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Sample records for capsicum chinense bg-3821

  1. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  2. Antioxidants in Capsicum chinense: Variation among countries of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worldwide search for sources of beneficial phytochemicals continues. In this vein, many pepper (Capsicum L.) species and their cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of the health-promoting antioxidants ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, or capsaicin. Capsicum chinense has be...

  3. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  4. Natural Capsaicin in Capsicum chinense: Concentration vs. Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsaicin [N-vanillyl-8-methyl-6-(E) noneamide] is the most pungent of the group of compounds known as capsaicinoids in chili peppers. A survey was conducted to screen fruits of 307 hot pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense selected from the USDA germplasm collection for their major capsaicinoids c...

  5. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    OpenAIRE

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G.; Enrique Sauri-Duch; María de Lourdes Miranda-Ham; Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha; Luis F. Cuevas-Glory; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabol...

  6. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  7. Polinização e fixação de frutos em Capsicum chinense Jacq. Pollinization and fruit fixation in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Lucifrancy Vilagelim Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Amazônia é um importante centro de diversidade de Capsicum spp., em especial de C. chinense. Informações relativas à biologia reprodutiva são importantes para o melhoramento e conservação da espécie. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar o sistema de reprodução de C. chinense. Foram avaliados cinco genótipos e quatro tratamentos: polinização natural, proteção dos botões florais, autopolinização manual e polinização cruzada manual. Os genótipos avaliados demonstraram auto-compatibilidade e reprodução como plantas autógamas.The Amazon is an important diversity center of Capsicum spp. especially C. chinense. Information about their reproductive biology is important to species breeding and conservation. The objective of this work was to study the C. chinense reproductive system. We evaluated five genotypes and four treatments: natural pollination, protection of floral bottoms, manual self pollination and manual cross pollination. The results showed that the genotypes evaluated are self-compatible and autogamous.

  8. Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense do grupo varietal Habanero

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    Ana Flávia P Teodoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found. The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acessos de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses

  9. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinus Ngullie; Loli Daiho

    2013-01-01

    Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest pe...

  10. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  11. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Nora; Ismail, Abdelrahman; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Carlquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified rec...

  12. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

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    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  13. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui)

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, R. C.; V. C. Castro; I. A. Devilla; C.A. Oliveira; Barbosa, L. S.; R. Rodovalho

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui) both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P

  14. A survey of insect populations in Capsicum chinense L. plantings in Georgetown, St. Vincent, using modified CC traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect populations in hot pepper, Capsicum chinense L., were surveyed in Georgetown, St. Vincent, during the 2004 wet and 2005 dry seasons. Modified white, blue, and yellow CC traps were used to capture insects in the plantings. Overall, 69 insect families were captured, 41 of which were capture...

  15. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus Ngullie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq. in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest per plant yield was also recorded from the same combination and it was followed by T. viride. However, the commercially available fungicide Copper oxychloride (0.1% showed 9.82 % and11.88% disease incidence in greenhouse and field condition respectively

  16. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  17. Hot pepper (Capsicum chinense, Jacq.) inheritance of reaction to powdery mildew Herança da reação ao oídio em pimenta (Capsicum chinense, Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Ferreira Blat; Cyro Paulino da Costa; Roland Vencovsky; Fernando Cesar Sala

    2006-01-01

    The pepper species C. chinense has been considered one of the most important resistance sources to powdery mildew Capsicum spp. However, the inheritance in this species was unknown. The purpose of this work was to study its reaction inheritance. Two powdery mildew resistant parents, 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1 and PI 152225 and two moderately susceptible ones, 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 and 'Pimenta Índio', were used to obtain three F1 and their respective F2 generations: 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 ´ 'P...

  18. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulat...

  19. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues. PMID:27075215

  20. Hot pepper (Capsicum chinense, Jacq. inheritance of reaction to powdery mildew

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    Blat Sally Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pepper species C. chinense has been considered one of the most important resistance sources to powdery mildew Capsicum spp. However, the inheritance in this species was unknown. The purpose of this work was to study its reaction inheritance. Two powdery mildew resistant parents, 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1 and PI 152225 and two moderately susceptible ones, 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 and 'Pimenta Índio', were used to obtain three F1 and their respective F2 generations: 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, 'Pimenta Índio' PI 152225 and 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 PI 152225. The powdery mildew epidemy was natural using inoculum from a highly-sporulating susceptible pepper host. Powdery mildew host reaction evaluations were carried out during the fruiting stage using a rating system based on disease severity scales varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. The experimental design was completely randomized. The following genetic parameters were estimated: gene action, heritability coefficient and expected selection gain in the F3 generation. The transgressive segregation in F2 indicated oligogenic inheritance. Results show the presence of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene action. The dominant and epistatic effects detected in crosses presented negative values, tending towards susceptibility. The heritability and selection gain estimates were moderate, with values of 35.5% and 1.7% for 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, from 50.4% to 3.5% for 'Pimenta Índio' PI 152225, and 49% and 2.7% for the 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 PI 152225 crosses, respectively. These gene action results are favorable for breeding programs and exploration of hybrids.

  1. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  2. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq. at high temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Garruña-Hernández

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.. Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT of 30 (chamber 1, 35 (chamber 2 and 40°C (chamber 3. Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature. Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C. However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature. In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  3. Morphological and genetic relationships between wild and domesticated forms of peppers (Capsicum frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacquin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Bianchetti, L B; Reifschneider, F J B; Buso, G S C; Faleiro, F G

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum chinense and C. frutescens peppers are part of the Brazilian biodiversity, and the Amazon basin is the area of greatest diversity for them, especially for that former species. Nevertheless, little is known about their evolutionary history. Aiming to identify genotypes with wild and domesticated characteristics, 30 accessions of the germplasm bank of Embrapa were characterized using morphological descriptors and ISSR molecular markers. Of the 72 primers tested, 42% showed amplification and produced 136 amplicons with some of the primers, namely i7Pv and i57Zm, allowing the identification of each species. ISSR also revealed polymorphisms within a species, especially between domesticated and wild forms. Four wild accessions collected in the Amazon region (CNPH 4315, CNPH 4372, CNPH 4337 and CNPH 4325B) popularly known as "olho-de-peixe" or "olho-de periquito" were molecularly classified as C. chinense and showed fruit with similar characteristics as the wild species: upright position, rounded to campanulate shape, small size (1.0 cm long and 0.8 cm wide), average weight of 0.2 g, dark-red color when ripe, easy detachment of calyx and presence of calyx annular constriction (discriminative of C. chinense). The wild form CNPH 4353 known as "malaguetinha" was morphologically and molecularly classified as C. frutescens, demonstrating a more preserved morphology in C. frutescens than in C. chinense. A significant correlation was found between morphological and molecular characterization, and the combination of the two analyses was effective in identifying and classifying the wild forms and contributing to evolutionary studies in the genus. PMID:25222244

  4. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui

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    R. C. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P <0.05 compared with the fresh pepper. There was a significant difference in concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and capsaicinoids between the fresh pepper and those submitted to the drying treatments. It was concluded that higher temperatures increase shelf life and decrease the volume of the product, preserve macronutrients and degrade micronutrients, antioxidants and the spicy hotness of the Cumari pepper.

  5. Cytogenetic studies of the F1 hybrids of Capsicum annuum with C. chinense and C. baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniel Kumar, O; Panda, R C; Raja Rao, K G

    1987-06-01

    Partially sterile interspecific hybrids were obtained between C. annuum var. 'cerasiformis' and C. chinense var. 'mishme' (H1), and C. annuum var. 'cerasiformis' and C. baccatum var. 'pendulum' (H2). Morphologically the F1 hybrids were intermediate between the corresponding parents. Meiosis was irregular in the two F1 hybrids. Cytological analysis of the two F1 hybrids revealed that the genome of C. annuum differs from C. chinense by two translocations and some minor structural alterations and from C. baccatum by two translocations, a single inversion and some minor structural alterations. Isolation barriers such as hybrid inviability, weakness and hybrid breakdown in the H1 hybrid and, inaddition, desynapsis in the H2, were operative in these taxa. The differences between the present findings and those reported earlier on the two F1hybrids were attributed to differences in the genetic architecture of the taxa employed in hybridization. PMID:24241571

  6. Defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense has immunomodulatory effects on bovine mammary epithelial cells during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Murillo, Violeta; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; López-Meza, Joel E; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    β-Defensins are members of the antimicrobial peptide superfamily that are produced in various species from different kingdoms, including plants. Plant defensins exhibit primarily antifungal activities, unlike those from animals that exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Recently, immunomodulatory roles of mammal β-defensins have been observed to regulate inflammation and activate the immune system. Similar roles for plant β-defensins remain unknown. In addition, the regulation of the immune system by mammalian β-defensins has been studied in humans and mice models, particularly in immune cells, but few studies have investigated these peptides in epithelial cells, which are in intimate contact with pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the chemically synthesized β-defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense on the innate immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) infected with Staphylococcus aureus, the primary pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis, which is capable of living within bMECs. Our results indicate that γ-thionin at 0.1 μg/ml was able to reduce the internalization of S. aureus into bMECs (∼50%), and it also modulates the innate immune response of these cells by inducing the mRNA expression (∼5-fold) and membrane abundance (∼3-fold) of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), as well as by inducing genes coding for the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (∼14 and 8-fold, respectively) before and after the bacterial infection. γ-Thionin also induces the expression of the mRNA of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (∼12-fold). Interestingly, the reduction in bacterial internalization coincides with the production of other antimicrobial products by bMECs, such as NO before infection, and the secretion into the medium of the endogenous antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 after infection. The results from this work support the potential use of β-defensins from plants as immunomodulators of the mammalian

  7. Variation in insect pest and virus resistance among habanero peppers (Capsicum chinenseJacq.) in Yucatán, México.  [Variación en resistencia a insectos herbívoros y virosis en líneas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) en Yucatán, México

    OpenAIRE

    Berny-Mier y Teran, Jorge C; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Durán-Yáñez, Antonio; Tut-Pech, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of crop genetic variation for herbivore resistance is a relevant tool that can provide information about plant breeding strategies and biological control. The objective of this study was to provide a field–based assessment of pest resistance in five lines of habenero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Weekly surveys were conducted at an experimental site in Mocochá (Yucatán, México) from July 2010 to December 2010, including incidence of Bemisiatabaci nymphs and Liriomyza trifol...

  8. Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of treatment to see a benefit. Symptoms may return after stopping use of capsicum. Cluster headache, when used in the ... Laryngitis. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of capsicum for these uses.

  9. Elaboración artesanal de dos abonos líquidos fermentados y su efectividad en la producción de plántulas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    OpenAIRE

    Salaya Domínguez, Jotam

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de dos abonos líquidos fermentados elaborados de subproductos regionales, en la producción de plántulas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq), en la fase de vivero; se estableció el experimento en un predio del poblado C-34, Plan Chontalpa, Huimanguillo, Tabasco. Para la obtención de los abonos líquidos fermentados se utilizó el biodigestor tipo estacionario o Batch, a los cuales se les hizo las adecuaciones en la tapa que funcionó como válvula de esc...

  10. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas-Espinola, Fray M; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, María L

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources' participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids. PMID:27338325

  11. Use of Capsicum on Kosrae Island, Federated States of Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2013-01-01

    I surveyed the nomenclature and usage of Capsicum, in particular C. frutescens on Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia, to identify the relationship between people and Capsicum. Three species of Capsicum are cultivated on Kosrae Island: C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. Many cultivars of C. annuum and one accession of C. chinense are thought to have been introduced to Kosrae Island quite recently. In contrast to C. annuum and C. chinense, C. frutesc...

  12. Use of Capsicum on Kosrae Island, Federated States of Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2013-01-01

    I surveyed the nomenclature and usage of Capsicum, in particular C. frutescens on Kosrae Island,Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia, to identify the relationship between people and Capsicum.Three species of Capsicum are cultivated on Kosrae Island: C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense.Many cultivars of C. annuum and one accession of C. chinense are thought to have been introduced toKosrae Island quite recently. In contrast to C. annuum and C. chinense, C. frutescens, especially ...

  13. NOTE - Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and pollen viability (PV studies were performed in pepper accessions, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum. Irregularities such as laggard and univalent chromosomes, bridges, problems in the spindle fibers and cytomixis were observed, especially in C. baccatum which was the most unstable genotype. In the post-meiotic products, irregularities were observed, on average, at 20 % of the microspores in C. baccatum and 17 % in C. chinense. PV in C. baccatum was below 70 %, while in C. chinense, it was above 80 %. Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum, mainly in C. baccatum, considering the low PV estimated, were significant but not impeditive for fertilization.

  14. NOTE - Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum L. species

    OpenAIRE

    Margarete Magalhães Souza; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Cláudia Pombo Sudré; Rosana Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic and pollen viability (PV) studies were performed in pepper accessions, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum. Irregularities such as laggard and univalent chromosomes, bridges, problems in the spindle fibers and cytomixis were observed, especially in C. baccatum which was the most unstable genotype. In the post-meiotic products, irregularities were observed, on average, at 20 % of the microspores in C. baccatum and 17 % in C. chinense. PV in C. baccatum was below 70 %, while in ...

  15. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

    OpenAIRE

    Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza; Angela Celis de Almeida; Reginaldo de Carvalho; Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Ana Paula Peron

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI). These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using the ...

  16. Manipulation of culture strategies to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-06-01

    Manipulation of culture strategies was adopted to study the influence of nutrient stress, pH stress and precursor feeding on the biosynthesis of capsaicin in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of C. chinense. Cells cultured in the absence of one of the four nutrients (ammonium and potassium nitrate for nitrate and potassium stress, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate for phosphorus stress, and sucrose for sugar stress) influenced the accumulation of capsaicin. Among the stress factors studied, nitrate stress showed maximal capsaicin production on day 20 (505.9 ± 2.8 μg g(-1) f.wt) in immobilized cell, whereas in suspension cultures the maximum accumulation (345.5 ± 2.9 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained on day 10. Different pH affected capsaicin accumulation; enhanced accumulation of capsaicin (261.6 ± 3.4 μg g(-1) f.wt) was observed in suspension cultures at pH 6 on day 15, whereas in case of immobilized cultures the highest capsaicin content (433.3 ± 3.3 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained at pH 5 on day 10. Addition of capsaicin precursors and intermediates significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of capsaicin, incorporation of vanillin at 100 μM in both suspension and immobilized cell cultures resulted in maximum capsaicin content with 499.1 ± 5.5 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 20 and 1,315.3 ± 10 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 10, respectively. Among the different culture strategies adopted to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in cell cultures of C. chinense, cells fed with vanillin resulted in the maximum capsaicin accumulation. The rate of capsaicin production was significantly higher in immobilized cells as compared to freely suspended cells. PMID:24141419

  17. Capsicum sp.: diversidad y capsicinoides

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Claver, Ana

    2015-01-01

    El género Capsicum, originario del continente americano (Andrews, 1984), comprende 33 especies (GRIN, 2014), de las cuales cinco, Capsicum annuum L., C. baccatum L., C. chinense Jacq., C. frutescens L., y C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav., han sido domesticadas (Bosland, 1994; Bosland y Votaba, 2000). De ellas, C. annuum es la especie más cultivada en todo el mundo. Los restos más antiguos identificados como C. annuum, que podrían corresponder a las primeras evidencias de su domesticación, se encontra...

  18. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological characters such as fruit color, pungency and origin. Major metabolites in fruits of pepper, carotenoids, capsaicinoids (pungency), flavonoid glycosides, and vitamins C and E were analyzed and quantified by ...

  19. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  20. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Karina Pereira de Campos

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%). The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frut...

  1. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found. PMID:23410113

  2. Caracterización bioquímica y fisiológica de algunos frutos amazónicos (Capsicum sp. Y Eugenia stipitata MC VAUGH)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández María Soledad; Melgarejo Luz Marina; Manduca Fermín Juan Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Los niveles de la actividad poligalacturonasa (PG) fueron cuantificados en diferentes estadios de madurez de frutos de cuatro especies de ají Capsicum chinense, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens. Las muestras fueron colectadas y almacenadas a -10º C. La determinación de la actividad poligalacturonasa fue medida por el método de azúcares reductores de Somogyi-Nelson y el contenido de proteínas por Bradford. El comportamiento de la actividad PG de la especie C. chinense e...

  3. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  4. Olfaktorische, gustatorische und instrumentell-analytische Charakterisierung von getrockneten Früchten nativer Capsicum-Spezies

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Benavides, Evelyn Meylin

    2014-01-01

    Peru und Bolivia dispose of a unique variety of Capsicum accessions mainly from the species C. baccatum and C. chinense that have not been characterized by its biochemical and sensory traits. This research aims to study the relationship between sensory attributes like sweet, sour, and bitter as well as the content of sugars and organic acids obtained by instrumental analysis in Capsicum powders. Prior to the analysis, the capsicum fruits were harvested, solar or oven-dried, milled in their na...

  5. Screening Capsicum accessions for capsaicinoids content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Jarret, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Ninety Capsicum accessions selected from the USDA Capsicum germplasm collection were screened for their capsaicinoids content using gas hromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD). Fresh fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were extracted with methanol and analyzed for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. Mass spectrometry of the fruit crude extracts indicated that the molecular ions at m/z 305, 307, and 293, which correspond to capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, respectively, have a common benzyl cation fragment at m/z 137 that can be used for monitoring capsaicinoids in pepper fruit extracts. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the dominant capsaicinoids detected. Capsaicin concentrations were typically greater than dihydrocapsaicin. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from not detectable to 11.2 mg fruit(-1). Statistical analysis revealed that accession PI-441624 (C. chinense) had the highest capsaicin content (2.9 mg g(-1) fresh fruit) and accession PI-497984 (C. frutescens) had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (2.3 mg g(-1) fresh fruit). Genebank accessions PI-439522 (C. frutescens) and PI-497984 contained the highest concentrations of total capsaicinoids. PMID:16785178

  6. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Maria Passador; Edson Luiz Furtado; Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão), é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne) e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero), que após a forma...

  7. Capsaicin Content and Pungency of Different Capsicum spp. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SANATOMBI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Six chilli cultivars belonging to three species of Capsicum: Capsicum annuum L. (cvs 'Meiteimorok' and 'Haomorok', Capsicum frutescens L. (cvs 'Uchithi' and 'Mashingkha' and Capsicum chinense Jacq. (cvs 'Umorok' and 'Chiengpi' are economically important food crops. The capsaicin content and pungency in scoville heat unit (SHU of these six chilli cultivars were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The capsaicin content and pungency of the chillies varied depending upon the genotype. Among the six chilli cultivars studied, the cultivar 'Umorok' had the highest capsaicin content (2.06%, and was also the most pungent of with 329.100 SHU while the cultivar 'Haomorok' had the least capsaicin content (0.17% with a corresponding pungency of 26.000 SHU.

  8. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI. These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using the squash method and Giemsa staining. The chromosome number 2n=2x=24 was verified for each of the four species. Chromosomal polymorphisms were observed for the C. frutencens accession BGC 37, which presented 12 pairs of metacentric chromosomes instead of 11 pairs of metacentric chromosomes and 1 submetacentric chromosome pair present in other accessions. In the accessions BGC 01 and BGC 37, secondary constrictions were observed in the 1 and 12 as well as in the 6 and 11 homologs, respectively. The karyotypes of the studied species were asymmetrical among themselves. The results obtained in this study confirm the high genetic diversity previously described in the literature for this genus.

  9. Inhaltsstoffzusammensetzung und sensorische Qualität von 20 Kultivaren verschiedener Capsicum-Arten

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmannsberger, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    20 verschiedene Kultivare der Arten Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. pubescens und C. annuum wurden hinsichtlich ihrer Scharfstoffe, ihrer geruchlich relevanten und sonstigen gaschromatographisch fassbaren Inhaltsstoffe gaschromatographisch-massenspektrometrisch (GC-MS) und humansensorisch charakterisiert. Die Unterschiede zwischen diesen Kultivaren, die Verteilung der Inhaltsstoffe auf verschiedene Fruchtkompartimente, die Eignung der Dampfraum-Festphasen-Mikroextraktion (...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of Capsicum spp germplasm bank accessions based on α/β-esterase polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, E R; Bronzato, A R; Orasmo, G R; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure were analyzed in 10 accessions belonging to Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Capsicum located at Federal University of Piauí in northwestern Brazil that receives pepper samples grown in community gardens in various regions and Brazilian states. Selections were made from seeds of C. chinense (4 accessions), C. annuum (5 accessions), and C. baccatum (1 accession). Samples consisting of leaves were collected from 4-10 plants of each accession (a total of 85 plants). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify α- and β-esterase polymorphisms. Polymorphism was clearly detected in 5 loci. Sixteen alleles were found at 5 α/β-esterase loci of the three Capsicum species. In the C. chinense samples, the highest HO and HE values were 0.3625 and 0.4395, respectively, whereas in C. annuum samples, HO and HE values were 0.2980 and 0.3310, respectively; the estimated HO and HE values in C. chinense samples were higher than those detected in C. annuum samples. A deficit of homozygous individuals was found in C. chinense (FIS = -0.6978) and C. annuum (FIS = 0.7750). Genetic differentiation between C. chinense and C. annuum at these loci was high (FST = 0.1867) indicating that C. chinense and C. annuum are genetically structured species for α/β- esterase isozymes. The esterase analysis showed high genetic diversity among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and very high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.6321) among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and the C. baccatum accession. PMID:23661440

  12. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  13. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features. PMID:23479174

  14. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González-Pérez

    Full Text Available The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ (Spain holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2% were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles. Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern

  15. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain. PMID

  16. Study of in vitro anther culture in selected genotypes of genus Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    OLSZEWSKA, Dorota; Kisiala, Anna; NIKLAS-NOWAK, Aleksandra; NOWACZYK, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of anther incubation time on CP induction medium (12, 14, and 16 days) and 2 concentrations of kinetin in R1 regeneration medium (0.1 and 0.3 mg/L) on the effectiveness of androgenesis was investigated in 17 genotypes of Capsicum grown in Poland. Plant material consisted of breeding lines and intraspecific hybrids of C. annuum; the species of C. frutescens, C. chinense, and C. baccatum var. pendulum; interspecific hybrids F1 (C. frutescens × C. chinense) and F1 (C. frutesc...

  17. A new Capsicum baccatum accession shows tolerance to wild-type and resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Aleixandre, Salvador; DEBRECZENI, DIANA ELVIRA; Vidal, Eduardo; Aramburu, José; López Del Rincón, Carmelo; Galipienso Torregrosa, Luis; RUBIO MIGUELEZ, LUIS

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes economically important losses in many crops, worldwide. In pepper (Capsicum annuum), the best method for disease control has been breeding resistant cultivars by introgression of gene Tsw from Capsicum chinense. However, this resistance has two drawbacks: (a) it is not efficient if plants are infected at early growth stages and under prolonged high temperatures, and (b) it is rapidly overcome by TSWV evolution. In this work, we se...

  18. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Pelgrom, Koen T. B.; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J.; Arnaud G. Bovy

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC–MS and headspace GC–MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis us...

  19. Crossability and evaluation of incompatibility barriers in crosses between Capsicum species

    OpenAIRE

    Kellen Coutinho Martins; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Sérgio Alessandro Machado Souza; Rosana Rodrigues; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Junior

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the crossability rate in combinations of and assess the occurrence of incompatibility barriers between Capsicum species. The species C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum var. pendulum, and C. baccatum var. baccatum were crossed and the number of hand-pollinations and of resulting fruits and plants was registered. The resulting hybrids were evaluated for their pollen viability and in the crosses that produced no hybrids, the in vivo g...

  20. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (C. chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription fac...

  1. Caracterización morfologica de accesiones de Capsicum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Castro, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp., procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, Salvador) y representativas de 4 especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens), se utilizaron 21 descriptores (6 cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; 8 de caracteres vegetativos, 3 de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla) propuestos por el IPGRI (1983). La caracterización morfológica permitió confirmar la pr...

  2. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  3. Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyavan; Jarret, Robert; Russo, Vincent; Majetich, George; Shimkus, Joel; Bushway, Rodney; Perkins, Brian

    2009-05-13

    Capsicum fruits contain a newly discovered phytochemical called capsinoids. Because little is known about the quantities of these compounds in both sweet and pungent pepper fruits, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to identify and quantify the capsinoids (naturally present E-capsiate and dihydrocapsiate) utilizing fruit obtained from a variety of Capsicum spp. in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Capsicum germplasm collection. Capsinoids were extracted with acetonitrile, filtered, and analyzed using an HPLC system equipped with a C(18) monolithic column, gradient pump, and diode array detector. The elution solvents were acetonitrile and water (60:40) with an isocratic flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Forty-nine samples representing distinct morphotypes of four cultivated species ( C. annuum var. annuum, C. annuum var. glabriusculum, C. baccatum , C. chinense , and C. frutescens ) contained detectable levels (11-369 microg/g) of E-capsiate quantified at a wavelength of 280 nm. Nine of the E-capsiate-containing samples also had dihydrocapsiate (18-86 micro/g). Gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) confirmed the presence of these compounds in the Capsicum spp. PMID:19415923

  4. Assessment of capsiconinoid composition, nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues, in capsicum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Otsu, Keigo; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-24

    Capsiconinoid is a group of nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues produced in Capsicum fruits, which we recently identified. Capsiconinoids have agonist activity for transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which is reported to be a receptor for capsaicin. It is, therefore, important to screen cultivars containing high levels of capsiconinoid for their use as a vegetable or dietary supplement. This study describes the quantitative analysis of capsiconinoid content in fruits of 35 Capsicum cultivars: 18 cultivars of C. annuum, 7 of C. baccatum, 5 of C. chinense, 4 of C. frutescens, and 1 of C. pubescens. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found that 10 cultivars contained capsiconinoids. Capsiconinoid Baccatum (CCB) (C. baccatum var. praetermissum) showed the highest capsiconinoid content (3314 microg/g DW) and Charapita (C. chinense) had the second highest content. The other 8 cultivars had much lower capsiconinoid content than these two cultivars (<300 microg/g DW). Time-course analysis during fruit development clarified that capsiconinoid content in CCB fruits increased until 30 days after flowering (DAF) and then decreased rapidly until 40 DAF. PMID:19489540

  5. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-10-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 landraces derived from natural interspecific crosses. Out of 106 SSR markers, 25 polymorphic SSR markers (24 %) detected a total of 76 alleles (average, 3.04; range, 2-5). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.69 (range, 0.29-0.92). Seventeen RAMPO markers produced 87 polymorphic fragments with average PIC of 0.63 (range, 0.44-0.81). Dendrograms based on SSRs and RAMPOs generated two clusters. All 38 Capsicum annuum genotypes and an interspecific landrace clustered together, whereas nine non-annuum (three Capsicum frutescens, one Capsicum chinense, one Capsicum baccatum and four interspecific landraces) genotypes clustered separately. Genetic variation within non-annuum genotypes was greater than the C. annuum genotypes. Distinctness of interspecific derivative landraces grown in northeast India was validated; natural crossing between sympatric Capsicum species has been proposed as the mechanism of their origin. PMID:24431527

  6. Caracterización bioquímica y fisiológica de algunos frutos amazónicos (Capsicum sp. Y Eugenia stipitata MC VAUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández María Soledad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los niveles de la actividad poligalacturonasa (PG fueron cuantificados en diferentes estadios de madurez de frutos de cuatro especies de ají Capsicum chinense, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens. Las muestras fueron colectadas y almacenadas a -10º C. La determinación de la actividad poligalacturonasa fue medida por el método de azúcares reductores de Somogyi-Nelson y el contenido de proteínas por Bradford. El comportamiento de la actividad PG de la especie C. chinense es muy temprano y similar a C. frutescens, pero el rango de la actividad PG de C. chinense es inferior a la de C. frutescens (picos máximos de 1678,572 y
    3581,5080 nmoles*min-1*mg prot-1, respectivamente. C. frutescens presentó dos períodos de actividad; y al igual que C. annuum, C. baccatum es de actividad tardía. El pico climatérico del fruto de Arazá fue de 102,49 mgCO2/kg/h, mientras que el pico de etileno fue de 26,62 mgC2H4/kg/h coincidiendo con la máxima madurez del fruto.

  7. Capsicum Species: Symptomless Hosts and Reservoirs of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polston, J E; Cohen, L; Sherwood, T A; Ben-Joseph, R; Lapidot, M

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Five Capsicum species were tested for susceptibility to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the mild strain of TYLCV (TYLCV-Mld). TYLCV was able to infect 30 of 55 genotypes of C. annuum, one of six genotypes of C. chinense, one of two genotypes of C. baccatum, and the only genotype of C. frutescens tested but was unable to infect the one genotype of C. pubescens tested. This is the first evidence for the susceptibility of C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens to TYLCV. Unlike TYLCV isolates, TYLCV-Mld was unable to infect C. chinense. No host differences were observed between the Israeli and Florida isolates of TYLCV. None of the Capsicum species showed symptoms after infection with TYLCV or TYLCV-Mld. TYLCV was detected in fruits of C. annuum, but whiteflies were unable to transmit virus from fruits to plants. White-flies were able to transmit both TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld from infected pepper plants to tomato plants. Pepper plants in research plots were found infected with TYLCV at rates as much as 100%. These data demonstrate the ability of some genotypes of pepper to serve as reservoirs for the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld. PMID:18944303

  8. Caffeic acid derivatives from Bupleurum chinense

    OpenAIRE

    Haghi, G.; Hatami, A.; Mehran, M.; Hosseini, H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, caffeic acid (CA) and its three derivatives including 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA, neochlorogenic acid), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA, cryptochlorogenic acid), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, chlorogenic acid) were identified in Bupleurum chinense aerial parts using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector, reference compounds and chemical reactions. Separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution wit...

