimetic/bioinspired adhesion, and their combination have been exploited for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. In this chapter, we will present a general protocol for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems using the latter approach. Some suggestions for improved design, construction, and characterization will also be presented with detailed procedures for specific examples.

  16. Learning to Diagnose Cirrhosis with Liver Capsule Guided Ultrasound Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images.

  17. Improvement in Capsule Abort Performance Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction by Fences (United States)

    Koyama, Hiroto; Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Katsunori; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The space transportation system will need advanced abort systems to secure crew against serious accidents. Here this study deals with the capsule-type space transportation systems with a Launch Abort System (LAS). This system is composed of a conic capsule as a Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) and a cylindrical rocket as a Service Module (SM), and the capsule is moved away from the rocket by supersonic aerodynamic interactions in an emergency. We propose a method to improve the performance of the LAV by installing fences at the edges of surfaces on the rocket and capsule sides. Their effects were investigated by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental results show that the fences on the rocket and capsule surfaces increase the aerodynamic thrust force on the capsule by 70% in a certain clearance between the capsule and rocket. Computational results show the detailed flow fields where the centripetal flow near the surface on the rocket side is induced by the fence on the rocket side and the centrifugal flow near the surface on the capsule side is blocked by the fence on the capsule side. These results can confirm favorable effects of the fences on the performance of the LAS.

  18. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  19. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others


    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D{sup 3}He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4–2, while D{sup 3}He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  20. Biosynthesis of 2-methylisoborneol in cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Giglio, S; Chou, W K W; Ikeda, H; Cane, D E; Monis, P T


    The production of odiferous metabolites, such as 2-methlyisoborneol (MIB), is a major concern for water utilities worldwide. Although MIB has no known biological function, the presence of the earthy/musty taste and odor attributed to this compound result in the reporting of numerous complaints by consumers, which undermines water utility performance and the safe and adequate provision of potable waters. Cyanobacteria are the major producers of MIB in natural waters, by mechanisms that have heretofore remained largely unstudied. To investigate the fundamental biological mechanism of MIB biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, the genome of a MIB-producing Pseudanabaena limnetica was sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing, and the recombinant proteins derived from the putative MIB biosynthetic genes were biochemically characterized. We demonstrate that the biosynthesis of MIB in cyanobacteria is a result of 2 key reactions: 1) a S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to 2-methyl-GPP catalyzed by geranyl diphosphate 2-methyltransferase (GPPMT) and 2) further cyclization of 2-methyl-GPP to MIB catalyzed by MIB synthase (MIBS) as part of a MIB operon. Based on a comparison of the component MIB biosynthetic genes in actinomycetes and cyanobacterial organisms, we hypothesize that there have been multiple rearrangements of the genes in this operon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Klochko


    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of antistaphylococcal antibiotic batumin under periodic conditions of Pseudomonas batumici growth has been studied. Antibiotic synthesis in fermenter occurred across the culture growth and achieved its maximal value after 50–55 hours. The active oxygen utilization by the producing strain was observed during 20–55 hours of fermentation with maximum after 40–45 hours. Antibiotic yield was 175–180 mg/l and depended on intensity of aeration. contrast to «freshly isolated» antibiotic after fermentation the long-term kept batumin has shown two identical by molecular mass peaks according to the chromato-mass spectrometric analysis. Taking into account of batumin molecule structure the conclusion has been made that the most probable isomerization type is keto-enolic tautomerism. At the same time batumin is diastereoisomer of kalimantacin A which has the same chemical structure. The optic rotation angle is [α]d25 = +56.3° for kalimantacin and [α]d25 = –13.5° for batumin. The simultaneous P. batumici growth and antibiotic biosynthesis and the ability of this molecule to optical isomerisation and keto-enolic forms formation allow us to suppose that batumin plays a certain role in metabolism of the producing strain.

  2. Plant Sterols: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and Physiological Functions. (United States)

    Valitova, J N; Sulkarnayeva, A G; Minibayeva, F V


    Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development. Furthermore, sterols participate in transmembrane signal transduction by forming lipid microdomains. The predominant sterols in plants are β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. These sterols differ in the presence of a methyl or an ethyl group in the side chain at the 24th carbon atom and are named methylsterols or ethylsterols, respectively. The balance between 24-methylsterols and 24-ethylsterols is specific for individual plant species. The present review focuses on the key stages of plant sterol biosynthesis that determine the ratios between the different types of sterols, and the crosstalk between the sterol and sphingolipid pathways. The main enzymes involved in plant sterol biosynthesis are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, C24-sterol methyltransferase, and C22-sterol desaturase. These enzymes are responsible for maintaining the optimal balance between sterols. Regulation of the ratios between the different types of sterols and sterols/sphingolipids can be of crucial importance in the responses of plants to stresses.

  3. Molecular regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in streptomyces. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chater, Keith F; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong


    Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes.

  4. Essences in Metabolic Engineering of Lignan Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo Satake


    Full Text Available Lignans are structurally and functionally diverse phytochemicals biosynthesized in diverse plant species and have received wide attentions as leading compounds of novel drugs for tumor treatment and healthy diets to reduce of the risks of lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases. However, the lineage-specific distribution and the low-amount of production in natural plants, some of which are endangered species, hinder the efficient and stable production of beneficial lignans. Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest. Recent marked advances in the molecular and functional characterization of lignan biosynthetic enzymes and endogenous and exogenous factors for lignan biosynthesis have suggested new methods for the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis cascades leading to the efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production in plants, including plant cell/organ cultures. Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted. This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

  5. Unique biosynthesis of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes). (United States)

    Sato, Tsutomu


    To the best of my knowledge, only 19 cyclic and 8 linear C35 terpenes have been identified to date, and no family name was assigned to this terpene class until recently. In 2011, it was proposed that these C35 terpenes should be called sesquarterpenes. This review highlights the biosynthesis of two kinds of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) that are produced via cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid in Bacillus and Mycobacterium species. In Bacillus species, a new type of terpene cyclase that has no sequence homology with any known terpene synthases, as well as a bifunctional terpene cyclase that biosynthesizes two classes of cyclic terpenes with different numbers of carbons as natural products, have been identified. On the other hand, in Mycobacterium species, the first bifunctional Z-prenyltransferase has been found, but a novel terpene cyclase and a unique polyprenyl reductase remain unidentified. The identification of novel enzyme types should lead to the discovery of many homologous enzymes and their products including novel natural compounds. On the other hand, many enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products have low substrate specificities in vitro. Therefore, to find novel natural products present in organisms, the multifunctionality of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of natural products should be analyzed.


    Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.


    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives can modulate aspects of fruit ripening, production of viable pollen, root growth, tendril coiling, and plant resistance to insects and pathogens. Jasmonate activates genes involved in pathogen and insect resistance, and genes encoding vegetative storage proteins, but represses genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis. Jasmonic acid is derived from linolenic acid, and most of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway have been extensively characterized. Modulation of lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase gene expression in transgenic plants raises new questions about the compartmentation of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The activation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis by cell wall elicitors, the peptide systemin, and other compounds will be related to the function of jasmonates in plants. Jasmonate modulates gene expression at the level of translation, RNA processing, and transcription. Promoter elements that mediate responses to jasmonate have been isolated. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of how jasmonate biosynthesis is regulated and relates this information to knowledge of jasmonate modulated gene expression.

  7. Biosynthesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone. (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Li, Weiqing; Ruvkun, Gary; Clardy, Jon; Mak, Ho Yi


    To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant is the only known mutant defective in dauer pheromone production. Here, we show that daf-22 encodes a homolog of human sterol carrier protein SCPx, which catalyzes the final step in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. We also show that dhs-28, which encodes a homolog of the human d-bifunctional protein that acts just upstream of SCPx, is also required for pheromone production. Long-term daf-22 and dhs-28 cultures develop dauer-inducing activity by accumulating less active, long-chain fatty acid ascaroside derivatives. Thus, daf-22 and dhs-28 are required for the biosynthesis of the short-chain fatty acid-derived side chains of the dauer pheromone and link dauer pheromone production to metabolic state.

  8. Phytochrome-mediated Carotenoids Biosynthesis in Ripening Tomatoes. (United States)

    Thomas, R L; Jen, J J


    Red light induced and far red light inhibited carotenoid biosynthesis in ripening tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) when compared to controls kept in the dark. Red illumination following far red illumination reversed the inhibitory action of far red light on carotenoid biosynthesis, suggesting a phytochrome-mediated process. Quantitation of individual carotenoids favored the hypothesis of two separate carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in tomatoes.

  9. Inadvertent Trypan Blue Staining of Posterior Capsule during Cataract Surgery Associated with “Argentinian Flag” Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Prinzi


    Full Text Available Trypan blue is common in visualizing the anterior capsule during cataract surgery. Inadvertent staining of the posterior capsule during phacoemulsification is a rare complication and there are few reports in the literature. The proposed mechanism of posterior capsule staining in previous reports includes a compromised zonular apparatus or iris retractors facilitating the posterior flow of trypan blue. We report the first case of trypan blue staining of the posterior capsule associated with the “Argentinian flag” sign. In our case, the “Argentinian flag” allowed the trypan blue to seep between the posterior capsule and the lens, staining the anterior surface of the posterior capsule.

  10. 3D numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics (United States)

    Farutin, Alexander; Biben, Thierry; Misbah, Chaouqi


    Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes, capsules are endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs), but are extensible, while RBCs are inextensible. We use boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green function techniques to model and solve numerically their dynamics. We regularize the single layer integral by subtraction of exact identities for the terms involving the normal and the tangential components of the force. The stability and precision of BI calculation is enhanced by taking advantage of additional quadrature nodes located in vertices of an auxiliary mesh, constructed by a standard refinement procedure from the main mesh. We extend the partition of unity technique to boundary integral calculation on triangular meshes. The proposed algorithm offers the same treatment of near-singular integration regardless whether the source and the target points belong to the same surface or not. Bending forces are calculated by using expressions derived from differential geometry. Membrane incompressibility is handled by using two penalization parameters per suspended entity: one for deviation of the global area from prescribed value and another for the sum of squares of local strains defined on each vertex. Extensible or inextensible capsules, a model of RBC, are studied by storing the position in the reference configuration for each vertex. The elastic force is then calculated by direct variation of the elastic energy. Various nonequilibrium physical examples on vesicles and capsules will be presented and the convergence and precision tests highlighted. Overall, a good convergence is observed with numerical error inversely proportional to the number of vertices used for surface discretization, the highest order of convergence allowed by piece-wise linear interpolation of the surface.

  11. Desire for control, locus of control, and proneness to depression. (United States)

    Burger, J M


    Two personality constructs, desire for control and locus of control, were related to depression among college students. Measures of levels of depression, desire for control, and locus of control were taken from subjects. Approximately six months later 71% of these subjects returned a questionnaire concerning their experiences with depression during that six-month period. It was found that locus of control scores, particularly the extent to which subjects perceived that their lives were controlled by chance, were significantly related to the depression levels. It was also found that high desire for control subjects who held external perceptions of control were most likely to seek nonprofessional help for depression. In addition, high desire for control subjects who perceived their lives as generally controlled by chance were most likely to have suicidal thoughts. The results are interpreted in terms of a general style that may promote a proneness to depression for certain individuals.

  12. Capsule collection for women's plus-size clothing brand


    Vähäkangas, Oona


    The objective of the thesis was to design a capsule collection for women’s plus-size clothing brand called annascholz Ltd. The thesis was based on a design studio internship period that was carried out by the author at the company during summer 2016 and knowledge gained during that time. The thesis consisted of two parts: the first part was the research part and the second the practice-based design part. In the research part more information was gained of the target group by reading studie...

  13. Factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitchell; M; Lee; Andrew; Jacques; Eric; Lam; Ricky; Kwok; Pardis; Lakzadeh; Ajit; Sandhar; Brandon; Segal; Sigrid; Svarta; Joanna; Law; Robert; Enns


    AIM:To identify patient risk factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy(CE) studies.METHODS:Data from all CE procedures performed at St.Paul's Hospital in Vancouver,British Columbia,Canada,between December 2001 and June 2008 were collected and analyzed on a retrospective basis.Data collection for complete and incomplete CE study groups included patient demographics as well as a number of potential risk factors for incomplete CE including indication for the procedure,hospitalization,dia...

  14. Design of on-demand wireless capsule endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Eric W Able; Peng Chenglin


    An on-demand wireless capsule endoscope with full-digital and bidirectional communication is presented,aiming at fulfilling the requirements of micromation and micropower consumption of modern wireless endoscope.The proposed multifunctional operation and unique radio transmission system cuts down the power consumption efficiently and on-demand bidirectional communication in vitro improves the detection rate of focus.Meanwhile,gray dilatation is introduced in a bit plane that optimizes the distortion rate in the process of image recording and transmission.

  15. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by Xinfeng capsule: an efficacy observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To observe the curative effect of Xinfeng Capsule(XC)in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA).Methods Recruited were 80 active RA patients,who were randomly assigned to the normal control group and the treatment group,40 in each group.All patients received the same routine anti-rheumatic treatment:Methotrexate 10 mg per week;Diclofenac 50 mg when painwas obvious,twice daily.Patients in the treatment group took XC 3 tablets each time,thrice daily.All treatment lasted for 12

  16. Effectiveness of Qiangjijianli capsule on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunmin Li; Bo Fu; Yuyan Li; DongYang; Shudong Yang


    BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis(EAMG) and anti-AchR antibody of human myasthenia gravis are the same immune globulin.This antibody restricts the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the amount of receptor binding sites is decreased,so myasthenia gravis occurs.OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect and mechanism of action of Qiangjijianli capsule on EAMG rats.DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Acetylcholine receptors(AchR)were extracted from electric skate's electric organ which lives in the sea near Guangzhou.It had high biological activity and the protein content was 1.63 g/L.Qiangjijianli capsule (Astragalus mongholicus,Codonopsis pilosula,Atractylodes macrocephala,Angelica sinensis,Bupleurum chinense,Cairo morningglory root or leaf,Glycyrrhixa uralensis,etc.0.5 g crude drug per capsule) was bought from the Manufacturing Laboratory of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine with the Batch No.89-11-1.METHODS:This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May to August 1990.①Adult female SD rats were immunized with AchR.The animals' movement condition was observed and recorded everyday. Ten rats were chosen as normal control group.and they were not given any treatment and raised normally.After modeled,20 successful rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups:treatmental group and model group. 2 mL Qiangjijianli capsule suspension(1 g)was intragastrically administrated into each rat of treatmental group for 30 days; The same amount of clean water was intragastrically administrated into the rats of model group for 30 days.(2)Serum AchR antibody was measured with ABC-ELISA method. After administration,the rats were sacrificed.The complete diaphragmatic muscle was extracted for in vitro receptor binding test

  17. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history. (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G


    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait.