  9. Molecular profiling for genetic variability in Capsicum species based on ISSR and RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Sanjog T; Darokar, Mahendra P; Shasany, Ajit K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2012-06-01

    The taxonomic identity of Capsicum species is found to be difficult as it displays variations at morpho-chemical characters. Twenty-two accessions of six Capsicum species, namely, C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. eximium, C. frutescens, and C. luteum were investigated for phenotypic diversity based on flower color and for genetic differences by molecular makers. The genetic cluster analyses of 27 RAPD and eight ISSR primers, respectively, revealed genetic similarities in the ranges of 23-88% and 11-96%. Principal component analysis of the pooled RAPD and ISSR data further supports the genetic similarity and groupings. Different species showed variations in relation to corolla shade of flower. C. annuum accessions formed a single cluster in the molecular analysis as maintaining their flower characteristic. C. chinense accession shared flower features with the accessions of C. frutescens and were found to be closer at genotypic level. C. luteum was found to be rather closer to C. baccatum complex, both phenotypically and genetically. The only accession of C. eximium presenting purple flowers falls apart from the groupings. The floral characteristics and the molecular markers are found to be useful toward the delineation of the species specificity in Capsicum collection and identification of genetic stock. PMID:21861246

  10. Chromosomal localization and sequence variation of 5S rRNA gene in five Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Park, K C; Park, C H; Kim, N S

    2000-02-29

    Chromosomal localization and sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA gene were carried out in five Capsicum species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that chromosomal location of the 5S rRNA gene was conserved in a single locus at a chromosome which was assigned to chromosome 1 by the synteny relationship with tomato. In sequence analysis, the repeating units of the 5S rRNA genes in the Capsicum species were variable in size from 278 bp to 300 bp. In sequence comparison of our results to the results with other Solanaceae plants as published by others, the coding region was highly conserved, but the spacer regions varied in size and sequence. T stretch regions, just after the end of the coding sequences, were more prominant in the Capsicum species than in two other plants. High G x C rich regions, which might have similar functions as that of the GC islands in the genes transcribed by RNA PolII, were observed after the T stretch region. Although we could not observe the TATA like sequences, an AT rich segment at -27 to -18 was detected in the 5S rRNA genes of the Capsicum species. Species relationship among the Capsicum species was also studied by the sequence comparison of the 5S rRNA genes. While C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. annuum formed one lineage, C. baccatum was revealed to be an intermediate species between the former three species and C. pubescens. PMID:10774742

  11. Estabilidade da resistência de Capsicum spp. ao oídio em telado e casa de vegetação Stability of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to powdery mildew in protected cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Milton L. Paz Lima; Carlos A. Lopes; Adalberto C. Café Filho

    2004-01-01

    Oídio (Oidiopsis taurica) é uma importante doença do pimentão (Capsicum annuum) e outras espécies de Capsicum. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fontes de resistência no germoplasma de Capsicum spp. e relatar suas reações ao oídio em ambientes de telado e de casa de vegetação. Em telado, com inoculação artificial, testaram-se 104 genótipos de C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum e C. frutescens. A avaliação foi repetida em canteiros de casa de vegetação com inoculação natural. Em telad...

  12. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Manzur, Juan Pablo; Fita, Ana; Prohens, Jaime; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross b...

  13. Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by Flow Cytometry and Feulgen Densitometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCONE, EDUARDO A.; BARANYI, MONIKA; EBERT, IRMA; GREILHUBER, JOHANN; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T.

    2003-01-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare ‘Ditta’, 1C = 5·063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In ...

  14. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1 Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2 Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3 Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4 Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium. Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct

  15. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  16. Reação de acessos de Capsicum e de progênies de cruzamentos interespecíficos a isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum Reaction of Capsicum accessions and progenies from interspecific crosses to Colletotrichum acutatum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica JZ Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose, causada por um complexo de espécies de Colletotrichum, é uma das doenças mais importantes de Capsicum em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Fontes de resistência têm sido identificadas em programas de melhoramento conduzidos em diferentes continentes. No entanto, ainda são restritas as informações sobre a abrangência e estabilidade desta resistência aos diferentes isolados de espécies de Colletotrichum que compõem o complexo causador da antracnose em Capsicum. Foram avaliadas as reações de 129 acessos de espécies de Capsicum e de progênies derivadas de cruzamentos interespecíficos (C. annuum x C. chinense PBC 932 a cinco isolados de C. acutatum, em plântulas e frutos e verificada a correlação entre a reação nesses dois estádios. Pela análise de agrupamento, um acesso de C. annuum, um de C. baccatum e dois de C. chinense foram classificados como resistentes. Grande variabilidade de respostas à antracnose foi observada nas progênies derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico variando desde extrema suscetibilidade (55% até progênies sem lesões (10%. Não foi detectada correlação significativa entre a reação de plântulas e frutos. Os resultados indicam que a resistência do acesso C. chinense PBC 932 possui estabilidade e amplo espectro contra diferentes isolados da espécie C. acutatum e que há possibilidade de incorporar os genes de resistência à antracnose de PBC 932 em linhagens elite via métodos clássicos de melhoramento.The anthracnose (caused by a complex of Colletotrichum species is one of the most important diseases of Capsicum in tropical and subtropical regions. Distinct breeding programs around the world have identified some sources of resistance. However, there is a scarce amount of information about the resistance spectrum and stability of these sources to isolates of the Colletotrichum species. In the present work, the reaction to five C. acutatum isolates was characterized in a

  17. A survey of DNA polymorphism within the genus Capsicum and the fingerprinting of pepper cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J P; Lackney, V K; Angeles, C; Blauth, J R; Kyle, M M

    1995-04-01

    Interspecific genetic variation was examined in the genus Capsicum based on shared restriction fragments in Southern analyses. Four distinct clusters were delineated among 21 accessions of cultivated and wild pepper (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chacoense, C. chinense, and C. frutescens). Three tight clusters comprised of accessions belonging to C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. baccatum, respectively, were formed, along with a fourth cluster comprised of one accession each of C. chinense and C. chacoense. All accessions were differentiated by this technique, and the clusters corresponded closely to previous morphology-based classification. Sufficient DNA polymorphism exists among these accessions that segregating populations useful for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping could be constructed using any two pepper accessions as parents. Regression analysis indicates that genetic distance is a good predictor (R2 = 0.872) of the level of mappable DNA polymorphism in Capsicum. Intraspecific variability was examined among four C. annuum cultivars (NuMex R Naky, Jupiter, Perennial, and Criollo de Morelos 334) using both RFLPs and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), allowing a comparative evaluation of the two techniques. Seventeen percent of the clones used singly in RFLP analyses were sufficient for the differentiation of these varieties, as were 12.5% of the RAPD PCR amplifications. Dendrograms constructed from RFLP and RAPD analyses of the intraspecific data are similar but not identical. Southern analysis and RAPD PCR should be useful for DNA fingerprinting and the discrimination of closely related C. annuum genotypes. PMID:7774796

  18. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum Using Different Cultivated Aji (C. baccatum Accessions as Donor Parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Manzur

    Full Text Available Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum, one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i genetic bridge (GB using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER. A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12, C. baccatum (3, C. chinense (2, and C. frutescens (1. More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀ × C. chinense (♂] (♀ × C. annuum (♂, while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀ × C. baccatum (♂ crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀ × C. baccatum (♂] (♀ × C. annuum (♂ using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding.

  19. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzur, Juan Pablo; Fita, Ana; Prohens, Jaime; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding. PMID:26642059

  20. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Passador

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão, é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero, que após a formação dos espermogônios (11 dias, apresentou manchas necróticas na região periférica aos espermogônios, aos 15 dias após a inoculação, não havendo evolução da infecção. Também foi observada reação de hipersensibilidade, de forma mais moderada em folhas C. annuum (pimenta serrano e C. baccatum (chapéu-de-frade. Com relação às outras solanáceas inoculadas (jiló e berinjela não foram observados os sintomas e sinais da infecção.The Capsicum spp. (pepper and green pepper rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia pampeana. This is an important disease in these crops which may cause complete losses in crops of several species of Capsicum. Although specific to the genus Capsicum, and despite the fact that many species within this genus are susceptible to rust, some of them have shown a hypersensitivity reaction. That was the case with Capsicum annuum (Cayenne pepper and C. chinense (datil pepper, which, after spermogonia formation (11 days, showed necrotic spots in the peripheral region of the spermogonia 15 days after inoculation, without evolution of the infection. A milder hypersensitivity reaction was also observed only in leaves of C. annuum (chili pepper and C. baccatum ("chapéu-de-frade". With regard to other solanaceous plants inoculated ("jiló" and eggplant, no symptoms or signs of infection were observed.

  1. USO DE AGUA, POTENCIAL HÍDRICO Y RENDIMIENTO DE CHILE HABANERO (CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy C. Quintal Ortiz; Alfonzo Pérez-Gutiérrez; Luis Latournerie Moreno; Cesar May-Lara; Esaú Ruiz Sánchez; Armando J. Martínez Chacón

    2012-01-01

    En las plantas el agua constituye típicamente de 80 a 95 % de la masa de los tejidos en crecimiento, donde desempeña funciones esenciales. La baja disponibilidad de agua en el suelo provoca el estrés abiótico de mayor incidencia en el crecimiento vegetal que en los sistemas agrícolas representa en pérdidas económicas. Es importante entonces estimar los requerimientos hídricos de los cultivos para mejorar su potencial productivo y el uso del agua. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de cinco n...

  2. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira Morphologic characterization of 93 accesions of Capsicum spp of germoplasm bank of National University of Colombia - Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.Morphologic characterization of 93 Capsicum accessions of Capsicum spp., from 11 countries (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú and El Salvador and representative of four species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, 21 IBPGR's descriptors were used (six quantitative y 15 qualitative; eight of vegetative traits, three of flower traits and ten of fruit and seed traits. Morphologic characterization permited confirm the presence of intragenetic variability, in special for of plant architecture descriptors, reproductive structures and production, wich explain the 78% of the total variability. Dice's distance permitted groups formation based in their origin and flower and fruit traits, but didn't permit to interespecific discrimination. Narrow genetic distances among C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense can indicate these three species conform only one morphological group.

  3. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

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    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  4. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

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    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  5. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin) Kitag by ISSR Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the study,the reasonable sampling of the grey Aneurolepidium chinense of green grassland,the grey-green A.chinense of green grassland,the grey A.chinense of Wulimu and the grey-green A.chinense of Wulimu were analyzed by ISSR.Eight primers with clear and diverse products were screened out from 20 primers and 47 DNA fragments were amplified from 39 individuals.The average number of DNA fragments produced by each primer was 5.9,and polymorphic bands were 41 and the polymorphic rate was 87.23%,which could r...

  6. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV

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    García Davalos Mario Augusto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  7. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Palacios Castro; Mario Augusto García Dávila

    2008-01-01

    Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador) y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens), se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla). La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro...

  8. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Pardey R; Andrés M Posso T; Mario A García D

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV). Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5%) como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR). Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  9. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  10. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%. PMID:23692768

  11. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C H; Pelgrom, Koen T B; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC-MS and headspace GC-MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis using AFLP markers confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of accessions according to Capsicum species and separated C. baccatum from the C. annuum-C. chinense-C. frutescens complex. Species-specific clustering was also observed when accessions were grouped based on their semi-polar metabolite profiles. In total 88 semi-polar metabolites could be putatively identified. A large proportion of these metabolites represented conjugates of the main pepper flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and luteolin) decorated with different sugar groups at different positions along the aglycone. In addition, a large group of acyclic diterpenoid glycosides, called capsianosides, was found to be highly abundant in all C. annuum genotypes. In contrast to the variation in semi-polar metabolites, the variation in volatiles corresponded well to the differences in pungency between the accessions. This was particularly true for branched fatty acid esters present in pungent accessions, which may reflect the activity through the acyl branch of the metabolic pathway leading to capsaicinoids. In addition, large genetic variation was observed for many well-established pepper aroma compounds. These profiling data can be used in breeding programs aimed at improving metabolite-based quality traits such as flavour and health-related metabolites in pepper fruits. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0432-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  12. Characterization and genetic diversity of pepper (Capsicum spp) parents and interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M P S D; do Rêgo, M M; da Silva, A P G; do Rêgo, E R; Barroso, P A

    2016-01-01

    Pepper species exhibit broad genetic diversity, which enables their use in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to characterize the diversity between the parents of different species and their interspecific hybrids using morphological and molecular markers. The parents of Capsicum annuum (UFPB-01 and -137), C. baccatum (UFPB-72), and C. chinense (UFPB-128) and their interspecific hybrids (01x128, 72x128, and 137x128) were used for morphological and molecular characterization. Fruit length and seed yield per fruit (SYF) traits showed the highest variability, and three groups were formed based on these data. CVg/CVe ratio values (>1.0) were calculated for leaf length (1.67) and SYF (5.34). The trait that most contributed to divergence was the largest fruit diameter (26.42%), and the trait that least contributed was pericarp thickness (0.33%), which was subject to being discarded. The 17 primers produced 58 polymorphic bands that enabled the estimation of genetic diversity between parents and hybrids, and these results confirmed the results of the morphological data analyses. The principal component analysis results also corroborated the morphological and random-amplified polymorphic DNA data, and three groups that contained the same individuals were identified. These results confirmed reports in the literature regarding the phylogenetic relationships of the species used as parents, which demonstrated that C. annuum was closer to C. chinense as compared to C. baccatum. PMID:27173311

  13. Genetic variability in domesticated Capsicum spp as assessed by morphological and agronomic data in mixed statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Riva-Souza, E M; Bento, C Dos S

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum species are very important in Brazil because of economic, cultural and biological factors, and the country is considered to be a diversity center for this genus. Collection and maintenance of the genetic diversity in Capsicum are important to avoid genetic erosion. Besides the identification of species, the characterization and evaluation of accessions maintained in gene banks are of fundamental importance. For this purpose, multivariate methods have become an important tool in the classification of conserved genotypes. The objectives of this study were: i) to identify and characterize accessions of the Capsicum spp collection and draw conclusions about the potential use of certain accessions in different production sectors; ii) to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions using the Ward-MLM procedure, and iii) to evaluate the efficiency of the analysis of continuous and categorical data using the Ward-MLM procedure. Fifty-six Capsicum spp accessions were evaluated based on 25 descriptors, 14 of which were morphological and 11 agronomic. Based on the qualitative descriptors, it was possible to identify all species and, together with the agronomic descriptors, genotypes could be indicated with potential for use in various production sectors. Five was determined as the ideal number of groups by the criteria pseudo-F and pseudo-t2. The Ward-MLM procedure allowed the differentiation of the species C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. chinense in separate groups. The Ward-MLM procedure showed some level of efficiency in clustering Capsicum species analyzing morphological and agronomic data simultaneously. PMID:20198584

  14. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV) Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Pardey R; Andrés M Posso T; Mario A García D

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV). Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5%) como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR). Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A t...

  15. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira Morphologic characterization of 93 accesions of Capsicum spp of germoplasm bank of National University of Colombia - Palmira

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Palacios Castro; Mario Augusto García Dávila

    2008-01-01

    Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador) y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens), se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla). La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro...

  16. Estabilidade da resistência de Capsicum spp. ao oídio em telado e casa de vegetação Stability of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to powdery mildew in protected cropping

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    Milton L. Paz Lima

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Oídio (Oidiopsis taurica é uma importante doença do pimentão (Capsicum annuum e outras espécies de Capsicum. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fontes de resistência no germoplasma de Capsicum spp. e relatar suas reações ao oídio em ambientes de telado e de casa de vegetação. Em telado, com inoculação artificial, testaram-se 104 genótipos de C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum e C. frutescens. A avaliação foi repetida em canteiros de casa de vegetação com inoculação natural. Em telado, inoculou-se via atomização de 10(4 conídios/ml e em casa de vegetação manteve-se como fonte de inóculo plantas de pimentão previamente infetadas. Os genótipos foram agrupados em cinco níveis de resistência, a partir de leituras periódicas de incidência, esporulação, severidade e intensidade total da doença, e da determinação das respectivas áreas abaixo das curvas de progresso da doença. Cerca de 77% dos genótipos avaliados em telado foram altamente (AS ou moderadamente suscetíveis (MS; 8% moderadamente resistentes (MR; 11% resistentes (R; e 4% foram altamente resistentes (AR. Cerca de 72% dos genótipos avaliados em casa de vegetação foram AS ou MS; 11% MR; 9% R; e 8% foram AR. Todos os genótipos classificados como AS tanto em telado quanto em casa de vegetação pertencem à espécie C. annuum. De modo geral, o ranking de resistência ao oídio permaneceu constante nos dois ambientes. Capsicum baccatum, C. frutescens e C. chinense apresentaram maior número de genótipos resistentes. Os principais genótipos AR foram CNPH 39, 161, 363 e 601 (C. baccatum; CNPH 579, 596 e 597 (C. frutescens; CNPH 55 (C. chinense; CNPH 280, 289, 434, 570 e 600 (C. chinense e CNPH 1424 (C. annuum.This work reports the resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to Oidiopsis taurica. Experiments were first conducted with artificial inoculation in pots in a screenhouse, with a set of 104 genotypes. A similar test was carried out with

  17. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp. Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omodesola O. Ogunruku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM and Capsicum chinense (RO and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P<0.05 ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P<0.05 ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated.

  18. Analysis of nuclear DNA content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by flow cytometry and Feulgen densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscone, Eduardo A; Baranyi, Monika; Ebert, Irma; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T

    2003-07-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare 'Ditta', 1C = 5.063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In addition, one sample each of C. annuum var. annuum and C. pubescens were also analysed using Feulgen densitometry (standard, Allium cepa 'Stuttgarter Riesen', 1C = 16.75 pg). Both staining methods resulted in very similar relative values. Genome size displays significant variation between but not within species (except in C. campylopodium), and contributes to their taxonomic grouping. 1C-values range from 3.34-3.43 pg (3273-3361 Mbp) in C. chacoense and the C. annuum complex to 4.53-5.77 pg (4439-5655 Mbp) in C. campylopodium and C. parvifolium. The data obtained support conclusions on phylogenetic relationships in the genus derived from karyotype analyses using chromosome banding approaches. In Capsicum, constitutive heterochromatin amount is correlated with genome size, except in C. parvifolium, and is regarded as an additive genomic component. PMID:12824068

  19. Identification, validation and survey of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Claver, Ana; Fellman, Shanna Moore; Gil-Ortega, Ramiro; Jahn, Molly; Arnedo-Andrés, María S

    2007-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency was detected within an expressed sequence tag (EST) of 307 bp. This fragment was identified after expression analysis of the EST clone SB2-66 in placenta tissue of Capsicum fruits. Sequence alignments corresponding to this new fragment allowed us to identify an SNP between pungent and non-pungent accessions. Two methods were chosen for the development of the SNP marker linked to pungency: tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (tetra-primer ARMS-PCR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence. Results showed that both methods were successful in distinguishing genotypes. Nevertheless, tetra-primer ARMS-PCR was chosen for SNP genotyping because it was more rapid, reliable and less cost-effective. The utility of this SNP marker for pungency was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish between 29 pungent and non-pungent cultivars of Capsicum annuum. In addition, the SNP was also associated with phenotypic pungent character in the tested genotypes of C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. galapagoense, C. eximium, C. tovarii and C. cardenasi. This SNP marker is a faster, cheaper and more reproducible method for identifying pungent peppers than other techniques such as panel tasting, and allows rapid screening of the trait in early growth stages. PMID:17882396

  20. Bell pepper endornavirus: molecular and biological properties, and occurrence in the genus Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Saha, Prasenjit; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Severin, Ake; Valverde, Rodrigo A

    2011-11-01

    Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) harbour a large dsRNA virus. The linear genome (14.7 kbp) of two isolates from Japanese and USA bell pepper cultivars were completely sequenced and compared. They shared extensive sequence identity and contained a single, long ORF encoding a 4815 aa protein. This polyprotein contained conserved motifs of putative viral methyltransferase (MTR), helicase 1 (Hel-1), UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This unique arrangement of conserved domains has not been reported in any of the known endornaviruses. Hence this virus, for which the name Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is proposed, is a distinct species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae). The BPEV-encoded polyprotein contains a cysteine-rich region between the MTR and Hel-1 domains, with conserved CXCC motifs shared among several endornaviruses, suggesting an additional functional domain. In agreement with general endornavirus features, BPEV contains a nick in the positive-strand RNA molecule. The virus was detected in all bell pepper cultivars tested and transmitted through seed but not by graft inoculations. Analysis of dsRNA patterns and RT-PCR using degenerate primers revealed putative variants of BPEV, or closely related species, infecting other C. annuum genotypes and three other Capsicum species (C. baccatum, C. chinense and C. frutescens). PMID:21775578

  1. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  2. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  3. 辣椒属种间杂交及杂种鉴定研究%Interspecific Hybridization and Identification of Hybrid in Capsicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志芳; 钱春桃; 陈学军; 陈劲枫

    2007-01-01

    通过辣椒属5个栽培种(Capsicum annuum,C. chinense,C. frutescens,C. baccatum和C. pubescens)种间正反杂交试验,获得了3株C. baccatum×C. chinense (Hbc)和7株C. annuum×C. chinense(Hac)种间杂种植株.除Hac-7单株表型异常外,其他杂种F1植株均生长正常.Hac、Hbc花粉可染率分别为 13.9%和23.8%,显著低于其双亲.同一组合内单株间花粉育性、形态性状和同工酶电泳图谱表现一致,形态学观察和过氧化物同工酶电泳分析结果均验证了种间杂种的真实性.

  4. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  5. Técnicas y estrategias de mejora para facilitar la hibridación interespecífica y el acortamiento del ciclo generacional en el género Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    MANZUR POBLETE, JUAN PABLO ANDRES

    2014-01-01

    Los pimientos, chiles y ajíes suponen uno de los productos de mayor importancia económica del mundo, ocupando la séptima posición en superficie entre las hortícolas. Bajo estas denominaciones se engloba un grupo de cinco especies cultivadas y más de veinte especies silvestres pertenecientes al género Capsicum. Entre las especies domesticadas, C. annuum es la más relevante económicamente y su cultivo se extiende por casi todo el mundo. C. chinense (Ej. Tipo Habanero) y C. frutescens (Ej. Tipo ...

  6. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A total of 235 accessions of Capsicum sp from the gene bank of the Colombian National University campus Palmira’s were screened under controlled glasshouse conditions for their reaction to pepper deforming mosaic virus. Only 5.5 % 8139 of the accessions inoculated showed resistance to the Virus, as determined by symptom expression and serological (PTA-ELISA and RT-PCR. The resistant genotypes included varieties of C. annuum, C frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  7. 甜椒抗番茄斑点萎蔫病毒的种质创新%Innovation of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Germplasm Resource with Resistance to Tomato spots wilt virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立浩; 张正海; 毛胜利; 曹亚从; 堵玫珍; 张宝玺

    2016-01-01

    番茄斑点萎蔫病毒病是我国辣椒生产的一种新兴和潜在重大威胁病害.利用引进的中国辣椒(Capsicum chinenseJack.)抗源材料PI152225,通过种间杂交和分子标记辅助回交选育,历时10年,将抗性基因Tsw转育到中椒系列骨干亲本一年生辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)大果甜椒自交系0516中,创新材料0516(Tsw)的生长势和果实长度超过对照0516,商品性和配合力与骨干亲本0516差异不显著.

  8. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions: variation in health-related compounds and implications for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2011-08-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological characters such as fruit color, pungency and origin. Major metabolites in fruits of pepper, carotenoids, capsaicinoids (pungency), flavonoid glycosides, and vitamins C and E were analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that composition and level of metabolites in fruits varied greatly between accessions and was independent of species and geographical location. Fruit color was determined by the accumulation of specific carotenoids leading to salmon, yellow, orange, red and brown colored fruits. Levels of both O- and C-glycosides of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin varied strongly between accessions. All non-pungent accessions were devoid of capsaicins, whereas capsaicinoid levels ranged from 0.07 up to 80 mg/100g fr. wt. in fruit pericarp. In general, pungent accessions accumulated the highest capsaicinoid levels in placenta plus seed tissue compared to pericarp. The non-pungent capsaicinoid analogs, capsiates, could be detected at low levels in some pungent accessions. All accessions accumulated high levels of vitamin C, up to 200 mg/100g fr. wt. The highest vitamin E concentration found was 16 mg/100g fr. wt. Based on these metabolic data, five accessions were selected for further metabolic and molecular analysis, in order to isolate key genes involved in the production of these compounds and to assist future breeding programs aimed at optimizing the levels of health-related compounds in pepper fruit. PMID:21514607

  9. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

      Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion, auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype   Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) production as it minimizes yield irregularity, enhances total yieldandmakes theproduction possible under suboptimal environmental conditions. Beside this, parthenocarpyimproves the commercial value of the fruitsince parthen...

  10. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied indetail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C. ann...

  11. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied in detail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C....

  12. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gahungu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD. The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 30 min and analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventy volatile compounds were identified, of which aliphatic esters, alcohols, terpenoids and acids were the main classes. Hexyl pentanoate, hexyl isopentanoate, Pentyl 3- methylbutanoate, 10- undecenol, 3, 3- dimethyl cyclohexanol, β-chamigrene, Pentadecanoic acid, (E- 9- tetradecenoic acid and Hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major volatile constituents. Capsaicin (CAPS 47.632 mg/g and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCAPS 23.096 mg/g were the major capsaicinoids and their contents converted in Scoville heat value (142931 show that the Scotch Bonnet variety is a high hot chili pepper according to the Scoville scale.

  13. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense) Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Gahungu; Eric Ruganintwali; Eric Karangwa; Xiaoming Zhang; Daniel Mukunzi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD). The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 3...

  14. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  15. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Pacific, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central and South America through the germplasm bank of USDA. 41 IPGRI´s descriptors were used to characterize the Capsicum accessions; fourteen of them were used to describe the vegetative traits, 10 to describe inflorescence traits, and 17 to describe fruit and seed traits. Frequency analysis for qualitative traits, main component analysis for quantitative traits, and multiple correspondence and discriminate analysis for both trait types were carried out. The morphologic characterization showed variability for all descriptors evaluated, specially fruit and architecture variation explained 60% of total variability found. The grouping, using Dice´s distance as evaluation criterion, permited formation of groups based in size, weight, and color of fruit. However, this criterion did not permit discriminate among species. Narrow genetic distances among species, showed that C. annuum, C frutescens, and C. chinense conform one morphologic group.

    Keywords: Capsicum, genetic germplasm, morphologic variation.

    Para la caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum, recolectadas en Colombia (Zonas Andina, Caribe, Pacífica, Amazónica y Llanos Orientales o introducidas de países centro y suramericanos a través del Banco de Germoplasma de USDA, se utilizaron 41 descriptores propuestos por el IPGRI (14 de caracteres vegetativos, 10 de in

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  17. A Study of Selected Isozymes in Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum cardenasii and Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids in Capsicum Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Naci ONUS

    2000-01-01

    Selected isozymes were investigated in plants of Capsicum baccatum L. ( Solanaceae) accessions SA219 (P.G.Smith), Hawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum cardenasii Heiser and Smith accession SA268 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum eximium A.T.Hunz accession Hawkes 3860 (J.G.Hawkes) and two interspecific F1 hybrids, C. baccatum SA219 x C. eximium Hawkes 3860 and C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x C. cardenasii SA 268. The standard technique of horizontal gel electrophoresis was employed. The gel was cut into severa...

  18. A new triterpenoid saponin from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Biao; Liu, Guang-Da; Zhang, Bao-Bao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ma, Rui; Zhong, Bei-Shan; He, Bai-Qiu; Liang, Yan; Wu, Fei-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A new triterpene saponin, 3β,16β,23α,28β,30β-pentahydroxyl-olean-11,13(18)-dien-3β-yl-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-fucopyranoside, was named Clinoposaponin D (1), together with six known triterpene saponins, buddlejasaponin IVb (2), buddlejasaponin IVa (3), buddlejasaponin IV (4), clinopodisides D (5), 11α,16β,23,28-Tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-3β-yl-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-fucopyranoside (6) and prosaikogenin A (7), and two known triterpenes, saikogenin A (8) and saikogenin F (9) were isolated from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR and MS analysis. Meanwhile, the effects of all compounds on rabbit platelet aggregation and thrombin time (TT) were investigated in vitro. Compounds 4 and 7 had significant promoting effects on platelet aggregation with EC50 value at 53.4 and 12.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the highest concentration (200 μM) of compounds 2 and 9 shortened TT by 20.6 and 25.1%, respectively. PMID:26511166

  19. Cytotoxic triterpenoid glycosides (saikosaponins) from the roots of Bupleurum chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Qi; Wu, Jie; Liu, Li-Yin; Wu, Ying-Ying; Li, Ling-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Qing-Bo; Yang, Jing-Yu; Song, Shao-Jiang; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2015-09-15

    As a part of our ongoing studies on cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from herbal medicines, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. afforded four new saikosaponins (1-4), along with 16 known ones (5-20). Their structures were established by direct interpretation of their spectral data, mainly HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR, and by comparison with literature data. Among them, compound 20 was isolated from the natural product for the first time. The cytotoxicities of all compounds against five selected human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, Hep3B, Bcap-37 and MCF-7) were assayed. In general, a number of the isolated compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against the five selected human cancer cell lines. In particular, compounds 3, 8-9, 11-13, 16 and 20 showed more potent cytotoxic activities against the HepG2 and A549 cell lines than the positive control 5-fluorouracil. Based on the primary screening results, the preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were also discussed. The SAR results suggest that the 13,28-epoxy bridge, the orientation of the hydroxyl group and the type of the sugar units are important requirements for cytotoxicity and selectivity. PMID:26259802

  20. GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagavathi Perumal Ezhilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of diverse secondary metabolites has been reported from species of the genus Polygonum. However, there has been not much information available on phytochemical components and biological activity in the whole plant ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L. Objective: This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense. Materials and Methods: GC-MS analysis of the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and a gas chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Results: This investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from P. chinense by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. chinense (whole plant contained mainly a triterpene compound-squalene (47.01%, and a plasticizer compound-1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl]ester (40.30%. All identified compounds were, generally, reported as having antimicrobial activity. In addition, the squalene compound also having anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, chemo-preventive, pesticidal and sun-screen properties, while the plasticizer compound -1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl] ester reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No activity was reported in the alcoholic compound-4-hexene-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethanyl-acetate-(R-. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident that P. chinense contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Carotenoid Accumulation in Lycium chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding β-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY, phytoene desaturase (LcPDS, ξ-carotene desaturase (LcZDS, lycopene β-cyclase (LcLCYB, lycopene ε-cyclase (LcLCYE, ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE, zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1, and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant tissue. During maturation, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in L. chinense fruits dramatically increased, concomitant with a rise in the level of β-cryptoxanthin. LcPSY, LcPDS, LcZDS, LcLCYB, and LcCHXE were highly expressed in red fruits, leading to their substantially higher total carotenoid content compared to that in green fruits. Total carotenoid content was high in both the leaves and red fruits of L. chinense. Our findings on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in L. chinense provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and may facilitate the optimization of carotenoid production in L. chinense.