  18. Analysis of lomustine drug content in FDA-approved and compounded lomustine capsules. (United States)

    KuKanich, Butch; Warner, Matt; Hahn, Kevin


    OBJECTIVE To determine the lomustine content (potency) in compounded and FDA-approved lomustine capsules. DESIGN Evaluation study. SAMPLE 2 formulations of lomustine capsules (low dose [7 to 11 mg] and high dose [40 to 48 mg]; 5 capsules/dose/source) from 3 compounders and from 1 manufacturer of FDA-approved capsules. PROCEDURES Lomustine content was measured by use of a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. An a priori acceptable range of 90% to 110% of the stated lomustine content was selected on the basis of US Pharmacopeia guidelines. RESULTS The measured amount of lomustine in all compounded capsules was less than the stated content (range, 59% to 95%) and was frequently outside the acceptable range (failure rate, 2/5 to 5/5). Coefficients of variation for lomustine content ranged from 4.1% to 16.7% for compounded low-dose capsules and from 1.1% to 10.8% for compounded high-dose capsules. The measured amount of lomustine in all FDA-approved capsules was slightly above the stated content (range, 104% to 110%) and consistently within the acceptable range. Coefficients of variation for lomustine content were 0.5% for low-dose and 2.3% for high-dose FDA-approved capsules. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compounded lomustine frequently did not contain the stated content of active drug and had a wider range of lomustine content variability than did the FDA-approved product. The sample size was small, and larger studies are needed to confirm these findings; however, we recommend that compounded veterinary formulations of lomustine not be used when appropriate doses can be achieved with FDA-approved capsules or combinations of FDA-approved capsules.

  19. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coline eGoriaux


    Full Text Available The discovery of transposable elements (TEs in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flam an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

  20. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Goriaux, Coline; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal


    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

  1. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Rezazaeh Hamed


    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine sponge extract Haliclona was carried out. Marine sponges' extracts are responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate solution. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using fresh and dry marine sponge. Experimental factors including, time duration, pH, temperature were optimized. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The sizes of synthesis silver nanoparticles were 27-46 nm and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD crystallography indicated the silver nanoparticles crystalline nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was revealed the functional groups of extract of Haliclona, which are capable of reduction of silver nanoparticles. This method is a cost-effective, eco-friendly and nontoxic procedure..

  2. Biosynthesis of Nitrogenase FeMoco. (United States)

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W


    Biosynthesis of nitrogenase FeMoco is a highly complex process that requires, minimally, the participation of nifS, nifU, nifB, nifE, nifN, nifV, nifH, nifD and nifK gene products. Previous genetic analyses have identified the essential factors for the assembly of FeMoco; however, the exact functions of these factors and the precise sequence of events during the assembly process had remained unclear until recently, when a number of the biosynthetic intermediates of FeMoco were identified and characterized by combined biochemical, spectroscopic and structural analyses. This review gives a brief account of the recent progress toward understanding the assembly process of FeMoco, which has identified some important missing pieces of this biosynthetic puzzle.

  3. Biosynthesis and function of plant lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, W.W.; Mudd, J.B.; Gibbs, M. (eds.)


    The Sixth Annual Symposium in Botany and Plant Physiology was held January 13-15, 1983, at the University of California, Riverside. This volume comprises the papers that were presented. Subjects discussed at the symposium covered a wide range in the field of plant lipids. Biosynthesis of lipids occupied an important fraction of the presentations at the symposium. Subjects included detailed studies of the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, several discussions of the incorporation of fatty acids into glycerolipids and the further modification of the fatty acids, and the synthesis of glycerolipids and desaturation of fatty acids in both maturing oilseeds and chloroplasts. The physicochemical studies of glycerolipids and sterols in artificial membranes have led to distinct conclusions about their behaviour which must be relevant in the biological membrane. Results on the functional consequences of modifying the galactolipid composition in the chloroplast were an encouraging sign of progress in the attempts to relate membrane lipid composition to physiological function.

  4. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. Płaza


    Full Text Available Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance.

  5. OMOM capsule endoscopy in diagnosis of small bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-yi LI; Bing-ling ZHANG; Chun-xiao CHEN; You-ming LI


    Objective: To assess the diagnostic efficiency of OMOM capsule endoscopy (CE) in a group of patients with different indications. Methods: Data from 89 consecutive patients (49 males, 40 females) with suspected small bowel disease who under-went OMOM CE (Jinshan Science and Technology Company, Chongqing, China) examination were obtained by retrospective review. The patients' indications of the disease consisted of the following: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), abdominal pain or diarrhea, partial intestinal obstruction, suspected inflammatory bowel disease, tumor of unknown origin, hypoproteinemia, constipation, weight loss, and elevated tumor markers. Results: CE failed in one patient. Visualization of the entire small bowel was achieved in 75.0%. Capsules were naturally excreted by all patients. The detection rate of abnormalities was 70.5% for pa-tients with suspected small bowel disease, and the diagnostic yield for patients with OGIB was higher than that for patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (85.7% vs 53.3%, P<0.005). Angiodysplasia was the most common small bowel finding. Active bleeding sites were noted in the small intestine in 11 cases. Conclusion: OMOM CE is a useful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of variably suspected small bowel disease, whose diagnostic efficiency is similar to that of the Pillcam SB (small bowel) CE (Given Imaging, Yoqneam, Israel).

  6. Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering (United States)

    Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.


    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  7. [Human joint capsule in osteoarthrosis (morpholocical changes) (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Dettmer, N; Barz, B


    Morphological investigations of the joint capsules in osteoarthrotic-changed joints have given rise to doubts about the present theory of the causal aetiology of the osteoarthrosis. In every inspected and demonstrated illustration beside the partly normal capsules segments could be found every transition between mild regressive alterations and most massive proliferative changes of the conective tissue and the lining cell layer. It was extraordinary, that the strongly dilated vessels were filled with red blood cells. In another part of the same case was found a massive stricture caused by concentrically deposited substances, which were impregnated with collagenous fibers. Regeneration of the vessels frequently happened adjacent totally obstructed ones. Round-cell infiltrations, granulocytes or other indications of an inflammatory synovitis are found only in a few cases. The intracartilaginous enzymatic reactions, which have been much talked of and which were explained as characteristic of the osteoarthrosis cannot be the cause of the degradation of the cartilage, particularly, because of the normal cell count which is to be found in the synovial fluid. We can answer this problem, if we can prove that the substrates of the chondral metabolism themselves exert a direct or indirect influence on the interstitial connective tissue with induction of the powerful proliferation of the same tissue. The changes in the transit zone would be secondary and their effect on the lining cell layer would increase the progression of the arthrotic events.

  8. Theoretical study of symmetry of flux onto a capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hao; Wu, Changshu; Zou, Shiyang, E-mail: [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Pei, Wenbing [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Shanghai 201800 (China)


    An analytic model to describe the flux asymmetry onto a capsule based on the viewfactor approximation is developed and verified with numerical simulations. By using a nested spheres technique to represent the various sources of flux asymmetry, the model can treat spherically and cylindrically symmetric hohlraums, e.g., cylinder, elliptic, and rugby. This approach includes the more realistic case of frequency-dependent flux asymmetry compared with the more standard frequency-integrated or single-frequency approaches [D. W. Phillion and S. M. Pollaine, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2963 (1994)]. Correspondingly, the approach can be used to assess x-ray preheat asymmetry generated from localized laser absorption in the high-Z hohlraum wall. For spherical hohlraums with 4, 6, or 8 laser entrance holes (LEHs), an optimal configuration of LEHs, laser spot placement, and angle-of-incidence of the single-ringed laser beams is defined. An analogy between minimizing the flux asymmetry onto a capsule and the Thomson problem of point charge placement on a sphere for minimized energy is shown.

  9. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana


    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  10. Light-Responsive Polymer Micro- and Nano-Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marturano


    Full Text Available A significant amount of academic and industrial research efforts are devoted to the encapsulation of active substances within micro- or nanocarriers. The ultimate goal of core–shell systems is the protection of the encapsulated substance from the environment, and its controlled and targeted release. This can be accomplished by employing “stimuli-responsive” materials as constituents of the capsule shell. Among a wide range of factors that induce the release of the core material, we focus herein on the light stimulus. In polymers, this feature can be achieved introducing a photo-sensitive segment, whose activation leads to either rupture or modification of the diffusive properties of the capsule shell, allowing the delivery of the encapsulated material. Micro- and nano-encapsulation techniques are constantly spreading towards wider application fields, and many different active molecules have been encapsulated, such as additives for food-packaging, pesticides, dyes, pharmaceutics, fragrances and flavors or cosmetics. Herein, a review on the latest and most challenging polymer-based micro- and nano-sized hollow carriers exhibiting a light-responsive release behavior is presented. A special focus is put on systems activated by wavelengths less harmful for living organisms (mainly in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared range, as well as on different preparation techniques, namely liposomes, self-assembly, layer-by-layer, and interfacial polymerization.

  11. Five years' experience with capsule endoscopy in a single Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taylan Kav; Yusuf Bayraktar


    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a novel technology that facilitates highly effective and noninvasive imaging of the small bowel. Although its efficacy in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been proven in several trials, data on uses of CE in different small bowel diseases are rapidly accumulating in the literature, and it has been found to be superior to alternative diagnostic tools in a range of such diseases.Based on literature evidence, CE is recommended as a first-line investigation for OGIB after negative bidirectional endoscopy. CE has gained an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of Crohn's disease and celiac disease and in the surveillance of small bowel tumors and polyps in selected patients. Capsule retention is the major complication, with a frequency of 1%-2%. The purpose of this review was to discuss the procedure, indications, contraindications and adverse effects associated with CE. We also review and share our five-year experience with CE in various small bowel diseases. The recently developed balloon-assisted enteroscopies have both diagnostic and therapeutic capability. At the present time, CE and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are complementary techniques in the diagnosis and management of small bowel diseases.

  12. What the Research Tells Us: Class Size Reduction. Information Capsule. Volume 1001 (United States)

    Romanik, Dale


    This Information Capsule examines the background and history in addition to research findings pertaining to class size reduction (CSR). This Capsule concludes that although educational researchers have not definitively agreed upon the effectiveness of CSR, given its almost universal public appeal, there is little doubt it is here to stay in some…

  13. The capsule's contribution to total hip construct stability--a finite element analysis. (United States)

    Elkins, Jacob M; Stroud, Nicholas J; Rudert, M James; Tochigi, Yuki; Pedersen, Douglas R; Ellis, Benjamin J; Callaghan, John J; Weiss, Jeffrey A; Brown, Thomas D


    Instability is a significant concern in total hip arthroplasty (THA), particularly when there is structural compromise of the capsule due to pre-existing pathology or due to necessities of surgical approach. An experimentally grounded fiber-direction-based finite element model of the hip capsule was developed, and was integrated with an established three-dimensional model of impingement/dislocation. Model validity was established by close similarity to results from a cadaveric experiment in a servohydraulic hip simulator. Parametric computational runs explored effects of graded levels of capsule thickness, of regional detachment from the capsule's femoral or acetabular insertions, of surgical incisions of capsule substance, and of capsule defect repairs. Depending strongly upon the specific site, localized capsule defects caused varying degrees of construct stability compromise, with several specific situations involving over 60% decrement in dislocation resistance. Construct stability was returned substantially toward intact-capsule levels following well-conceived repairs, although the suture sites involved were often at substantial risk of failure. These parametric model results underscore the importance of retaining or robustly repairing capsular structures in THA, in order to maximize overall construct stability. 

  14. Improved Water Barrier Properties of Calcium Alginate Capsules Modified by Silicone Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Zukas


    Full Text Available Calcium alginate films generally offer poor diffusion resistance to water. In this study, we present a technique for encapsulating aqueous drops in a modified calcium alginate membrane made from an emulsion of silicone oil and aqueous alginate solution and explore its effect on the loss of water from the capsule cores. The capsule membrane storage modulus increases as the initial concentration of oil in the emulsion is increased. The water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules were determined by observing the mass loss of capsules in a controlled environment. It was found that capsules made with emulsions containing 50 wt% silicone oil were robust while taking at least twice the time to dry completely as compared to capsules made from only an aqueous alginate solution. The size of the oil droplets in the emulsion also has an effect on the water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules. This study demonstrates a facile method of producing aqueous core alginate capsules with a modified membrane that improves the diffusion resistance to water and can have a wide range of applications.

  15. Summary of the irradiation history of the TRIST-ER1 capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Eatherly, W.S.; Heatherly, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The TRIST-ERI capsule was assembled and irradiated in a large Removable Beryllium (RB{star}) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) during this reporting period. Irradiation began on March 8, 1996, was completed on June 20, 1996, during operating cycles 344, 345, and 346. This report describes the thermal operation of the capsule.

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression is necessary for colonization of large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre-Bonte, S.; Licht, Tine Rask; Forestier, C.;


    The role of the Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (K antigen) during colonization of the mouse large intestine was assessed with mild-type K. pneumoniae LM21 and its isogenic capsule-defective mutant. When bacterial strains were fed alone to mice, the capsulated bacteria persisted....... pneumoniae....

  17. A novel capsule-based selfrecovery system with a chloride ion trigger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, W.; Tang, J.; Zhu, G.; Han, N.; Schlangen, E.; Dong, B.; Wang, X.; Xing, F.


    Steel is prone to corrosion induced by chloride ions, which is a serious threat to reinforced concrete structures, especially in marine environments. In this work, we report a novel capsule-based selfrecovery system that utilizes chloride ions as a trigger. These capsules, which are functionalized v

  18. TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan as appliance for the preparation of hard capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yuying; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Xianwu; Li, Zusen; Liu, Bin; Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan


    TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) was developed as new material for preparing vegetarian hard capsules. OKGM of different degrees of oxidation: DO30%, DO50%, and DO80% were prepared to select optimum DO for capsule formation. FT-IR results proved that the primary alcohol groups on KGM were

  19. The association of matrix Gla protein isomers with calcification in capsules surrounding silicone breast implants. (United States)

    Hunter, Larry W; Lieske, John C; Tran, Nho V; Miller, Virginia M


    Implanted silicone medical prostheses induce a dynamic sequence of histologic events in adjacent tissue resulting in the formation of a fibrotic peri-prosthetic capsule. In some cases, capsular calcification occurs, requiring surgical intervention. In this study we investigated capsules from silicone gel-filled breast prostheses to test the hypothesis that this calcification might be regulated by the small vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix Gla protein (MGP), a potent inhibitor of arterial calcification, or by Fetuin-A, a hepatocyte-derived glycoprotein also implicated as a regulator of pathologic calcification. Immunolocalization studies of explanted capsular tissue, using conformation-specific antibodies, identified the mineralization-protective γ-carboxylated MGP isomer (cMGP) within cells of uncalcified capsules, whereas the non-functional undercarboxylated isomer (uMGP) was typically absent. Both were upregulated in calcific capsules and co-localized with mineral plaque and adjacent fibers. Synovial-like metaplasia was present in one uncalcified capsule in which MGP species were differentially localized within the pseudosynovium. Fetuin-A was localized to cells within uncalcified capsules and to mineral deposits within calcific capsules. The osteoinductive cytokine bone morphogenic protein-2 localized to collagen fibers in uncalcified capsules. These findings demonstrate that MGP, in its vitamin K-activated conformer, may represent a pharmacological target to sustain the health of the peri-prosthetic tissue which encapsulates silicone breast implants as well as other implanted silicone medical devices.

  20. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water. (United States)

    Nussinovitch, A; Dagan, O


    Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan-alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb(2+)/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules' ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations - copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) - was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation's affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1M nitric acid suspension for 24h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  1. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a...

  2. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso


    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  3. Calculation of Temperature Distribution in Capsule for Neutron Exposure of the Cold Moderator Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ro Du Min


    Methods and results of the numerical calculation of temperature distribution in the spherical segmented small capsule filled with heat-generating substance are presented. Variable finite-difference method allowed one to evaluate a small drop of temperature near the boundary between the filling substance and the thermocouple installed inside the capsule, which originates from the difference in thermal conductivity.

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of alginate-PLL capsules with varying compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogmoed, CG; Busscher, HJ; de Vos, P


    Microencapsulation of cells is a promising approach to prevention of rejection in the absence of immunosuppression. Clinical application, however, is hampered by insufficient insight into the factors that influence the biocompatibility of the capsules. Capsules prepared of alginates with a high gulu

  5. Biocompatibility and surface structure of chemically modified immunoisolating alginate-PLL capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, CM; Gerlach, C; Freier, T; Schmitz, KP; Pilz, M; Werner, C; Jonas, L; Schareck, W; Hopt, UT; de Vos, P


    Grafting of encapsulated living cells has the potential to cure a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules. A major factor in the biocompatibility of capsules is inadequate covering of the inflammatory p

  6. Visual quality inspection of capsule heads utilizing shape and gray information (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Tie; Cai, Zhenlin; Jiang, Nan; Wu, Jiamei; Zhang, Xiangde


    Capsule quality inspection is important and necessary in the pharmaceutical industry. The popular methods often mis-detect capsule head defects. To solve this problem, we propose a high-quality visual defect inspection method for capsule heads. In detail, first, capsule head images are captured by high-speed cameras with ring illuminators. Then, radial symmetry transform (RST) is employed to locate region of interest (ROI). Next, the ROI image is enhanced by homomorphic filter and binarized by basic global thresholding. After that, six discriminative features of ROI are extracted, which are skeleton feature, binary density, number of connected boundaries, RST power, mean, and variance. Finally, these features are classified by support vector machine to inspect the quality of the capsule head. The experiment is carried out on a self-established capsule image database, Northeastern University Capsule Image Database Version 1.0. According to our experiment, the proposed method can detect ROI correctly for all of the capsule head images and inspection accuracy achieves a true positive rate of 100.00% and true negative rate of 100.00%.

  7. Vascular dysfunction induced in offspring by maternal dietary fat involves altered arterial polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Kelsall

    Full Text Available Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w or 21%(w/w fat enriched in either 18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altered acetylcholine (ACh-mediated vaso-relaxation in offspring aortae and mesenteric arteries, contingent on sex. Amount, but not type, of maternal dietary fat altered phenylephrine (Pe-induced vasoconstriction in these arteries. Maternal 21% fat diet decreased 20:4n-6 concentration in offspring aortae. We investigated the role of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases, showing that their inhibition in aortae and mesenteric arteries reduced vasoconstriction, but not vaso-relaxation, and the synthesis of specific pro-constriction eicosanoids. Removal of the aortic endothelium did not alter the effect of inhibition of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases on Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Thus arterial smooth muscle 20:4n-6 biosynthesis de novo appears to be important for Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Next we studied genes encoding these desaturases, finding that maternal 21% fat reduced Fads2 mRNA expression and increased Fads1 in offspring aortae, indicating dysregulation of 20:4n-6 biosynthesis. Methylation at CpG -394 bp 5' to the Fads2 transcription start site predicted its expression. This locus was hypermethylated in offspring of dams fed 21% fat. Pe treatment of aortae for 10 minutes increased Fads2, but not Fads1, mRNA expression (76%; P<0.05. This suggests that Fads2 may be an immediate early gene in the response of aortae to Pe. Thus both amount and type of maternal dietary fat induce altered regulation of vascular tone in offspring though differential effects on vaso-relaxation, and

  8. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals (United States)

    Peek, Ron


    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  9. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance. (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  10. Locus of Control and Human Capital Investment Revisited (United States)

    Cebi, Merve


    This paper examines the effect of teenagers' outlooks--specified as their locus of control--on educational attainment and labor market outcomes. I replicate the study of Coleman and DeLeire (2003) and test the predictions of their theoretical model using a different data set--National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The findings fail to…

  11. Determination of the yield locus by means of temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banabic, D.; Huetink, J.


    The paper presents a theoretical background of the thermo-graphical method of determining the yield locus. The analytical expression of the temperature variation of the specimen deformed in the elastic state is determined starting from the first law of thermodynamics. The experimental method for det

  12. Analysis of the ABCA4 genomic locus in Stargardt disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zernant, Jana; Xie, Yajing Angela; Ayuso, Carmen


    was designed to find the missing disease-causing ABCA4 variation by a combination of next-generation sequencing (NGS), array-Comparative Genome Hybridization (aCGH) screening, familial segregation and in silico analyses. The entire 140 kb ABCA4 genomic locus was sequenced in 114 STGD patients with one known...

  13. Locus of Control and Its Reflection in Teachers' Professional Attributions. (United States)

    Kremer, Lya; Lifmann, Margot


    Investigated possible reflections of teachers' locus of control in their professional attributions in educational situations. Findings based on a random sample of 190 elementary school teachers point to significant differences between high and low scores on the I.E. Scale (Rotter, 1966) in attribution of responsibility in several educational…

  14. Relationships among Impulsiveness, Locus of Control, Sex, and Music Practice (United States)

    Miksza, Peter


    This study is an investigation of relationships among impulsiveness, locus of control, sex, observed practice behaviors, practice effectiveness, and self-reported practice habits in a sample of 40 college brass players. Practice effectiveness was defined by the amount of change in pretest and posttest performance achievement scores over one…

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Work Locus of Control Scale (United States)

    Oliver, Joseph E.; Jose, Paul E.; Brough, Paula


    Original formulations of the Work Locus of Control Scale (WLCS) proposed a unidimensional structure of this measure; however, more recently, evidence for a two-dimensional structure has been reported, with separate subscales for internal and external loci of control. The current study evaluates the one- and two-factor models with confirmatory…

  16. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinetti Isabella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi depend on locus heterozygosity (H, and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals.

  17. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension? (United States)

    Nuthall, Peter L.


    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  18. Thought Recognition, Locus of Control, and Adolescent Well-Being. (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M.; Stack, Steven A.


    Reviews the underlying assumptions and principles of a new psychological paradigm, Psychology of Mind/Health Realization (POM/HR). Thought recognition is compared with locus of control (LOC). The relationship of LOC to self-reported happiness and satisfaction is examined from the perspective of POM/HR, using a sample of at-risk adolescents…

  19. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mouse visible specific locus test. 798.5200 Section 798.5200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...)F1 or (101×C3H)F1 hybrids. Females shall be T stock virgins. (ii) Age. Healthy sexually...

  20. Design and statistical optimization of osmotically driven capsule based on push-pull technology. (United States)

    Shaikh, Wasim; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Patil, Ganesh B; Chatap, Vivekanand K; Bari, Sanjay B


    In present investigation attempt was made to develop and statistically optimize osmotically active capsule tailor made from the concept of bilayer (push-pull) osmotic tablet technology. The capsule was comprised of active (drug) and push (osmogen) layer. Active layer was compressed in form of tablet by mixing known amount of drug and formulation excipients. Similarly push layer was made by compressing Mannitol with formulation excipients. Finally, both layers were packed in hard gelatin capsule having small aperture at top and coated with semipermeable membrane to form osmotically active capsule. Formulated and optimized capsules were characterized for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, In-vitro drug release study and Release models and kinetics. Statistically optimized formulation showed good correlation between predicted and experimented results, which further confirms the practicability and validity of the model.

  1. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.


    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  2. Development of capsule design support subprograms for 3-dimensional temperature calculation using FEM Code NISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, Masahiro; Matsui, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment


    Prediction of irradiation temperature is one of the important issues in the design of the capsule for irradiation test. Many kinds of capsules with complex structure have been designed for recent irradiation requests, and three-dimensional (3D) temperature calculation becomes inevitable for the evaluation of irradiation temperature. For such 3D calculation, however, many works are usually needed for input data preparation, and a lot of time and resources are necessary for parametric studies in the design. To improve such situation, JAERI introduced 3D-FEM (finite element method) code NISA (Numerically Integrated elements for System Analysis) and developed several subprograms, which enabled to support input preparation works in the capsule design. The 3D temperature calculation of the capsule are able to carried out in much easier way by the help of the subprograms, and specific features in the irradiation tests such as non-uniform gamma heating in the capsule, becomes to be considered. (author)

  3. Design modification and stress analysis of bottom structure for the instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. H.; Kang, Y. H.; Joo, K. N.; Oh, J. M.; Joe, M. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Jeo, Y. G. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The bottom structure of the instrumented capsule, which is used for the irradiation test in the HANARO incore, plays an important role to support the capsule main structure within the hexagonal flow tube. This paper is described the design modification and stress analysis results to obtain the structural integrity of bottom structure for the instrumented capsule. The capsule's bottom guide structure consisted of three guide pins before, but it is modified as one block structure to obtain an efficient flow of coolant water and a stabilized shape structurally. The structural integrity of the bottom structure is estimated by the stress calculation of components such as welding parts, bolts and neck parts of the rod tip due to the force applied by handling tool. The tensile and shear stresses are calculated by using a mechanical formulas, and a finite element model development is planned to be performed for more complex assembly of the capsule bottom structure.

  4. Genetic variations in genes involved in heparan sulphate biosynthesis are associated with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: a familial study in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Alexandre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is accumulating evidence that host heparan sulphate proteoglycans play an important role in the life cycle of Plasmodium through their heparan sulphate chains, suggesting that genetic variations in genes involved in heparan sulphate biosynthesis may influence parasitaemia. Interestingly, Hs3st3a1 and Hs3st3b1 encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of heparan sulphate are located within a chromosomal region linked to Plasmodium chabaudi parasitaemia in mice. This suggests that HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 may influence P. falciparum parasitaemia in humans. Methods Polymorphisms within HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 were identified in 270 individuals belonging to 44 pedigrees and living in Burkina Faso. Linkage and association between parasitaemia and the polymorphisms were assessed with MERLIN and FBAT. A genetic interaction analysis was also conducted based on the PGMDR approach. Results Linkage between P. falciparum parasitaemia and the chromosomal region containing HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 was detected on the basis of the 20 SNPs identified. In addition, rs28470223 located within the promoter of HS3ST3A1 was associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia, whereas the PGMDR analysis revealed a genetic interaction between HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1. Seventy-three significant multi-locus models were identified after correcting for multiple tests; 37 significant multi-locus models included rs28470223, whereas 38 multi-locus models contained at least one mis-sense mutation within HS3ST3B1. Conclusion Genetic variants of HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 are associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia. This suggests that those variants alter both the function of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and P. falciparum parasitaemia.

  5. [Drug compliance and health locus of control in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Combes, C; Feral, F


    Schizophrenia is a frequent disorder since it affects about 1% of the general population. Drug compliance, that is to say patients' adherence to their treatment, remains rather poor concerning this disease with, on an average, one patient out of two not complying with his/her medication. Among the factors influencing drug compliance, we focused on patients' beliefs in terms of health control, a concept known as health locus of control. This is a concept that originated from social psychology and derived from the Rotters' original concept of locus of control: it corresponds to the type of connexion established by an individual between subsequent events in the history of his/her disease and internal (personal abilities) or external factors (chance, powerful others). Nowadays, the tridimensional structure of this concept is commonly admitted as being in three dimensions: internality, chance externality and powerful others externality, the latter group being divided between doctors and others. We have assumed that there is a correlation between the degree of drug compliance and the internal and/or doctors' external health locus of control. For this purpose, we have determined the quality of drug compliance by using the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and the type of health locus of control by using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale among 65 schizophrenic patients. We have also considered it was important to evaluate patients' insight by using the Amador's scale (Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder) because many researchers have established a strong correlation between insight and drug compliance in schizophrenia. Associations between the four dimensions of health locus of control ("internal", "chance external", "others external" and "doctors' external") and drug compliance were assessed by estimating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) and its degree of significance (p). These associations were judged significant at an alpha

  6. Formulation parameters affecting the performance of coated gelatin capsules with pulsatile release profiles. (United States)

    Bussemer, T; Bodmeier, R


    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a rupturable pulsatile drug delivery system based on soft gelatin capsules with or without a swelling layer and an external water-insoluble but -permeable polymer coating, which released the drug after a lag time (rupturing of the external polymer coating). The swelling of the gelatin capsule itself was insufficient to rupture the external polymer coating, an additional swelling layer was applied between the capsule and the polymer coating. Croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol) was more effective as a swelling agent than low and high molecular weight hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC; E5 or K100M). Brittle polymers, such as ethyl cellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAPr), led to a better rupturing and therefore more complete drug release than the flexible polymer coating, Eudragit RS. The lag time of the release system increased with higher polymer coating levels and decreased with the addition of a hydrophilic pore-former, HPMC E5 and also with an increasing amount of the intermediate swelling layer. The water uptake of the capsules was linear until rupture and was higher with CAPr than with EC. Soft gelatin capsule-based systems showed shorter lag times compared to hard gelatin capsules because of the higher hardness/filling state of the soft gelatin capsules. The swelling pressure was therefore more directed to the external polymer coating with the soft gelatin capsules. Typical pulsatile drug release profiles were obtained at lower polymer coating levels, while the release was slower and incomplete at the higher coating levels. CAPr-coated capsules resulted in a more complete release than EC-coated capsules.