  2. Crossability and evaluation of incompatibility barriers in crosses between Capsicum species

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    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the crossability rate in combinations of and assess the occurrence of incompatibility barriers between Capsicum species. The species C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum var. pendulum, and C. baccatum var. baccatum were crossed and the number of hand-pollinations and of resulting fruits and plants was registered. The resulting hybrids were evaluated for their pollen viability and in the crosses that produced no hybrids, the in vivo germination of pollen grains was assessed. Some crosses generated hybrids, while others produced no fruit or, despite generating fruits, no plants grew from them. The crossability rate between species of the complex C. annuum and C. baccatum ranged from 2.2% to 3.7%, and was 14.6% between species of the complex C. annuum. A pre-fertilization barrier was observed in the non-germination of pollen grains, as well as post-fertilization barriers consisting of embryo death, lack of vigor and hybrid sterility

  3. Localization of 5S and 25S rRNA genes on somatic and meiotic chromosomes in Capsicum species of chili pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2009-02-28

    The loci of the 5S and 45S rRNA genes were localized on chromosomes in five species of Capsicum, namely, annuum, chacoense, frutescens, baccatum, and chinense by FISH. The 5S rDNA was localized to the distal region of one chromosome in all species observed. The number of 45S rDNA loci varied among species; one in annuum, two in chacoense, frutescens, and chinense, and four in baccatum, with the exceptions that 'CM334' of annuum had three loci and 'tabasco' of frutescens had one locus. 'CM334'-derived BAC clones, 384B09 and 365P05, were screened with 5S rDNA as a probe, and BACs 278M03 and 262A23 were screened with 25S rDNA as a probe. Both ends of these BAC clones were sequenced. FISH with these BAC probes on pachytenes from 'CM334' plant showed one 5S rDNA locus and three 45S rDNA loci, consistent with the patterns on the somatic chromosomes. The 5S rDNA probe was also applied on extended DNA fibers to reveal that its coverage measured as long as 0.439 Mb in the pepper genome. FISH techniques applied on somatic and meiotic chromosomes and fibers have been established for chili to provide valuable information about the copy number variation of 45S rDNA and the actual physical size of the 5S rDNA in chili. PMID:19277503

  4. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira

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    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.

  5. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia Morphological characterization of accesions of Capsicum spp. from the germoplasm collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica C.I. Palmira

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    Diana Villota-Cerón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple el 83.4% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de flor y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.68 accessions from the Capsicum collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica, Palmira were morphologically characterized by using 12 quantitative and 10 qualitative descriptors. For the principal components analysis the variables with highest contribution were associated to plant architecture and fruit descriptors and their explained 70.8% of total variability. Classification analysis based on quantitative data showed 5 groups but did not allow discrimination between species. For the multiple correspondence analysis 83.4% of the variability was explained by variables related with flower and fruit traits. The classification analyses using qualitative descriptors showed 4 groups and allowed discrimination of C. baccatum species. The discriminant analysis showed that C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense are phylogenetically closely related.

  6. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  7. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em acessos de Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum Meiosis and pollen viability in accessions of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum

    OpenAIRE

    Kellen Coutinho Martins; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Sérgio Alessandro Machado Souza; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade polínica em quatro acessos das espécies Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 12 bivalentes, confirmando o número e nível de ploidia relatados na literatura para essas espécies. Os resultados mostraram uma divisão celular normal, porém algumas anormalidades foram detectadas, tais como migração precoce dos cromossomos em metáfases I e II, cromossomos retardatários em anáfase I e ...

  8. New Insights into Capsicum spp Relatedness and the Diversification Process of Capsicum annuum in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Susana González-Pérez; Ana Garcés-Claver; Cristina Mallor; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E.; Oreto Fayos; Federico Pomar; Fuencisla Merino; Cristina Silvar

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the pr...

  9. New Insights into Capsicum spp Relatedness and the Diversification Process of Capsicum annuum in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Pérez, Susana; Garcés Claver, Ana; Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E.; Fayos Avellán, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a tota...

  10. Morphometric patterns and preferential uses of Capsicum peppers in the State of Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia Padrões morfométricos e usos preferenciais de pimentas Capsicum spp. em Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira

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    Reinaldo I Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to study distinctions in the morphology of the pepper fruits (Capsicum spp., Solanaceae used by indigenous (living in traditional villages and non-indigenous groups (originated from migration and colonization, with or without miscegenation, living on non-indigenous lands in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazilian Amazonia. In this sense, we used a database with 182 subsamples of Capsicum spp. Accessions were collected at 39 sites (14 indigenous and 25 non-indigenous, which were characterized additionally in relation to the predominant phytophysiognomy (savanna or forest and home zone (rural or urban. We found morphological differences in pepper fruits related to both phytophysiognomy and home zone of the collecting site, but not to ethnical origin. We believe those differences are more related to the inherent crop practices, which suffer strong environmental influence, than to user preference. Both indigenous and non-indigenous groups preferred morphotypes from C. chinense and C. frutescens, which have small and highly pungent fruits. Nevertheless, fruit color was not important. These morphotypes are used by both indigenous and non-indigenous users for preparing sauce and jiquitaia (pepper powder. We suggested 'cultural adherence' as the reason for the common preferred use of peppers by both ethnical groups analyzed in Roraima.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar distinções no padrão morfológico de frutos de pimentas do gênero Capsicum spp. (Solanaceae utilizados por grupos tradicionais indígenas (vivendo em aldeias e não-indígenas (derivado da migração/colonização, contendo ou não miscigenação, situados fora de áreas indígenas, em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira. Para tanto foi utilizado um banco de dados com 182 subamostras de Capsicum spp. coletadas em 39 localidades daquele estado (14 indígenas e 25 não-indígenas. As localidades foram caracterizadas também por tipos fitofision

  11. Inheritance of Value Added Traits in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable diversity exists in Capsicum germplasm for fruit and leaf shape and size, as well as plant habit. This morphological diversity, together with diverse ripe fruit color and varying hues of green to purple foliar pigmentation, affords a myriad of opportunities to develop novel cultivars f...

  12. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI; Joseph Akintade MORAKINYO

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The hi...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-40 - Peppers from certain Central American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) For peppers of the species Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, and Capsicum... annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, and Capsicum pubescens from areas in... Vegetables § 319.56-40 Peppers from certain Central American countries. Fresh peppers (Capsicum spp.) may...

  14. Identification of two new genes conferring resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum in Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasuk, P; Taylor, P W J; Mongkolporn, O

    2009-09-01

    Resistance to anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum capsici and C. acutatum, was investigated in Capsicum baccatum PBC80 and PBC1422 and C. chinense PBC932. Mature green and ripe fruit were inoculated with 13 isolates of the two Colletotrichum species PBC80 contained the broadest spectrum of resistance to both Colletotrichum species because none of the isolates were able to infect the genotype. At both fruit maturity stages, PBC1422 was infected by only Colletotrichum acutatum. PBC932 at ripe fruit stage was infected by both C. capsici and C. acutatum, except for one isolate, 158ci, that did not infect PBC932. PBC932 at the mature green fruit stage was infected by only C. acutatum. An intraspecific cross between PBC80 and PBC1422 was developed to determine inheritance of resistance to C. acutatum. Anthracnose resistance was assessed at mature green and ripe fruit stages using 0 to 9 disease severity scores. Frequency distribution of the disease scores in the F(2) and BC(1) populations suggested a single recessive gene responsible for the resistance at mature green fruit stage and a single dominant gene for the resistance at ripe fruit stage. Linkage analysis between the two genes identified in both fruit maturity stages showed the genes to be independent. Based on phenotypic data, the two newly identified genes, co4 and Co5, from PBC80 appeared to be different loci from the co1 and co2 previously identified from PBC932 and will be valuable sources of resistance to anthracnose in chili breeding programs. PMID:19671013

  15. Gamma Radiosensitivity Study on Chili (Capsicum annuum)

    OpenAIRE

    Shairul R.  Omar; Osumanu H.   Ahmed; Shaharudin Saamin; Nik M.A.  Majid

    2008-01-01

    Induced mutation by gamma irradiation has been found to be a very useful technique for crop improvement. Apart from this, the proper use of induced mutation in plant breeding has become a profitable approach. This investigation was carried out to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma rays on germination, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedlings derived from irradiated seeds of chili (Capsicum annuum). Seeds of chili were treated ...

  16. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em acessos de Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum Meiosis and pollen viability in accessions of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade polínica em quatro acessos das espécies Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 12 bivalentes, confirmando o número e nível de ploidia relatados na literatura para essas espécies. Os resultados mostraram uma divisão celular normal, porém algumas anormalidades foram detectadas, tais como migração precoce dos cromossomos em metáfases I e II, cromossomos retardatários em anáfase I e divisão assincrônica. Os acessos estudados apresentaram um índice meiótico variando de 75,6 a 93,6%, e a viabilidade polínica em todos os acessos foi superior a 90%, demonstrando que as irregularidades meióticas observadas não comprometeram a viabilidade destes.The objective of this research was to study the meiotic behavior and pollen viability in four accessions of species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum. In all accessions, twelve bivalents were observed, confirming the number and ploidy level reported in the literature for these species. The results showed a normal cell division although some abnormalities had been detected, as early chromosome migration at metaphases I and II, later chromosomes at anaphase I and asynchronous division. The studied accessions presented a meiotic index (MI that varied from 75.6 to 93.6% and the pollen viability in all accessions was higher than 90%, demonstrating that the meiotic irregularities observed didn't affect their viability.

  17. 涮辣与辣椒属5个栽培种亲缘关系的研究%Studies on the Genetic Relationship Between Capsicum frutescens var. shuanlaense and Other Five Cultivated Capsicum Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟金贵; 张卿哲; 王硕; 张应华

    2012-01-01

    The study of the phylogenetic relationship was carried out with ISSR molecular markers among Shuanla (Capsicumfrutescens L. vat. shuanlaense) and other five cultivated Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum and C. pubescens ) including 71 pieces of germplasm in total. Genomic DNA was amplified with 11 screened ISSR primers by PCR, a total of 112 polymorphic bands were amplified, polymorphism bands reached 90.17% in average. Genetic similarity coefficient of all material located between 0.049 and 0.875. At the point of the similarity coefficient 0.31, C. frutescens var. shuanlaense and C. frutescens which originate in USA was classified in a group, which proved C. frutescens var. shuanlaense belonged to C. frutescens with molecular measure. C. frutescens var. shuanlaense had the closest relationship with C. annuum, followed by C. chinense, and C. baccatum more distantly related, the relationship with C. pubescens is the most distant. At the point of similarity coefficient 0.397, 66 pieces of germplasm belong to C. annuum were further classified into 7 subgroups,Gejiu Wrinkled Pepper and Jianshui Yingtaojiao (C. annuum var. cerasiforme) were separated into two subgroups. The rest were var. longum, var. dactylus + var. breviconoideum, var. grossum, var. cerasiforme and var.fascicutatum. Basically they are consistent with the pepper morphological classification results.%利用筛选出的11对ISSR引物对涮辣(Capsicum frutescens L.var.shuanlaense)和辣椒属5个栽培种[一年生辣椒(Capsicumannuum)、灌木状辣椒(C.frutescens)、中国辣椒(C.chinense)、浆果状辣椒(ebaccatum)和绒毛辣椒(C.pubescens)]共计71份种质的DNA进行PCR扩增,共扩增出112条谱带,多态性平均为90.17%,材料问遗传相似系数在0.049~0.875之间。在相似系数为O.31时,涮辣与C.frutescens聚在一组,

  18. Genetic relationships within and between Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Ayşe Gul; Karaca, Mehmet; Onus, A Naci

    2010-02-01

    Genetic relationships were estimated among 24 accessions belonging to 11 species of Capsicum, using 2,760 RAPD markers based on touch-down polymerase chain reactions (Td-RAPD-PCR). These markers were implemented in analyses of principal coordinates, unweighted pair group mean average, and 2,000 bootstrap replications. The accessions were divided into four groups, corresponding to previously described Capsicum complexes: C. annuum complex (CA), C. baccatum complex (CB), C. pubescens complex (CP), and C. chacoense accessions (CA/B). Their overall mean genetic similarity index was 0.487 +/- 0.082, ranging from 0.88 to 0.32, based on Jaccard's coefficient. The highest genetic variation was observed among the accessions in CP; the accessions in CB had a low level of variation as judged from the standard deviations of the genetic similarity indices. Based on the Td-RAPD-PCR markers, the 24 accessions were divided into four major groups, three of which corresponded to the three distinct Capsicum complexes. Accessions of C. chacoense were found to be equally related to complexes CA, CB, and CP. PMID:19916044

  19. Impacts of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics on species range limits: a case study of Liriodendron chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aihong; Dick, Christopher W; Yao, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    Species ranges are influenced by past climate oscillations, geographical constraints, and adaptive potential to colonize novel habitats at range limits. This study used Liriodendron chinense, an important temperate Asian tree species, as a model system to evaluate the roles of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics in determining range limits. We examined the demographic history and genetic diversity of 29 L. chinense populations using both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Significant phylogeographic structure was recovered with haplotype clusters coinciding with major mountain regions. Long-term demographical stability was suggested by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests, and ecological niche models (ENM) and suggested the existence of LGM refuges within mountain regions. Differences in genetic diversity between central and marginal populations were not significant for either genomic region. However, asymmetrical gene flow was inferred from central populations to marginal populations, which could potentially limit range adaptation and expansion of L. chinense. PMID:27162176

  20. Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Rooij, de H.; Vogelaar, A.; Gutteling, E.W.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in i

  1. AT3 (Acyltransferase) Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Habibi; Andi Madhihah Manggabarani; Eko Sri Sulasmi; Dwi Listyorini

    2013-01-01

    Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born b...

  2. Caracterização de um isolado do Pepper mild mottle virus que não quebra a resistência do gene L3 em Capsicum sp. Characterization of a non-L3 gene-resistance breaking Pepper mild mottle virus isolate in Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eiras

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de pimenta (Capsicum baccatum 'Dedo de Moça' destinadas ao plantio comercial e adquiridas no município de São Paulo, SP, analisadas quanto à presença de vírus, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos revelaram-se infetadas por uma estirpe do Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV. Para confirmar a identidade do isolado, promoveu-se a RT-PCR com oligonucleotídeos que flanqueiam a ORF da capa protéica de espécies do gênero Tobamovirus do subgrupo 1. Os fragmentos de DNA amplificados, quando seqüenciados e comparados com outros isolados de tobamovírus depositados no GenBank, apresentaram valores de identidade de nucleotídeos entre 94 e 100% com outras seqüências de PMMoV, inferiores a 75% para as demais espécies de tobamovírus do subgrupo I (Tobacco mosaic virus, Tomato mosaic virus e Odontoglossum ringspot virus e 65% para os tobamovírus dos subgrupos II e III. O PMMoV-BR revelou 100% de identidade com isolados japoneses, sugerindo que este patógeno pode ter sido introduzido daquele país. A seqüência de aminoácidos deduzidos da capa protéica indicou também, que este isolado não é capaz de quebrar a resistência do gene L3 de Capsicum spp. Fato confirmado pelos sintomas causados nas hospedeiras diferenciais de Capsicum spp., verificando-se que este isolado não foi capaz de infetar plantas de C. chinense (L3 e C. chacoense (L4. Estes resultados confirmaram a importância da caracterização dos isolados de tobamovírus, fundamental para adequação de medidas de controle, principalmente, prevenindo a entrada e posterior disseminação do patógeno em novas áreas de cultivo.A strain of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV was identified by biological and serological analysis of pepper (Capsicum baccatum 'Dedo de Moça' seeds from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. To confirm these results, RT-PCR was performed with specific primers flanking the coat protein (CP ORF of tobamoviruses in subgroup 1. The DNA-amplified fragments, when

  3. Nutrient element contents of cutting seedlings of hybrid species ( Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiao-ping; FANGYan-ming; DINGYu-long

    2003-01-01

    The cutting seedlings of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were treated with the different concentrations of auxin (treatmenh: IBA of 50 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1; treatment2- IBA of 100 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1). The biomass and the nutrient element contents for different organs (root, stem, leaf) of cutting seedling of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were measured by the dry method, Kjeldahl method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. The result showed that the biomass of root, stem, and leaf of the cutting seedling treated with auxin was all remarkably increased. The contents of element C in root, stem and leaf had no significant difference between the control and auxin treatments, while the contents of N, P, K and Ca in stem were much lower than that in leaf and root. Variance analysis showed that for the same organ with different concentration treatment of auxin, the four nutrient elements (N, P, K, and Ca) had no significant difference in contents, while there existed significant or very significant difference in contents of the four nutrient elements in different organs with the same concentration auxin treatment. The N, P, K and Ca contents were very low in cutting seedlings; as a result, additional fertilizer should be applied to the seedlings when they were planted in the field.

  4. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  5. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  6. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  7. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2009-01-01

    The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5) from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2) showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100...

  8. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  9. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  10. Regeneración de plantas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jaqc.) a partir de cultivos hidropónicos in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimarez Montiel, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Una alternativa para mejorar la producción de plantas de chile habanero es el cultivo de tejidos; no obstante, las características de esta técnica, incrementan considerablemente el costo de las plantas regeneradas y limita su capacidad de adaptación a las condiciones de invernadero o campo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de mezclas de Perlita-Vermiculita (PV), Vermiculita-Perlita (VP), Fibra de coco-Tezontle (FT) y Perlita-Fibra de coco (PF), distintas concentraciones de lo...

  11. Seedling protection and field practices for management of insect vectors and viral diseases of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karungi, J.; Obua, T.; Kyamanywa, S.;

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was on nursery and field management of seed and insect vectors of viruses on hot pepper. Seedlings raised from hypochlorite-treated seeds under a net tunnel nursery were compared with seedlings raised from untreated seeds in an open nursery. The two groups of seedlings wer...

  12. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James CR; Able, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether e...

  13. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria E. Barboza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae) regarding the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentifications. Some types were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War, some have not been found by modern systematics, while others exhibit uncertain locality data or contain material from more than one species. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name, Capsicum eshbaughii Barboza nom. nov.,are proposed here.

  14. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli): origin, distribution, and its economical value

    OpenAIRE

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-01-01

    Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense). ...

  15. Bioactive Octahydroxylated C21 Steroids from the Root Bark of Lycium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ya-Wen; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Xie, Jing; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Feng, Zi-Ming; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2016-04-22

    Lyciumsterols A-K (1-11), 11 new octahydroxylated C21 steroids, were isolated from the root bark of Lycium chinense, along with 15 known compounds. Characterization of these C21 steroids showed the presence of eight hydroxy groups on the C21 steroid skeleton with a (2E,4E)-5-phenyl-2,4-pentadienoate group at C-12 or C-20 and various 2,6-deoxy sugar residues at C-3. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited dose-dependent protective effects on pancreatic islet cells and may help to improve cell viability. In addition, it was found that compounds 7, 8, 9, and 11 exhibited autophagy activation. PMID:26982999

  16. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Villota-Cerón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple el 83.4% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de flor y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.

  17. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Vásquez Juan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando

    12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las carac- terísticas de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de co- rrespondencia multiple el 8%.&% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de for y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.

  18. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  19. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dávila Mario Augusto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.

  20. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichewicz, R H; Thorpe, P A

    1996-06-01

    A survey of the Mayan pharmacopoeia revealed that tissues of Capsicum species (Solanaceae) are included in a number of herbal remedies for a variety of ailments of probable microbial origin. Using a filter disk assay, plain and heated aqueous extracts from fresh Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinese, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum pubescens varieties were tested for their antimicrobial effects with fifteen bacterial species and one yeast species. Two pungent compounds found in Capsicum species (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) were also tested for their anti-microbial effects. The plain and heated extracts were found to exhibit varying degrees of inhibition against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tetani, and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:8735449

  1. Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Chandra Paul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and Actin (ACT for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of a Lycium chinense Carotenoid Isomerase Gene Enhancing Carotenoid Accumulation in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李招娣; 季静; 王罡

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid isomerase(CRTISO)is a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cis-lycopene to all-trans lycopene. In this study, we isolated and characterized the CRTISO gene from Lycium chinense (LcCRTISO) for the first time. The open reading frame of LcCRTISO was 1 815 bp encoding a protein of 604 amino acids with a molecular mass of 66.24 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the LcCRTISO had a high level of simi-larity to other CRTISO. Phylogenetic analysis displayed that LcCRTISO kept a closer relationship with the CRTISO of plants than with those of other species. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis indicated that LcCRTISO gene was expressed in all tissues tested with the highest expression in maturing fruits. The overexpression of LcCRTISO gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase of total carotenoids in the leaves withβ-carotene and lutein being the predominants. The results obtained here clearly suggested that the LcCRTISO gene was a promising candidate for carotenoid production.

  3. Evaluación del efecto de la edad de transplante sobre el rendimiento en tres selecciones de ají dulce Capsicum chinense Jacq. en Jusepín, estado Monagas Evaluation of the effect of the transplant age on yield in three selections of sweet pepper Capsicum chinense Jacq in Jusepin, Monagas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Montaño-Mata

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la edad de transplante 50, 45, 40 y 35 días sobre el rendimiento de frutos en las selecciones de ají dulce UDO A-16R, UDO A-8R y UDO A-7R, en un ensayo establecido en la estación experimental de producción vegetal de la Universidad de Oriente, Jusepín, estado Monagas, utilizando un diseño experimental de bloques al azar en arreglo factorial y tres repeticiones. Los resultados mostraron que el número de frutos por planta y número de frutos por kilogramo tuvieron un efecto directo sobre los rendimientos de las selecciones evaluadas. El mayor rendimiento de frutos lo produjo la selección UDO A-16R (17.874 Kg/ha cuyas plantas permanecieron 45 días en el semillero. UDO A-7R produjo un rendimiento promedio de 15.030 Kg/ha con plántula de 45 o 40 días de edad. La selección UDO A-8R obtuvo su mejor rendimiento (16.066 Kg/ha cuando las plántulas permanecieron 50 días en el semillero. Las selecciones produjeron los rendimientos más bajos cuando las plántulas permanecieron 35 días en el semillero con promedio de 10.654 Kg/ha. La altura de la planta al momento de la primera cosecha, última cosecha, longitud y ancho del fruto no fueron afectadas por la edad de transplante. A mayor edad de transplante mayor fue el número de hojas (9,00 y la altura de la plántula (21,4 cm.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the transplant age at 50, 45, 40 and 35 days, on the yield of fruit in the UDO A-16R, UDO A-8R and UDO A-7R selections of sweet pepper, in a trial established at the experimental station for vegetable production in the Universidad de Oriente, Jusepin, Monagas State, using a random block factorial arrangement experimental design with three replications. The results showed that the number fruit per plant and number fruits per kilo had a direct effect on the yield of the evaluated selection. The highest yields of fruits was produced by the seedlings of the UDO A-16R selection (17.874 Kg/ha that remained 45 days in the nursery. UDO A-7R produced an average yield of 15.030 Kg/ha with seedling of 45 or 40 days of age. Selection UDO A-8R obtained best yield (16.066 Kg/ha when the seedling remained 50 days in the nursery. The selections produced the smallest yields when the seedling remained 35 days in the nursery with average of 10.654 Kg/ha. The plant height at the moment of the first and last harvest, and length and width of fruit were not affected by the transplant age. A greater transplant age did positively affect the number of leaves (9,00 and the height of the seedling (21,4 cm.

  4. Gamma Radiosensitivity Study on Chili (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shairul R.  Omar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced mutation by gamma irradiation has been found to be a very useful technique for crop improvement. Apart from this, the proper use of induced mutation in plant breeding has become a profitable approach. This investigation was carried out to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma rays on germination, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedlings derived from irradiated seeds of chili (Capsicum annuum. Seeds of chili were treated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 Gy gamma rays at Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT. The treated seeds including control were sown in sand beds in size 4.6 x 0.7 m2 in a greenhouse at Horticulture Unit, UPMKB. Water was applied manually to maintain the soil moisture at field capacity as well as weed was manually controlled. The experiment was designed as 5 x 6 factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Lethal dose 50 % of population (LD50 was assayed. Observation showed that germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root weight and shoot dry weight decreased with increasing dose of gamma rays. The 800 Gy gamma ray dose had a profound effect on these variables perhaps due to injury the higher doses may have caused to the seeds of chili. This resulted in poor growth and development of chili seedlings. The LD50 for chili (survival percentage was estimated at 445 Gy. Loan contracts performance determines the profitability and stability of the financial institutions and screening the loan applications is a key process in minimizing credit risk. Before making any credit In general, higher gamma ray doses particularly 600 and 800 Gy had negative effect on the morphological characteristics of chili seedlings derived from irradiated seeds.

  5. Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in Capsicum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum fruit contain a number of phytochemicals, including the newly characterized capsinoids that have been shown to have positive effects on human health (10-15). Closely related to the pungent capsaicinoids, the non-pungent casinoids exhibit antioxidant activity, promote energy metabolism and r...

  6. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  7. Gene expression in isolated plastids from fruits of capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastids were obtained from the ripening fruits of Capsicum annum, and incubated in vitro in the presence of [35S]methionine(Met). There was polypeptide synthesis at all stages of pepper tissue studied in both chloroplasts and chromoplasts, dependent on the addition of nuclioside triphosphates and phosphoenolpyruvate and inhibited by D-threo-chloramphenicol. l8. refs. (author)

  8. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum. PMID:26125877

  9. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The highest pollen viability was obtained in C. annuum var. abbreviatum (96.3%, followed by C. annuum var. grossum (95%, and C. annuum var. acuminatum (91.1%. The lowest pollen viability was recorded in C. frutescens var. baccatum (86.2%. The pollen viability was high in most varieties indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. Several intraspecific and interspecific crosses were performed among the Capsicum genotypes and three putative hybrid fruits were produced. Percentage successes obtained in the crosses were low and comparable in both intra and inter-specific crosses. In the entire crosses pattern, pollination success of 10% was recorded for C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum. Knowing the nature and viability of pollen grains may help in predicting the success rate of hybridization and the successful crosses between C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum suggest that these two varieties are the closest genetically.

  10. Overexpression of lycopene ε-cyclase gene from lycium chinense confers tolerance to chilling stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Li, Zhaodi; Wu, Jiang; Josine, Tchouopou Lontchi; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-15

    Lutein plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage and eliminating ROS to render normal physiological function of cells. As a rate-limiting step for lutein synthesis in plants, lycopene ε-cyclase catalyzes lycopene to δ-carotene. We cloned a lycopene ε-cyclase gene (Lcε-LYC) from Lycium chinense (L. chinense), a deciduous woody perennial halophyte growing in various environmental conditions. The Lcε-LYC gene has an ORF of 1569bp encoding a protein of 522 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence of Lcε-LYC gene has higher homology with LycEs in other plants, such as Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum tuberosum. When L. chinense was exposed to chilling stress, relative expression of Lcε-LYC increased. To study the protective role of Lcε-LYC against chilling stress, we overexpressed the Lcε-LYC gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lcε-LYC overexpression led to an increase of lutein accumulation in transgenic A. thaliana, and the content of lutein decreased when transgenics were under cold conditions. In addition, the transgenic plants under chilling stress displayed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and less H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) than the control. Moreover, the photosynthesis rate, photosystem II activity (Fv/fm), and Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also increased in the transgenetic plants. On the whole, overexpression of Lcε-LYC ameliorates photoinhibition and photooxidation, and decreases the sensitivity of photosynthesis to chilling stress in transgenic plants. PMID:26526130

  11. Chemical study and anti-inflammatory activity of Capsicum chacoense and C. baccatum

    OpenAIRE

    Paula López; Susana Gorzalczany; Cristina Acevedo; Rosario Alonso; Graciela Ferraro

    2012-01-01

    Capsicum species, Solanaceae, have been used for centuries as food additives by populations of different regions of the world. Capsaicin (trans-methyl-N-vainillyl-nonenamide) is the main pungent compound extracted from the red hot pepper fruit (Capsicum spp.). The capsaicin content was determined by means of a HPLC method. The results showed that Capsicum chacoense Hunz., contains similar amounts of capsaicin (13.9 mg/100 g of dry fruit) in comparison with Capsicum baccatum L. (12.6 mg/100 g)...

  12. Effect of osmotic pretreatment on air drying characteristics and colour of pepper (Capsicum spp) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Falade, Kolawole Olumuyiwa; Oyedele, Olaniyi O.

    2010-01-01

    Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick’s law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma ...

  13. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:26408136

  14. Evaluación de la diversidad genética del género Capsicum sp. presente en los Departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo por medio de Isoenzimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Pérez Luis Eugenio

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Capsicumcomprende 25 especies de las cuales cinco han sido domesticadas y dadoorigen a numerosos cultivares. Sin embargo, la alta selección a la que está siendo sometido elgénero podría llevarla a su erosión genética, por ello se requiere la introducción de nuevogermoplasma que suministre una fuente de diversidad genética, para el mejoramiento de loscultivares comerciales. Dicha fuente se debe encontrar en aquellas zonas donde las especiessilvestres, cercanas y/o relacionadas se distribuyen, ya que estas áreas funcionan como reser-vorio de genes y es allí donde se encuentran variedades con acervos genéticos amplios; fuentesgenéticas para resistencia a enfermedades, alta productividad y calidad nutricional. Teniendoen cuenta lo anterior la región amazónica colombiana tiene un valor potencial en la exploraciónde germoplasma importante para el género Capsicum, por ser considerada como el lugar deorigen del complejo silvestre annuum-chinense-frutescens. Así mismo se requiere de unaevaluación urgente de la diversidad genética de la región amazónica, antes de que se agotela disponibilidad de material vivo debido al proceso de deforestación. Con el propósito devalorar la diversidad genética presente del género Capsicum, en la Amazonía colombiana seutilizó la técnica de electroforésis de isoenzimas para los materiales de Ají colectados enhuertos y chagras indígenas de los departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo. Para laevaluación se utilizaron cinco isoenzimas polimórficas: alfabetaEST (alfabeta esterasa, GOT(glutamato oxaloacetato transaminasa, PRX (peroxidasa, 6PGDH (6-fosfoglucona-todehidrogenasa y ME (enzima málica. Con los resultados de presencia-ausencia de bandasse construyeron fenogramas con el índice de similaridad de Dice o Nei (1945 por mediodel programa estadístico NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analisys System. Deacuerdo a los resultados se pudo establecer la alta variabilidad

  15. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Lantz, P E; Flannagan, L M; Thompson, R L; Jason, D R

    1995-09-01

    Increasing use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray devices (i.e., pepper spray, pepper mace, OC, capsaicin) by law enforcement agencies as a means of sublethal force to control suspects has brought into question whether exposure to this noxious irritant (capsaicin) can cause or contribute to unexpected in-custody deaths. Capsaicin stimulates nociceptors in exposed mucous membranes to produce intense pain, particularly involving the conjunctiva, and generates systemic physiologic and behavioral responses consonant with such extreme discomfort. We describe two cases of in-custody death, both associated temporally with the use of pepper spray, to illustrate salient investigative considerations. As with any other in-custody death, a thorough autopsy and toxicologic analysis, coupled with evaluation of the premortem chain of events, postexposure symptomatology, and the extent of natural disease processes, will help to reveal the role of oleoresin capsicum spray as unrelated, contributory, or causative. PMID:7495257

  16. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  18. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus. PMID:26925452

  19. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Quintero Barrera; Marisol Cudris García; Martha Cecilia Giraldo; Luz Marina Melgarejo

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  20. Potent Production of Capsaicinoids and Capsinoids by Capsicum Peppers

    OpenAIRE

    古旗, 賢二; Sugawara, Mai; Mimura, Makoto; 矢澤, 進; 渡辺, 達夫

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact frui...