  7. Evolutionary process of a tetranucleotide microsatellite locus in Acipenseriformes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhao Jun Shao; Eric Rivals; Na Zhao; Sovan Lek; Jianbo Chang; Patrick Berrebi


    The evolutionary dynamics of the tetra-nucleotide microsatellite locus Spl-106 were investigated at the repeat and flanking sequences in 137 individuals of 15 Acipenseriform species, giving 93 homologous sequences, which were detected in 11 out of 15 species. Twenty-three haplotypes of flanking sequences and three distinct types of repeats, type I, type II and type III, were found within these 93 sequences. The MS-Align phylogenetic method, newly applied to microsatellite sequences, permitted us to understand the repeat and flanking sequence evolution of Spl-106 locus. The flanking region of locus Spl-106 was highly conserved among the species of genera Acipenser, Huso and Scaphirhynchus, which diverged about 150 million years ago (Mya). The rate of flanking sequence divergence at the microsatellite locus Spl-106 in sturgeons is between 0.011% and 0.079% with an average at 0.028% per million years. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic trees produced by MS-Align showed that both the flanking and repeat regions can cluster the alleles of different species into Pacific and Atlantic lineages. Our results show a synchronous evolutionary pattern between the flanking and repeat regions. Moreover, the coexistence of different repeat types in the same species, even in the same individual, is probably due to two duplication events encompassing the locus Spl-106 that occurred during the divergence of Pacific lineage. The first occured before the diversification of Pacific species (121–96 Mya) and led to repeat types I and II. The second occurred more recently, just before the speciation of A. sinensis and A. dabryanus (69–10 Mya), and led to repeat type III. Sequences in the same species with different repeat types probably corresponds to paralogous loci. This study sheds a new light on the evolutionary mechanisms that shape the complex microsatellite loci involving different repeat types.

  8. Numerical Studies of the Effects of Water Capsules on Self-Healing Efficiency and Mechanical Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoliang Huang


    Full Text Available In this research, self-healing due to further hydration of unhydrated cement particles is taken as an example for investigating the effects of capsules on the self-healing efficiency and mechanical properties of cementitious materials. The efficiency of supply of water by using capsules as a function of capsule dosages and sizes was determined numerically. By knowing the amount of water supplied via capsules, the efficiency of self-healing due to further hydration of unhydrated cement was quantified. In addition, the impact of capsules on mechanical properties was investigated numerically. The amount of released water increases with the dosage of capsules at different slops as the size of capsules varies. Concerning the best efficiency of self-healing, the optimizing size of capsules is 6.5 mm for capsule dosages of 3%, 5%, and 7%, respectively. Both elastic modulus and tensile strength of cementitious materials decrease with the increase of capsule. The decreasing tendency of tensile strength is larger than that of elastic modulus. However, it was found that the increase of positive effect (the capacity of inducing self-healing of capsules is larger than that of negative effects (decreasing mechanical properties when the dosage of capsules increases.

  9. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus. (United States)

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka


    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes.

  10. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments in the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina. (United States)

    Kovács, Akos T; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L


    A pigment mutant strain of the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS was isolated by plasposon mutagenesis. Nineteen open reading frame, most of which are thought to be genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll, and the photosynthetic reaction center, were identified surrounding the plasposon in a 22-kb-long chromosomal locus. The general arrangement of the photosynthetic genes was similar to that in other purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, the locations of a few genes occurring in this region were unusual. Most of the gene products showed the highest similarity to the corresponding proteins in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The plasposon was inserted into the crtD gene, likely inactivating crtC as well, and the carotenoid composition of the mutant strain corresponded to the aborted spirilloxanthin pathway. Homologous and heterologous complementation experiments indicated a conserved function of CrtC and CrtD in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The crtDC and crtE genes were shown to be regulated by oxygen, and a role of CrtJ in aerobic repression was suggested.

  11. The aba mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is impaired in epoxy-carotenoid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))


    The three mutant alleles of the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana result in plants that are deficient in the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA). The authors have used {sup 18}O{sub 2} to label ABA in water-stressed leaves of mutant and wild-type Arabidopsis. Analysis by selected ion monitoring and tandem mass spectrometry of ({sup 18}O)ABA and its catabolites, phaseic acid and ABA-glucose ester ({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate), indicates that the aba genotypes are impaired in ABA biosynthesis and have a small ABA precursor pool of compounds that contain oxygens on the rings, presumably oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Quantitation of the carotenoids form mutant and wild-type leaves establishes that the aba alleles cause a deficiency of the epoxy-carotenoids violaxanthin and neoxanthin and an accumulation of their biosynthetic precursor, zeaxanthin. These results provide evidence that ABA is synthesized by oxidative cleavage of epoxy-carotenoids (the indirect pathway). Furthermore the carotenoid mutant they describe undergoes normal greening. Thus the aba alleles provide an opportunity to study the physiological roles of epoxy-carotenoids in photosynthesis in a higher plants.

  12. Abort System Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction for Capsule-Type Space Transportation System (United States)

    小澤, 啓伺; 北村, 圭一; 花井, 勝祥; 三好, 理也; 森, 浩一; 中村, 佳朗

    The space transportation system using capsule/rocket configurations such as Apollo and Soyuz are simple compared with Space Shuttle, and have several merits from the viewpoint of reliability. The capsule/rocket system will take over the Space Shuttle, after it retires in 2010. As the Space Shuttle accidents had been caused by several factors, e.g., aerodynamic interaction of shock waves ahead of its wing, advanced abort systems such as LAS (Launch Abort System) are required for the capsule/rocket system. In the present study, as a baseline configuration, a combination of a cone and a cylinder is employed as a CEV (Crew Exploration Vehicle), which consists of a capsule (LAV: Launch Abort Vehicle) and a rocket (SM: Service Module). By changing the relative position of the two components as well as the profile area of the rocket, their effects on the capsule/rocket aerodynamic interaction and characteristics (drag and pitching moment) are experimentally and numerically investigated at a supersonic speed (M∞ = 3.0). It is found from the results that the clearance have little effects on the flow field for the case of the baseline configuration. The capsule always showed a positive drag (CD = 0.34), which means that thrust is required to overcome the drag. Otherwise the capsule will recontact the rocket. However in the case where the rocket contact area is 2.2 times as large as the capsule profile, more favorable effects were obtained. Especially in the case of a certain clearance (h/D = 0.40), the drag coefficient of the capsule is CD = -0.35, which means that the capsule suffers a thrust force from the aerodynamic interaction. Under this condition, if capsule has a pitch angle with 5 degrees instantaneously, then pitching moment coefficient becomes CMp = -0.41 therefore capsule stabilize. However, in the case of a very small clearance (h/D ∝ 0.00), the flow becomes unsteady involving pulsating shock wave, leading to a potentially risky separation of the capsule.

  13. DMPD: The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10669111 The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysa...w The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. PubmedID 10669111 Titl...e The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysacchar

  14. Rasch Analysis of the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Brief Report (United States)

    Gadiana, Leny G.; David, Adonis P.


    The Locus-of-Hope Scale (LHS) was developed as a measure of the locus-of-hope dimensions (Bernardo, 2010). The present study adds to the emerging literature on locus-of-hope by assessing the psychometric properties of the LHS using Rasch analysis. The results from the Rasch analyses of the four subscales of LHS provided evidence on the…

  15. A cut locus for finite graphs and the farthest point mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddaloni, Alessandro; Zamfirescu, Carol T.


    We reflect upon an analogue of the cut locus, a notion classically studied in Differential Geometry, for finite graphs. The cut locus C(x) of a vertex x shall be the graph induced by the set of all vertices y with the property that no shortest path between x and z, z≠y, contains y. The cut locus ...

  16. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi


    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  17. On the Locus Formed by the Maximum Heights of Projectile Motion with Air Resistance (United States)

    Hernandez-Saldana, H.


    We present an analysis on the locus formed by the set of maxima of the trajectories of a projectile launched in a medium with linear drag. Such a place, the locus of apexes, is written in terms of the Lambert "W" function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. To characterize the locus, a study of…

  18. Reinvigorating natural product combinatorial biosynthesis with synthetic biology. (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Moore, Bradley S; Yoon, Yeo Joon


    Natural products continue to play a pivotal role in drug-discovery efforts and in the understanding if human health. The ability to extend nature's chemistry through combinatorial biosynthesis--altering functional groups, regiochemistry and scaffold backbones through the manipulation of biosynthetic enzymes--offers unique opportunities to create natural product analogs. Incorporating emerging synthetic biology techniques has the potential to further accelerate the refinement of combinatorial biosynthesis as a robust platform for the diversification of natural chemical drug leads. Two decades after the field originated, we discuss the current limitations, the realities and the state of the art of combinatorial biosynthesis, including the engineering of substrate specificity of biosynthetic enzymes and the development of heterologous expression systems for biosynthetic pathways. We also propose a new perspective for the combinatorial biosynthesis of natural products that could reinvigorate drug discovery by using synthetic biology in combination with synthetic chemistry.

  19. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J;


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis...

  20. Biosynthesis and molecular genetics of polyketides in marine dinoflagellates. (United States)

    Kellmann, Ralf; Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J S; Svendsen, Helene M; Jakobsen, Kjetill S


    Marine dinoflagellates are the single most important group of algae that produce toxins, which have a global impact on human activities. The toxins are chemically diverse, and include macrolides, cyclic polyethers, spirolides and purine alkaloids. Whereas there is a multitude of studies describing the pharmacology of these toxins, there is limited or no knowledge regarding the biochemistry and molecular genetics involved in their biosynthesis. Recently, however, exciting advances have been made. Expressed sequence tag sequencing studies have revealed important insights into the transcriptomes of dinoflagellates, whereas other studies have implicated polyketide synthase genes in the biosynthesis of cyclic polyether toxins, and the molecular genetic basis for the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins has been elucidated in cyanobacteria. This review summarises the recent progress that has been made regarding the unusual genomes of dinoflagellates, the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of dinoflagellate toxins. In addition, the evolution of these metabolic pathways will be discussed, and an outlook for future research and possible applications is provided.

  1. Computational Hypersonic Aerodynamics with Emphasis on Earth Reentry Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonida NICULESCU


    Full Text Available The temperature in the front region of a hypersonic vehicle nose can be extremely high, for example, reaching approximately 11 000 K at a Mach number of 36 (Apollo reentry due to the bow shock wave. In this case, accurate prediction of temperature behind the shock wave is necessary in order to precisely estimate the wall heat flux. A better prediction of wall heat flux leads to smaller safety coefficient for thermal shield of space reentry vehicle; therefore, the size of thermal shield decreases and the payload could increase. However, the accurate prediction of temperature behind the bow shock wave implies the use of a precise chemical model whose partial differential equations are added to Navier-Stokes equations. This second order partial differential system is very difficult to be numerically integrated. For this reason, the present paper deals with the computational hypersonic aerodynamics with chemical reactions with the aim of supporting Earth reentry capsule design.

  2. Patch-Augmented Rotator Cuff Repair and Superior Capsule Reconstruction (United States)

    Petri, M.; Greenspoon, J.A.; Moulton, S.G.; Millett, P.J.


    Background: Massive rotator cuff tears in active patients with minimal glenohumeral arthritis remain a particular challenge for the treating surgeon. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: For patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears, a reverse shoulder arthroplasty or a tendon transfer are often performed. However, both procedures have rather high complication rates and debatable long-term results, particularly in younger patients. Therefore, patch-augmented rotator cuff repair or superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) have been recently developed as arthroscopically applicable treatment options, with promising biomechanical and early clinical results. Conclusion: For younger patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears wishing to avoid tendon transfers or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, both patch-augmentation and SCR represent treatment options that may delay the need for more invasive surgery.

  3. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu


    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  4. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes. (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang


    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  5. Initial Experience of Video Capsule Endoscopy After Intestinal Transplantation (United States)

    Varkey, Jonas; Oltean, Mihai; Pischel, Andreas Bernd; Simrén, Magnus; Herlenius, Gustaf


    Background Intestinal transplantation is a procedure which inflicts immunological and infectious complications that affect the transplanted graft, posing both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) offers easy access to the entire small intestine and presents itself as an interesting option. However, at present, no studies evaluating the usefulness of video capsule endoscopies in this setting have been published. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of VCE in detecting complications that arise after intestinal transplantation. Methods We included 7 adult patients with either isolated intestine (n = 1) or multivisceral grafts (n = 6). These patients underwent 12 VCE between 2004 and 2015 at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. The median age was 42 (21-67) years (4 women/3 men). VCE was used in clinical situations where the conventional diagnostic methods failed to provide answers to the clinical question. Results Indications for the procedure were: suspicion of rejection (n = 4 examinations), gastrointestinal dysmotility (n = 4 examinations), high stomal output (n = 2 examinations), suspicion of lymphoproliferative disease in the transplanted graft (n = 1 examination), and clinical surveillance (n = 1 examination). The median time after transplantation for performing an examination was 740 (26-3059) days. VCE was useful in 83% of the examinations and the results influenced the planned management. The overall agreement between VCE findings and biopsies was moderate (κ = 0.54, P = 0.05) but increased when comparing the presence of inflammation/rejection (κ = 0.79, P < 0.001). Conclusions VCE is a promising diagnostic method after intestinal transplantation. However, larger studies are needed to evaluate its potential risks and gains. PMID:27990484

  6. Periprosthetic breast capsules and immunophenotypes of inflammatory cells. (United States)

    Meza Britez, Maria Elsa; Caballero Llano, Carmelo; Chaux, Alcides


    BACKGROUND: Silicone gel-containing breast implants have been widely used for aesthetic and reconstructive mammoplasty. The development of a periprosthetic capsule is considered a local reparative process against the breast implant in which a variety of inflammatory cells may appear. Nevertheless, only few reports have evaluated the immunophenotypes of those inflammatory cells. Herein, we aim to provide more information in this regard evaluating 40 patients with breast implants. METHODS: We studied the immunophenotype of the inflammatory cells of capsular implants using antibodies against lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD45, and CD30) and histiocytes (CD68). Percentages of CD3 and CD20 positive cells were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fisher's test was also used to compare Baker grades by implant type, implant profile, and location and the presence of inflammatory cells by implant type. RESULTS: The associations between Baker grades and implant type and location were statistically nonsignificant (p = 0.42 in both cases). However, the use of low profile implants was significantly associated (p = 0.002) with a higher proportion of Baker grades 3 and 4. We found evidence of inflammation in 92.5 % of all implant capsules, with a statistically significant (p = 0.036) higher proportion in textured breast implants. T cells predominated over B cells. Textured implants elicited a more marked response to T cells than smooth implants, with a similar proportion of helper and cytotoxic T cells. Textured implants showed statistically significant higher percentages of CD3 positive cells than smooth implants. Percentages of CD20 positive cells were similar in textured and smooth implants. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that textured breast implants might induce a stronger local T cell immune response. Our findings could shed some light to understand the association of silicone breast implants and some cases of anaplastic large cell lymphomas

  7. Analysis of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Images using Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Florentina CONSTANTINESCU


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy, the gold standard in the screening and diagnosis of small bowel diseases, is one of the most recent investigations for gastrointestinal pathology. This examination has the advantages of being non-invasive, painless, with a large clinical yield, especially for small bowel diseases, but also some disadvantages. The long time necessary for reading and interpreting all frames acquired is one of these disadvantages. This inconvenient could be improved through different methods by using software applications. In this study we have used a software application for texture analysis based on local binary pattern (LBP operator. This operator detects and removes non-informative frames in a first step, then identifies potential lesions. Our study group consisted of 33 patients from the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Centre Craiova and from the 1st Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Clinic from the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova. The patients included in the study have corresponded to our inclusion criteria established. The exclusion criteria were represented by the contraindications of the capsule endoscopy. In the first phase of the study, we have removed the non-informative frames from the original videos obtained, and we have acquired an average reduction of 6.96% from the total number of images. In the second phase, using the same LBP operator, we have correctly identified 93.16% of telangiectasia lesions. Our study demonstrated that software applications based on LBP operator can lead to a shorter analysis time, by reducing the overall frames number, and can also provide support in diagnosis.

  8. Capsule endoscopy: Improving transit time and image view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zvi Fireman; D Paz; Y Kopelman


    AIM: To evaluate the effect of various methods of small bowel preparation on the transit time and the quality of visualization of the entire small bowel mucosa.METHODS: Ninety-five patients underwent capsule endoscopy (CE) by easily swallowing the capsule. They were divided into three study groups according to the preparation used: group A (n = 26) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) liter or with sodium phosphate (SP) 12 h prior to the CE study; group B (n = 29) by erythromycin 1 h prior to the CE study; and group C (n = 40) without any preparation. Visualization ranged from good to satisfactory to poor.RESULTS: The gastric emptying time in the group prepared with erythromycin was shorter but without statistical significance and the small bowel transit time was unaffected. In elderly subjects prepared by PEG or SP, the gastric emptying time was significantly longer (163.7 min, P = 0.05). The transit times of the three sub-groups were not affected by gender or pathology.The grade of cleaning of the entire study group was 3.27±1.1. The erythromycin group presented significantly the worst quality of images (P = 0.05) compared to the other sub-groups. Age, gender, and pathology had no effect on the quality of the cleaning of the small bowel in the sub-groups. One (1.05%) case had no natural excretion.CONCLUSION: Erythromycin markedly reduces gastric emptying time, but has a negative effect on the quality of the image in the small bowel. The preparation of elderly subjects with PEG or SP has a negative effect on the small bowel transit time.

  9. New players in the regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Insect ecdysone steroid hormone regulates major developmental transitions, such as molting and metamorphosis. The production of ecdysone correlates well with the timing of these transitions. Finding out how the ecdysone biosynthesis is regulated is crucial to fully understand these sophisticated developmental switches. Here we summarized recent findings in the regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis from the aspects of cell signaling, key biosynthetic enzymes and substrate cholesterol trafficking.

  10. Initiation of the flexirubin biosynthesis in Chitinophaga pinensis


    Schöner, Tim A.; Fuchs, Sebastian W.; Schönau, Christian; Helge B Bode


    Bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum are known producers of the chemotaxonomic relevant flexirubins. These orange pigments comprise a non-isoprenoid aryl-polyene carboxylic acid esterified with a dialkylresorcinol. Herein, we report a gene cluster from C hitinophaga pinensis encoding the biosynthesis of the polyene moiety and the biochemical characterization of a tyrosine ammonia-lyase and a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase responsible for the initiation of the polyene biosynthesis. Additionally, the...

  11. Engineered biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in Escherichia coli


    Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yanran; Tang, Yi


    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are important therapeutic compounds including front line antibiotics and anticancer drugs. It is one of the last remaining major classes of natural products of which the biosynthesis has not been reconstituted in the genetically superior host Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate the engineered biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in E. coli by using a dissected and reassembled fungal polyketide synthase (PKS). The minimal PKS of the megasynthase PKS4...

  12. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids. (United States)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Adihou, Hélène; Grün, Peter; Pöschel, Laura; Richter, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald; Bode, Helge B


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis was elucidated to involve a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The occurrence of these biosynthesis gene clusters in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates an important biological function in bacteria.

  13. Histidine biosynthesis, its regulation and biotechnological application in Corynebacterium glutamicum


    Kulis-Horn, Robert K; Persicke, Marcus; Kalinowski, Jörn


    l-Histidine biosynthesis is an ancient metabolic pathway present in bacteria, archaea, lower eukaryotes, and plants. For decades l-histidine biosynthesis has been studied mainly in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, revealing fundamental regulatory processes in bacteria. Furthermore, in the last 15 years this pathway has been also investigated intensively in the industrial amino acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, revealing similarities to E. coli and S. typhimurium...

  14. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis capsule induces nitric oxide production via the platelet activating factor receptor signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Ri; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Kyu; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-Eun


    The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, confers protection of the bacillus from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. PGA capsules released from B. anthracis are associated with lethal toxin in the blood of experimentally infected animals and enhance the cytotoxic effect of lethal toxin on macrophages. In addition, PGA capsule itself activates macrophages and dendritic cells to produce proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β, indicating multiple roles of PGA capsule in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we report that PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of B. anthracis capsule, induces production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. NO production was induced by PGA in a dose-dependent manner and was markedly reduced by inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), suggesting iNOS-dependent production of NO. Induction of NO production by PGA was not observed in macrophages from TLR2-deficient mice and was also substantially inhibited in RAW264.7 cells by pretreatment of TLR2 blocking antibody. Subsequently, the downstream signaling events such as ERK, JNK and p38 of MAPK pathways as well as NF-κB activation were required for PGA-induced NO production. In addition, the induced NO production was significantly suppressed by treatment with antagonists of platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) or PAFR siRNA, and mediated through PAFR/Jak2/STAT-1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that PGA capsule induces NO production in macrophages by triggering both TLR2 and PAFR signaling pathways which lead to activation of NF-kB and STAT-1, respectively.

  15. Fibrous capsule formation of the peritoneal catheter tip in ventriculoperitoneal shunt: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kano


    Full Text Available Background: A fibrous capsule formation of a peritoneal catheter tip has not previously been researched as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunts. Case Description: Two adult patients who had undergone a VP shunt for communicative hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm have been identified with malfunction of the VP shunt system by mild disturbance of consciousness and gait disturbance or loss of appetite. Hydrocephalus was diagnosed by computed tomography and the obstruction of the peritoneal catheter was revealed by shuntgraphy. Laparoscopy was performed and the peritoneal catheter tips were obstructed by fibrous white capsules that covered them. One was a thin membranous capsule like a stocking with two small endoluminal granulomas of the peritoneal catheter, and other one was a fibrous glossy white capsule like a sock. These fibrous capsules were excised by laparoscopy forceps without the conversion to a new peritoneal catheter. Following the procedure, the shunt functioned normally. The pathological diagnoses were peritoneum with foreign body reaction or hyalinization of membranous tissue surrounded by fibrous tissue. Conclusion: These fibrous capsules might be formed by the peritoneal reaction to cerebrospinal fluid as a foreign material. As such, a periodic medical check should be scheduled since a fibrous capsule of the peritoneal catheter tip might be formed again.

  16. Design and manufacturing of 05F-01K instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation in Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. (and others)


    An instrumented capsule was developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel pellet elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in Hanaro. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. It was successfully irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.84 full power days at 24 MW). In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and manufactured to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule was irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro reactor from April 26, 2004 to October 1, 2004 (59.5 EFPD at 24 {approx} 30 MW). The six typed dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been designed and manufactured to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. The 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule was designed and manufactured for a design verification test of the three dual instrumented fuel rods. The irradiation test of the 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule will be carried out at the OR5 vertical experimental hole of Hanaro.

  17. Capsule 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Jing Peng; Ping-I Hsu; Kwok-Hung Lai; Ren-Shyan Liu; Shui-Cheng Lee; Daw-Guey Tsay; Ching-Chu Lo; Huei-Hwa Tseng; Wen-Keui Huang; Gin-Ho Lo


    AIM: To compare the accuracy of capsule 13C-urea breath test (UBT) with conventional invasive methods for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.METHODS: One hundred patients received CLO test,histological examination, culture and 100- or 50-mg capsule UBT for the diagnosis of Hpyloriinfection. Hpylori infection was defined as those with positive culture or positive results from both histology and CLO test.RESULTS: Both the sensitivity and specificity of the 100-mg capsule UBT (n = 50) were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the 50-mg capsule UBT (n = 50) were 96.4and 100%, respectively. Taken together, the accuracy of capsule UBT (n=100) was higher than that of CLO test,histology and culture (100% vs 92%, 91% and 89%,respectively; P= 0.035, 0.018 and 0.005, respectively). Our data showed that the optimal timing of sampling for 100-and 50-mg capsule UBT was 15-30 and 6-15 min, respectively.CONCLUSION: Capsule UBT has a higher accuracy compared with biopsy-based tests. It is an ideal method for the diagnosis of Hpyloriinfection.

  18. Effect of Low Dose of Mifeprostone in Capsules combined with Misoprostol on Termination of Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄紫蓉; 王巧风; 杜明昆; 王卫芳; 顾林金


    Objective In this double-blind randomized trial, we compare the effect of 75 mg mifeprostone in capsules on termination of early pregnancy was compared with that of 150 mg in tablets combined with misoprostol. Methods A total of 160 patients were randomly divided into two groups with 80 for each group. The capsule group was administered with mifeprostone 75 mg in capsules,placebo tablets and misoprostol 0. 6 mg. The tablet group was administered with mifeprostone 150 mg in tablets, placebo capsules and misoprostol 0. 6 mg.Results The complete abortion rate in the capsule group and in the tablet group was 98. 8% and 97. 5% respectively, with no significant difference (P> 0. 05). There were no significant differences in bleeding time after abortion, side effects, recovery of menstruation or length of menstrual period between the two groups.Conclusion The clinical effect of mifeprostone capsule is the same with that of tablet in combination with misoprostol in terminating early pregnancy, while dose and cost is lower and the side effect is smaller. Mi feprostone capsule is recommended to be widely used for terminating early pregnancy.

  19. Floating capsules containing alginate-based beads of salbutamol sulfate: In vitro-in vivo evaluations. (United States)

    Malakar, Jadupati; Datta, Prabir Kumar; Purakayastha, Saikat Das; Dey, Sanjay; Nayak, Amit Kumar


    The present study deals with the development and evaluations of stomach-specific floating capsules containing salbutamol sulfate-loaded oil-entrapped alginate-based beads. Salbutamol sulfate-loaded oil-entrapped beads were prepared and capsulated within hard gelatin capsules (size 1). The effects of HPMC K4M and potato starch weight masses on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) of beads and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10 h) from capsules was analyzed by 3(2) factorial design. The optimization results indicate increasing of DEE in the oil-entrapped beads and decreasing R10 h from capsules with increment of HPMC K4M and potato starch weight masses. The optimized formulation showed DEE of 70.02 ± 3.16% and R10 h of 56.96 ± 2.92%. These capsules showed floatation over 6h and sustained drug release over 10h in gastric pH (1.2). In vivo X-ray imaging study of optimized floating capsules in rabbits showed stomach-specific gastroretention over a prolonged period.

  20. A disposable and multifunctional capsule for easy operation of microfluidic elastomer systems (United States)

    Thorslund, Sara; Nguyen, Hugo; Läräng, Thomas; Barkefors, Irmeli; Kreuger, Johan


    The global lab-on-chip and microfluidic markets for cell-based assays have been predicted to grow considerably, as novel microfluidic systems enable cell biologists to perform in vitro experiments at an unprecedented level of experimental control. Nevertheless, microfluidic assays must, in order to compete with conventional assays, be made available at easily affordable costs, and in addition be made simple to operate for users having no previous experience with microfluidics. We have to this end developed a multifunctional microfluidic capsule that can be mass-produced at low cost in thermoplastic material. The capsule enables straightforward operation of elastomer inserts of optional design, here exemplified with insert designs for molecular gradient formation in microfluidic cell culture systems. The integrated macro-micro interface of the capsule ensures reliable connection of the elastomer fluidic structures to an external perfusion system. A separate compartment in the capsule filled with superabsorbent material is used for internal waste absorption. The capsule assembly process is made easy by integrated snap-fits, and samples within the closed capsule can be analyzed using both inverted and upright microscopes. Taken together, the capsule concept presented here could help accelerate the use of microfluidic-based biological assays in the life science sector.

  1. Fabrication of the Supplemental Surveillance Capsules to Construct the Data of High-dose Irradiation Embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Ki; Maeng, Young Jae; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lim, Mi Joung; Yoo, Choon Sung; Kim, Byoung Chul [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel material, the surveillance program should be implemented during the reactor operation through the plant life. This surveillance program requires the surveillance capsules which contain the various test specimens, thermal monitors, and neutron dosimeters. For PWRs in Korea, total six surveillance capsules are installed before plant operation and are programmed to be withdrawn and tested periodically in accordance with the surveillance program. The surveillance capsules are typically installed in the downcomer region and are located closer to the reactor core than the vessel wall in order to get more accelerated embrittlement characteristics of the vessel material. The supplemental surveillance capsules were fabricated to obtain the data of high-dose irradiation embrittlement. All test specimens in the capsules were made with the archive material of Hanbit Units 3 and 4. The supplemental capsules were designed to have the same outside dimensions as the capsules of Hanbit Unit 1 and were installed in Hanbit Unit 1. The withdrawal schedule will be calculated.

  2. WESF cesium capsule behavior at high temperature or during thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, G.L.; Gray, W.J.; Shippell, R.J.; Katayama, Y.B.


    Double-walled stainless steel (SS) capsules prepared for storage of radioactive /sup 137/Cs from defense waste are now being considered for use as sources for commercial irradiation. Cesium was recovered at B-plant from the high-level radioactive waste generated during processing of defense nuclear fuel. It was then purified, converted to the chloride form, and encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The molten cesium chloride salt was encapsulated by pouring it into the inner of two concentric SS cylinders. Each cylinder was fitted with a SS end cap that was welded in place by inert gas-tungsten arc welding. The capsule configuration and dimensions are shown in Figure 1. In a recent review of the safety of these capsules, Tingey, Wheelwright, and Lytle (1984) indicated that experimental studies were continuing to produce long-term corrosion data, to reaffirm capsule integrity during a 90-min fire where capsule temperatures reached 800/sup 0/C, to monitor mechanical properties as a function of time, and to assess the effects of thermal cycling due to periodic transfer of the capsules from a water storage pool to the air environment of an irradiator facility. This report covers results from tests that simulated the effects of the 90-min fire and from thermal cycling actual WESF cesium capsules for 3845 cycles over a period of six months. 11 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. X-ray drive of beryllium capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Olson, R. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; Celliers, P. M.; Schneider, M. B.; MacPhee, A. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Hinkel, D. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S.