  1. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Barboza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae about the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentification. In addition, some specimens that serve as types have never been found or were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War while others exhibit uncertain locality data or are composed of plants belong to more than one species, and thus require lectotypification. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name are here proposed.

  2. The Paleobiolinguistics of domesticated chili pepper (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Cecil H.; Charles R. Clement; Patience Epps; Eike Luedeling; Søren Wichmann

    2013-01-01

    Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) developed significance for different prehistoric Native Am...

  3. AFLP-ANALYSIS OF VARIETAL POLYMORPHYSM IN Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Snigir’, E.; Pyshnaya, O.; Kochieva, E; Ryzhova, N.

    2013-01-01

    AFLP-system of multipoint marking was used for estimation of genetic diversity in 45 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. As a result, it was selected 8 primer combinations, which were the most informative for marking of paprika genome. Due to these primers the authors obtained the specific DNA-spectrums for each variety. In total, 956 polymorphous AFLP-fragments were detected, of which 182 fragments characterize the individual varietal genotypes. The calculated coefficients of intervarietal genet...

  4. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Mendes Medeiros; Rosana Rodrigues; Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves; Cláudia Pombo Sudré; Hérica Santos de Oliveira; Marilene Hilma dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci), to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield...

  5. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.0�0.68 (M1, 231.0�0.66 (M2, 280.0�0.31 (M3, 253.0�0.34 (M4 and 173.7�0.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  6. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  7. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  8. Morphological Variation for Fruit Characteristics in the USDA/ARS Capsicum Baccatum L. Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature fruit of two hundred and ninety-five accessions of Capsicum baccatum from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were characterized for fruit length, width, and color. Mean fruit weight was determined to be 5.91 g with a range from 0.15 g to 22.8 g. Mean fruit length was 6.01 cm with a ...

  9. Establishment of Somatic Cell Clones in Thesium chinense Turcz and Its in vitro Rootinq Technique%百蕊草无性系建立与瓶外生根研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江芹; 董玲; 宁志怨; 陈静娴; 廖华俊

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to establish the rapid micro-propagation system in Thesium chinense Turcz. [Method] With stem frag-ments of wild Thesium chinense Turcz as explants, different culture media were designed to conduct induction culture, strengthening plantlet culture and in vitro rooting. [Result] The optimum medium for inducing clustered shoots was determined to be MS medium appended with 1.5 mg/L 6-BA, 0. 01 mg/L NAA and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D; in addition, 60 mg/kg ABT was suitable for rooting, by which the percentage of rooted plantlets reached 76.6%. [Conclu-sion] This study simplified the procedures of tissue culture in Thesium chinense Turcz and enhanced the proliferation rate, providing basis for artificial cul-tivation and resource protection of Thesium chinense Turcz.

  10. Chemical study and anti-inflammatory activity of Capsicum chacoense and C. baccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula López

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species, Solanaceae, have been used for centuries as food additives by populations of different regions of the world. Capsaicin (trans-methyl-N-vainillyl-nonenamide is the main pungent compound extracted from the red hot pepper fruit (Capsicum spp.. The capsaicin content was determined by means of a HPLC method. The results showed that Capsicum chacoense Hunz., contains similar amounts of capsaicin (13.9 mg/100 g of dry fruit in comparison with Capsicum baccatum L. (12.6 mg/100 g and Capsicum annum L. (10.1 mg/100 g. Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 and ethanol (EtOH extracts of C. chacoense elicited a 46% and 38 % of inhibition on the arachidonic acid (AA pathway in ear edema respectively while the CH2Cl2 and EtOH extracts of C. baccatum inhibited 52% and 35% the arachidonic acid response respectively.

  11. AT3 (Acyltransferase Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Habibi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born by its secondary metabolic, Capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin also serves as defense mechanism, antiarthritis, analgesic, and anticancer. This study aimed to isolate Acyltransferase (AT3 gene which encoding Capsaicin Synthase (CS enzyme. AT3 gene was isolated through PCR using forward primer 5’-ATG GCT TTT GCA TTA CCA TCA-3’ and reverse primer 5’-CCT TCA CAA TTA TTC GCC CA-3’. Data were analyzed using DNA Baser, BLAST, and ClustalX. This study has successfully isolated 404 bp fragments of AT3 gene. This fragments located at 1918-1434 bp referred to AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Shuanla. Isolation of upstream and downstream fragments of AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau is undergoing.

  12. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A.; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 ...

  13. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Donghwan; Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Jung-Ro; Lee, Gi-An; Ro, Na-Young; Jeon, Young-Ah; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We report the complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), a species of chili pepper. Methods and Results: Using an Illumina platform, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of C. frutescens. The total length of the genome is 156,817 bp, and the overall GC content is 37.7%. A pair of 25,792-bp inverted repeats is separated by small (17,853 bp) and large (87,380 bp) single-copy regions. The C. frutescens chloroplast genome encodes 132 uniq...

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldaferro, M A; Prina, A R; Moscone, E A; Kwasniewska, J

    2013-09-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. "Cayenne", with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. PMID:23747514

  15. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji; Hongxia Chen; Yifeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activit...

  16. 杂交马褂木回交优株的光合特性%Photosynthetic characteristics of backcrossed superior plant in L. chinense × tulipifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓星; 房义福; 姜楠南; 王翠香; 康鹏

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate physiological basis of the excellent characteristics of backcrossed superior plant in L. Chinense Χ tulipifera under natural conditions, the photosynthetic indexes of backcrossed superior plant in 9-year-old L. Chinense Χ tulipifera and its parent plant were determinated. The results showed that a two-peak curve pattern was observed in the diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate for backcrossed superior plant of L. Chinense Χ tulipifera, L. Chinense Χ tulipifera and L. Chinens. The main factors affecting net photosynthetic rate were environmental CO2 concentration, photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature and stomata conductance. By comparing the net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, apparent light use efficiency and apparent CO2 use efficiency of three tree species, the resources utilization efficiency of backcrossed superior plant was higher than parent plant.%为研究杂交马褂木回交优株优异性状的生理基础,对自然条件下9年生杂交马褂木回交优株及亲本的光合特性指标进行测定.结果表明,杂交马褂木回交优株、杂交马褂木、马褂木的净光合速率呈“双峰”曲线,环境CO2浓度值、叶面光合有效辐射值、叶表面温度、气孔导度是影响净光合速率的主要因子.通过分析3个树种的净光合速率、瞬时水分利用效率、表观光能利用效率和表观CO2利用效率,表明回交优株的资源利用效率高于亲本.

  17. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�). Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l) and IAA (0.5 mg/l) was found to be the best medium for the...

  18. 柴胡皂苷类化学成分的LC-MS分析%LC-MS Analysis of Saponins in Bupleurum Chinense DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 张立富; 范斌; 吕俊海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study investigate the saponins in Bupleurum Chinense DC. by LC-MS. Methods The sample was extracted with 60% ethanol. The structures were detected by LC-MS experiments. Results 23 saponins were identified from Bupleurum Chinense DC. Conclusion This method can be used for rapid and accurate identification of saponins in Bupleurum chinense DC.%目的 建立柴胡皂苷类成分的LC-MS分析方法,研究柴胡皂苷类的化学成分.方法 60%乙醇回流提取柴胡;运用LC-MSn联用技术得到各化合物的总离子流图和多级质谱图,从而对各色谱峰进行鉴定.结果 从柴胡提取物中鉴定出23个化合物.结论 HPLC-MSn法可用于柴胡中皂苷类成分的结构分析,为建立快速、准确的质量评价方法提供了参考.

  19. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Donghwan; Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Jung-Ro; Lee, Gi-An; Ro, Na-Young; Jeon, Young-Ah; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We report the complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), a species of chili pepper. Methods and Results: Using an Illumina platform, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of C. frutescens. The total length of the genome is 156,817 bp, and the overall GC content is 37.7%. A pair of 25,792-bp inverted repeats is separated by small (17,853 bp) and large (87,380 bp) single-copy regions. The C. frutescens chloroplast genome encodes 132 unique genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Of these, seven genes are duplicated in the inverted repeats and 12 genes contain one or two introns. Comparative analysis with the reference chloroplast genome revealed 125 simple sequence repeat motifs and 34 variants, mostly located in the noncoding regions. Conclusions: The complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. frutescens reported here is a valuable genetic resource for Capsicum species. PMID:27213127

  20. [Analysis of microsatellite loci of the chloroplast genome in the genus Capsicum (Pepper)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhova, N N; Kochieva, E Z

    2004-08-01

    Six plastome microsatellites were examined in 43 accessions of the genus Capsicum. In total, 33 allelic variants were detected. A specific haplotype of chloroplast DNA was identified for each Capsicum species. Species-specific allelic variants were found for most wild Capsicum species. The highest intraspecific variation was observed for the C. baccatum plastome. Low cpDNA polymorphism was characteristic of C. annuum: the cpSSRs were either monomorphic or dimorphic. The vast majority of C. annuum accessions each had alleles of one type. Another allele type was rare and occurred only in wild accessions. The results testified again to genetic conservation of C. annuum and especially its cultivated forms. The phylogenetic relationships established for the Capsicum species on the basis of plastome analysis were similar to those inferred from the morphological traits, isozyme patterns, and molecular analysis of the nuclear genome. PMID:15523848

  1. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  2. In vivo and in vitro content of capsaicin in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko; Rafajlovska, Vesna

    2004-01-01

    From all groups of biological active-secondary metabolites, in the species of genus Capsicum the most importance have the alkaloids capsaicinoides, which are present only in the cultivars of genus Capsicum, and only they are responsible for the pungent of pepper. From all capsaicinoides only two compounds with 80-90% are responsible for the pungent of papper, and they are capsaicin and dihidrocapsaicin.

  3. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten van Zonneveld; Marleni Ramirez; Williams, David E; Michael Petz; Sven Meckelmann; Teresa Avila; Carlos Bejarano; Llermé Ríos; Karla Peña; Matthias Jäger; Dimary Libreros; Karen Amaya; Xavier Scheldeman

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions fo...

  4. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    OpenAIRE

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E.; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs a...

  5. The influence of different growth regulators to Capsicum annuum Jalapeno vitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu POP; Cristian Felix BLIDAR; Simona Ana GABOR-POTOR; Violeta TURCUS

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum annuum is an important vegetable for human alimentation, because of its content in vitamins, minerals and, especially, the capsaicine. In this experiment we have studied the development of Capsicum annuum vitroplantlets, the Mexican variety (Jalapeño), obtained by aseptic germination of this plant’s seeds. The seeds were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog medium (BM), with and without growth regulators, resulting 4 experimental variants: V0–control variant = BM without growth regulato...

  6. Method for the flotation oil extraction of light filth from ground capsicums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1977-05-01

    The present official first action method for ground capsicums, 44.123, was adopted in 1945 and there have been great changes in processing and examination of spices since that time. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, followed by wet sieving and extraction of the light filth from 60% ethanol with flotation oil. The filter papers were clean and recoveries were good (95%) for 5 different lots of capsicums and annato spiked with insect fragments and rodent hairs. PMID:870482

  7. Total Flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze Protect against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin has cardiotoxic effects that limit its clinical benefit in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze (TFCC against doxorubicin- (DOX- induced cardiotoxicity. Male rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (3 mg/kg every 2 days for three injections. Heart samples were collected 2 weeks after the last DOX dose and then analyzed. DOX delayed body and heart growth and caused cardiac tissue injury, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. Similar experiments in H9C2 cardiomyocytes showed that doxorubicin reduced cell viability, increased ROS generation and DNA fragmentation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced apoptotic cell death. However, TFCC pretreatment suppressed all of these adverse effects of doxorubicin. Signal transduction studies indicated that TFCC suppressed DOX-induced overexpression of p53 and phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Studies with LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT inhibitor demonstrated that the mechanism of TFCC-induced cardioprotection also involves activation of PI3K/AKT. These findings indicated the potential clinical application of TFCC in preventing DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress.

  8. Chemical and elemental comparison of two formulations of oleoresin capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J S; Whipple, R E; Grant, P M; Andresen, B D; Volpe, A M; Pelkey, G E

    1997-01-01

    In-custody deaths following the application of pepper spray weaponry by law enforcement personnel have increased in California over the last few years. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), an oily extract of hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the spray, but little detailed information on product mixtures is available. Since OC extracts contain a multitude of natural compounds at irregular concentrations, there could be considerable, variation in overall chemical composition among the different formulations of both 'natural' and 'synthetic' OC preparations. This was confirmed by organic and inorganic analyses performed on OC sprays produced by two manufacturers licensed for distribution within the state of California. The results indicated that the differences could lead to considerable inconsistency in weapon effectiveness, and suggested that more comprehensive studies are warranted. PMID:9022856

  9. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047. PMID:26674555

  10. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Pa Pa Wai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp. collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum pepper plants carrying Bs₁, Bs₂ and Bs₃, and PI235047 (C. pubescens were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047.

  11. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  12. Off-season cultivation of capsicums in a solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, M.K.; Tiwari, G.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2001-10-01

    The use of solar energy for growing capsicums in pots and in the ground has been studied both under a controlled environment in a solar greenhouse (IIT model) and in an open field during August 2000 to March 2001. Cooling arrangements (natural, forced convection, shading, evaporative cooling) and heating methods (ground air collector, movable insulation during the night) have been employed during the pre-winter and winter periods respectively to maintain the protected environment in the greenhouse. The effects of a north brick wall and the use of movable insulation during the night in the winter months to reduce heat loss from the greenhouse have been incorporated to study the efficacy of the greenhouse. The average height, weight and yield per plant of the greenhouse crop were higher than those of the open field. (author)

  13. Uptake of tritium through foliage in capsicum fruitescens, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium uptake and release patterns throuogh foliage in Capsicum fruitescens, L. were investigated using twelve potted plants, under different conditions of exposure and release. The plants studied belonged to two age groups, 3 months and 5 months. The average half residence time for the species was found to be 42.6 min, on the basis of treating the entire group of plants as a single cluster. The individual release rates showed a variation of up to a factor of two, for half residence time values (Tsub(1/2)). The second component was not easily resolvable in most of the cases. Tissue bound tritium showed interesting uptake patterns. The ratios between tissue bound tritium and tissue free water tritium concentrations indicated regular mode of uptake with well defined rate constants in the case of long exposure periods. (author)

  14. Characterization of Capsicum annuum Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Based on Parallel Polymorphism Discovery with a 30K Unigene Pepper GeneChip

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Theresa A.; Hamid Ashrafi; Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo; JiQiang Yao; Kevin Stoffel; Maria-Jose Truco; Alexander Kozik; Michelmore, Richard W; Allen Van Deynze

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterizat...

  15. 红花檵木叶黄酮类化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Constituents from Loropetalum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏晓; 樊建领; 张秋颖

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the flavonoid constituents of Loropetalum chinense. METHODS: The flavonoid constituents were isolated and purified from ethanol extract of L. Chinense by the column chromatography of D101 macroporous resin coupled with silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and RP-ODS column chromatography. Their chemical structures of compound were elucidated by NMR, UV and ESI-MS spectral analysis. RESULTS: Five flavonoid constituents were isolated and identified as kaempferol (1), quercetin(2) ,myricetin(3), myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamn-oside (4), isoquercetin (5). All of the flavonoid compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. CONCLUSION: The results provide the scientific basis for further exploitation of L. Chinense.%目的:研究红花檵木叶中的黄酮类化学成分.方法:采用D101大孔树脂分离富集红花檵木叶乙醇提取物中的黄酮类成分,应用硅胶柱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱和RP-ODS柱色谱分离化合物,并通过核磁共振光谱、紫外光谱和电喷雾质谱等谱学手段鉴定化合物结构.结果:从红花檵木叶乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了5个黄酮类化合物,分别为山柰酚、槲皮素、杨梅素、杨梅素-3-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷、异槲皮苷.所有黄酮类化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.结论:本试验结果可为红花檵木的进一步开发利用提供科学依据.

  16. The occurrence and control of pepper mild mottle virus(PMMoV)in the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four-thousand-four-hundred and three seed inventories of Capsicum spp. obtained from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were tested for the presence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV). Approximately 32% of these inventories tested positive for PMMoV and the virus distribution was nearly un...

  17. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. PMID:27006220

  18. Soil Manganese and Iron Released due to Calcium Salts:Bioavailability to Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI You-Bin; ZHOU Jing; ZHOU Dong-Mei; CHEN Huai-Man

    2004-01-01

    Releases of manganese and iron ions from an albic soil (Albic-Udic Luvisol), a yellow-red soil (Hap-Udic Ferrisol) and a yellow-brown soil (Arp-Udic Luvisol) induced by calcium salt addition and their bioavailability to pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in a pot experiment. Addition of Ca(NO3)2 decreased soil pH and increased both exchangeable and DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Mn and Fe in soils. Meanwhile, total Mn accumulation in the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. on the salt-treated soils increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the control, suggesting that salt addition to soil induced Mn toxicity in Capsicum frutescens L. Although exchangeable and DTPA-extractable Fe increased also in the salt-treated soils, Fe uptake by the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased. The effect of added salts in soils on dry matter weight of pepper varied with the soil characteristics, showing different buffer capacities of the soils for salt toxicity in an order of yellow-brown soil > albic soil > yellow-red soil. Fe/Mn ratio in shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased with increasing salt addition for all the soils, which was ascribed to the antagonistic effect of Mn on Fe accumulation. The ratio of Fe/Mn in the tissue was a better indicator of the appearance of Mn toxicity symptoms than Mn concentration alone.

  19. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum Using Illumina Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast (cp genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp. The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  20. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  1. Comparative study on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of three colored varieties of Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatsalya Krupa Khabade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background &Aim: The current study reviews the correlation between the three Indian,coloured capsicum species, the green, yellow and red varieties (colour depends on time ofharvest and degree of ripening with respect to their antioxidant/anti inflammatory properties.Methods:This was achieved by screening of aqueous plant extracts for antioxidant properties like totalphenolic content, reducing power assay and 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavengingactivity. The anti-inflammatory activity is assessed by inhibiting Soyal ipoxygenase enzyme (LOX.Results: the green capsicum extract showed greater phenolic content (3.2985±0.1004, reducing power(0.243 nm, DPPH scavenging effect (92.26% and LOX % inhibition (46.12 %compared to yellow andred extracts.Conclusion:Result thus suggests that green capsicum is a potential source of useful naturalantioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as well when compared with the other varieties.

  2. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  3. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers. PMID:26694339

  4. Identidade e propriedades de isolados de potyvírus provenientes de Capsicum spp. Identity and properties of potyvirus isolates obtained from Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A.C. Truta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte isolados virais provenientes de Capsicum spp. foram coletados em Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo e Rio de Janeiro visando definir a etiologia dos mosaicos. Para a caracterização biológica realizou-se teste de gama de hospedeiros e inoculação em cultivares diferenciadoras de pimentão (Capsicum annuum. Dois isolados provenientes de batata (Solanum tuberosum (PVY N-BR e PVY O-BR foram utilizados como controles. Os resultados indicaram considerável grau de variabilidade biológica entre os isolados, embora todos tenham sido identificados preliminarmente como Potato virus Y (PVY. A reação das cultivares diferenciadoras classificou os isolados como patótipo 1 ou 1.2 de PVY. Anti-soros foram produzidos a partir de partículas virais purificadas de um isolado fraco e um forte. O uso desses anti-soros em ELISA indireto levou a resultados positivos contra os isolados testados. Os anti-soros reagiram também contra PVY N-BR e PVY O-BR, embora este último tenha apresentado reação mais fraca. Para caracterização molecular, seqüenciaram-se os genes da polimerase (NIb e da proteína capsidial (cp, e da região 3' não-traduzida (3'NTR de isolados biologicamente distintos. A análise filogenética confirmou a identidade de seis isolados como Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV, um potyvírus descrito recentemente infetando pimentão no Brasil. Esse resultado sugere que o PepYMV pode ser a espécie de potyvírus predominante em Capsicum spp. no Brasil. O fato de isolados de PepYMV apresentarem gama de hospedeiros semelhante à do PVY, e de os dois vírus apresentarem relacionamento sorológico, ressalta a utilidade da análise molecular para a classificação de potyvírus provenientes de Capsicum spp.Twenty isolates were obtained from Capsicum spp. plants in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. The isolates were biologically characterized using a host range assay and inoculation into a series

  5. Potent production of capsaicinoids and capsinoids by Capsicum peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Kenji; Sugawara, Mai; Mimura, Makoto; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2013-11-20

    The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact fruits of a pungent cultivar, Peru, and a non-pungent cultivar, CH-19 Sweet. Labeled vanillylamine was incorporated into capsaicinoids in both cultivars. While labeled vanillyl alcohol was incorporated into capsinoids in both cultivars, the accumulation of intact capsaicinoids in Peru was suppressed by over 60% after administration of vanillyl alcohol. In Peru, labeled vanillin was converted to both vanillylamine and, in 5-fold excess, vanillyl alcohol. Moreover, labeled vanillin was converted exclusively to vanillyl alcohol in CH-19 Sweet. These data are consistent with the incorporation of labeled vanillin into capsaicinoids and capsinoids in both cultivars. We conclude that pungent cultivars are highly potent producers of vanillyl alcohol that is incorporated into capsinoids and that biosynthesis of capsinoids is catalyzed by capsaicin synthase. PMID:24147886

  6. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species. PMID:25867359

  7. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mendes Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci, to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield and fruit quality. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel without reciprocals. The parents and hybrids were evaluated under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications, and the following traits were assessed: number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, yield per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and soluble solids. All traits were significant for general and specific combining ability, indicating that additive and non-additive effects are involved in the genetic control of these traits. The hybrid combinations between the types lady's finger and cambuci provided elongated fruits with smaller diameters and greater weight compared with the parents of the cambuci type. However, these factors did not lead to a significant increase in the yield per plant due to the decreased number of fruits except in hybrid UENF 1616 x UENF 1732. Considering only the parents and hybrids within each type of fruit, the genitor UENF 1624 (lady's finger and the hybrid UENF 1639 x UENF 1732 (cambuci x cambuci stood out for achieving a high yield per plant.

  8. Genetic diversity of some chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on genetic diversity was conducted with 54 Chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes through Mohalanobis’s D2 and principal component analysis for twelve quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of secondary branch/plant, canopy breadth , days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, fruits/plant, 5 fruits weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seeds/fruit, 1000 seed weight and yield/plant were taken into consideration. Cluster analysis was used for grouping of 54 chili genotypes and the genotypes were fallen into seven clusters. Cluster II had maximum (13 and cluster III had the minimum number (1 of genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and III and the lowest between cluster II and VII. The characters yield/plant, canopy breadth, secondary branches/plant, plant height and seeds/fruit contributed most for divergence in the studied genotypes. Considering group distance, mean performance and variability the inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster III, cluster III and cluster VI, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster VII may be suggested to use for future hybridization program.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  10. HERENCIA DE CAPSAICINOIDES EN CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hermilo Sánchez-Sánchez; Víctor A González-Hernández; Ana B. Cruz-Pérez; Mario Pérez-Grajales; María A. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Alfonso A. Gardea-Béjar; Miguel Á. Gómez-Lim

    2010-01-01

    Los capsaicinoides son alcaloides importantes en la salud humana, alimentaria y farmaceútica, y sólo son producidos por plantas del género Capsicum. En este estudio se analizó la herencia del contenido de los tres principales capsaicinoides causantes del picor (nordihidro-, dihidro- y capsaicina), en 25 materiales genéticos de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.), que incluyen a cinco poblaciones (Huatusco, Zongolica, Tacámbaro, Puebla y Perú) más sus 20 cruzas interpoblacionales posibl...

  11. ACTIVIDAD FITOTÓXICA DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R & P)

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Pérez-Grajales; Claudia Sánchez-Navarro; Ma. del Rosario García-Mateos; Juan Martínez- Solís

    2013-01-01

    La búsqueda de nuevos herbicidas de origen natural se ha realizado mediante los estudios de sustancias fitotóxicas debido a que no afectan el ambiente y son menos tóxicos que los sintéticos. En la literatura existen pocas evidencias de los efectos fitotóxicos de los capsaicinoides presentes en el género Capsicum , por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar in vitro el efecto fitotóxico de los extractos del fruto de chile manzano ( Capsicum pubescens R P) en la germinaci...

  12. Búsqueda de resistencia a Phytophthora capsici Leonian en germoplasma de Capsicum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Tenorio, Ifigenia

    2010-01-01

    Las especies del género Capsicum son de gran importancia mundial debido a su valor y uso, alimenticio, medicinal e industrial. Phytophthora capsici es el agente causal de La secadera una enfermedad que produce la pudrición del cuello de la raíz y tallo en los cultivos de Capsicum generando pérdidas hasta del 100%. Por esta razón la obtención de materiales resistentes es la alternativa más deseable de manejo de esta enfermedad. El objetivo de la investigación es Identificar fuentes de resisten...

  13. 九龙山多脉青冈-鹅掌楸林演替过程种群生态位%The population niches during the succession of Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Liriodendron chinense forests in Jiulongshan Mountain, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华朝晖; 罗修宝; 商继东; 唐娟娟; 唐星; 程樟富; 郭联华

    2016-01-01

    浙江九龙山分布有珍稀濒危落叶树种为主要树种的亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林。为探明这些落叶树种在常绿落叶阔叶混交林进展演替过程中生态位变化规律,选择该地区多脉青冈—鹅掌楸林演替过程中4个不同阶段的代表性群落,进展演替过程中,在群落垂直空间上常绿阔叶树不断挤压落叶阔叶树的生存空间,该地区常绿阔叶林顶极群落对珍稀濒危落叶树种是致危生境,不利于生物多样性保护。%In the Jiulong shan Mountain of Zhejiang Province, in certain areas were rich in Liriodendron chinense and other rare and endangered deciduous broadleaf trees, form Cyclobalanopsis multinervis—L. chinense forests. To verify these deciduous broadleaf trees niche change law during evergreen broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf mixed community succession, four represent ative communities plots at different succession stages in C . multinervis—L . chinense forests were chos en to investigate, during progressive succession, evergreen broadleaf trees are squeezing L. chinense and other deciduous broadleaf trees living space continuously, It is suggested that, in the area, the evergreen broadleaf climax community is dangerous habitat to L. chinense and other deciduous broadleaf trees, is not in favor of biodiversity conservation.

  14. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  15. Monogenic Segregations in Backcross Progenies of Capsicum baccatumx Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids and Some Possible Explanations for Distorted Segregation Ratios in Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Naci ONUS

    2000-01-01

    Monogenic segregations of certain morphological and isozymic characters were studied in backcross progenies of Capsicum baccatumL. ( Solanaceae) x two interspecific F1 hybrids and distorted segregation ratios were noted. It was observed that isozyme markers Est-5, Idh-1, Pgm-2, and Pgi-2, and morphological marker gene P for fruit persistence showed distorted segregation ratios in the first backcross generation of both C. baccatumHawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith) x F1 ( C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x Capsi...

  16. Evaluation of methods and levels of phosphorus application in F1 hybrid capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) using 32P-labelled superphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep placement of phosphatic fertilizer proximal to the dense distribution of roots has resulted in better absorption and utilization in many crops. The relative efficiency of various methods of fertilizer placement using 32P-labelled superphosphate has been evaluated in wheat, oats, France bean, okra, brinjal and tomato, cabbage and onion and chilli. In this paper, studies were undertaken to evaluate different methods of superphosphate placements to F1 hybrid capsicum applied at different levels of recommended P dose

  17. Quantitative analysis of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers, oleoresin capsicum and pepper spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, C A; Crouch, D J; Yost, G S

    2001-05-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the predominant capsaicinoid analogues in extracts of fresh peppers, in oleoresin capsicum, and pepper sprays. The concentration of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers was variable. Variability was dependent upon the relative pungency of the pepper type and geographical origin of the pepper. Nonivamide was conclusively identified in the extracts of fresh peppers, despite numerous reports that nonivamide was not a natural product. In the oleoresin capsicum samples, the pungency was proportional to the total concentration of capsaicinoids and was related by a factor of approximately 15,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)/microg of total capsaicinoids. The principle analogues detected in oleoresin capsicum were capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin and appeared to be the analogues primarily responsible for the pungency of the sample. The analysis of selected samples of commercially available pepper spray products also demonstrated variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations. Variability was observed among products obtained from different manufacturers as well as from different product lots from the same manufacturer. These data indicate that commercial pepper products are not standardized for capsaicinoid content even though they are classified by SHU. Variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations in oleoresin capsicum-based self-defense weapons could alter potency and ultimately jeopardize the safety and health of users and assailants. PMID:11372985

  18. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  19. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  20. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) in tropical lowlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hot pepper ( Capsicum spp.) is the most important low elevation vegetable commodity in Indonesia. Yields are low, in part due to crop health problems. Farmers' practices were surveyed by means of exploratory surveys. Hot pepper pests and diseases were identified and described. Components of integrat

  1. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  2. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  3. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, the caffeine effects in mitotic division at Capsicum annuum L.. The treatment has determined the lessening of the mitotic index (comparative with the control variant, until mitotic division total inhibition, as well as an growth frequency of division aberation in anaphase and telophase.

  5. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  6. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    KRAFT, KH; Brown, CH; Nabhan, GP; Luedeling, E.; De Jesús Luna Ruiz, J; D'Eeckenbrugge, GC; Hijmans, RJ; Gepts, P.

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum,...

  7. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  8. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio; García Mario; Pardey Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Paciï¬c, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central a...

  9. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  10. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  11. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-01-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 lan...