    National Ignition Facility experiments with beryllium capsules have followed a path begun with “high-foot” plastic capsule implosions. Three shock timing keyhole targets, one symmetry capsule, a streaked backlit capsule, and a 2D backlit capsule were fielded before the DT layered shot. After backscatter subtraction, laser drive degradation is needed to match observed X-ray drives. VISAR measurements determined drive degradation for the picket, trough, and second pulse. Time dependence of the total Dante flux reflects degradation of the of the third laser pulse. The same drive degradation that matches Dante data for three beryllium shots matches Dante and bangtimes for plastic shots N130501 and N130812. In the picket of both Be and CH hohlraums, calculations over-estimate the x-ray flux > 1.8 keV by ∼100X, while calculating the total flux correctly. In beryllium calculations these X-rays cause an early expansion of the beryllium/fuel interface at ∼3 km/s. VISAR measurements gave only ∼0.3 km/s. The X-ray drive on the Be DT capsule was further degraded by an unplanned decrease of 9% in the total picket flux. This small change caused the fuel adiabat to rise from 1.8 to 2.3. The first NIF beryllium DT implosion achieved 29% of calculated yield, compared to CH capsules with 68% and 21%.

  4. Effects of compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of naval servicemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-zhong ZHONG


    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of the compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of the naval servicemen during military activity. Methods  The subjects included 100 officers and soldiers, whose Modified Fatigue Rating Scale (MFIS scores were >21 points. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the amino acids capsule group and placebo group (n=50. Under the condition of military operations, either amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained or placebo capsule was given for 14 days continuously. The humoral immune indices, i.e., IgG, IgA, IgM, and complements C3 and C4, were measured with immunoturbidimetry. The percentage of peripheral blood CD subsets was measured using flow cytometry on the first day and 14th day. Results  The levels of IgG, IgM, and complement C3 in the capsule group were significantly higher on the 14th day than on the first day (P+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD3-CD19+ B lymphocytes in the capsule group on the 14th day were higher than those on the first day, whereas the CD3-CD56+ NK lymphocytes decreased significantly (PConclusion  Compound amino acids capsule can improve the humoral and cellular immunological function of naval servicemen.

  5. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C[sub 18] monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l[Delta][sup 6cis]). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis[Delta][sup 6] double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acid can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.

  6. Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal S. Sandhu; Gursharn S. Randhawa; Kanwarpal S. Dhugga


    The wall of an expanding plant cell consists primarily of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of hemi-cellulosic and pectic polysaccharides along with small amounts of structural and enzymatic proteins. Matrix polysacchar-ides are synthesized in the Golgi and exported to the cell wall by exocytosis, where they intercalate among cellulose microfibrUs, which are made at the plasma membrane and directly deposited into the cell wall. Involvement of Golgi glucan synthesis in auxin-induced cell expansion has long been recognized; however, only recently have the genes corresponding to glucan synthases been identified. Biochemical purification was unsuccessful because of the labile nature and very low abundance of these enzymes. Mutational genetics also proved fruitless. Expression of candidate genes identified through gene expression profiling or comparative genomics in heterologous systems followed by functional characterization has been relatively successful. Several genes from the cellulose synthase-like (Cs/) family have been found to be involved in the synthesis of various hemicellulosic glycans. The usefulness of this approach, however, is limited to those enzymes that probably do not form complexes consisting of unrelated proteins. Nonconventional approaches will continue to incre-mentally unravel the mechanisms of Golgi polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  7. The regulation and biosynthesis of antimycins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F. Seipke


    Full Text Available Antimycins (>40 members were discovered nearly 65 years ago but the discovery of the gene cluster encoding antimycin biosynthesis in 2011 has facilitated rapid progress in understanding the unusual biosynthetic pathway. Antimycin A is widely used as a piscicide in the catfish farming industry and also has potent killing activity against insects, nematodes and fungi. The mode of action of antimycins is to inhibit cytochrome c reductase in the electron transport chain and halt respiration. However, more recently, antimycin A has attracted attention as a potent and selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Remarkably, this inhibition is independent of the main mode of action of antimycins such that an artificial derivative named 2-methoxyantimycin A inhibits Bcl-xL but does not inhibit respiration. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL family of proteins are over-produced in cancer cells that are resistant to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy agents, so antimycins have great potential as anticancer drugs used in combination with existing chemotherapeutics. Here we review what is known about antimycins, the regulation of the ant gene cluster and the unusual biosynthetic pathway.

  8. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui


    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  9. A Biotin Biosynthesis Gene Restricted to Helicobacter. (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Jia, Jia; Cronan, John E


    In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections.

  10. Tyramine and phenylethylamine biosynthesis by food bacteria. (United States)

    Marcobal, Angela; De las Rivas, Blanca; Landete, José María; Tabera, Laura; Muñoz, Rosario


    Tyramine poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing high levels of tyramine, a biogenic amine. Any foods containing free tyrosine are subject to tyramine formation if poor sanitation and low quality foods are used or if the food is subject to temperature abuse or extended storage time. Tyramine is generated by decarboxylation of the tyrosine through tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) enzymes derived from the bacteria present in the food. Bacterial TDC have been only unequivocally identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in lactic acid bacteria. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent TDC encoding genes (tyrDC) appeared flanked by a similar genetic organization in several species of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting a common origin by a single mobile genetic element. Bacterial TDC are also able to decarboxylate phenylalanine to produce phenylethylamine (PEA), another biogenic amine. The molecular knowledge of the genes involved in tyramine production has led to the development of molecular methods for the detection of bacteria able to produce tyramine and PEA. These rapid and simple methods could be used for the analysis of the ability to form tyramine by bacteria in order to evaluate the potential risk of tyramine biosynthesis in food products.

  11. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França


    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  12. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota


    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters.

  13. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López


    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was achieved using extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides as a reducer and coating agent at room temperature (25°C. Two molar solutions of AgNO3 (1 mM and 10 mM and five extract volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mL were used to assess quantity, shape, and size of the particles. The UV-Vis spectra gave surface plasmon resonance at 434–436 nm of the NPs synthesized with AgNO3 10 mM and all extract volumes tested, showing a direct relationship between extract volumes and quantity of particles formed. In contrast, the concentration of silver ions was related negatively to particle size. The smallest (4.9 ± 3.4 nm particles were obtained with 1 mL of extract in AgNO3 10 mM and the larger amount of particles were obtained with 2 mL and 5 mL of extract. TEM study indicated that the particles were polycrystalline and randomly oriented with a silver structure face centered cubic (fcc and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR indicated that disappearance of the –OH group band after bioreduction evidences its role in reducing silver ions.

  14. Aspects of tobacco diterpene biosynthesis and accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, C.K.


    Lamina, midveins, stalks and flowers of most Nicotiana species are covered with trichomes. The exudate which accumulates around glandular trichome heads has been suggested to be responsible for the characteristics flavor and aroma associated with different tobaccos. Many classes of compounds have been identified in cuticular surface washes and exudates of tobacco, in particular diterpenes such as the labdanes and duvanes. It has been assumed that most of the components present in the cuticular surface washes and trichome exudates are synthesized by the trichomes. However, there is little definitive evidence to support this assumption. Utilizing radiolabeled precursors, studies were undertaken to determine the site or sites of 1S- and 1R-4.8, 13-duvatriene-1,3-diol (1S- and 1R-diol) biosynthesis. Experiments using midvein sections of Tobacco Introduction 1068 treated with (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid indicated that radioactivity was incorporated into surface components, including 1S- and 1R-diol. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that all of the labeled duvatrienediols found were associated with the exudate and surface extracts. Experiments using incubated detached glandular trichome heads unequivocally demonstrated that the glandular heads have the biosynthetic capacity to incorporate (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid into 1S- and 1R-diol. The influence of nitrogen fertilization, water stress, time of topping and curing conditions on the accumulated levels of 1S- and 1R-diol in field grown Ky 14 was also examined.

  15. Plant cuticles: physicochemical characteristics and biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, P.J. [Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Bristol, AFRC Inst. of Arable Crops Research (United Kingdom)


    Cuticles are the thin continuous layers of predominantly lipid material deposited on the outer walls of epidermal cells and, thus, the interface between higher plants and their aerial environment. The main function of this extracellular, non-living layer, commonly referred to as a membrane, is to protect and waterproof the plant surface. Although not structurally or chemically homogeneous, cuticles are usually characterised by two specific classes of lipid substances. The insoluble high molecular weight polyester cutins constitute the framework of the membrane, the monomeric units of which are biosynthesised in the epidermal cells from C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acid precursors. The soluble long-chain wax constituents are also synthesised by these cells and are eventually deposited not only on the cuticular surface but also within the cutin matrix. Epicuticular waxes have a considerable influence on the wettability of a plant surface whereas the presence of intracuticular waxes governs cuticular permeability. The cuticles of some species also contain variable amounts of another aliphatic biopolymer, cutin, which is non-saponifiable and, consequently, extremely resistant to biodegradation. Because the cuticle is an integral part of the epidermal cell wall, polysaccharides and probably, phenolic compounds are also involved in its construction. The current status of our fundamental knowledge about the structure, chemical composition, and biosynthesis of plant cuticles will be reviewed in order to highlight the nature of potential sites for interaction with air pollutants. (orig.)

  16. Clinical utility, safety and tolerability of capsule endoscopy in urban Southeast Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiing-Leong Ang; Kwong-Ming Fock; Tay-Meng Ng; Eng-Kiong Teo; Yi-Lyn Tan


    AIM:Capsule endoscopy has demonstrated its clinical utility in the evaluation of small bowel pathology in several Western studies. In this prospective study, we aimed to determine the clinical utility, safety and tolerability of capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of suspected small bowel disease in an urban Southeast Asian population.METHODS: We used the given (M2A) capsule endoscopy system in 16 consecutive patients with suspected small bowel pathology. In 9 patients the indication was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, while in 6 patients it was to determine the extent of small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease. One patient underwent capsule endoscopy for evaluation of chronic abdominal pain. Patient's tolerability to the procedure was evaluated by standardized questionnaires and all patients were reviewed at one week to ensure that the capsule had been excreted without any adverse events.RESULTS: Abnormal findings were present in 8 patients (50%). The cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was determined in 5 out of 9 patients. Findings included 2 cases of angiodysplasia, 2 cases of jejunal ulcers and 1 case of both angiodysplasia and jejunal ulcer. One patient had small bowel erosions and foci of erythema of doubtful significance.Ileal lesions were diagnosed in 2 out of 6 patients with Crohn's disease. Capsule endoscopy was well tolerated by all patients. One patient with Crohn's disease had a complication of capsule retention due to terminal ileum stricture. The capsule eventually passed out spontaneously after 1 month.CONCLUSION: Our study, which represented the first Asian series, further confirms the diagnostic utility, safety and tolerability of wireless capsule endoscopy.

  17. Pressure Drop and Vibration Characteristics of the Capsule with the Modification of Bottom Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. H.; Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, B. G


    The bottom structure of an instrumented capsule is a part which is joined at the receptacle of the flow tube in the reactor in-core. A geometrical change of the bottom structure has an effect on the pressure drop and the vibration of the capsule. The receptacle of a single channel test loop was slightly modified in March 2005, and the out-pile test to evaluate the structural integrity of the creep capsule(03S-07K) and the material capsule(04M-17U) was performed by using a single channel and a half core test loop. From the pressure drop test of the dummy fuel, we confirmed that the modified single channel test loop has an equal flow rate to the HANARO. In the case of the material capsule with the bottom structure of a solid cone shape, the optimized diameter of the bottom structure which satisfies HANARO's flow requirement(19.6 kg/s) is 71mm. The maximum peak displacement of the two capsules measured at the half core test loop is lower than 1.0mm. From the analysis results, we can confirm that the test hole will not be interfered with near the flow tubes because its displacement due to the cooling water is very small at 0.072mm. The fundamental frequency of the capsule under water is 9.64Hz. It is expected that the resonance between the capsule and the fluid flow due to the cooling water in HANARO's in-core will not occur. Also, the new bottom structure of a solid cone shape with 71mm in diameter will be applicable to the material and special capsules in the future.

  18. Shape memory alloy-based biopsy device for active locomotive intestinal capsule endoscope. (United States)

    Le, Viet Ha; Hernando, Leon-Rodriguez; Lee, Cheong; Choi, Hyunchul; Jin, Zhen; Nguyen, Kim Tien; Go, Gwangjun; Ko, Seong-Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho


    Recently, capsule endoscopes have been used for diagnosis in digestive organs. However, because a capsule endoscope does not have a locomotive function, its use has been limited to small tubular digestive organs, such as small intestine and esophagus. To address this problem, researchers have begun studying an active locomotive intestine capsule endoscope as a medical instrument for the whole gastrointestinal tract. We have developed a capsule endoscope with a small permanent magnet that is actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system, allowing active and flexible movement in the patient's gut environment. In addition, researchers have noted the need for a biopsy function in capsule endoscope for the definitive diagnosis of digestive diseases. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel robotic biopsy device for active locomotive intestine capsule endoscope. The proposed biopsy device has a sharp blade connected with a shape memory alloy actuator. The biopsy device measuring 12 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length was integrated into our capsule endoscope prototype, where the device's sharp blade was activated and exposed by the shape memory alloy actuator. Then the electromagnetic actuation system generated a specific motion of the capsule endoscope to extract the tissue sample from the intestines. The final biopsy sample tissue had a volume of about 6 mm(3), which is a sufficient amount for a histological analysis. Consequently, we proposed the working principle of the biopsy device and conducted an in-vitro biopsy test to verify the feasibility of the biopsy device integrated into the capsule endoscope prototype using the electro-magnetic actuation system.

  19. Identification of a novel locus for a USH3 like syndrome combined with congenital cataract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dad, S.; Østergaard, Elsebet; Thykjær, T.;


    Danish family of Dutch descent, we have identified a novel locus for a rare USH3-like syndrome. The affected family members have a unique association of retinitis pigmentosa, progressive hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and congenital cataract. The phenotype is similar, but not identical...... to that of USH3 patients, as congenital cataract has not been reported for USH3. By homozygosity mapping, we identified a 7.3 Mb locus on chromosome 15q22.2-23 with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.0. The locus partially overlaps with the USH1 locus, USH1H, a novel unnamed USH2 locus, and the non...

  20. The locus of microRNA-10b (United States)

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni


    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell’s life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  1. Externality and locus of control in obese children. (United States)

    Isbitsky, J R; White, D R


    Fifty-nine obese and normal-weight children, aged 8-12 years were compared on two dimensions of "externality," previously examined in obese adults. Significant sex difference indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weight children were not differentiated by their performance on either a food-related or three nonfood-related measures of external-cue responsiveness, nor by their locus of control expectancies. Furthermore, the various measures were neither strongly nor consistently intercorrelated, providing little support for the notion of a single underlying dimension of "externality." The contribution of physiological, sensory, cognitive-motivational, and sociocultural parameters to the regulation of eating behavior was discussed.

  2. Two-locus inbreeding measures for recurrent selection. (United States)

    Choy, S C; Weir, B S


    For a population undergoing recurrent selection, a method is presented for determining the average inbreeding coefficients at the end of each breeding cycle. The coefficients are derived in terms of probability measures that genes are identical by descent. For the one-locus case, two digametic measures are defined and employed in the derivation of a recurrence formula for the inbreeding coefficient. Two further classes of measures, trigametic and quadrigametic, are required for transition from one cycle to the previous one to allow the calculation of the inbreeding function for the two-locus case. Numerical values of the average probability of double identity by descent for populations with various imposed assumptions are listed to illustrate the effects of linkage and population size on the accrual of inbreeding and hence of homozygosity.

  3. Fine-mapping of an Arabidopsis cell death mutation locus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An Arabidopsis cell death mutation locus was mapped to chromosome 2 between IGS1 and mi421. The YAC clone ends, CIC9A3R, CIC11C7L, CIC2G5R and RFLP marker CDs3 within this interval, were used to probe TAMU BAC library and 31 BAC clones were obtained. A BAC contig encompassing the mutation locus, which consists of T6P5, T7M23, T12A21, T8L6 and T18A18, was identified by Southern hybridization with the BAC ends as probes. 11 CAPS and 12 STS markers were developed in this region. These results will facilitate map-based cloning of the genes and sequencing of the genomic DNA in this region.

  4. Fine-mapping of an Arabidopsis cell death mutation locus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟中林; 戴亚; 李家洋


    An Arabidopsis cell death mutation locus was mapped to chromosome 2 between lGS1 and mi421. The YAC clone ends, CIC9A3R, CIC11C7L, CIC2G5R and RFLP marker CDs3 within this interval, were used to probe TAMU BAC library and 31 BAC clones were obtained. A BAC contig encompassing the mutation locus, which consists of T6P5, T7M23, T12A21, T8L6 and T18A18, was identified by Southern hybridization with the BAC ends as probes. 11 CAPS and 12 STS markers were developed in this region. These results will facilitate map-based cloning of the genes and sequencing of the genomic DNA in this region.

  5. Refined localization of the Prieto-syndrome locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, F.; Prieto, F. [Unidad de Genetica, Valencia (Spain); Gal, A. [Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)


    PRS designates the locus for a syndromal form of X-linked mental retardation (Prieto syndrome) characterized by minor facial anomalies, ear malformation, abnormal growth of teeth, clinodactyly, sacral dimple, patellar luxation, malformation of lower limbs, abnormalities of the fundus of the eye, and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Linkage analysis localized the disease locus between DXS84 (Xp21.1) and DXS255. Here we present additional linkage data that provide further support and refinement of this localization. Individual III-18 gave birth to a male, currently aged 2 7/12 years, who clearly shows delayed psychomotor development. He began to walk at 23 months and his speech is delayed. In addition, he shows the characteristic facial anomalies, {open_quotes}dysplastic{close_quotes} ears, sacral dimple, and clinodactyly, as do all other affected males in this family. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成


    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  7. [Main progress on studies of pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Guizhi Fuling capsule]. (United States)

    Su, Zhen-zhen; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuan-jie; Zhang, Chen-feng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei


    Guizhi Fuling capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of five kinds of medicinal plants, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Poria, Moutan Cortex, Persicae Semen, and Paeoniae Radix Alba. Pharmacology studies have shown that Guizhi Fuling capsule has many activities: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, regulating smooth muscle, endocrine regulation and enhancing immunity. It achieved obvious effects in the treatment of uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, dysmenorrheal, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, breast hyperplasia and other gynecological diseases. This paper reviewed the main progress on studies of pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Guizhi Fuling capsule in recent years.

  8. Intestinal absorption of coenzyme Q(10) administered in a meal or as capsules to healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christine; Bysted, Anette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed


    A randomized cross-over study by supplementation with single doses of coenzyme Q(10) (30 mg/person), administered either as a meal consisting of cooked pork heart or as 30 mg coenzyme Q(10) capsules was performed to investigate the bioavailability of dietary coenzyme Q(10) in humans. The increase...... in serum coenzyme Q(10) concentration was used as an index of the absorption, and reached a maximum six hours after the ingestion of either meal or capsules. Following intake of coenzyme Q(10) capsules, the serum coenzyme Q(10) concentrations increased significantly (p...

  9. Self-healing epoxy coating containing linseed oil loaded micro capsules for steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudian


    Full Text Available Effectiveness of epoxy coatings filled with linseed oil loaded micro capsules was investigated for healing the cracks generated on steel. Micro capsules were synthesized by in-situ polymerization method. Characteristics of these micro capsules were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Thermal gravimetric analysis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM for chemical investigation, thermal stability and surface morphology respectively. Anti-corrosion effect of prepared coating was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Cracks in a paint film were successfully healed when linseed oil was released from microcapsules ruptured under simulated mechanical action.Linseed oil healed area was found to prevent corrosion of the substrate.

  10. Simulations of fill tube effects on the implosion of high-foot NIF ignition capsules (United States)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Doeppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Harte, J. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Parham, T. G.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Weber, C. R.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Kline, J. L.


    Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of carbon-based ablator ignition capsules. These “high-foot” implosion results show that capsule performance deviates from 1D expectations as laser power and energy are increased. A possible cause of this deviation is the disruption of the hot spot by jets originating in the capsule fill tube. Nominally, a 10 μm outside diameter glass (SiO2) fill tube is used in these implosions. Simulations indicate that a thin coating of Au on this glass tube may lessen the hotspot disruption. These results and other mitigation strategies will be presented.

  11. Status of DOE/JAERI collaborative program phase II and phase III capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.P.; Lenox, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ioka, I.; Wakai, E.


    Significant progress has been made during the last year in the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the specimens from nine DOE ORNL/JAERI collaborative capsules and in the design and fabrication of four additional capsules. JP21, JP22, CTR-62, and CTR-63 were disassembled, JP20 tensile specimens were tested, and a variety of specimens from the RB-60J-1, 330J-1, and 400J-1 capsules were tested. Fabrication of RB-11J and 12J was completed and progress made in the matrix finalization and design of RB-10J and JP25.

  12. Capsule Ablator Inflight Performance Measurements Via Streaked Radiography Of ICF Implosions On The NIF* (United States)

    Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Mackinnon, A.; MacPhee, A.; Meezan, N.; Olson, R.; Hicks, D.; LePape, S.; Izumi, N.; Fournier, K.; Barrios, M. A.; Ross, S.; Pak, A.; Döppner, T.; Kalantar, D.; Opachich, K.; Rygg, R.; Bradley, D.; Bell, P.; Hamza, A.; Dzenitis, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B.; LaFortune, K.; Widmayer, C.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Edwards, M. J.; Atherton, J.; Moses, E. I.


    Streaked 1-dimensional (slit imaging) radiography of 1.1 mm radius capsules in ignition hohlraums was recently introduced on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and gives an inflight continuous record of capsule ablator implosion velocities, shell thickness and remaining mass in the last 3-5 ns before peak implosion time. The high quality data delivers good accuracy in implosion metrics that meets our requirements for ignition and agrees with recently introduced 2-dimensional pinhole radiography. Calculations match measured trajectory across various capsule designs and laser drives when the peak laser power is reduced by 20%. Furthermore, calculations matching measured trajectories give also good agreement in ablator shell thickness and remaining mass.

  13. Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Laura


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM. Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillance in a private setting in Venezuela to characterize the bacterial etiology of AOM in children Methods Between December 2008 and December 2009, 91 AOM episodes (including sporadic, recurrent and treatment failures were studied in 87 children enrolled into a medical center in Caracas, Venezuela. Middle ear fluid samples were collected either by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling method. Standard laboratory and microbiological techniques were used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial resistance. The results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2009 for non-meningitis isolates. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 and Microsoft Excel (for graphical purposes. Results Overall, bacteria were cultured from 69.2% (63 of the 91 episodes; at least one pathogen (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes or M. catarrhalis was cultured from 65.9% (60/91 of episodes. H. influenzae (55.5%; 35/63 episodes and S. pneumoniae (34.9%; 22/63 episodes were the most frequently reported bacteria. Among H. influenzae isolates, 62.9% (22/35 episodes were non-capsulated (NTHi and 31.4% (11/35 episodes were capsulated including types d, a, c and f, across all age groups. Low antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae was observed to amoxicillin/ampicillin (5.7%; 2/35 samples. NTHi was isolated in four of the six H. influenzae positive samples (66.7% from recurrent episodes. Conclusions We found H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to be the main pathogens causing AOM in Venezuela. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with efficacy against these bacterial pathogens may have the potential to maximize protection against AOM.

  14. Recent Advances of Flowering Locus T Gene in Higher Plants


    Shuiyuan Cheng; Feng Xu; Xiaofeng Rong; Xiaohua Huang


    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of t...

  15. Male-pattern baldness susceptibility locus at 20p11.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, J.B.; Yuan, X.; Geller, F.; Waterworth, D.; Bataille, V.; Glass, D.; Song, K.; Waeber, G.; Vollenweider, P.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Walters, B.; Soranzo, N.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Kong, A.; Rafnar, T.; Deloukas, P.; Sulem, P.; Stefansson, H.; Stefansson, K.; Spector, T.D.; Mooser, V.


    We conducted a genome-wide association study for androgenic alopecia in 1,125 men and identified a newly associated locus at chromosome 20p11.22, confirmed in three independent cohorts (n = 1,650; OR = 1.60, P = 1.1 x 10(-14) for rs1160312). The one man in seven who harbors risk alleles at both 20p1

  16. Community and law: identifying the locus of law in community


    Yaylali, Mustafa


    "Community and law approach" provides an illuminating insight into alternative legal orderings within a social unit. The comprehensiveness of legal systems within a community or a social unit, provides a suitable basis for a structural framework of alternative legal systems or Legal Pluralism, which is missing in the discourse on Legal Pluralism. "Identifying the locus of law within a community", provides us with an indication on how autopoetic a legal system can be within a social unit, taki...

  17. Characterization of a Multipeptide Lantibiotic Locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Maricic


    Full Text Available Bacterial communities are established through a combination of cooperative and antagonistic interactions between the inhabitants. Competitive interactions often involve the production of antimicrobial substances, including bacteriocins, which are small antimicrobial peptides that target other community members. Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of bacteriocin-encoding loci, inhibitory activity has been attributed to only a small fraction of gene clusters. In this study, we characterized a novel locus (the pld locus in the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that drives the production of a bacteriocin called pneumolancidin, which has broad antimicrobial activity. The locus encodes an unusual tandem array of four inhibitory peptides, three of which are absolutely required for antibacterial activity. The three peptide sequences are similar but appear to play distinct roles in regulation and inhibition. A modification enzyme typically found in loci encoding a class of highly modified bacteriocins called lantibiotics was required for inhibitory activity. The production of pneumolancidin is controlled by a two-component regulatory system that is activated by the accumulation of modified peptides. The locus is located on a mobile element that has been found in many pneumococcal lineages, although not all elements carry the pld genes. Intriguingly, a minimal region containing only the genes required for pneumolancidin immunity was found in several Streptococcus mitis strains. The pneumolancidin-producing strain can inhibit nearly all pneumococci tested to date and provided a competitive advantage in vivo. These peptides not only represent a unique strategy for bacterial competition but also are an important resource to guide the development of new antimicrobials.

  18. TrpM, a Small Protein Modulating Tryptophan Biosynthesis and Morpho-Physiological Differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) (United States)

    Palazzotto, Emilia; Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Giardina, Anna; Sutera, Alberto; Silva, Joohee; Vocat, Celinè; Botta, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea; Puglia, Anna Maria


    In the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), small open reading frames encoding proteins with unknown functions were identified in several amino acid biosynthetic gene operons, such as SCO2038 (trpX) in the tryptophan trpCXBA locus. In this study, the role of the corresponding protein in tryptophan biosynthesis was investigated by combining phenotypic and molecular analyses. The 2038KO mutant strain was characterized by delayed growth, smaller aerial hyphae and reduced production of spores and actinorhodin antibiotic, with respect to the WT strain. The capability of this mutant to grow on minimal medium was rescued by tryptophan and tryptophan precursor (serine and/or indole) supplementation on minimal medium and by gene complementation, revealing the essential role of this protein, here named TrpM, as modulator of tryptophan biosynthesis. His-tag pull-down and bacterial adenylate cyclase-based two hybrid assays revealed TrpM interaction with a putative leucyl-aminopeptidase (PepA), highly conserved component among various Streptomyces spp. In silico analyses showed that PepA is involved in the metabolism of serine, glycine and cysteine through a network including GlyA, CysK and CysM enzymes. Proteomic experiments suggested a TrpM-dependent regulation of metabolic pathways and cellular processes that includes enzymes such as GlyA, which is required for the biosynthesis of tryptophan precursors and key proteins participating in the morpho-physiological differentiation program. Altogether, these findings reveal that TrpM controls tryptophan biosynthesis at the level of direct precursor availability and, therefore, it is able to exert a crucial effect on the morpho-physiological differentiation program in S. coelicolor A3(2). PMID:27669158

  19. Biosynthesis of active pharmaceuticals: β-lactam biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Van Den Berg, Marco; Gidijala, Loknath; Kiela, Jan; Bovenberg, Roel; Vander Keli, Ida


    β-lactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillins, cephalosporins) are of major clinical importance and contribute to over 40% of the total antibiotic market. These compounds are produced as secondary metabolites by certain actinomycetes and filamentous fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus and Acremonium species). The industrial producer of penicillin is the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The enzymes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway are well characterized and most of them are encoded by genes that are organized in a cluster in the genome. Remarkably, the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is compartmentalized: the initial steps of penicillin biosynthesis are catalyzed by cytosolic enzymes, whereas the two final steps involve peroxisomal enzymes. Here, we describe the biochemical properties of the enzymes of β-lactam biosynthesis in P. chrysogenum and the role of peroxisomes in this process. An overview is given on strain improvement programs via classical mutagenesis and, more recently, genetic engineering, leading to more productive strains. Also, the potential of using heterologous hosts for the development of novel ß-lactam antibiotics and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-based peptides is discussed.

  20. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genia eLücking


    Full Text Available The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like mega-plasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional Level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY.