  12. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE) "ROCOTO"

    OpenAIRE

    Misael Guevara; María Siles; Olga Bracamonte

    2014-01-01

    Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae). Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  13. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE "ROCOTO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Guevara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae. Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  14. Integrated Management of Wilt Complex Disease in Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq R. Rather; V. K. Razdan; Tewari, A. K.; Efath Shanaz; Z.A. Bhat; Mir G. Hassan; T. A. Wani

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various disease management tools on seedling emergence, wilt incidence and yield of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Var. California Wonder was studied as part of integrated management strategies under both glass house and field conditions. Different fungicides were tested against the four wilt pathogens viz, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytopthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii under in- vitro conditions. The fungicides viz, Captan, Carbendazim, Metalaxyl and Carboxin w...

  15. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther Zhani; Mohamed Aymen Elouer; Hassan Aloui; Cherif Hannachi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as pepper. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination, seedling growth and ionic balance of three Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) cv: Tebourba, Korba and Awlad Haffouz. Materials and Methods: The percentage of germination, the growth and the mineral contents were measured in the three Tunisian chili pepper cv watered with water contain...

  16. Chromosome orientation and sterility in gamma-ray induced interchanges in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After gamma irradiation (30 Kr) of seeds of Capsicum annuum cultivar cerasiformis (2 n = 24) two plants were recorded each carrying two interchanges. The nucleolus organiser chromosome appeared not to be involved. The interchange heterozygotes were weak and meiosis was irregular. At least one multivalent association per PMC was recorded. At metaphase I the predominant orientation was adjacent. The probable reasons for anaphase I and other meiotic irregularities and the incidence of high pollen sterility are discussed. (author)

  17. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-06-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  18. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-01-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The f...

  19. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío Gómez-García; Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ be...

  20. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht Elena; Zhang Dapeng; Mays Anne; Saftner Robert A; Stommel John R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection...

  1. UJI PENAMBAHAN BERBAGAI DOSIS VERMIKOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF CABAI MERAH BESAR Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zohra Hasyim; Elis Tambaru; Andi Ilham Latunra

    2015-01-01

    This research entitled " Effect of Vermicompost on growth of Capsicum annuum Chilli Red Big L. " . Is aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost on the growth of vegetative big red chili . Planting medium used is consisted of soil and vermicompost . Vermicompost derived from the cultivation of earthworms Lumbricus rubellus . Large red chilli seeds purchased from the farm shop . Large red chilli seeds germinated in vermicompost mixed soil and covered with clear plastic . This study is an ex...

  2. Microstructural analysis of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for postharvest quality optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Susana C.; Silva, Cristina L.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microstructure of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) after cutting, when maintained (for 0,4 and 7 d) under refrigerated storage (2°C). In order to assess the microstructure of the product, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied; however, to improve this technique, preparation procedures and quantitative image analysis were specifically developed. Since sample preparation affects deeply image quality, three sample p...

  3. Respon Pertumbuhan Tiga Varietas Cabai Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L. ) Pada Beberapa Tingkat Salinitas

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Rini

    2013-01-01

    The research to observe growth responses of three varieties of chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) to salinity treatment was conducted at The Plant Physiology Laboratory of Faculty Mathematics and Science, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan. Experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomized Factorial Design of six treatments of salinity (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 10000 ppm of NaCl) and three variety of chili peppers (Local, Genie and Bhaskara). The result showed that interaction betwe...

  4. Analysis of acute impact of oleoresin capsicum on rat nasal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Tolgahan; Acar, Mustafa; Olgun, Yüksel; Dağ, İlknur; Cengiz, Betül Peker; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of acute cellular changes seen in nasal mucosa of Wistar-Albino rats exposed to different doses of oleoresin capsicum for various time periods by means of scanning electron microscopy. Thirty-five Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each. 6-gram oleoresin capsicum per second was sprayed into cages of the groups except group 1. Spray times and duration of exposure to pepper gasses were different for each group. Thirty minutes after the exposure, the animals were killed and specimens from their nasal mucosas were harvested and examined under scanning electron microscope. Mucosal damage was scored from 0-4 points. Mean values of nasal mucosa damage scores of the groups were calculated and compared statistically. Average damage scores of the groups exposed to identical doses of oleoresin capsicum for various exposure times were compared and a statistically significant difference was seen between Groups 2 and 3 (p 0.05). Average damage scores of the groups exposed to various doses for identical exposure times were compared, and statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 2 and 4 and also Groups 3 and 5 (p pepper gas exerts destructive changes on rat nasal mucosa. The extent of these destructive changes increases with the prolonged exposure to higher doses. Besides, exposure time also stands out as an influential factor on the extent of the destructive changes. PMID:24627077

  5. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrawus Zhigila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4 and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3 per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum.

  6. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.80�0.16 (var. �X-235�, 5.00�0.19 (var. �PC-1� and 4.80�0.12 (var. �Pusa Jwala�. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  7. The influence of different growth regulators to Capsicum annuum Jalapeno vitroplantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu POP

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum is an important vegetable for human alimentation, because of its content in vitamins, minerals and, especially, the capsaicine. In this experiment we have studied the development of Capsicum annuum vitroplantlets, the Mexican variety (Jalapeño, obtained by aseptic germination of this plant’s seeds. The seeds were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog medium (BM, with and without growth regulators, resulting 4 experimental variants: V0–control variant = BM without growth regulators, V1 = BM+NAA(0.1mg/l, V2 = BM+IBA(0.1mg/l, and V3 = BM+KIN (0.1mg/l. The experiment, which lasted for 40 days, have revealed that the best growth medium for Capsicum annuum vitroplantlets is V1 (BM+NAA, the IBA and KIN having a negative influence to these plantlets development. After 40 days of “in vitro” culture, the ex-vitroplantlets were acclimatized successfully in common soil.

  8. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  9. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  10. Extraction Process of Total Flavones in the roots of Clerodendrum chinense%重瓣臭茉莉根总黄酮提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬凡; 房志坚

    2013-01-01

    Using single factor test and orthogonal test, the optimal processes of extracting total flavonoids from Clerodendrum Chinense (Lour) Merr were established by the absorption of total flavonoids. The optimum conditions for extracting the total flavonoids assisted were as follow:extraction temperature 80℃, extraction time 90 min, 80%ethanol and ratio of solid to liquid 1∶25. The mass fraction of total flavonoids extracted was up to 2.68%. It was suggested that the optimum extraction process was simple, stable, efficient and feasible.%以总黄酮的提取率为考察目标,通过单因素及正交试验,对重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的提取工艺进行优化。结果表明,最佳提取工艺条件为:以25倍量80%乙醇,在80℃下回流提取90 min。重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的平均质量分数为2.68%。此优化工艺简单可行且稳定高效,可作为重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的优选提取工艺。

  11. Phenolic compositions and antioxidant attributes of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller harvested at various times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Jau-Tien; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shen, Bo-Yan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chang, Ya-Ling; Shih, Chia-Huing; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2017-01-15

    Antioxidant components and properties (assayed by scavenging DPPH radicals, TEAC, reducing power, and inhibiting Cu(2+)-induced human LDL oxidation) of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller, namely ML01, ML02 and ML02-TY, harvested from January to April were studied. Their flavonoid and phenolic acid compositions were also analyzed by HPLC. For each variety, the leaves and stems collected in higher temperature month had higher contents of total phenol, total flavonoid and condensed tannin. Contents of these components in the samples collected in different months were in the order: April (22.3°C)>March (18.0°C)>January (15.6°C)>February (15.4°C). Antioxidant activities of the leaves and stems for all assays also showed similar trends. The samples from different varieties collected in the same month also possessed different phenolic compositions and contents and antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with flavonoid and phenolic contents. PMID:27542477

  12. Reação de acessos de Capsicum e de progênies de cruzamentos interespecíficos a isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum Reaction of Capsicum accessions and progenies from interspecific crosses to Colletotrichum acutatum isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica JZ Pereira; Nelson S Massola Junior; Angelo AB Sussel; Fernando C. Sala; Cyro P da Costa; Leonardo S Boiteux

    2011-01-01

    A antracnose, causada por um complexo de espécies de Colletotrichum, é uma das doenças mais importantes de Capsicum em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Fontes de resistência têm sido identificadas em programas de melhoramento conduzidos em diferentes continentes. No entanto, ainda são restritas as informações sobre a abrangência e estabilidade desta resistência aos diferentes isolados de espécies de Colletotrichum que compõem o complexo causador da antracnose em Capsicum. Foram avaliadas as ...

  13. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar; Renate Krause-Sakate; Marcelo Agenor Pavan; Cyro Paulino da Costa

    2009-01-01

    A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar piment...

  14. Advances in Genetic Resources and Molecular Breeding of Pepper (Capsicum spp.)%辣椒(Capsicum spp.)遗传资源与分子育种进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方荣; 陈学军; 缪南生; 万新建; 胡新龙

    2004-01-01

    综述了辣椒的起源(起源于美洲热带地区)、分类(有5个栽培种:Capsicum annuum、C.chinense、C.frutescens、C.baccatum、C.pubecens和若干野生种)、遗传演化背景、种间杂交障碍(单向不亲和性、种子败育、胞质雄性不育)、染色体倍性控制以及辣椒分子育种(分子连锁遗传图谱的构建、质量性状和数量性状的分子标记)研究进展等.

  15. Genomic Characterization of the Chili Peppers (Capsicum Solanaceae) Germplasm by Classical and Molecular Cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the IAEA coordinated research project entitled 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' we carried out genomic characterization of wild and cultivated samples of chilli peppers (genus Capsicum) by classical chromosome staining methods (AgNOR and fluorescent chromosome banding) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). For the first approach, fluorochromes with affinity for specific chromosome regions were used, i.e. chromomycin A3 (CMA) and diamidino-phenyl-indole (DAPI) which have preference for GC-rich and AT-rich regions, respectively. In addition, Ag-staining to detect active nucleolus organizing regions was applied. The heterochromatin could be characterized in respect to type, amount and distribution in the different accessions examined. On the other hand, the number and position of active NORs could be determined. Using FISH, different DNA probes were used in order to map specific sequences in the chromosomes, i.e. 45S and 5S rDNA, telomeric sequences and cloned restriction fragments of repetitive nature. As an example of the work done, we present the results obtained on a sample of Capsicum annuum var. annum (cultivar NMCA 10272), the most broadly exploited cultivar of chilli pepper. The results allowed us to characterize the Capsicum species and accessions and the possible evolutionary pathways for chilli peppers was deduced based on the available cytogenetic data. It is worth mentioning that the research work done under this CRP is part of work being done within an exsting network of chilli pepper research of this important plant group utilized by man and among one of the first cultivated plants in the history of humanity. (author)

  16. Anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fed with calcium using foliar nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Zenia Michałojć

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three foliar-applied Ca-containing preparations on the anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was studied. The following preparations were used: Ca(NO3)2, Librel Ca and Wapnowit, applied at the respective concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1%, which corresponded to a content of 2000 mg Ca × dm-3. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used in the study. It was demonstrated that in amphistomatic bifacial pepper leaves numerous specialised cells occurred ...

  17. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE) were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L). A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12). Band no. (11) and (5,12) are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100%) between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the...

  18. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  19. Circadian rhythm of leaf movement in Capsicum annuum observed during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which the plants were exposed were held constant. The circadian period, rate of change of amplitude of successive oscillations, symmetry of the cycles, and phase of the rhythm all were found not to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the sustained g-force.

  20. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aloui, Hassen; Souguir, Maher; Hannachi, Chérif

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.): ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM) for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h). Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After ...

  1. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  2. In vitro plant regeneration of 4 Capsicum spp. genotypes using different explant types

    OpenAIRE

    ORLINSKA, Marta; NOWACZYK, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of in vitro regeneration of 4 genotypes of pepper (Capsicum spp.) that differ in origin and functional properties: California Wonder, (ATZ × Sono)F1, Jalapeno, and SF-9. In order to investigate the effect of the initial explant type, photoperiod, and presence of 2.0 mg L-1 of glycine in the medium, organogenesis was induced on the MS medium with 2.0 g L-1 2-(N-morpholine) ethanesulfonic acid, 1.7 mg L-1 AgNO3, 0.4 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and 6...

  3. Oil flotation extraction of light filth from ground capsicums excluding paprika: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1978-07-01

    A collaborative study has been completed on an improved method for the isolation of light filth from ground capsicums other than paprika. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, wet-sieving, and extraction from cooled 60% ethanol with a mineral oil-heptane mixture. The collaborative tests by the proposed method showed an approximate 2-fold increase in recoveries of insect fragments and rodent hairs with acceptable coefficients of variation and clean filter papers. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action to replace 44.123. PMID:681260

  4. The Effect of Latitudes on the Structure of Secondary Xylem in Liriodendron chinense Sarg.%不同纬度对鹅掌楸次生木质部结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽娟; 林月惠; 吴树明

    2001-01-01

    对生长在北纬23至32度的鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense Sarg.)的次生木质部进行了比较解剖学研究。观察的特征有:导管分子的长度、直径、壁厚、梯状穿孔板横闩的数目;导管密度、纤维长度、直径、壁厚;射线的高度、宽度,单列射线的比例,射线的密度等。结果表明,随着纬度的增加,导管分子变短变细,壁变薄,梯状穿孔板的横闩数目减少;纤维也变短变细,壁变薄;木射线变矮变窄,单列射线的比例和射线密度增加。%This paper reports a comparative anatomical study of the secondary xylem of Liriodendron chinense Sarg. growing in lat 23°~32°N. A detailed description is given of the characteristics of the secondary xylem in L. chinense Sarg.,including vessel element and fibre lengths, diameters, wall ticknesses, the number of bars of perforation plate,the density of versels,the height, width and density of rays,and ratio of uniseriate rays.It is shown that with the increase of latitude, vessel elements and fibres become thinner and shorter, vessel and fibre walls become thinner in early wood and late wood,the number of bars of perforation plate decreases, rays become shorter and narrower, the ratio of uniseriate rays and the density of rays increase in secondary xylem.

  5. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  6. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  7. Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analysis for pharmacopoeial qualification of industrial Capsicum extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Mónika; Fodor, Krisztina; Boros, Borbála; Perjési, Pál

    2015-01-01

    A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to quantify capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamid), dihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillylnonanamide) and the main capsaicinoid contents of Capsicum extracts. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C8 column using isocratic mobile phase consisting of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile and 60% (v/v) orthophosphoric acid solution with flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The concentration of the eluting compounds was monitored by a diode-array detector at wavelength of 281 nm. The method was evaluated for number of validation characteristics (selectivity, accuracy (confidence intervals calibration range). The LOD was 0.25 µg/mL and the LOQ was 0.5 µg/mL. Using methanolic solutions of United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Reference Standards, the method was linear over the concentration range 0.0005-0.5000 mg/mL for both capsaicinoids. The method was applied to qualify capsaicinoid content of two industrial capsicum extracts according to the USP 29. PMID:24557717

  8. 辣椒研究现状及发展策略%Situation of Research in Capsicum and its Developmental Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 龙应霞

    2009-01-01

    The capsicum has a very high nutritional value and health-care function. Its developmental potential is huge. In this article, the situation of research and exploitation in capsicum is generalized, and a brief introduction to the industrial present situation of Guizhou is given. Sim-ultaneously, the developmental strategy of capsicum industry in Guizhou has been discussed.%辣椒(Capsicum frutescens L.)具有很高的营养价值与保健功能,产品开发潜力巨大.本文综述了国内外对辣椒中功能成分的研究进展并简要介绍了贵州辣椒的产业现状,同时探讨了贵州的辣椒产业的发展策略.

  9. Effets biocides des alcaloïdes, des saponines et des flavonoïdes extraits de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) sur Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Blenzar A.; Boughdad A.; Bouchelta A.

    2005-01-01

    Biocide effects of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). In an attempt to elaborate a strategy of integrated pest management on vegetable crops in Morocco, insecticidal activities of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. fruits against eggs and adults of Bemisia tabaci infesting tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Daniella, were carried out u...

  10. Obtención de plantas haploides en chile miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L. Obtaining haploid plants from miahuateco chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Vélez Torres

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas haploides, es una herramienta importante en los programas de mejoramiento y estudios genéticos, ya que permite obtener líneas puras más rápido que los métodos convencionales a través de la duplicación de plantas haploides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una metodología que permita la regeneración de plantas haploides de chile tipo miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L.. Las anteras se cultivaron en los medios basales de Murashige y Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975, suplementados con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1-1 mg L-1, ácido naftalenacético (0.1 mg L-1, ácido indolacético (1 mg L-1 y ácido 2-4 diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1. La embriogénesis se indujo hasta en 2.23% de anteras cuando se cultivaron en una combinación de 6-furfurilaminopurina con 2-4, diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1 de ambos o de ácido indolacético con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1 mg L-1 de ambos. El análisis cromosómicos de las plantas regeneradas mostró que eran haploides con número cromósomico 2n= x= 12.Haploid plant regeneration is an important tool in breeding programs and genetics studies, since it helps obtain pure lines faster than conventional methods by the duplication of haploid plants. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to regenerate haploid Miahuateco chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.. Anthers were grown on Murashige and Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975 basal media, supplemented with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1-1 mg L-1, naphthaleneacetic acid (0.1 mg L-1, indolacetic acid (1 mg L-1, and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1. Embryogenesis was induced in 2.23% of anthers grown in a combination of 6-furfurylaminopurine with 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1, of each, or indolacetic acid with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1 mg L-1 of each. Chromosome analysis of regenerated plants showed that they were haploids with a chromosome number of 2n= x= 12.

  11. Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Venu; Nimmakayala, Padma; Nadimi, Marjan; Alaparthi, Suresh; Hankins, Gerald R; Ebert, Andreas W; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 123 genotypes of Capsicum baccatum L. originating from 22 countries, at two stages of fruit development, for vitamin C content and its relationship with reducing sugars in fruit pericarp. Among the parametric population, vitamin C and reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 2.54 to 50.44 and 41-700mgg(-1) DW of pericarp, respectively. Overall, 14 genotypes accumulated 50-500% of the RDA of vitamin C in each 2g of fruit pericarp on a dry weight basis. Compared with ripened fruits, matured (unripened) fruits contained higher vitamin C and lower reducing sugars. About 44% variation in the vitamin C content could be ascribed to levels of reducing sugars. For the first time, this study provides comprehensive data on vitamin C in the world collection of C. baccatum genotypes that could serve as a key resource for food research in future. PMID:26920284

  12. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  13. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Capsicum annuum extract and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Moema Mocaiber Peralva; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Gonçalves, Paula Santos; Maria, Edmilsom José; Terra, Wagner Silva; Rodrigues, Rosana; Souza, Claudio Luiz Melo

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of the ethyl acetate extract and capsaicin (1) and dihydrocapsaicin (2) isolated from fruits of Capsicum annuum chili pepper type, and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives (N-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl)decamide (3), (E)-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3,7-dimethylocta- 2,6-dienamide (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-((E)-3, 7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)benzamide (5) andN-(4-hydroxy- 3-methoxybenzyl)decamide (6) at different concentrations were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration at which the ethyl acetate extract prevented the growth of S. mutans was 2.5 mg/mL; those of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were 1.25 μg/mL, while 3 was 5.0 μg/mL, and 4, 5 and 6 were 2.5 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:21858615

  15. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-01-01

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV. PMID:23661433

  16. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-09-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80' derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance. PMID:24273429

  17. Recombinant inbred line differential identifies race-specific resistance to phytophthora root rot in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, O; Steiner, R; Bosland, P W

    2008-08-01

    A differential series is the normal method for identification of races within a plant pathogen and a host interaction. A host differential is extremely useful for phytopathological as well as breeding purposes. A set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed and characterized for race differentiation of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. The highly resistant Capsicum annuum accession Criollo de Morelos-334 was hybridized to a susceptible cultivar, Early Jalapeno, to generate the RIL population. The host differential characterized 17 isolates of P. capsici into 13 races. The establishment of a stable host differential for the P. capsici and C. annuum interaction will assist researchers in understanding the complex inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora root rot and to develop resistant cultivars. PMID:18943204

  18. Diallel Crossing Analyses of Resistance to Main Diseases in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xue-xiao; HOU Xi-lin; CHEN Wen-chao; LIU Rong-yun; ZHANG Zhu-qing; MA Yan-qing; DAI Xiong-ze; YANG Yu-hong

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen capsicum combinations were made with 6 parents by (1/2)n(n-1) diallel crossing. Genetic parameters in the resistance to TMV, CMV, phytophthora blight, bacterial spot of these combinations were studied by Hayman. The results indicated that the resistance to TMV, CMV and bacterial spot conformed genetically to the "additive-dominant" model but the resistance to phytophthora blight did not and significant epistatic dominance effect existed in it. F1 hybrid's resistance to CMV was controlled by homozygous dominant gene (s), but resistance to bacterial spot by heterozygous one (s). There were little, or no sum of dominant effect and genomes controlling the dominant expression of F1 hybrids in its phytophthora blight resistance.

  19. APPLICATION OF WATER HYACINTH VERMICOMPOST ON THE GROWTH OF Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.BLESSY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth has been developed into biofertilizer by vermicomposting through two methods. Samples have been collected from Kanakkan Yeri, Pondicherry, India. The earthworm chosen for this study was Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermicompost has been prepared using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the present study, two methods were followed. In one method, water hyacinth waste was collected composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the other method, the cellulose present in water hyacinth was hydrolyzed enzymatically and composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. The vermicompost was collected from both the methods and used for analyzing enzymes, physicochemical parameters, level of macro and micronutrients. The efficacy of the prepared vermicompost has been studied on the vegetable plant Capsicum annum. Germination time, growth of the plant, number of the leaves has been studied. Finally, it has been compared with the plants which were grown using chemical fertilizers (NPK.

  20. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Min, Wongi; Bravo, David M

    2013-09-14

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens α-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to α-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum α-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE. PMID:23566550

  1. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  2. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo Luz Marina; Giraldo Martha Cecilia; García Marisol Cudris; Quintero Barrera Lorena

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  3. 干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响%Drought Effects on Growth and Physiological Traits of Loropetalum chinense Var·rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 周兰英

    2015-01-01

    【目的】研究土壤干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响。【方法】采用盆栽控水法,设置4个水分处理,测定在各水分处理下红花檵木的生长和生理指标,分析其差异。【结果】随胁迫程度的加深和时间的延长旱害表现越严重,营养生长和生殖生长受抑,RWC 下降,相对电导率值和 MDA 含量增加,Pro、SS、SP 不断积累,SOD、POD、CAT 活性总体上升。【结论】红花檵木对干旱胁迫较为敏感,轻度胁迫即可引起各项生理指标显著变化,但植株表观形态变化不明显;随胁迫程度的加深,各项指标变幅加剧,形态变化明显。红花檵木具有一定的抗旱性,能在中度干旱胁迫下继续存活,并能忍受连续60d 不供水的重度干旱胁迫。%Objective]The aim of the study was to study effects of soil drought on growth and physiological traits of L.chinense .[Method]Tn this study,there were four different water treat-ments.The growth and physiological indicators were measured and differences among treatments were analyzed.[Results]The damage magnitude was increased with increasing drought stress and time.RWC,nutrition and reproduction growth and was inhibited.However,relative conductivi-ty,MDA,SOD,POD and CAT were increased.Pro,SS and SP were accumulated.[Conclusion]L.chinense was sensitive to drought stress.Slight drooght treatments can cause significant chan-ges in various physiological indexes but the apparent features were not clear.The physiological and morphological indexes were affected substantially with increasing drought stress.Overall,L. chinense had strong resistance to drought.It could survive in moderate drought stress and endure severe drought stress that without water supplying for 60 days.

  4. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus. PMID:26959315

  5. 辣椒叶片总RNA快速提取%Rapid Extraction of Total RNA from Capsicum annuum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞; 肖仲久; 宋培勇; 周逊; 谢语

    2011-01-01

    Trizol extraction method was modified to extract total RNA from Capsicum annuum leaves. The result of agar gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet ray photometer and RT-PCR showed that the total RNA obtained by modified Trizol method was of high quality, and suitable for downstream applications.%采用改良的Trizol法对辣椒(Capsicum annuum)叶片的总RNA进行了提取,利用琼脂糖凝胶电泳、紫外分光光度法、RT-PCR进行RNA纯度、完整性检测.结果表明,Trizol法提取可获得较高质量的辣椒叶片总RNA,能满足后续的研究需要.

  6. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRIYADI; MUJIYATI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i) whithout fertilize...

  7. COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR FRUIT YIELD AND QUALITY IN MANZANO HOT PEPPER (Capsicum pubescens R & P) LANDRACES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez-Grajales; V. A. González-Hernández; A. Peña-Lomelí; J. Sahagún-Castellanos

    2009-01-01

    Hybridization as a method for plant breeding may create improved varieties with higher fruit yield and quality by taking advantage of the combining ability and heterosis between the crossed parents. Six landrace varieties (five collected in Mexico and one in Peru) of manzano hot pepper (Capsicum pubescens R P) and all their possible direct single crosses were evaluated, for heterosis and general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) for fruit yield and quality. Plants were grown un...

  8. Pengaruh Ketinggian Perangkap Warna Terhadap Populasi Thrips Parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)Pada Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annum)

    OpenAIRE

    Sirait, Desianty Dona Normalisa

    2012-01-01

    Hot chilli (Capsicum annum) is the important vegetable comodity in the lowlands in Indonesia. Thrips parvispinus Karny is one of the major pests of hot chilli. Thrips damage is more severe during dry season. This research was performed to know the efectivity of used colour and height of sticky trap to the population of T. parvispinus in hot chilli. The method used the Random Block Design (RBD) factorial which consisted of 2 factor, ie: A factor ; Colour treatment (W) with 3 levels namel...

  9. FEATURE OF HETEROSIS IN Capsicum annuum L. IN CONNECTION WITH DEGREE OF IDENTITY OF KEY ALLELES OF ECONOMIC VALUABLE DETERMINANTS

    OpenAIRE

    O.O. Timina; A.S. Ryabova

    2011-01-01

    With the use of parental forms of Capsicum annuum L. (Dobrynya Nikitich, Kolobok, Prometei varieties and also L 48 and L 49 lines) by the regressioncluster analysis the authors revealed the correlation between degree of identity of key alleles of economic valuable determinants and effect of heterosis. It was shown, that for the prognosis of heterosis in the conditions of the film nonheated greenhouse on module of marketable crop the degree of identity alleles in three clusters: fruit’s length...

  10. Reklamasi Rawa Pasang Surut Sungai Denai yang Ditanami Cabai Merah Keriting (Capsicum Annum, L) dengan Kascing dan Gipsum.

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Defani Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Rise and withdraw swamp has a low soil fertility degree and high salinity. Based on case, this research is aimed to know the function of giving casting as an organik fertilizer and gypsum to efforts reclamation of rise and withdraw swamp Denai’s river for red pepper production (Capsicum annuum, L). This research was conducted in a greenhouse and chemistry and soil fertility laboratory in Agriculture faculty of Sumatera Utara University, Medan. This research used non factoria...

  11. EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANCE (NACL) IN TUNISIAN CHILI PEPPER ( CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) ON GROWTH, MINERAL ANALYSIS AND SOLUTES SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther ZHANI; Hermans, Nina; Ahmad, Rezwan; Hannachi, Cherif

    2013-01-01

    Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L.) cultivars: Tebourba (Tb), Somaa (Sm), Korba...

  12. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum) in different fertilization treatments

    OpenAIRE

    SUTARNO; SUHARJA

    2009-01-01

    Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum) in different fertilization treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. This study aims to determine the influence of various fertilization treatments on biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves from two varieties of chili, Sakti (large chili) and Fantastic (curly chili). The study was conducted in the village of Gatak, Karangnongko sub-district, Klaten District, ...

  13. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to Identify Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Capsaicinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one ...

  14. EFFECT OF SALT STRESS (NACL) ON GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING PARAMETERS OF THREE PEPPER CULTIVARS ( CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aloui Hassen; Souguir Maher; Hannachi Cherif

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l). Results indicated that all investigate t...

  15. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio Ballina-Gomez; Luis Latournerie-Moreno; Esau Ruiz-Sanchez; Alfonso Perez-Gutierrez; Gabriel Rosado-Lugo

    2013-01-01

    The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate...

  16. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Latournerie-Moreno; Alex Ic-Caamal; Esaú Ruiz-Sánchez; Horacio Ballina-Gómez; Ignacio Islas-Flores; Wilberth Chan-Cupul; Daniel González-Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-rela...

  17. Genomic and biological characterization of chiltepin yellow mosaic virus, a new tymovirus infecting Capsicum annuum var. aviculare in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Pagán Muñoz, Jesús Israel; Betancourt Vásquez, Mónica; Miguel, Jacinto de; Piñero, Daniel; Fraile Pérez, Aurora; Garcia-Arenal Rodriguez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of viruses infecting wild plants is a key step towards understanding the ecology of plant viruses. In this work, the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of a new tymovirus species infecting chiltepin, the wild ancestor of Capsicum annuum pepper crops, in Mexico was determined, and its host range has been explored. The genome of 6,517 nucleotides has the three open reading frames described for tymoviruses, putatively encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a movement pr...

  18. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  19. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO4, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P2O2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  20. Padrão estomático de Capsicum ssp. resistentes e suscetíveis a Oidiopsis haplophylli Stomatal patterns of Capsicum genotypes resistant or susceptible to Oidiopsis haplophylli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Paz Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando relacionar a reação de Capsicum spp. resistentes e suscetíveis à Oidiopsis haplophylli com o padrão dos respectivos complexos estomáticos, foram analisados em dois ensaios, 5 e 15 genótipos de Capsicum spp. em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Avaliou-se a abertura do ostíolo, a morfometria do estômato (comprimento, largura e área, o número de estômatos.mm-2 e a freqüência de estômatos (unidades de estômatos por células da epiderme nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial da epiderme foliar de plantas cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação. A variável abertura ostiolar não explicou a reação dos genótipos ao oídio, nem na face adaxial (R²=0,16 nem na abaxial (R²=0,13. Entretanto, o número de estômatos.mm-2 explicou a reação ao oídio em 84 % (face adaxial ou 74 % (face abaxial. Para a freqüência de estômatos, o modelo ajustou-se melhor na face adaxial (R² = 0,76, do que na face abaxial (R²=0,48. Maiores números e freqüências de estômatos em ambas as faces foliares ocorreram em pimentão 'Magali' (altamente suscetível, com valores significativamente maiores do que em 'HV-12' (altamente resistente. Sugere-se que a suscetibilidade de genótipos de Capsicum a O. haplophylli está parcialmente relacionada a mecanismos de defesa estruturais pré-formados, como o número e freqüência de estômatos, os quais se relacionam com o número de sítios de infecção. Por outro lado, para alguns genótipos, esta relação não foi significativa, indicando que outros mecanismos de resistência também estejam envolvidos.This work reports the reaction of Capsicum genotypes to the powdery mildew pathogen with variables of the stomatal complex, from samples of five to 15 Capsicum genotypes in a complete randomized experiments. Ostiolum size, stomatal morphometry (length, width and surface area, the number of stomata.mm-2, and the frequency of stomata (stomatal units per unit of epidermal cells were evaluated on both leaf

  1. 太行菊和芙蓉菊花粉母细胞减数分裂过程%Meiosis process of pollen mother cells in Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling)Shih and Crossostephium chinense(L.)Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 陈发棣; 陈素梅; 房伟民

    2009-01-01

    对太行菊和芙蓉菊花粉母细胞减数分裂过程进行了研究.结果表明:太行菊和芙蓉菊减数分裂过程基本正常,为同时型胞质分裂.减数分裂中期Ⅰ染色体基本构型为9个二价体,其中太行菊和芙蓉菊每个花粉母细胞(PMC)平均染色体配对构型分别为005Ⅰ+892Ⅱ+003Ⅳ和004Ⅰ+861Ⅱ+002Ⅲ+017Ⅳ;部分花粉母细胞后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ及末期Ⅰ和末期Ⅱ发现有染色体桥、落后染色体、微核及不同步分裂等减数分裂异常现象.%Meiosis behaviors in the Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling) Shih and Crossostephium chinense (L. ) Makino were investigated for the first time. The results showed that meiosis of pollen mother cell ( PMC) was overall normal and simultaneous cytokinesis. The chromosome pairing configurations at meiotic metaphase Ⅰ per PMC in Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling) Shih and Crossostephium chinense (L. ) Makino, with the commonest configurations of 9 bivalents (9Ⅱ ), were 0. 05 Ⅰ +8. 92 Ⅱ +0. 03Ⅳ and 0. 04Ⅰ +8. 61 Ⅱ +0. 02Ⅲ+0. 17Ⅳ , respectively. A few of chromosome bridges and laggard chromosomes were found in some PMCs at anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ ; moreover, micronucleus and nonsynchronous division were also observed in several cells at telophase land Ⅱ.

  2. Genetic diversity studies in twenty accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern

  3. The effect of oleoresin capsicum "pepper" spray inhalation on respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Theodore C; Vilke, Gary M; Clausen, Jack; Clark, Richard F; Schmidt, Paul; Snowden, Thomas; Neuman, Tom

    2002-03-01

    We performed a randomized, cross-over controlled trial to assess the effect of Oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray inhalation on respiratory function by itself and combined with restraint. Thirty-five subjects were exposed to OC or placebo spray, followed by 10 min of sitting or prone maximal restraint position (PMRP). Spirometry, oximetry, and end-tidal CO2 levels were collected at baseline and throughout the 10 min. Data were compared between groups (ANOVA) and with predefined normal values. In the sitting position, OC did not result in any significant changes in mean percent predicted forced vital capacity (%predFVC), percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%predFEV1), oxygen, or CO2 levels. In PMRP, mean %predFVC and %predFEV1 fell 14.4 and 16.5% for placebo and 16.2 and 19.1% for OC, but were not significantly different by exposure. There was no evidence of hypoxemia or hypercapnia in either groups. OC exposure did not result in abnormal spirometry, hypoxemia, or hypoventilation when compared to placebo in either sitting or PMRP. PMID:11908598

  4. Biological Activities of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Its Pungent Principle Capsaicin: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been extensively studied for its biological effects which are of pharmacological relevance. These include: cardio protective influence, antilithogenic effect, antiinflammatory, and analgesia, thermogenic influence, and beneficial effects on gastrointestinal system. Therefore, capsaicinoids may have the potential clinical value for pain relief, cancer prevention and weight loss. It has been shown that capsaicinoids are potential agonists of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1). They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. The involvement of neuropeptide Substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin in the pharmacological actions of capsaicin has been extensively investigated. Topical application of capsaicin is proved to alleviate pain in arthritis, postoperative neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, psoriasis, etc. Toxicological studies on capsaicin administered by different routes are documented. Capsaicin inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which helps in prevention and healing of gastric ulcers. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of capsaicin are established in a number of studies. Chemopreventive potential of capsaicin is evidenced in cell line studies. The health beneficial hypocholesterolemic influence of capsaicin besides being cardio protective has other implications, viz., prevention of cholesterol gallstones and protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Beneficial influences of capsaicin on gastrointestinal system include digestive stimulant action and modulation of intestinal ultrastructure so as to enhance permeability to micronutrients. PMID:25675368

  5. Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum Fruit Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abdel Ghafar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum samples collected from city markets in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia, calculate their pungency in Scoville heat units (SHU and evaluate the average daily intake of capsaicin for the population of Riyadh. The investigated samples consisted of hot chillies, red chillies, green chillies, green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers. Extraction of capsaicinoids was done using ethanol as solvent, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for separation, identification and quantitation of the components. The limit of detection (LOD of the method was 0.09 and 0.10 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.30 and 0.36 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. Hot chillies showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (4249.0 ± 190.3 µg/g and the highest pungency level (67984.60 SHU, whereas green peppers had the lowest detected concentration (1.0 ± 0.9 µg/g; green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers were non pungent. The mean consumption of peppers for Riyadh city population was determined to be 15.5 g/person/day while the daily capsaicin intake was 7.584 mg/person/day.

  6. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of the powder of Capsicum frutescens on glycemia in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossou Jacques Dougnon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aims to evaluate zootechnic parameters and blood sugar in rabbits submitted to diets containing different levels of pepper (Capsicum frutescens. Materials and Methods: To this end, 30 rabbits weighing on average 1252±35 g at the beginning of the experiment were subjected to five rations with three repetitions for 56 days: The food R0 (or control which is floury provender contains 0% of C. frutescens; R5, R10, R15, and R20 provender containing, respectively, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of C. frutescens fruits’ powder. Rabbits consumed on average from 75.47 to 80.97 g dry matter. Results: Digestibility ranged from 52.39% to 61.01%. The average daily gain and feed consumption index were similar for all diets. Blood glucose was amended by the various servings is 0.98 g/L and 0.88 g/L, respectively, for doses. Conclusion: It appears from this study that rabbits consumed well diets containing C. frutescens. However, C. frutescens’ effect on the growth performances of rabbits is not noticeable. Furthers experiments will be useful to evaluate C. frutescens’ mechanism of action on blood sugar.

  8. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-01-01

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem. PMID:25501145

  9. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Is a Dead-End Host for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla, G; Janssen, D; García-Andrés, S; Moriones, E; Cuadrado, I M; Bejarano, E R

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) is one of the most devastating pathogens affecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) worldwide. The disease is caused by a complex of begomovirus species, two of which, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), are responsible for epidemics in Southern Spain. TYLCV also has been reported to cause severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) crops. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants collected from commercial crops were found to be infected by isolates of two TYLCV strains: TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99], an isolate of the mild strain similar to other TYLCVs isolated from tomato crops in Spain, and TYLCV-[Alm], an isolate of the more virulent TYLCV type strain, not previously reported in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work, pepper, Nicotiana benthamiana, common bean, and tomato were tested for susceptibility to TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99]and TYLCV-[Alm] by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration, biolistic bombardment, or Bemisia tabaci inoculation. Results indicate that both strains are able to infect plants of these species, including pepper. This is the first time that infection of pepper plants with TYLCV clones has been shown. Implications of pepper infection for the epidemiology of TYLCV are discussed. PMID:18943307

  10. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  11. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as pepper. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination, seedling growth and ionic balance of three Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens cv: Tebourba, Korba and Awlad Haffouz. Materials and Methods: The percentage of germination, the growth and the mineral contents were measured in the three Tunisian chili pepper cv watered with water containing 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 g L-1 NaCl. Results: Results showed that different salinity stress levels had significant effect on germination percentage and germination time. In pot experiment, increasing NaCl concentration, for all cv, induced a significant decrease on plant height, root length, leaves number, leaf area and chlorophyll amount. The fresh and dry weights are also affected. In addition, salinity increased Na+ and Cl– levels but decreased K+ level in roots and shoots. Conclusions: Awlad Haffouz cv had the highest K+/Na+ ratio compared to cv Korba and Tebourba and it has showed the best response under salt stress during germination and growth stage which lets it to be the most tolerant cv.

  12. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  13. Peroxidase is involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Diz, M S S; Robaina, R R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Carvalho, A O; Gomes, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are among the defense mechanisms of plants that work as an important barrier to the development of pathogens. These proteins are classified into 17 families according to their amino acid sequences, serology, and/or biological or enzyme activity. The present study aimed to identify PRs associated with the pathosystem of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum: Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Forty-five-day-old plants from accession UENF 1624, previously identified as resistant to PepYMV, were inoculated with the virus. Control and infected leaves were collected for analysis after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The inoculated and control plants were grown in cages covered with anti-aphid screens. Proteins were extracted from leaf tissue and the presence of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, peroxidase, and lipid transport protein was verified. No difference was observed between the protein pattern of control and infected plants when β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lipid transport protein were compared. However, increased peroxidase expression was observed in infected plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation, indicating that this PR is involved in the response of resistance to PepYMV in C. baccatum var. pendulum. PMID:23661464

  14. Phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Andean Ajı′ (Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the importance of Andean Ajı′/Chilli (Capsicum baccatum L. mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which favors for green chemistry and escape us from the use of hazardous chemicals. UV–visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of AuNPs. Further, as synthesized AuNPs were characterized using Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and X-ray diffraction. It produced spherical AuNPs at λmax = 540 nm of average size 23.9 ± 9.7 nm without any aggregation. Ajı′ extract (aq was the good reducing and capping agent in terms of conversion to Au3+ to AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs, also enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (>50%, k = 1.9585 × 10−3 min−1 under direct solar light irradiation. In addition, the experimental approach is benign, ecofriendly, and inexpensive for industrial-scale production of nanoparticles using Aji extract as natural bioreductant.

  15. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents. PMID:26756096

  16. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Hassen ALOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.: ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h. Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After that, all seeds were kept to germinate in laboratory under normal light and controlled temperature. Results indicated that priming depends on concentration, duration and cultivar. The best combinations that we obtained were: KCl priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Beldi’ cultivar, CaCl2 priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Baklouti’ cultivar and finally NaCl priming (50 mM, 24h for ‘Anaheim Chili’ cultivar. Generally, priming had an effect on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and the coefficient of velocity compared to control seeds. The beneficial effect of seed priming could be used for improving salt tolerance on germination and early seedling growth for pepper cultivar.

  17. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  18. Thermoluminescence characteristics of the irradiated minerals extracted from red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) spice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcazzo, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Montiel, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Universidad de Sonora, Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, A. P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica Agricola, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The inorganic poly mineral content in the foodstuffs allows to analyze the main thermoluminescence (Tl) characteristics that may be useful in the identification of irradiated food. The mineral fraction was separated from commercial Mexican red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). X-ray diffraction shows that the mineral composition of the samples was mainly quartz. From the mineral fraction of different grain sizes, samples of 149 {mu}m were selected for this study because of the high Tl signals. The samples were irradiated from 1 to 500 Gy by using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. The Tl characteristics like glow curve shape, dose-response, UV and sunlight bleaching and fading were analyzed. The glow curves show an intense Tl peak at 82 C followed by others with less intensity at 130, 170 and 340 C. The T{sub M}-T{sub STOP} method shows six Tl glow peaks that was taken into account for calculation the activation energies values. Because the complex structure of the glow curves, the kinetics parameters were determined by using a computerized deconvolution program assuming the general order kinetics model. (Author)

  19. Protective Effect of Capsicum Frutescens on Contractile Reactivity of Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Roghani-Dehkordi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Considering the higher incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders in diabetes mellitus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral one-month administration of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens on the contractile reactivity of isolated aorta in diabetic rats. Materials & Methods : For this purpose, male Wistar rats(n=32 were randomly divided into control, pepper-treated control, diabetic, and pepper-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was intraperitoneally administered (60 mg/Kg. Pepper-treated groups received pepper mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 1/15. After one month, contractile reactivity of aortic rings to KCl and noreadrenaline was determined using isolated tissue setup. Results : Serum glucose level showed a significant increase in diabetic group at 2nd and 4th weeks (P<0.001, while this increase was less marked in pepper-treated diabetic group at the 2nd week (P<0.05. In addition, the latter group showed a lower contraction to KCl (P<0.05 and noreadrenaline (P<0.05 as compared to diabetic group. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between control and pepper-treated control groups regarding contractile reactivity. Conclusion : It can be concluded that oral administration of pepper for one month could attenuate the contractile responsiveness of the vascular system and may prevent the development of hypertension in diabetic rats.

  20. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. PMID:27416068

  1. Rapd Analysis of the Seven Cultivated Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

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    Pant MR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD is a novel procedure for the identification of polymorphism in plants based on PCR. It does not require prior knowledge of a DNA sequence. RAPD markers are based on the amplification of unknown DNA sequences using single, short, random oligonucleotide primers. Many of the technical limitations of RFLPs have been overcome by RAPD. In the present study seven varieties of C. annuum L. were analysed for RAPD polymorphism using 5 random primers. The study shows that the varieties show remarkable genetic variation. RAPD primers showed different DNA fingerprints for different varieties of Capsicum L. studied. Variation was observed at varietal level in C. annuum L. with respect to the morphological traits, phytoconstituents estimated ( capsaicin, sugar and vitamin C and karyotype analysis also. Thus all the seven can be distinguished at varietal level. Therefore they can be used as a suitable source material for future breeding, genetic and other experiments. The use of other molecular markers like SSRs, AFLP, etc. would provide more precise estimates of genetic variability in the varieties.

  2. Efecto del Color de Trampa en la Captura de Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: thripidae) en Pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) Effect of Trap Color on Catches of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: thripidae) in Sweet Peppers (Capsicum annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Larraín S; Francisco Varela U; Carlos Quiroz E.; Fernando Graña S

    2006-01-01

    Se realizaron experimentos para determinar la preferencia de color de trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) en cultivos de pimiento (Capsicum annum L.), en las localidades de Cerrillos de Tamaya (30° lat. S.; 71°16’ long. O) y Pan de Azúcar (29°55’ lat. S; 71°14’ long, O) de la IV Región de Chile. En diseño de bloques completos al azar, se compararon trampas de pegamento azul, blanco, blanco-azul y amarillo.Los resultados mostraron que F. occidentalis fue la especie predominante en el c...

  3. Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo Luz Marina; Giraldo Martha Cecilia; Quintero Barrera Lorena; García Marisol Cudris

    2005-01-01

    Doscientas sesenta y una accesiones del género Capsicum del banco de germoplasma del Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas (Sinchi) se evaluaron a través de cinco sistemas enzimáticos polimórficos: esterasa (EST), peroxidasa (PRX), 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6-PGDH), aspartato amino transferasa (GOT) y enzima málica (ME). Se utilizó un análisis de agrupamiento (Upgma) con el fin de determinar la variabilidad genética. Se observó un agrupamiento de las especies C. baccatum y...

  4. Biologia floral e polinização de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae): um estudo de caso = Floral biology and pollination of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae): a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Darci de Oliveira Cruz; Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira Campos

    2007-01-01

    A antese, a deiscência das anteras, a receptividade do estigma, o padrão de crescimento do tubo polínico e o percentual de vingamento dos frutos de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) foram estudados em São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais, sudeste brasileiro. As flores de C. frutescens são perfeitas, protogínicas e recebem a visita de várias espécies de abelhas, principalmente da abelha melífera Apis mellifera L., que coleta pólen e néctar. Foram comparados tratamentos de polinização por abelhas...

  5. Morphological and chemical characterization of fruits of Capsicum spp. accessions Caracterização morfológica e química de frutos de acessos do gênero Capsicum spp

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    Elizanilda R do Rêgo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate 69 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Roraima, for some fruit quality traits. The experiment was performed in a completely random design, with 69 treatments and 3 replications. The 69 accessions were evaluated for fourteen quantitative and two qualitative traits of ripe fruits. Quantitative fruits data were subjected to an analysis of variance, and the means were grouped by Scott-Knott test (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar 69 acessos do gênero Capsicum, pertencentes ao Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da Universidade Federal de Roraima, quanto a 16 descritores relacionados à qualidade de frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e 10 plantas por parcela. Quatorze descritores quantitativos e dois qualitativos foram utilizados na caracterização e para obtenção de caracteres morfológicos de qualidade. Obteve-se a média de dez frutos por repetição, aleatoriamente dentro de cada acesso, quando os frutos atingiram a maturidade. Os dados quantitativos foram submetidos à análise de variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias pelo teste Scott-Knott. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,01 entre os 69 acessos tanto para caracteres morfológicos quanto químicos dos frutos, podendo essa diversidade ser utilizada em programa de melhoramento de Capsicum. Se o programa de melhoramento visar à obtenção de maior rendimento de pó, indica-se o uso dos acessos 33, 44 e 41, cujos valores de teor de matéria seca e sólidos solúveis totais foram mais elevados. Entretanto, se o objetivo for o comércio de frutos in natura, recomenda-se o acesso 48 que apresentou maiores valores de matéria fresca, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto. O acesso 33, Capsicum frutescens, apresentou o maior teor de vitamina C.

  6. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum sp.) sobre quatro bactérias toxinfectivas alimentares In vitro antibacterial activity of hot and sweet peppers (Capsicum sp.) on four food toxinfective bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    H.H. Carvalho; J.M. Wiest; F.T Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Determinou-se in vitro a Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB) e a Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB), através de Testes de Diluição em Sistema de Tubos Múltiplos, de extratos de oito pimentas do gênero Capsicum, etnograficamente acessadas na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS/BR, frente a inóculos bacterianos padronizados (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC), respectivamente Staphylococcus aureus (25923), Enterococcus faecalis (19433), Salmo...

  7. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum sp. sobre quatro bactérias toxinfectivas alimentares In vitro antibacterial activity of hot and sweet peppers (Capsicum sp. on four food toxinfective bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se in vitro a Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB e a Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB, através de Testes de Diluição em Sistema de Tubos Múltiplos, de extratos de oito pimentas do gênero Capsicum, etnograficamente acessadas na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS/BR, frente a inóculos bacterianos padronizados (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, respectivamente Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076 e Escherichia coli (11229, em doses-desafio = 10(7 UFC mL-1. Quatro destas plantas, pimenta calabresa ("pool" Capsicum sp, pimenta-de-jardim (C.annuum, pimenta dedo-de-moça (C. baccatum e pimenta malagueta (C. frutescens, apresentaram atividades de inibição e inativação seletivas, em ordem decrescente, para salmonela, coliforme fecal, enterococo e estafilococo. As demais, pimenta cambuci (C. baccatum e os pimentões (C. annuum amarelo, verde e vermelho, apresentaram nenhuma atividade. Discute-se a validade da ferramenta etnográfica na prospecção de fatores de proteção anti-bacteriana em plantas, bem como a influência da inibição/inativação na preditividade do diagnóstico bacteriológico.The intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (IINIB and the intensity of bacterial inactivation activity (IINAB of extracts of eight peppers of the genus Capsicum, ethnographically located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were assessed in vitro through Dilution Tests in Multiple Tube Series against standardized bacterial inocula (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076, and Escherichia coli (11229, respectively, at challenge doses = 10(7 CFU mL-1. Four of these species, cayenne pepper (Capsicum sp pool, garden pepper (C. annuum, ají pepper (C. baccatum, and malagueta pepper (C. frutescens, had

  8. Presencia de Diferentes Virus de Pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) en Especies de Malezas Asociadas al Cultivo Presence of Different Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Viruses on Associated Weed Species

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ormeño N.; Paulina Sepúlveda R

    2005-01-01

    En prospecciones de malezas realizadas durante dos temporadas agrícolas, 30 especies anuales y 13 perennes fueron determinadas en cultivos de pimientos (Capsicum annuum L.) de los Valles de Elqui y Limarí, Región de Coquimbo (29° a 30º lat. Sur). Los muestreos fueron aleatorios dentro y fuera de los potreros, con y sin cultivo presente, en invierno y primavera. Se recolectaron 676 plantas de malezas, analizándose un total de 379 muestras. Utilizando la prueba DAS-ELISA se determinó Virus del ...

  9. 辣椒炭疽病抗性资源筛选%Screening on the Resistance Resources of Capsicum anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆丽; 秦刚

    2013-01-01

    调查了46份辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)材料对辣椒炭疽病(Collectotrichum sp.)的田间抗性表现.结果表明,19份材料对辣椒炭疽病有较强的抗性.以成都及近郊县的主要致病菌胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)为接种菌源,采用针刺接种法对绿色成熟果(青熟果)和红色成熟果(红熟果)的23份辣椒资源进行辣椒炭疽病抗性筛选.结果表明,9份材料表现为抗病,6份材料表现为耐病,8份材料表现为感病.室内抗性筛选结果与田间抗性表现基本一致.%Field resistance performance of 46 pepper materials on Capsicum anthracnose was investigated.It showed that 19 materials had a C.resistance to Capsicum anthracnose.For further acquiring resistance resources of C.anthracnose,23 pepper materials were inoculated the primary pathogen(C.gloeosporioides) of Chengdu and suburbancounty by green and red mature fruit acupuncture inoculation method.The results indicated that 9 materials showed resistant,6 materials had tolerance of the disease,8 materials were susceptible to the disease.The results of interior resistance screening were basically consistent with the field resistance performance.

  10. Efecto de los péptidos antimicrobianos y tionina de Capsicum chinense y Thi2.1 de arabidopsis thaliana producidos por células endoteliales bovinas sobre patógenos intracelulares: Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus y candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Loeza Ángeles, Heber

    2011-01-01

    Los péptidos antimicrobianos (PA) están ampliamente distribuidos en los cinco reinos, su función es proteger a los seres vivos contra organismos patógenos. El desarrolo de la Biotecnología ha permitido explorar el efecto de los PA sobre microorganismos patógenos de animales empleando sistemas alternativos heterólogos para su expresión.

  11. Modelos matemáticos para estimar el crecimiento del fruto de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P)

    OpenAIRE

    P. C. Rojas-Lara; M. Pérez-Grajales; M. T. B. Colinas-León; J. Sahagún-Castellanos; E. Avitia-García

    2008-01-01

    El híbrido intervarietal de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P) Puebla x Zongolica es de alto rendimiento por su volumen, grosor de pericarpio y peso de fruto. El rendimiento se explica principalmente por el tamaño del fruto, siendo recomendable conocer la dinámica del crecimiento del mismo. Normalmente su análisis se realiza por medio de muestreos destructivos, lo que hace imposible utilizar el mismo fruto durante el ciclo de cultivo, además la competencia entre los órganos de la planta...

  12. The Efffect of Intercropping With Different Vegetables ©n Yield and Quality ttf Pepper (Capsicum anmmm L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAK, H.Çağlar; ECE, Ali

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the ^effects of intercr-qppmg with jfflferent vegetables on yield and quality of pepper {Capsicum cmnuum L.) in Tokat £colc®ieal -conditions. This study was earned out in Tokat 1999.11 different vegetable species were used in (his study. Pepper was used mam-species; squash, celery root, cucumber, iceberg, onion, parsley, .catfoage, hroad-bean. bean and pea were used for helper species. The highest yield ®f -pepper was obtained irom pepper+bean {0,506 t/da...

  13. Análisis del crecimiento y calidad de semillas de tres tipos de chile (Capsicum annuum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Villegas, Misael Jorge

    2012-01-01

    El chile es una de las hortalizas más importante a nivel mundial. México es de los países con mayor producción y al ser centro de origen y domesticación de la especie Capsicum annuum L. tiene una amplia diversidad de materiales agrupados en tipos. Los estudios referentes al crecimiento y desarrollo de la planta y semilla de chile, son escasos y no son recientes. Aquí, se comparó el crecimiento de la planta de los tipos de árbol, ancho y guajillo y se evaluó la calidad de semillas durante su d...

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati; Made Pharmawati; I Ketut Junitha

    2013-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3) was used as mutagen in chi...

  15. The use of seed protein electrophoresis in the study of phylogenetic relationships in Chili pepper (Capsicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R C; Aniel Kumar, O; Raja Rao, K G

    1986-08-01

    The seed protein profile of eight taxa of Chili peppers obtained by disc electrophoresis was found to be a diagnostic character in the study of phylogenetic relationships. The distinctness of each species and the wild and cultivated nature of concerned taxa has been confirmed. While the clustering of wildC. annuum var. 'glabriusculum' withC. baccatum types indicated that the former is the progenitor of the latter group, the marked differences discernible in the seed protein profile of all other taxa suggest a polyphyletic origin for the genusCapsicum. PMID:24248078

  16. Effect of Cold on Protein, Proline, Phenolic Compounds and Chlorophyll Content of Two Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    ÜSTÜN, A. Sülün; Esra KOÇ; İŞLEK, Cemil

    2010-01-01

    In this study, quantitative changes of total soluble protein in leaf and stem, apoplastic protein, total phenolic compounds, proline and chlorophyll content were determined in a the cold-susceptible KM-121 (Kahramanmaras- hot) and cold-resistant hybrid pepper Mert (Capsicum annuum L.). The plants were raised in a growth room under a controlled environment of 25± 2 oC and 16 h light / 8 h dark photoperiod. Then, plants exposed to 4oC cold stress for three days and control groups were ke...

  17. Anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fed with calcium using foliar nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three foliar-applied Ca-containing preparations on the anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was studied. The following preparations were used: Ca(NO32, Librel Ca and Wapnowit, applied at the respective concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1%, which corresponded to a content of 2000 mg Ca × dm-3. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used in the study. It was demonstrated that in amphistomatic bifacial pepper leaves numerous specialised cells occurred which accumulated calcium oxalate crystals in the form of crystalline sand. Anisocytic stomata were found with a much greater density in the abaxial epidermis. They were characterized by very well-developed outer cuticular ledges. It was found that in the leaves of the plants sprayed with the nutrient supplements with increased Ca content there was a much smaller number of epidermal cells per 1 mm2 than in the control plants. These cells were distinguished by an increased size. In the case of the application of the nutrient supplements Librel Ca and Wapnowit, the number of stomata also decreased. However, the application of the calcium supplements resulted in an increase in the value of the stomatal index compared to the control, which is attributable to a significant reduction in the number of epidermal cells not belonging to the stomata. The plants additionally supplied with Ca were marked by a larger number of colenchyma layers and an increased volume of leaf parenchyma cells. In the case of pepper leaves, the thin cuticle and the outer cell wall are not a major barrier to the Ca-containing preparations applied for spray treatment. Nevertheless, the decrease in the number of stomata may restrict the possibility of Ca uptake by this way, which compensates the increase in surface area of particular epidermal cells that will be the main way of Ca penetration into the internal leaf tissues.

  18. Microarray Analysis of the Transcriptome for Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun HWANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum causes one of the most common soil-borne vascular diseases of diverse plant species, including many solanaceous crops such as tomato and pepper. The resulting disease, bacterial wilt (BW, is devastating and difficult to control using conventional approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate the differentially expressed genes in pepper root systems in response to infection by R. solanacearum. DNA microarray (Capsicum annuum 135K Microarray v3.0 Gene Expression platform analyses were performed using a susceptible genotype, ‘Chilbok’, and a resistant genotype, ‘KC350’, at 3 time points (1, 3, and 6 days post inoculation. It has been identified 115 resistance-specific genes (R-response genes and 109 susceptibility-specific genes (S-response gene, which were up-regulated in 1 genotype, but down-regulated in the other genotype. Gene Ontology (GO analysis for functional categorization indicated that many R-response genes were related to genes that function in xyloglucan biosynthesis and cell wall organization, while S-response genes were involved in the response to stress and cell death. The expression of genes encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH and β-galactosidase were verified by real-time RT-PCR at an early time point of R. solanacearum infection. The results supported the idea that rapidly induced XTH expression in ‘KC350’ may play an important role in the restructuring and reinforcement of the cell wall and restrict bacterial movement in xylem vessels. In addition, induced expression of β-galactosidase in R. solanacearum-infected ‘Chilbok’ implied that degradation of the cell wall structure in vascular tissues by β-galactosidase might be an important factor facilitating R. solanacearum invasion of and movement in susceptible host plants.

  19. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; Brown, Cecil H; Nabhan, Gary P; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J; Gepts, Paul

    2014-04-29

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  20. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  1. Characterization of a new male sterility-related gene Camf1 in Capsicum annum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang Ming; Hao, Xue Feng; Chen, Guo Ju; Cao, Bi Hao; Chen, Qing Hua; Liu, Shao Qun; Lei, Jian Jun

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of screening novel genes related to the male sterility in chili pepper for studying the molecular mechanism of plant male sterility, the gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annum L., and a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments were detected in fertile or sterility material. Camf1, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in fertile line flower buds was further investigated. The Camf1 has 1,854 bp in length with no introns containing a 1,707-bp open reading frame (ORF). The deduced amino acid sequence of Camf1 shares higher similarity to some members from a glyoxal oxidase-related protein family, and has a glyoxal oxidase conserved domain at the N-terminus and a domain of unknown function (DUF1929) at C-terminal end. Expression analysis showed that Camf1 expressed only in stage 3-7 flower buds of male fertile of C. annum L. 114AB, and no detection in all organs of male sterility. The peak of expression level of Camf1 appeared at stage 4 flower buds of fertile line. Furthermore, expression analysis of different organs revealed that Camf1 expressed only in anthers of male fertile material and there were no expression in sepals, petals, pistils, roots, stems, leaves and open flowers. These results suggested that Camf1 was an anther-specific gene and might be essential for the fertility of C. annum L. PMID:21559833

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Fernando; Alves, Márcia K; Vieira, Sílvio M; Carvalho, Toni A; Leite, Carlos E; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Poloni, José A; Cunha, Fernando Q; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2008-04-01

    Inflammation is a pivotal component of a variety of diseases, such as atherosclerosis and tumour progression. Various naturally occurring phytochemicals exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and are considered to be potential drug candidates against inflammation-related pathological processes. Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh (Solanaceae) is the most consumed species in Brazil, and its compounds, such as capsaicinoids, have been found to inhibit the inflammatory process. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of C. baccatum have not been characterized. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. baccatum juice in animal models of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan and immune inflammation induced by methylated bovine serum albumin. Pretreatment (30 min) of rats with pepper juice (0.25-2.0 g kg(-1)) significantly decreased leucocyte and neutrophil migration, exudate volume and protein and LDH concentration in pleural exudates of a pleurisy model. This juice also inhibited neutrophil migration and reduced the vascular permeability on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice. C. baccatum juice also reduced neutrophil recruitment and exudate levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mouse inflammatory immune peritonitis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the main constituent of C. baccatum juice, as extracted with chloroform, is capsaicin. In agreement with this, capsaicin was able to inhibit the neutrophil migration towards the inflammatory focus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory effect of C. baccatum juice and our data suggest that this effect may be induced by capsaicin. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect induced by red pepper may be by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the inflammatory site. PMID:18380920

  3. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under cold stress conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eul-Won Hwang; Kyung-A Kim; Soo-Chul Park; Mi-Jeong Jeong; Myung-Ok Byun; Hawk-Bin Kwon

    2005-12-01

    In an attempt to determine a cold defense mechanism in plants, we have attempted to characterize changes occurring in the expression of cold-regulated transcript levels in the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), using cDNA microarray analysis, combined with Northern blot analysis. After analysing a 3.1 K hot pepper cDNA microarray, we isolated a total of 317 cold inducible genes. We selected 42 genes which were up-regulated and three genes which were down-regulated due to cold treatment, for further analysis. Among the 45 genes which appeared to be up-regulated by cold, 19 genes appeared to be simultaneously regulated by salt stress. Among the up-regulated cold-stress genes, we identified a variety of transcription factors, including: a family of 4 ethylene-responsive element binding protein (EREBP, designated CaEREBP-C1 to C4) genes, a bZIP protein (CaBZ1), RVA1, Ring domain protein, HSF1, and the WRKY (CaWRKY1) protein. As mentioned earlier, several genes appeared to be induced not only by cold stress, but also simultaneously by salt stress. These genes included: CaEREBP-C3, CaBZ1, putative trans-activator factor, NtPRp27, malate dehydrogenase, putative auxin-repressed protein, protein phosphatase (CaTPP1), SAR8.2 protein precursor, late-embryogenesis abundant protein 5 (LEA5), DNAJ protein homologue, xyloglucanendo-1,4--D-gucanase precursor, PR10, and the putative non-specific lipid transfer protein StnsLTP.