  1. Transgenic hybrid aspen trees with increased gibberellin (GA) concentrations suggest that GA acts in parallel with FLOWERING LOCUS T2 to control shoot elongation. (United States)

    Eriksson, Maria E; Hoffman, Daniel; Kaduk, Mateusz; Mauriat, Mélanie; Moritz, Thomas


    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) have been implicated in short day (SD)-induced growth cessation in Populus, because exogenous applications of bioactive GAs to hybrid aspens (Populus tremula × tremuloides) under SD conditions delay growth cessation. However, this effect diminishes with time, suggesting that plants may cease growth following exposure to SDs due to a reduction in sensitivity to GAs. In order to validate and further explore the role of GAs in growth cessation, we perturbed GA biosynthesis or signalling in hybrid aspen plants by overexpressing AtGA20ox1, AtGA2ox2 and PttGID1.3 (encoding GA biosynthesis enzymes and a GA receptor). We found trees with elevated concentrations of bioactive GA, due to overexpression of AtGA20ox1, continued to grow in SD conditions and were insensitive to the level of FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2) expression. As transgenic plants overexpressing the PttGID1.3 GA receptor responded in a wild-type (WT) manner to SD conditions, this insensitivity did not result from limited receptor availability. As high concentrations of bioactive GA during SD conditions were sufficient to sustain shoot elongation growth in hybrid aspen trees, independent of FT2 expression levels, we conclude elongation growth in trees is regulated by both GA- and long day-responsive pathways, similar to the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  2. FADS2 function loss at the cancer hotspot 11q13 locus diverts lipid signaling precursor synthesis to unusual eicosanoid fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jung Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genes coding for the fatty acid desaturases (FADS1, 2, 3 localized at the cancer genomic hotspot 11q13 locus are required for the biosynthesis of 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA that are direct eicosanoid precursors. In several cancer cell lines, FADS2 encoded Δ6 and Δ8 desaturation is not functional. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analyzing MCF7 cell fatty acids with detailed structural mass spectrometry, we show that in the absence of FADS2 activity, the FADS1 product Δ5-desaturase operates to produce 5,11,14-20∶3 and 5,11,14,17-20∶4. These PUFA are missing the 8-9 double bond of the eicosanoid signaling precursors arachidonic acid (5,8,11,14-20∶4 and eicosapentaenoic acid (5,8,11,14,17-20∶5. Heterologous expression of FADS2 restores Δ6 and Δ8-desaturase activity and normal eicosanoid precursor synthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The loss of FADS2-encoded activities in cancer cells shuts down normal PUFA biosynthesis, deleting the endogenous supply of eicosanoid and downstream docosanoid precursors, and replacing them with unusual butylene-interrupted fatty acids. If recapitulated in vivo, the normal eicosanoid and docosanoid cell signaling milieu would be depleted and altered due to reduction and substitution of normal substrates with unusual substrates, with unpredictable consequences for cellular communication.

  3. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels (United States)

    Lücking, Genia; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D.; Hofmann, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika


    The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like megaplasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY. PMID:26528255

  4. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels. (United States)

    Lücking, Genia; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika


    The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like megaplasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY.

  5. Complexity of the transcriptional network controlling secondary wall biosynthesis. (United States)

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua


    Secondary walls in the form of wood and fibers are the most abundant biomass produced by vascular plants, and are important raw materials for many industrial uses. Understanding how secondary walls are constructed is of significance in basic plant biology and also has far-reaching implications in genetic engineering of plant biomass better suited for various end uses, such as biofuel production. Secondary walls are composed of three major biopolymers, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, the biosynthesis of which requires the coordinated transcriptional regulation of all their biosynthesis genes. Genomic and molecular studies have identified a number of transcription factors, whose expression is associated with secondary wall biosynthesis. We comprehensively review how these secondary wall-associated transcription factors function together to turn on the secondary wall biosynthetic program, which leads to secondary wall deposition in vascular plants. The transcriptional network regulating secondary wall biosynthesis employs a multi-leveled feed-forward loop regulatory structure, in which the top-level secondary wall NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) master switches activate the second-level MYB master switches and they together induce the expression of downstream transcription factors and secondary wall biosynthesis genes. Secondary wall NAC master switches and secondary wall MYB master switches bind to and activate the SNBE (secondary wall NAC binding element) and SMRE (secondary wall MYB-responsive element) sites, respectively, in their target gene promoters. Further investigation of what and how developmental signals trigger the transcriptional network to regulate secondary wall biosynthesis and how different secondary wall-associated transcription factors function cooperatively in activating secondary wall biosynthetic pathways will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional control of secondary wall biosynthesis.

  6. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases. (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David


    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  7. Multiple roles for UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 in regulating gene expression and metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis under solar ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Morales, Luis O; Brosché, Mikael; Vainonen, Julia; Jenkins, Gareth I; Wargent, Jason J; Sipari, Nina; Strid, Åke; Lindfors, Anders V; Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J


    Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280-315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films. Gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation, and leaf metabolite signatures were analyzed. The results show that UVR8 is required for transcript accumulation of genes involved in UV protection, oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction, and defense against herbivores under solar UV. Under natural UV-A irradiance, UVR8 is likely to interact with UV-A/blue light signaling pathways to moderate UV-B-driven transcript and PDX1 accumulation. UVR8 both positively and negatively affects UV-A-regulated gene expression and metabolite accumulation but is required for the UV-B induction of phenolics. Moreover, UVR8-dependent UV-B acclimation during the early stages of plant development may enhance normal growth under long-term exposure to solar UV.

  8. Clinical Observation on Preservation of Lens Anterior Capsule in Reduction of Complications Associated with Silicone Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongming Song; Yannian Hui; Lin Wang; Xiaoyan Cao; Qianying Gao


    Purpose: To observe the effect of preservation of anterior capsule on the incidence of complications associated with silicone oil. Methods: 82 patients(82 eyes) accepted trans pars plana vitrectomy(TPPV) combined with lensectomy of whom , 30 eyes with preservation of anterior capsule(PAC) and 52eyes with no preservation of anterior capsule (NPAC). Analysis of the incidence of complications associated with use of oil. Results:The incidence rate was 50.0 % in NPAC group, and 23.3 % in PAC group( P < 0. 025 ). There were seconda'y glaucoma (21. 1% ), band keratopathy ( 13.5 % ) and corneal decompensation(9.6 % ) in NPAC group, while there was none of them in PAC group. Conclusions: Preservation of anterior capsule is an eftective method to reduce the complications associated with silicone oil. Eye Science 2001; 17:39 ~ 41.

  9. Reproducibility of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy in the Investigation of Chronic Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Christodoulou


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy (CE is a valuable tool in the diagnostic evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but limited information is available on the reproducibility of CE findings.

  10. The Preliminary Study of Interferon-γGene Transfection to Human Tenon's Capsule Fibroblasts in Vitro#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqing Lan; Jian Ge; Mingkai Lin; Jianliang Zheng; Huiyi Chen; Haiquan Liu; Jing Wei; Yanyan Li


    Purpose: To investigate the results of the interferon-gamma(IFN-y) gene transfer and transient expression in human Tenon's capsule fibroblast in vitro in order to find a way to gene therapy in vivo. Method: Using LipofectAMINE, IFN-γ gene was transferred in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts with plasmid pcDNA3 IFN-y. Its mRNA transcription and protein expression were determined by RT-PCR and flow cytometry assay respectively.Result: The human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts transferred the IFN-γgene can express the IFN-γin transcription and protein level transiently.Conclusion: IFN-γ gene can be transferred successfully and expressed efficiently in human tenon's capsule fibroblast in vitro.

  11. Unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodged intothe pyriform sinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We report an unexpected, previously unreported complicationof Bravo pH capsule dislodgement. During BravopH testing of a 44-year-old man with gastroesophagealreflux disease, we were unable to endoscopicallyvisualize the capsule attached to the esophageal wallafter deployment. After multiple attempts to detect thecapsule, it was visualized in the left pyriform sinus. Asthere was significant risk for pulmonary dislodgement,ENT and pulmonary physicians were immediatelyconsulted to review options for safe removal. Ultimately,ENT successfully retrieved the capsule with a foreignbody removal forceps. The Bravo pH test is generallya well-tolerated diagnostic tool used to confirm thepresence of abnormal esophageal acid reflux. While fewcomplications have been reported, technical difficultiescan occur, including poor data reception, misplacement,and early dislodgement. Rarely, more serious complicationscan occur, ranging from esophageal wall traumato capsule aspiration. Gastroenterologists performingthis procedure should be aware of the low, but nontrivial,risk of complications.

  12. A study on the development of instrumented capsule for the material irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Maeng, W. Y.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Jung, S. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Jun, Y. K.; Yang, S. H.


    Extensive efforts have been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO`s characteristics. (author). 86 refs., 45 tabs., 146 figs.

  13. Biocompatible multilayer capsules engineered with a graphene oxide derivative: synthesis, characterization and cellular uptake (United States)

    Del Mercato, Loretta L.; Guerra, Flora; Lazzari, Gianpiero; Nobile, Concetta; Bucci, Cecilia; Rinaldi, Rosaria


    Graphene-based capsules have strong potential for a number of applications, including drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, sensors, catalysis and reactors. The ability to integrate graphene into carrier systems with three-dimensional (3D) geometry may open new perspectives both for fundamental tests of graphene mechanics and for novel (bio)technological applications. However, the assembly of 3D complexes from graphene or its derivatives is challenging because of its poor stability under biological conditions. In this work, we attempted to integrate a layer of graphene oxide derivative into the shell of biodegradable capsules by exploiting a facile layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol. As a first step we optimized the LbL protocol to obtain colloidal suspensions of isolated capsules embedding the graphene oxide derivative. As a following step, we investigated in detail the morphological properties of the hybrid capsules, and how the graphene oxide derivative layer influences the porosity and the robustness of the multilayer composite shells. Finally, we verified the uptake of the capsules modified with the GO derivative by two cell lines and studied their intracellular localization and biocompatibility. As compared to pristine capsules, the graphene-modified capsules possess reduced porosity, reduced shell thickness and a higher stability against osmotic pressure. They show remarkable biocompatibility towards the tested cells and long-term colloidal stability and dispersion. By combining the excellent mechanical properties of a graphene oxide derivative with the high versatility of the LbL method, robust and flexible biocompatible polymeric capsules with novel characteristics have been fabricated.Graphene-based capsules have strong potential for a number of applications, including drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, sensors, catalysis and reactors. The ability to integrate graphene into carrier systems with three-dimensional (3D) geometry may open new perspectives

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Spiral Structure of a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Yang


    Full Text Available Fitting a wireless capsule endoscope (WCE with a navigation feature can maximize its functional benefits. The rotation of a spiral-type capsule can be converted to translational motion. The study investigated how the spiral structure and rotational speed affected the capsule’s translation speed. A hand-held instrument, including two permanent magnets, a stepper motor, a controller and a power supplier, were designed to generate rotational magnetic fields. The surfaces of custom-built permanent magnet rings magnetized radially were mounted in spiral lines with different lead angles and diameters, acting as mock-up capsules. The experimental results demonstrate that the rotational speed of the magnetic field and the spiral have significant effects on the translational speed of a capsule. The spiral line with a larger lead angle and the rotating magnetic field with a higher speed can change the capsule’s rotation into a translational motion more efficiently in the intestine.

  15. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, L. M.; Manoli, K.; Magliulo, M.; Torsi, L., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Ligonzo, T. [Department of Physics, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Palazzo, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Center of Colloid and Surface Science—CSGI—Bari Unit, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy)


    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors.

  16. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaviarasan T; Siva Sankar R; Yogamoorthi A


    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown.

  17. Locus de Controle e escolha do método anticoncepcional Locus de Control y método anticonceptivo elegido Locus of Control and choice of contraceptive method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Salheb Alves


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre o Locus de Controle e o tipo de método contraceptivo escolhido. Foi utilizada a Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Controle de Levenson e entrevistadas 191 mulheres. As usuárias de preservativo masculino apresentaram maior Internalidade do que as usuárias de injetável mensal. Quanto ao locus Externalidade Outros Poderosos, as usuárias de implante apresentavam menor externalidade do que as usuárias de preservativo masculino, laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Considerando-se o locus Externalidade Acaso, as usuárias de implante apresentaram menores escores do que as mulheres que optaram pela laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Observou-se ainda, menor Externalidade Acaso entre as usuárias de injetável mensal em relação às mulheres que fizeram opção pelo injetável trimestral.El objetivo es validar la relación entre el Locus de Control y el tipo de método anticonceptivo elegido. Fue usada la Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Control de Levenson. Fueron entrevistadas 191 mujeres. Las usuarias de condón masculino presentaron Internalidad más grande que las usuarias de inyectable mensual. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Otro poderoso, las usuarias de implante presentaron menor externalidad de que las usuarias de condón masculino, laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Quizá, las usuarias del implante presentaron menores resultados que las mujeres que eligieron por la laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Se observo que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable mensual presentaron menor Externalidad - Quizá que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable trimestral.The purpose was to assess the relationship between locus of control and the contraceptive method chosen. It was used the Levenson's Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale and 191 women was interviewed. Users of male condoms presented greater Internality than the monthly contraceptive

  18. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de proceso de sellado de capsulas para probetas de vigilancia de la vasija en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R. [ININ, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  19. Capsule endoscopy and push enteroscopy in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈之铮; 胡运彪; 萧树东


    Background In obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, it is often difficult to detect the bleeding sites located in the small bowel with conventional radiological, scintigraphic or angiographic techniques. Push enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy are currently considered to be the most effective diagnostic procedures. The aim of this study was to compare the detection rates between capsule endoscopy and push enteroscopy. Methods From May 2002 through January 2003, we prospectively examined by capsule endoscopy 39 patients with suspected small bowel diseases, in particular GI bleeding of unknown origin in Renji Hospital. Among them, 32 complained of obscure recurrent GI bleeding. Between January 1993 and October 1996, we used push enteroscopy on 36 patients who suffered from unexplained GI bleeding. All patients had prior normal results on gastroscopy, colonoscopy, small bowel barium radiography, scintigraphy and/or angiography. Results M2A capsule endoscopy disclosed abnormal small bowel findings in 26 (82%) out of 32 patients. Twenty-one of them had significant pathological findings explaining their clinical disorders. Diagnostic yield was therefore 66% (21 of 32 patients). Definite bleeding sites diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in 21 patients included angiodysplasia (8), inflammatory small-bowel (5), small-bowel polyps (4), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (2), carcinoid tumour and lipoma (1), and hemorrhagic gastritis (1). Push enteroscopy detected the definite sources of bleeding in 9 (25%) of the 36 patients. Patients with definite bleeding sources included angiodysplasias (2), leiomyosarcoma (2), leiomyoma (1), lymphoma (1), Crohn's disease (1), small-bowel polyps (1) and adenocarcinoma of ampulla (1). Suspected bleeding sources were shown by push enteroscopy in two additional patients (6%), and in other five patients (16%) by capsule endoscopy.Conclusions The present study of patients with obscure GI bleeding showed that capsule endoscopy significantly superior

  20. Real Gas: CFD Prediction Methodology Flow Physics for Entry Capsule Mission Scenarios (United States)

    Deiwert, George S.


    Mission and concept studies for space exploration are described for the purpose of identifying flow physics for entry capsule mission scenarios. These studies are a necessary precursor to the development and application of CFD prediction methodology for capsule aerothermodynamics. The scope of missions considered includes manned and unmanned cislunar missions, missions to the minor planets, and missions to the major planets and other celestial objects in the solar system.