  4. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  5. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes we

  6. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying; and instrumental and sensory evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white) peppers. In the last decade. attention is shifting tow

  7. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem...

  8. Interactive effects of salinity and N on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield, water use efficiency and root zone and drainage salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt tolerance of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions and to examine the interactive effects of salinity and nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on yield. The present study shows the effects of optimal and suboptimal N fertilizer levels (270 ...

  9. BIOATIVIDADE DE Solanum melongena L. E Capsicum annuum L. SOBRE Callosobruchus maculatus (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciene Ferreira Freire

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO uso contínuo e indiscriminado de produtos químicos na agricultura pode trazer sérios prejuízos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Uma opção é o emprego de plantas com ação inseticida. Diante do exposto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do pó de folhas de Solanum melongena L. e Capsicum annuum L. contra Callosobruchus maculatus. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraíba, Brasil. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram tratados com os pós nas concentrações 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0 % [100*(massa do pó/massa de grãos] e realizados testes de sobrevivência e repelência contra C. maculatus. Os dados da sobrevivência foram analisados utilizando o teste de Log-rank (p ≤ 0,05, pelo método de D-collet e para a repelência utilizou-se o teste do Qui-Quadrado (p ≤ 0,05. Todos os pós e concentrações avaliadas foram repelentes contra C. maculatus, com exceção do pó de C. annuum na concentração de 2,5 %. No que se refere à sobrevivência, ambas as espécies vegetais causaram elevada mortalidade em C. maculatus, com morte total dos insetos em até 120 h.ABSTRACTThe continuous and indiscriminate use of chemicals in agriculture can bring serious problems to human health and the environment. One option is the use of plants with insecticidal action. Given the above, the aim of this work was to evaluate the insecticide activity powder of leaves of Solanum melongena L. and Capsicum annuum L. against Callosobruchus maculatus in three concentrations. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology, Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraiba, Brazil. The grains of cowpea were treated with the powders in concentrations 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 % [100*(mass of powder/ mass of grains] and performed tests of survival and repellency against C. maculatus. Survival data were analyzed using

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L. AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3 was used as mutagen in chili pepper in order to obtain genetic variations that are useful in  increasing its  production.  The research was designed in  randomized  block  design. The observations were made on the response of plant morphology at generative stage, including plant height, number of branch, number of leaf, leaf length and leaf width.  The results showed that sodium azide increased plant height, branch number, leaf number and leaf length.  Sodium azide at concentrations of 2 mM and 5 mM were most effective in increasing plant height, number of leaves and number of branches. Keywords: Capsicum frutescens L., morphology, mutation, sodium azide

  11. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins increase intestinal microbiome and necrotic enteritis in three commercial broiler breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho; Kim, Geun Bae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David M

    2015-10-01

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compositions were quite distinct depending on the broiler breed type. In the absence of oleoresin diet, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was decreased in infected Cobb, and increased in Ross and Hubbard, compared with the uninfected. In the absence of oleoresin diet, all chicken breeds had a decreased Candidatus Arthromitus, while the proportion of Lactobacillus was increased in Cobb, but decreased in Hubbard and Ross. Oleoresin supplementation of infected chickens increased OTUs in Cobb and Ross, but decreased OTUs in Hubbard, compared with unsupplemented/infected controls. Oleoresin supplementation of infected Cobb and Hubbard was associated with an increased percentage of gut Lactobacillus and decreased Selenihalanaerobacter, while Ross had a decreased fraction of Lactobacillus and increased Selenihalanaerobacter, Clostridium, Calothrix, and Geitlerinema. These results suggest that dietary Capsicum/Curcuma oleoresins reduced the negative consequences of NE on body weight and intestinal lesion, in part, through alteration of the gut microbiome in 3 commercial broiler breeds. PMID:26412535

  12. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  13. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher (2+ induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  14. Candidate gene analysis of organ pigmentation loci in the Solanaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup, T. A.; Tanyolac, B.; Livingstone, K D; Popovsky, S.; Paran, I.; Jahn, Molly

    2000-01-01

    Ten structural genes from the Capsicum (pepper) carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been localized on a (Capsicum annuum × Capsicum chinense)F2 genetic map anchored in Lycopersicon (tomato). The positions of these genes were compared with positions of the same genes in tomato when known, and with loci from pepper, potato, and tomato that affect carotenoid levels in different tissues. C2, one of three phenotypically defined loci determining pepper fruit color, ...

  15. Utilización de marcadores moleculares para el genotipado de materiales útiles en la mejora de la resistencia a nematodos en pimiento: genotipos de Capsicum annuum L. y Capsicum frutescens L., híbridos interespecíficos C. annuum x C. frutescens y plantas de pimiento regeneradas en cultivo de anteras.

    OpenAIRE

    CRESPO IBOR, ANDRÉS ELCIAS

    2015-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo se han utilizado distintos marcadores moleculares para genotipar materiales de interés en la mejora de la resistencia a nematodos en pimiento. En concreto los objetivos de este trabajo han sido: determinar la presencia de genes de interés en cultivares de Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens; comprobar el carácter híbrido de plantas resultantes de cruces interespecíficos C. annuum x C. frutescens y determinar el caracter haploide o doble-haploide en plantas de pim...

  16. Genetic structure of the INRA Capsicum spp. collection using SSR loci: refining the wild origin of cultivated C. annuum and impact of human selection on the structuration of genetic diversity in cultivar types

    OpenAIRE

    Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Nicolaï, Maryse; Cantet, Melissa; Lefebvre, Véronique; Palloix, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Germplasm collections of cultivated plants constitute the source for further genetic progress and gained interest with approaches for tracking allelic variants associated to phenotypic variations within core collections. ln order to explore the structure of genetic variation in pepper (Capsicum spp.) and to select core-collections maximizing the genetic and the phenotypic diversity, a pepper collection including 1352 non redundant accessions from Il Capsicum species from 89 different countrie...

  17. Dynamic Change of Stomata in Cotyledon and Lower Hypocotyl of Capsicum annuum L.%气孔在辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)子叶和下胚轴上的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董慧峰; 王永飞

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic changes of stomatal density and epidermal cell density in adaxial and abaxial surface of cotyledon and upper and lower of lower hypocotyl during the development of Capsicum annuum L. were investigated. The results showed that: ( 1 ) The guard cells of stomata of Capsicum annuum L. were kidney-shape, without subsidiary cells. Epidermal cells in cotyledon were usually irregular in shape, but epidermal cells in hypocotyl were retangle or ellipse. (2)Stomatal density and epidermal cell density in the adaxial and abaxial surface of cotyledon were the highest at 6 th day and 3 th day after germination, respectively, then decreased gradually. Furthermore, the stomatal density and epidermal cell density in the abaxial epidermis was distinctly higher than that of the adaxial epidermis. (3) Stomatal density in I cm of upper and lower of lower hypocotyl did not change perspicuously, while epidermal cell density decreased gradually. The stomata density and epidermal cell density in the upper of lower hypocotyl was distinctly higher than that of the lower.%以辣椒幼苗(Capsicum annuum L.)为材料,研究了辣椒生长发育过程中子叶的上、下表皮和下胚轴上、下端1cm处的气孔密度及表皮细胞密度的动态变化.结果表明:(1)辣椒的气孔由肾形保卫细胞组成,无副卫细胞;子叶的表皮细胞呈无规则形,下胚轴的表皮细胞呈长方形或椭圆形;(2)辣椒子叶上、下表皮的气孔密度和表皮细胞密度分别在辣椒种子出芽后第6天和第3天达到最大,之后随子叶的生长逐渐减小,下表皮的气孔密度和表皮细胞密度明显大于上表皮的;(3)辣椒下胚轴上、下端1cm处的气孔密度随下胚轴的生长变化不明显,但是表皮细胞密度随下胚轴的生长逐渐减小,下胚轴上端的气孔密度和表皮细胞密度明显的大于下胚轴下端的.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góngora-Castillo Elsa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery, has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV. Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock, symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the

  19. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Elena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Together with DNA fingerprints derived from AFLP markers, we evaluated variation in fruit and plant morphology of plants collected across the species native range in South America and evaluated these characters in combination with the unique geography, climate and ecology at different sites where plants originated. Results The present study mapped the ecogeographic distribution, analyzed the spatial genetic structure, and assessed the relationship between the spatial genetic pattern and the variation of morphological traits in a diverse C. baccatum germplasm collection spanning the species distribution. A combined diversity analysis was carried out on the USDA-ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection using data from GIS, morphological traits and AFLP markers. The results demonstrate that the C. baccatum collection covers wide geographic areas and is adapted to divergent ecological conditions in South America ranging from cool Andean highland to Amazonia rainforest. A high level of morphological diversity was evident in the collection, with fruit weight the leading variable. The fruit weight distribution pattern was compatible to AFLP-based clustering analysis for the collection. A significant spatial structure was observed in the C. baccatum gene pool. Division of the domesticated germplasm into two major regional groups (Western and Eastern was further supported by the pattern of spatial

  20. Variabilidade em população base de pimenteiras ornamentais (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José da Silva Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar progênies de uma população base de pimenteiras (Capsicum annuum L.. Foram utilizadas 54 plantas de uma geração F2 de pimenteiras ornamentais, para se avaliarem os seguintes caracteres morfoagronômicos: altura da planta (AP, diâmetro da copa (DDC, altura da primeira bifurcação (APB, diâmetro do caule (DCL, comprimento da folha (CFL, largura da folha (LFL, comprimento da corola (CDC, comprimento de antera (CANT, comprimento do estilete (CES e largura da pétala (LAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias para o teste de Scott-Knott (p<0,01. Com exceção do CANT, verificaram-se diferenças significativas para os demais descritores, pelo Teste F. O DCL foi o descritor com maior herdabilidade (99,49%, seguido de DDC (96,14% e APB (94,05%. O caractere DCL apresentou maior variabilidade entre as plantas, formando 13 classes, seguido de DDC, com oito e APB, com seis classes. Quando se utilizaram as técnicas multivariadas, foi possível agrupar as 54 plantas em oito grupos, sendo o grupo 1 o que reuniu maior número de plantas (35. A característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência genética foi o diâmetro do caule (68,97%, seguida pelo diâmetro da copa (9,22%, altura da primeira bifurcação (6,76% e altura da planta (4,58%. Já as características de flor foram as que menos contribuíram para a variabilidade (10,47%. Houve variabilidade entre as plantas estudadas, sendo possível praticar seleção dentro dessa família, dando continuidade ao Programa de Melhoramento de Pimenteiras.

  1. Action Mechanisms of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Phosphorus Uptake by Capsicum annuum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. SHARIF; N. CLAASSEN

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the action mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in phosphorus (P) uptake of Capsicum annuum L.in a sterilized fossil Oxisol. Three P levels of 0,10 and 200 mg kg-1 soil (P0,P10 and P200,respectively) without and with AM fungal inoculation were applied as Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O.Shoot dry matter yields and shoot P uptake increased significantly (P > 0.05) by the inoculation of AM fungi at P0 and P10.Root length and P concentration in soil solution increased with the inoculation of AM fungi but the root:shoot ratio decreased or remained constant.Around 50% roots of inoculated plants were infected by AM and the external hyphae amounted to 20 m g-1 soil at P10 and P200.The hyphae surface area of the infected root cylinder amounted to 11 and 2 cm2 cm-2 root at P0 and P10,respectively.The increased P uptake of inoculated plants was mainly because of an up to 5 times higher P influx of the infected root.Model calculations showed that the root alone could not have achieved the measured P influx in both infected and non-infected roots.But the P influx for hyphae calculated by the model was even much higher than the measured one.The P uptake capacity of hyphae introduced in the model was too high.Model calculations further showed that the depletion zone around roots or hyphae was very narrow.In the case of the root only 7% of the soil volume would contribute P to the plant,while in the case of hyphae it would be 100%.The results together with the model calculations showed that the increased P uptake of AM inoculated plants could be explained partly by the increased P concentration in the soil solution and by the increased P absorbing surface area coming from the external hyphae.

  2. Efecto del Color de Trampa en la Captura de Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: thripidae en Pimiento (Capsicum annuum L. Effect of Trap Color on Catches of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: thripidae in Sweet Peppers (Capsicum annum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron experimentos para determinar la preferencia de color de trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande en cultivos de pimiento (Capsicum annum L., en las localidades de Cerrillos de Tamaya (30° lat. S.; 71°16’ long. O y Pan de Azúcar (29°55’ lat. S; 71°14’ long, O de la IV Región de Chile. En diseño de bloques completos al azar, se compararon trampas de pegamento azul, blanco, blanco-azul y amarillo.Los resultados mostraron que F. occidentalis fue la especie predominante en el cultivo de pimiento. En la trampa de color azul, blanco-azul y blanco se capturaron significativamente más trips que en las trampas amarillas, cuando las capturas fueron superiores a 300 trips semanales por trampa. Los resultados fueron erráticos con capturas inferiores.Experiments were conducted in order to determine color preference of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.crops in the localities of Cerrillos de Tamaya (30° S lat; 71°16’ W long and Pan de Azúcar (29°55’ S lat; 71°14’ W long, IV Region, Chile. Blue, white, white-blue, and yellow sticky traps were compared in a randomized complete block design experiment. Results showed that F. occidentalis was the predominant species in the pepper crop. In the blue, white-blue and white traps significantly more thrips were caught than in the yellow traps, when the number of captures was more than 300 thrips per week per trap. The results were erratic with lower numbers of captures.

  3. Histological changes during the adventitious shoot formation in seedling explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gatz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious shoots differentiated directly from explant tissue without intermediate callus on all types of examined explants (shoot tip, cotyledonary node, cotyledon and hypocotyl of Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bryza. First cell divisions took place as early as after 3 days of explant culture within epidermal and subepidermal layers of explants, and in the case of cotyledon also within mesophyll cells located near epidermis. Mitotic activity in these layers led to the formation of meristemoids (meristematic centres. In all types of studied explants, meristematic centres appeared approximately at the same time (after about 7 days of culture. In the second week bud primordia began to differentiate from meristematic centres. Subsequently some of shoot primordia developed into leaves and leaf-like structures (mainly on cotyledon explants, and also into adventitious buds with well developed apical meristem and leaf primordia.

  4. Genetic parameters and selection for resistance to bacterial spot in recombinant F6 lines of Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to advance generations and select superior sweet pepper genotypes with resistance tobacterial spot, using the breeding method Single Seed Descent (SSD based on the segregating population derived from thecross between Capsicum annuum L. UENF 1421 (susceptible, non-pungent and UENF 1381 (resistant, pungent. Thesegregating F3 generation was grown in pots in a greenhouse until the F5 generation. The F6 generation was grown in fieldconditions. The reaction to bacterial spot was evaluated by inoculation with isolate ENA 4135 of Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria, based on a score scale and by calculating the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The presence orabsence of capsaicin was also assessed. Eighteen F6 lines were bacterial leaf spot-resistant. Since no capsaicin was detectedin the F6 lines 032, 316, 399, 434, and 517, these will be used in the next steps of the sweet pepper breeding program.

  5. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. This study aims to determine the influence of various fertilization treatments on biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves from two varieties of chili, Sakti (large chili and Fantastic (curly chili. The study was conducted in the village of Gatak, Karangnongko sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java in September 2006 to March 2007. The study used a complete block design with two factorial of chili varieties and fertilizer treatment. Fertilization treatments includes no fertilizer (control (P1; manure 2 kg/plant (P2, manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (ZA, SP-36, KCl = 2: 1: 1 + NPK (P3; and manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1:1 + liquid organic fertilizer (P4. Chlorophyll content was measured refers to Harborne (1987, whereas leaf nitrogen concentration was measured with Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by DMRT. The results showed that on the Fantastic chili fertilizer treatment affected the biomass and chlorophyll a, but gave no effect on chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen. On the curly chili fertilizer treatment effected plant fresh weight, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, but gave no effect on dry weight, fresh fruit weight, chlorophyll b and leaf nitrogen. It is, therefore, recommended to use the formulation of manure + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1: 1 + liquid organic fertilizer in the cultivation of chili.Key words: biomass, chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen, chili, Capsicum annum, fertilizing.Abstrak. Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomassa, kandungan klorofil dan nitrogen daun dua varietas cabai (Capsicum annum pada berbagai perlakuan pemupukan. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai perlakuan pemupukan terhadap biomassa

  6. Effect of Salt Stress (NaCl on Germination and Early Seedling Parameters of Three Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloui Hassen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results indicated that all investigate traits were affected by salt stress. Salt stress affected on germination parameters and radicle and plumule length. Fresh weight and dry weight of evaluated seedlings was also affected. "Anaheim Chili" cultivar was shown to be the most restraint cultivar to salt stress in comparison to "Beldi" and "Baklouti" cultivars.

  7. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of fruits of Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Virginia D; Costa, Geison M; Scola, Gustavo; Silva, Francilene A; Landell, Melissa F; Valente, Patrícia; Souza, Daiana G; Vanz, Danielli C; Reginatto, Flávio H; Moreira, José C F

    2008-06-01

    The phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of extracts of different parts of the fruit from Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum were investigated. The analysis of phenolic content was performed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by the total reactive antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity index. The antioxidant activity was positively correlated with the amount of phenolics found in each sample. The ex vivo antioxidant potential was assessed using the rat liver slice model. The antimicrobial activity was screened using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All the extracts revealed antioxidant activity and a weak antimicrobial activity. PMID:18598168

  8. Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Kenji; Tate, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohtsu, Keigo; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2008-03-01

    Coniferyl esters--capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate--were isolated from the fruits of the pepper, Capsicum baccatum L. var. praetermissum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods to be coniferyl (E)-8-methyl-6-nonenoate (capsiconiate) and coniferyl 8-methylnonanoate (dihydrocapsiconiate). This finding was further confirmed by the lipase-catalyzed condensation of coniferyl alcohol with its corresponding fatty acid derivative. The agonist activity of the esters for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was evaluated by conducting an analysis of the intracellular calcium concentrations in TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells. The EC50 values of capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate were 3.2 and 4.2 microM, respectively. PMID:18190936

  9. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiological and biochemical properties of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek, Cemil; Murat Altuner, Ergin; Alpas, Hami

    2015-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal food processing technology, which also has several successful applications in different areas besides food processing. In this study, Capsicum annuum L. (pepper) seeds are subjected to 50, 100, 200 and 300 MPa pressure for 5 min at 25°C and the seedlings of HHP processed seeds are used to compare percentage of seed germination and biochemical properties such as chlorophyll a, b and a/b, proline content, total protein, carotenoid, malondialdehyde, glucose, fructose and phenolic compounds concentrations. As a result of the study, it was observed that there are remarkable changes in terms of biochemical properties especially for seedlings, whose seeds were pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa. More detailed studies are needed to put forward the mechanism behind the changes in biochemical properties.

  10. Capsaicin production by Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus from Capsicum annum; LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devari, Shekaraiah; Jaglan, Sundeep; Kumar, Manjeet; Deshidi, Ramesh; Guru, Santosh; Bhushan, Shashi; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P; Gandhi, Sumit G; Sharma, Jai P; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

    2014-02-01

    Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus capable of producing capsaicin (1) was isolated from Capsicum annum. The endophyte was found to produce capsaicin upto three generations. Upscaling of the fermentation broth led to the isolation of one known and one compound characterized as 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2) and alternariol-10-methyl ether (3) respectively. Compound 1 and 3 were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Furthermore, compound 3 displayed a range of cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and was found to induce apoptosis evidenced by Hoechst staining and loss of mitochondrial-membrane potential in HL-60 cells. PMID:24378219

  11. Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on the redox state and fruit yield of red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan, Armando Molina; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most harmful air pollutants to crops, contributing to high losses on crop yield. Tropospheric O3 background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many world regions. Capsicum peppers are the second most traded spice in the world, but few studies concerning the O3 effects in this genus are known. Thereby, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 concentrations in red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum with especial considerations on the leaf redox state and fruit yield. Fifteen C. baccatum plants were exposed to O3 in open-top chambers during fruit ripening (62 days) at a mean concentration of 171.6 µg/m(3) from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. We found that O3 treated plants significantly decreased the amount and the total weight of fruits, which were probably a consequence of the changes on leaf oxidative status induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposed plants increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on the leaves, which may be associated with the observed decrease on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as well with lower levels of polyphenol and reduced thiol groups. Enhanced ROS production and the direct O3 reaction lead to biomacromolecules damages as seen in the diminished chlorophyll content and in the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels. Through a correlation analysis it was possible to observe that polyphenols content was more important to protect pepper plants against oxidative damages to lipids than to proteins. PMID:24238720

  12. Parthenocarpic potential in Capsicum annuum L. is enhanced by carpelloid structures and controlled by a single recessive gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lin B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait in Capsicum annuum production because it improves fruit quality and results in a more regular fruit set. Previously, we identified several C. annuum genotypes that already show a certain level of parthenocarpy, and the seedless fruits obtained from these genotypes often contain carpel-like structures. In the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant ovule integuments are transformed into carpels, and we therefore carefully studied ovule development in C. annuum and correlated aberrant ovule development and carpelloid transformation with parthenocarpic fruit set. Results We identified several additional C. annuum genotypes with a certain level of parthenocarpy, and confirmed a positive correlation between parthenocarpic potential and the development of carpelloid structures. Investigations into the source of these carpel-like structures showed that while the majority of the ovules in C. annuum gynoecia are unitegmic and anatropous, several abnormal ovules were observed, abundant at the top and base of the placenta, with altered integument growth. Abnormal ovule primordia arose from the placenta and most likely transformed into carpelloid structures in analogy to the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant. When pollination was present fruit weight was positively correlated with seed number, but in the absence of seeds, fruit weight proportionally increased with the carpelloid mass and number. Capsicum genotypes with high parthenocarpic potential always showed stronger carpelloid development. The parthenocarpic potential appeared to be controlled by a single recessive gene, but no variation in coding sequence was observed in a candidate gene CaARF8. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the absence of fertilization most C. annuum genotypes, have parthenocarpic potential and carpelloid growth, which can substitute developing seeds in promoting fruit development.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Floral Characters in Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.)%辣椒花器性状的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵贵芳; 莫云容; 赵凯; 马仲飞; 吴仕仙; 邓明华

    2016-01-01

    应用数量遗传学原理,以父本SJ-05-46(Capsicum frutescens L.)、母本为荷兰尖椒(Capsicum annuum L.)及F1、F2为供试材料,估算辣椒花器性状的遗传力.结果表明,在6个花器性状中,各花器性状的广义遗传力从大到小依次为:柱头长>柱头宽>花药长>花长>花药宽>花宽.遗传参数估算表明,6个花器性状遗传有较大的差异,柱头长、柱头宽和花药长遗传力较大.

  14. 辣椒红色素提取方法的研究进展%Research progress on extraction of capsicum red pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁春瑞; 远辉; 李静

    2012-01-01

    综述了辣椒红色素提取方法的研究进展,主要介绍了溶剂法、超声波提取法、微波辅助提取法、超临界流体萃取法、酶法、分子蒸馏法以及硅胶柱层析法的提取技术,为辣椒红色素的进一步研究和开发提供参考依据。%exaction, traction, ploitation This article reviewed advances in extraction techniques for capsicum red pigment, which include solvent ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, enzyme exmolecular distillation and colunm chromatography. It can provide reference for the further research and ex- of capsicum red pigment's resource.

  15. CONTRIBUTION TO THE PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND CHEMICAL TESTS OF THE EXTRACTS OF Citrus limonium (LEMON and Capsicum frutescens L. (CHILLI PEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Cristina Carlos Freire

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural medicine has been used by man since time immemorial, and this use has grown considerably in recent times. Thus, this study aims to make a comparator analysis regarding the phytochemical test, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extracts of the leaves in ethanol and their respective fractions of Citrus limonium (lemon and Capsicum frutescens L. (chilli pepper. To compare them was observed that ethanol extract of both plants showed the better antioxidant activity, Capsicum frutescens L. with 204.60 ppm and 99.07 ppm with Citrus limonium. With regard to the phenolic content of the hexane extract and lemon extract in ethanol pepper were those that showed a higher content. Overall, it was noted that Citrus limonium excelled both in relation to their antioxidant activity and the phenolic content.

  16. Purification of capsicum red pigments by saponification and silica gel column chromatography%皂化-硅胶柱层析法纯化辣椒红色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞敏; 王洪新; 殷飞

    2013-01-01

    In order to purify the natural capsicum red pigments,alkaline ethanol saponification was taken to remove the fatty acid from the capsicum oleoresin and silica gel column chromatography was used to separate the capsaicin from capsicum red pigments. The results showed that the optimal saponification conditions were as follows;the concentration of NaOH solution was 0.8mol/L,solid-liquid ratio was 1:15(g/mL),ethanol concentration(V/V) was 70%,the holding temperature was 50℃ and the saponification time was 2h. The optimum separation was achieved with sample volume at 1:40,diameter-length ratio at 1:10 and eluant flow rate at 1BV/h. The color value of purified capsicum red pigments was 672.%探讨了辣椒红色素的纯化工艺,首先采用碱性乙醇皂化法去除辣椒油树脂中的脂肪酸,然后经过硅胶柱层析脱除辣椒红色素中的辣椒碱.实验结果表明,最佳的皂化条件为:NaOH溶液浓度0.8mol/L,固液比1∶15(g/mL),皂化温度50℃,皂化时间2h,乙醇浓度70%(V/V),最佳的硅胶柱层析条件为:上样量1∶40(m样品∶m硅胶),径高比1∶10,洗脱流速1BV/h,得到的辣椒红色素的色价为672.

  17. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying; and instrumental and sensory evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white) peppers. In the last decade. attention is shifting towards flavour as an important quality parameter for fruits and vegetables. The flavour of fruits and vegetables, as perceived during consumption, is the overall sensation provided by the interaction...

  18. Cancer prevention trial of a synergistic mixture of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (CAPSOL-T) in a random population of subjects ages 40-84

    OpenAIRE

    Hanau, Claudia; Morré, D. James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2014-01-01

    Background Experts agree that one of the more promising strategies in cancer management is early detection coupled with early intervention. In this study, we evaluated an early cancer detection strategy of cancer presence based on serum levels of the cancer-specific transcript variants of ENOX2 in serum coupled with an ENOX2-targeted nutraceutical preparation of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) as a strategy of Curative Prevention® involving early detection coupled with early i...

  19. Efektifitas pemberian Abu Masak Garam dan Kascing Terhadap Karakteristik Inceptisol Asal Kec. Sama Dua Kab. Aceh selatan Pada Pertanaman Cabai (Capsicum annuum. L).

    OpenAIRE

    Nury, Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Inceptisol at Sama Dua subdistrict has high potensial for agriculture if we could manage correctly good management technique, although it has low organic matter and nutrients. Based on carer, this research is aimed to know how input of casting as organic fertilizer ang salt ash to increase aggregation could enhance red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) growth at this land. This research was conducted at green house and Chemical and Soil Fertility Laboratory at Faculty of Agriculture,...

  20. Impact of salt stress (NaCl) on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther Zhani; Ben Fredj Mariem; Mani Fardaous; Hannachi Cherif

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) cultivars: Tebourba (Tb), Somaa (Sm), Korba (Kb), Awald Haffouzz (AW) and Souk jedid (Sj). Thus, an experiment of five months w...

  1. Morphological characterization of accesions of capsicum spp. from the germoplasm collection of the colombian corporation for agricultural research (corpoica) c.i. palmira

    OpenAIRE

    Villota Cerón, Diana; Bonilla Betancourt, Martha Liliana; Carmen Carrillo, Horacio; Jaramillo Vásquez, Juan; García Dávila, Mario Augusto

    2012-01-01

    68 accessions from the Capsicum collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica), Palmira were morphologically characterized by using 12 quantitative and 10 qualitative descriptors. For the principal components analysis the variables with highest contribution were asso- ciated to plant architecture and fruit descriptors and their explained 70.8% of total variability. 7lassi- fication analysis based on quantitative data sho9ed ; groups but did not allo9 discriminati...

  2. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body...

  3. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Woo Taek; Cho Hye-Sun; Lee Bong-Woo; Kim JungEun; Lee Seung-Won; Baek Kwang-Hyun; Kim Hyun-Jin; Choi Doil; Hur Cheol-Goo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum), although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was desi...

  4. Characterization of Different Capsicum Varieties by Evaluation of Their Capsaicinoids Content by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Determination of Pungency and Effect of High Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto González-Zamora; Erick Sierra-Campos; J. Guadalupe Luna-Ortega; Rebeca Pérez-Morales; Juan Carlos Rodríguez Ortiz; José L. García-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromato...

  5. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) and Humic Acid on the Growth of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plant and Root Rot Disease Caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian

    OpenAIRE

    ASLANPAY, Burcu; Semra DEMİR

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of singular and double combinations of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and humic acid (HA) were investigated on the growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and rot root disease caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian which has been known as an important problem of pepper cultivation and leading yield losses. Under controlled conditions, four F1 pepper cultivars (Ergenekon, Bafra, Sirena and Yıldız) were inoculated with three different AMF strains (Glomus intraradice...

  6. Evaluation of new resistance-genes deployment strategies in the pepper Capsicum annuum for the durable management of root-knot nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Fazari, Ariane; Marteu, Nathalie; Barbary, Arnaud; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Risso, S.; Lanza, R.; Taussig, C.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.

    2013-01-01

    The current restrictions on the use of chemical nematicides have contributed to increase rootknot nematode problems in horticultural crops. ln this context, plant resistance appears as the most effective method of control, but the possible occurrence of virulent nematodes able to reproduce on R-plants may constitute a severe threat to this control strategy. ln Capsicum annuum, resistance to RKN is controlled by several dominant genes - the N and Me genes. To implement a rational management of...

  7. 369 辣椒属Capsicum annuum L.var.angulosum的化学成分和抗幽门螺杆菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗砚彬(摘译)

    2005-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L.var.angulosumo 为辣椒属的一种植物。本研究对该植物的茎、胎座、种子、花梗和果皮等部位进行提取分离,从其果实和茎中分离得到1个新化合物和47个已知化合物。

  8. Uji Antagonis Trichoderma spp. Terhadap Penyakit Layu (Fusarium oxysforum f.sp.capsici) Pada Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annum L) Di Lapangan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Martuani

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conduct on Tandem Hilir, Hamparan Perak Distric, Tiga Kota Datar Village and Plant Disease Laboratory, agriculture faculty, University Of North Sumatra, Medan. From Oktober to March 2005. This experiment is to see the effectiveness of Trichoderma koningi, Thricoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum to control Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici wilt disease on chili (Capsicum annum L.) on field It use randomize block design nonfactorial which 4 treatment and 6 repetition...

  9. The Effect of Different Concentrations of Salicylic Acid on Protective Enzyme Activities of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mahdavian; KALANTARI, Kh. M.; M. Ghorbanli

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentration (0, 0.1, 0.7, 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 mM) of SA on antioxidant enzymes in Capsicum annuum L. plants. Enzyme activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase were measured. The plants were grown in pots vermiculite. Before applying the salicylic acid treatments, plants filled with were irrigated with based nutrient solution (Hoagland solution) for 5 weeks. After 5...

  10. Direct connection of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography as a rapid quantitative method for capsaicinoids in placentas of Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Sasaki, S S; Goda, Y; Yamada, T; Nunomura, O; Ishikawa, K; Maitani, T

    1999-11-01

    The fruits of Capsicum annuum L. are used worldwide as chili peppers and in folk medicines. The pungent components of C. annuum, which are irritants, are called capsaicinoids (CAPS), and the most abundant components are capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. To analyze CAPS in the placentas of Capsicum fruits rapidly and safely, we used a directly connected system of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFE/SFC). As a column for SFE/SFC, only a silica-type column was found to be suitable. The CAPS contents in placentas of C. annuum cv. Jalapeno (hot type) and C. annuum cv. Shishitoh (less-hot type) determined by the SFE/SFC method agreed well with those in the range of 0-13.81 mg g(-1) fr. wt determined by the usual extraction-HPLC method. The SFE/SFC method has the advantages of no need for pretreatment and no (or minimal) need for organic solvents. We conclude that this method is useful as a rapid (20 min) and safe screening test for the pungency of various Capsicum fruits. PMID:10552868

  11. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe. PMID:25446579

  12. Osmocondicionamento em sementes de pimenta 'amarela comprida' (Capsicum annuum L. Submetidas à deterioração controlada Osmotic conditioning in seeds of 'long yellow' pepper (Capsicum annuum L. subjected to controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sessa Fialho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do condicionamento osmótico no desempenho de sementes de pimenta submetidas à deterioração controlada. Para tanto, sementes de pimenta 'Amarela Comprida' (Capsicum annuum L., com teor de água ajustado para 24%, foram submetidas à deterioração controlada em banho-maria a 45ºC por 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas. Em seguida, foram osmocondicionadas em solução de PEG 6000 a -1,1 MPa, por 0, 6 e 8 dias. Avaliaram-se a germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, germinação a baixa temperatura, velocidade de germinação a 15ºC e a 25°C, massa seca de plântulas e comprimento de raiz primária. Verificou-se que o condicionamento osmótico foi benéfico à germinação das sementes de pimenta deterioradas por 48 e 72 horas, não prejudicando a germinação das sementes de alta qualidade fisiológica e ainda contribuiu para melhorar o vigor tanto das sementes não deterioradas quanto das deterioradas por 48 e 72 horas, constituindo-se em procedimento promissor para elevar a qualidade fisiológica das mesmas.The osmotic conditioning technique has been considered promising for improving the physiological potential of seeds of various species. In this context, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of osmotic conditioning on the performance of pepper seeds subjected to controlled deterioration. Thus, seeds of 'Long Yellow pepper' (Capsicum annuum L., with water content adjusted to 24%, were subjected to controlled deterioration in water bath at 45 °C for 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. After that, they were osmotic conditioning in PEG 6000 to -1.1 MPa during 0, 6 and 8 days. The germination, first count of germination, germination at low temperature, speed of germination at 15 º C and 25 °C, dry weight of seedlings and length of primary root were evaluated. It was found that the osmotic conditioning was beneficial to the germination of pepper seeds deteriorated by 48 and 72 hours, not affecting the

  13. Biologia floral e polinização de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: um estudo de caso = Floral biology and pollination of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: a case study

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    Darci de Oliveira Cruz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A antese, a deiscência das anteras, a receptividade do estigma, o padrão de crescimento do tubo polínico e o percentual de vingamento dos frutos de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae foram estudados em São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais, sudeste brasileiro. As flores de C. frutescens são perfeitas, protogínicas e recebem a visita de várias espécies de abelhas, principalmente da abelha melífera Apis mellifera L., que coleta pólen e néctar. Foram comparados tratamentos de polinização por abelhas, polinização cruzada manual, polinização aberta, polinização aberta emasculada e autopolinização espontânea. O padrão de crescimento dos tubos polínicos mostrou-se semelhante em todos os tratamentos. Os tubos atingiram o ovário cerca de 24 horas após a polinização. Apesar de C. frutescens ser considerada autógama, essa cultura beneficia-se da polinização realizada por A. mellifera,produzindo significativamente maior quantidade de frutos, quando comparada com a autopolinização espontânea.The anthesis, anther dehiscence, pistil receptivity, pollen tubegrowth and fruit set of Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae were studied in São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. C. frutescens flowers are perfect, protogynous and receive visits from many bee species, mainly Apis mellifera L., which collect pollen and nectar. Treatments of pollination by bees, hand cross pollination, open pollination, emasculated open pollination and spontaneous self pollination were performed. Pollen tube growth pattern did not differ among treatments. Pollen tubes were observed in the ovary within 24 hours after pollination. Despite C. frutescens being considered autogamous, this crop benefits from pollination by A. mellifera, producing better fruit set than by using spontaneous self-pollination.

  14. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  15. 红花檵木叶片花色素提取及其性质研究%Extraction and Characterization of Anthocyanidins from Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辛雷; 李纪元; 范正琪

    2011-01-01

    The anthocyanidinsins in Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh leaves were extracted by solvent extraction method and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties.The best extraction conditions were found as follows: 99.5% methanol as extraction solvent at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5(g/mL) for 2 h extraction at 60 ℃.The pigments were unstable to light and heating but stable to strongly acidic environments and had a different color in slightly acidic and nearly neutral environments.Their tolerance to H2O2 and Na2SO3 was poor and their sensitivity to EDTA and sodium benzoate was high.Glucose and sucrose had little effect on the pigments.Salt,citric acid and some metal ions such as A13+,Ca2+ and Co2+ had hyperchromic effect on them and vitamin C and other metal ions such as Cu2+,Mg2+,Zn2+,Mn2+,K+ and Sn2+ had hypochromic effect.Moreover,Fe2+,Fe3+ and Pb2+ affected the stability of the pigments.%以红花檵木叶片为材料,对其花色素的提取条件及理化性质进行研究。结果表明,红花檵木叶片花色素提取的最佳条件为:99.5%的甲醇、料液比1:5(g/mL)、浸提温度60℃、浸提时间2h。红花檵木叶片花色素具光、热不稳定性;在强酸性时稳定,微酸近中性时变色。色素抗氧化、还原能力差;对螯合剂、苯甲酸钠敏感。葡萄糖、蔗糖对色素无明显影响,食盐、柠檬酸有增色作用,VC具减色作用。金属离子A13+、Ca2+、Co2+等具增色作用,Cu2+、Mg2+、Zn2+、Mn2+、K+、Sn2+等有减色作用,Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+影响色素稳定性。

  16. Construction and Analysis of an Interspecific Linkage Map of Capsicum annuum × C.frutescens%辣椒种间(Capsicum annuum×C.frutescens)遗传图谱的构建与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤华; 陈学军; 方荣; 陈丽珍; 宗洪霞; 缪南生

    2013-01-01

    以一年生辣椒(Capsicum annuum)B9431为母本(P1),中国野生灌木辣椒(C.frutescens)H108为父本(P2)进行种间杂交,得到包含180个单株的F2作图群体,利用SRAP、SSR、ISSR标记和形态标记构建辣椒遗传图谱.该图谱共包含14个连锁群,涉及264个SRAP标记、32个SSR标记和2个ISSR标记,控制软肉落果性状的S基因定位于LG8.图谱总长1 023.45 cM,标记间平均图距3.42 cM.每个连锁群的标记数在2~44个之间,连锁群的长度在13.84~129.93 cM范围内,平均图距在2.38~ 12.90cM之间.以SSR标记为锚定标记,将该图谱与Minamiyama等构建的图谱进行了初步对应.

  17. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the germination and physiological activity of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and physiological activity of germinating seeds of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv, Jokwang and cv. Hongkwang), seeds were irradiated at the dose of 2∼50 Gy. The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate at 7 days after sowing in Jokwang and Hongkwang cultivar was high as 74% and 11% at 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group, respectively. The seedling height of Jokwang cultivar was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy Irradiation group. The protein contents of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at the late stage of induction and that of Hongkwang cultivar at the early stage of induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy irradiation group

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of a new recombinant begomovirus and associated betasatellite DNA infecting Capsicum annuum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K

    2016-05-01

    Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014]. PMID:26831933

  19. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Juan Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF, and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  20. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation

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    SUPRIYADI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii with manure fertilizer, and (iii with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter and 0.46% (Azospirillum when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

  1. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

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    Ehsan RAKHSHANDEHROO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.

  2. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supena, E D J; Suharsono, S; Jacobsen, E; Custers, J B M

    2006-02-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4 degrees C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9 degrees C and thereafter at 28 degrees C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 muM zeatin and 5 muM indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding. PMID:16172897

  3. Reduction of aflatoxins in dundi-cut whole red chillies (capsicum indicum)by manual sorting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundi-cut whole red chillies (Capsicum indicum) are the most revenue- generating commodity of Pakistan. Accordingly, the competence and magnitude of manual hand-picked sorting of red chillies on the reduction of total aflatoxins (AFs) content were assessed during the present study. AFs contents were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. On the basis of AFs content, red chilli samples were grouped as Group A with 1 to 20 mu g/kg, Group B with 20 to 30?g/kg, Group C with 30-100?g/kg and Group D quality samples with 100 to 150g/kg. Physically identified defects including midget/dwarfed, damaged, broken, dusty and dirty were looked for and such pods were removed. A reduction of 90-100% of AFs was achieved in Group A, 65-80% in B, 65-75% in C and 70% in D quality samples. An average of 78% reduction in AFs content was achieved. Hence, the non-destructive physical hand-picked sorting of red chillies can be applied as a rapid, safe and cost effective method for the reduction of AFs content in red chillies with preserved nutritional values. (author)

  4. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

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    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  5. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture. PMID:27075312

  6. Antioxidant Systems from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.: Involvement in the Response to Temperature Changes in Ripe Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Corpas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate, accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which underwent lower temperature conditions. In spite of the important changes observed in the oxidative metabolism in fruits subjected to lower temperature, no oxidative stress appears to occur, as indicated by the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation profiles. Thus, the antioxidative systems of pepper fruits seem to be involved in the response against temperature changes.

  7. The effects of cellulase on capsaicin production in freely suspended cells and immobilized cell cultures of capsicum annuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different concentrations of cellulase on the production of capsaicin in freely suspended cell and immobilized cell cultures of Kahramanmara pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) were studied. Calluses were obtained from in vitro germinated hypocotyl explants of pepper seedlings and cell suspensions were prepared from these calluses. Immobilized cell suspension cultures with calcium alginate and free cell suspension cultures were obtained by using cell suspensions. Elicitor such as cellulase (5-30 micro g/ml), was applied both for the free and immobilized cell suspensions and control group without elicitor was prepared. The concentration of capsaicin in freely suspended cells, immobilized cells and their filtrates were identified by HPLC after extraction with ethyl acetate. It was found that the immobilization process had an increasing effect on the capsaicin accumulation. The concentration of capsaicin in the immobilized cells for both control groups and elicitor added samples was higher than the free cells. In general, capsaicin concentration in the filtrate for free cells was higher than the immobilized cells. When all the cellulase and the sampling hours were compared, the highest capsaicin concentration for the immobilized cells was determined as 362,91 micro g/ml f.w. at the 24th hour for 30 micro g/ml cellulase applied samples. (author)

  8. Foliar Spray with Vermiwash Modifies the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Dependency and Nutrient Stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

  9. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

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    Horacio Ballina-Gomez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC, number of branch bifurcation (NBB, and calyx pigmentation (CP had the highest variation. Principal components analysis (PCA of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. These components explained 94% of the variation. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex.

  10. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqun Liu

    Full Text Available The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.. We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT, which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies.

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies. PMID:23349661

  12. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper. PMID:24168044

  13. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the germination and physiological activity of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Back, Myung Hwa; Lee, Hae Youn; Lee, Young Keun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and physiological activity of germinating seeds of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv, Jokwang and cv. Hongkwang), seeds were irradiated at the dose of 2{approx}50 Gy. The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate at 7 days after sowing in Jokwang and Hongkwang cultivar was high as 74% and 11% at 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group, respectively. The seedling height of Jokwang cultivar was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy Irradiation group. The protein contents of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at the late stage of induction and that of Hongkwang cultivar at the early stage of induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy irradiation group.

  14. Comparative Study on New Capsicum annuum Varieties%辣椒新品种比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈在新; 李晓明; 潘娟; 李勤; 孙绪刚

    2009-01-01

    为筛选适宜在荆州地区种植的优质高产、抗逆性强并受市场欢迎的辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)新品种,对尖椒、泡椒两个类型共15个辣椒品种进行了栽培比较试验,并应用模糊数学评价法从物候期、熟性、抗病性、果实品质与产量等主要性状上进行了综合评价.结果表明,中优6号、大椒1号、中优4号和正邦4号的熟性早、抗病性强、果实商品性状优良、丰产性好,综合评判指数高,优于当前荆州市栽培面积较大的辣椒品种,具有推广应用价值.

  15. Anthocyanins, colour and antioxidant properties of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadilova, Eva; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Acetone extracts from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peels both belonging to the Solanaceae plant family were characterized with respect to their anthocyanin profiles, colour qualities and antioxidant capacities. According to HPLC-DAD-MS3 analyses the major anthocyanin in eggplant was delphinidin-3-rutinoside, while the predominant pigment in violet pepper was assigned to delphinidin-3-trans-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside. Since virtually all anthocyanins were delphinidin-based, the effect of acylation and glycosylation patterns on colour stability and antioxidant capacity could be assessed. Application of two in vitro-assays for antioxidant capacity assessment revealed that eggplant generally exhibited higher values compared to violet pepper which was ascribed to 3,5-diglycosylated structures predominating in the latter. The higher extent of acylation in violet pepper was reflected by a more purplish colour shade of the extracts, but did not translate into a higher stability against fading which again was attributed to additional glycosyl substitution at C5. These findings support the relevance of structure-related activities of anthocyanins both for understanding food colour and their particular nutritional value. PMID:16989312

  16. [Kohonen network study of the results of RAPD and ISSR analyses of genomic polymorphism in the genus Capsicum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruanet, V V; Kochieva, E Z; Ryzhova, N N

    2005-02-01

    The results of studies based on multilocus molecular analyses, including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, are usually presented in the form of images (electrophoregrams, photographs, etc.). The interpretation of this information is complicated, labor-consuming, and subjective. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are ideal "image processors," may be useful when solving such tasks. The possibility of using ANNs for the treatment of the results of RAPD and ISSR analyses has been studied. The RAPD and ISSR spectra have been studied in fragments of DNA of plants from the genus Capsicum L. (peppers). The results of clustering the accessions studied by means of the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), which is often used for phylogenetic constructions based on RAPD and ISSR data, serve as expert estimates. Fundamentally new methods of genetic polymorphism estimation using ANN technologies, namely, self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) have been developed. The results show that the clusters obtained with the use of UPGMA and SOFM coincide by more than 90%; taking into account that ANNs can deal with high noise levels and incomplete or contradictory data, the approach proposed may prove to be efficient. PMID:15810617

  17. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum ‘Bugwang'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  18. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.) from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.) Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán; José Luis Chávez-Servia; José Cruz Carrillo-Rodríguez; López, Mercedes G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes) of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant d...

  19. 生物菌肥对辣椒幼苗质量的影响%Effects of Microorganism Fertilizer on Seedling Quality of Capsicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童辉; 袁祖华; 黄建

    2013-01-01

    以不同配比的猪粪土、谷壳灰、草炭为基质,添加不同量的生物菌肥,采用72孔和128孔穴盘育苗,研究生物菌肥对辣椒幼苗质量的影响。结果表明:添加一定量的生物菌肥有利于辣椒幼苗的生长,而过量的生物菌肥则抑制辣椒幼苗的生长。无论是72孔还是128孔穴盘,生物菌肥添加量为2%时辣椒幼苗壮苗指数最高,根系活力最强,秧苗质量最好。%In order to study effects of microorganism fertilizer on seedling quality of capsicum, different ratios of pig manure soil, rice husk ash and turf were taken as substrate and different amounts of microorganism fertilizer were added to it, and then 72 holes and 128 holes of trays were adopted to raise seedlings. The results showed that adding certain amount of microorganism fertilizer is beneficial to the growth of capsicum seedlings, but over dosage of microorganism will inhibit it. Either of the two kinds of tray, the strong seedling indexes of capsicum seedlings were the highest when adding 2%microorganism fertilizer to the substrate, such as the activity of roots was the strongest and the quality of seedlings was the best.

  20. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices. PMID:22888725

  1. Acidos húmicos y fúlvicos en la producción hidropónica de Chile Manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P) en invernadero.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Antelma

    2011-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto de substancias húmicas (SH) en el crecimiento del chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P), en invernadero, se evaluaron tres niveles de presión osmótica de solución nutritiva Steiner (0.54, 0.72 y 0.90 atm) y tres concentraciones de aplicación foliar de substancias húmicas (0.5, 1, 1.5 ml.L-1 de agua de las SH). Las variables medidas fueron: diámetro ecuatorial (DE), diámetro polar (DP), volumen (VOL), grosor de pericarpio (GP), numero de frutos comerciales (NFRC), ...

  2. Fertilización orgánica Vs mineral en el rendimiento y contenido de capsaicina en chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.).

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Marcelo, Rufina

    2012-01-01

    El chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.) es originario de Perú y Bolivia, fue introducido a México a principios del siglo XX. Este tipo de chile se produce a altitudes de 1700 a 2500 m. En La Sierra Norte de Puebla la producción de este cultivo se hace a nivel de traspatio, con manejo insuficiente de fertilización y control de plagas. Como parte de una propuesta para mejorar el manejo de este cultivo, y hacer uso de los recursos disponibles en la región, que también se dedica a la ganade...

  3. Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Barrera, Lorena; García, Marisol Cudris; Giraldo, Martha Cecilia; Melgarejo, Luz Marina

    2007-01-01

    Doscientas sesenta y una accesiones del género Capsicum del banco de germoplasma del Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas (Sinchi) se evaluaron a través de cinco sistemas enzimáticos polimórficos: esterasa (EST), peroxidasa (PRX), 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6-PGDH), aspartato amino transferasa (GOT) y enzima málica (ME). Se utilizó un análisis de agrupamiento (Upgma) con el fin de determinar la variabilidad genética. Se observó un agrupamiento de las especies C. baccatum y...

  4. Capsaicin from chili (Capsicum spp. inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4yk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation is implied in cardiovascular disease and significantly contributes to vessel lumen reduction following surgical interventions such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery. Therefore, identification and characterization of compounds and mechanisms able to counteract VSMC proliferation is of potential therapeutic relevance. This work reveals the anti-proliferative effect of the natural product capsaicin from Capsicum spp. by quantification of metabolic activity and DNA synthesis in activated VSMC. The observed in vitro activity profile of capsaicin warrants further research on its mechanism of action and potential for therapeutic application.

  5. Caracterização físico-química de progênies de pimentas (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Thayane Rabelo; Pereira, Rita de Cássia Alves; Silveira, Márcia Régia Souza da; Silva, Leirson Rodrigues da; Oliveira, Milena Maria Tomaz de

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de frutos de pimentas (Capsicum frutescens L.), oriundos de diferentes progênies, por meio da caracterização físico-química. Foram colhidos frutos de onze progênies de pimentas cultivadas no Município de São Benedito, CE e avaliados quanto: sólidos solúveis, açúcares solúveis totais, pH, acidez titulável, SS/AT, vitamina C e carotenoides totais. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com onze tratamentos e três repetições. Os...

  6. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Vásquez Juan; Bonilla Betancourt Martha Liliana; Carmen Carrillo Horacio; García Dávila Mario Augusto; Villota Cerón Diana

    2012-01-01

    Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica) Palmira, utilizando

    12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las carac- terísticas de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El a...

  7. Species within, Origins of the Capsicum Species and Its Spread to the World%辣椒的种类、起源和传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文明; 安志信; 井立军; 黄国青

    2005-01-01

    本文阐述当前辣椒的5个主要栽培种的分类学特征和当前生产上最为广泛的Capsicum annuum L变种的不同的分类方式.并对南美洲辣椒考古成果和哥伦布将之带回欧洲后,在欧、亚、非洲大陆的传播和发展亦加以描述.

  8. On-farm Testing of Savanem 20 EC (Ethoprophos for Control of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Pepper (Capsicum annuum in Tillaberi (Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haougui Adamou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the effectiveness of Savanem 20 EC (Ethoprophos, 200g/l, a newly introduced nematicide on the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, the second most important vegetable crop after the onions in Niger. This product was compared with Furadan 5G (Carbofuran. The results show that Savanem 20 EC at the rate of 50 L/ha is more effective than Furadan at the rate of 40 kg/ha in suppressing population of Meloidogyne spp. and reducing the root gall index. Despite its higher effectiveness against root-knot nematodes, Savanem did not significantly out yield Furadan.

  9. Cuantificación de capsaicinoides en Capsicum chacoense A.T. Hunziker (Solanaceae) y en especialidades farmacéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sein, Gustavo O.; Gardinali, Claudia A.; Mandrile, Eloy L.; Cafferata, Lázaro F.R.

    1998-01-01

    Se ha efectuado la cuantificación de capsaicinoides en la oleorresina de cápsico utilizando técnicas relativas como espectrofotometría UV y HPLC, realizándose un análisis crítico de la metodología analítica aplicada. Las determinaciones se efectuaron sobre la oleorresina obtenida directamente de una especie autóctona, Capsicum chacoense A.T. Hunziker, así como sobre oleorresinas ya incorporadas en formas farmacéuticas. Las técnicas empleadas resultan accesibles a cualquier laboratorio convenc...

  10. Inheritance of reaction to Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arn. in Capsicum annuum L. Herança da reação à Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arn. em Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Ferreira Blat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungicides to control powdery mildew in sweet pepper has been ineffective and genetic resistance is the best alternative. Resistance sources identified in Capsicum annuum L. are rare and unsatisfactory. The purpose of this work was to study the inheritance of C. annuum reaction to powdery mildew. Three homozygous powdery mildew resistant parents, HV-12, Chilli and #124 and three susceptible lines, 609, 442 and 428 were used to obtain seven F1's and respectively their generations F2: HV-12 x 609, 442 × HV-12, 428 × HV-12, Chilli × 609, #124 × 609, Chilli × HV-12 and #124 × HV-12. The powdery epidemic was natural using inoculum from highly sporulating susceptible pepper host. Powdery mildew host reaction evaluations were carried out during the fruit production using a rating system based on disease severity scales varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. The experimental design was completely randomized. The following genetic parameters were estimated: locus numbers, gene action, heritability coefficient, expected selection gain and observed progress in F3 generation, and possibly allelic relationship among resistance genes of different resistance sources. The HV-12×609 cross was the only one that showed absence of dominance. Other genetically analyzed crossings showed dominant and epistatic effects. Resistance was characterized as being due to at least four pairs of genes. The heritability and selection gains estimates were high. The resistance mechanisms of #124, Chilli and HV-12 showed differences in their expression.O uso de fungicidas no controle do oídio do pimentão tem se mostrado ineficaz, sendo a resistência genética a melhor alternativa. As fontes de resistência identificadas em Capsicum annuum L. são raras e não satisfatórias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a herança da reação de C. annuum ao oídio. Três progenitores resistentes e homozigóticos, HV-12, Chilli e #124 e três suscet

  11. Capsaicinoids in the hottest pepper Bhut Jolokia and its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-01-01

    Hot peppers are known for medicinally important capsaicinoids. Bhut Jolokia, Capsicum chinense/Capsicum frutescens, is the hottest pepper in the world. However, its bioactivity and quantity of heat principles are not reported. We have now quantified capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in Bhut Jolokia and compared it with commonly consumed hot peppers, Jalapeno (Capsicum annuum) and Scotch Bonnet (Capsicum chinense). The concentration of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia was 5.36%, which is about 338 and 18 times greater than in Scotch Bonnet and Jalapeno, respectively. We have also isolated capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in pure form and determined lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes inhibitory concentrations. This is the first report of the quantification of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia, comparison of capsaicinoids content in Bhut Jolokia with Jalapeno and Scotch Bonnet hot peppers and the COX and LPO inhibitory activities of C and DHC. PMID:20184029

  12. Analysis on differential expression of cold resistance related genes of Liriodendron chinense under low temperature stress%低温胁迫下鹅掌楸抗寒性相关基因的差异表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆畅; 李斌; 郑勇奇

    2015-01-01

    对4℃和-30℃低温条件下引种自安徽大别山的1株鹅掌楸[Liriodendron chinense(Hemsl.)Sarg.]植株顶芽总RNA进行了数字基因表达谱构建和差异表达基因筛选,并对筛选出的抗寒性相关基因进行了实时荧光定量PCR分析.结果表明:获得的总RNA样品质量符合实验要求.数字基因表达谱分析结果表明:每个样品的质量控制后序列的总长度均在0.5 Gbp以上,碱基错误率为0.01%,Q20值超过99%,Q30值为96.99%~97.23%,GC含量为44.97%~47.06%,并且每个样品比对成功的序列条数占质量控制后序列总数的百分率均在90%以上.差异表达基因筛选结果显示:共发现9个与鹅掌楸抗寒性有关的差异表达基因,分别为HSP、MYB、NAC、AP2、Zincfinger、WRKY、FAD、Phospholipase和β-amylase基因.实时荧光定量PCR分析结果表明这9个基因共有3种表达模式,其中,HSP和FAD基因的相对表达量均随着温度的降低而减少,表现为基因下调表达;AP2、NAC和Zinc finger基因的相对表达量随着温度的降低而增多,表现为基因上调表达;而β-amylase、WRKY、Phospholipase和MYB基因的相对表达量则表现为4℃时增加、-30℃时减少.从基因的相对表达量来看,最大相对表达量超过5的基因有NAC和WRKY,介于2~5之间的基因有AP2、Zinc finger、β-amylase和MYB,低于2的基因有Phospholipase、HSP和FAD.结果显示NAC和WRKY基因可能在鹅掌楸的抗寒过程中起主要作用.

  13. COLECTA Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE 'CHILE DE AGUA' (Capsicum annuum L. EN OAXACA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Oaxaca, México, tiene zonas productoras de 'chile de agua' (Capsicum annuum L. que se diferencian por sus características fisiográficas y agroecológicas. Con el objetivo de generar conocimiento que contribuya a la conservación y mejoramiento genético del potencial productivo de esta especie, en ocho zonas se colectó germoplasma y caracterizó in situ durante 2006 y 2007 bajo un esquema de muestreo completamente aleatorio, con dos localidades por zona y diez plantas por localidad, para lo cual se empleó la guía del Instituto Internacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos. Durante 2008, para disminuir el efecto ambiental, se llevó a cabo una caracterización morfológica ex situ en condiciones de invernadero, para ello las ocho colectas (360 plantas fueron cultivadas bajo un sistema intensivo en hidroponía, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, la información se obtuvo de ocho muestreos efectuados cada quince días, en los cuales se identificaron descriptores de raíz, tallo, flor, fruto y semilla, que permitieron diferenciar (selección de variables las colectas e identificarlas en tres grupos (análisis de agrupamiento de mínima varianza de Ward y describir las características responsables de la agrupación (análisis de componentes principales. El germoplasma de la zona de Ocotlán, Oaxaca, resultó promisorio para un proceso de mejoramiento genético por presentar los frutos con los caracteres más deseables para el mercado.

  14. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  15. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  16. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  17. H2S AND NO SIGNALING INTERACTIONS IN THALE CRESS (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA L. AND PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. LEAVES

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    Miroslav Lisjak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research comprehends a set of experiments with several thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana L. and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes in controlled conditions using growth chambers, with the aim of determining the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in plants, as well as its potential effect as a signaling compound, particularly in potential interaction with nitric oxide (NO signaling pathways. Special emphasis was focused on stomatal mechanisms and signaling in their opening and closing. Moreover, the effect of treatment of pepper plants with H2S was investigated in salt stress conditions. It was established that the applied H2S donors, NaHS and GYY4137, inhibit stomata closing in both plant species through the reduction of NO accumulation in stomata, which was proven to occur in SNP or ABA treatment. The effects of NO and H2S were opposite those in pepper plants response to salt stress as well, with increased antioxidative activity in leaf obtained after H2S treatments, and with NaHS in particular. In addition, GYY4137 could be considered as a convenient H2S donor for research into H2S functions in plants. The results point out the interactions of H2S and NO in plant cell signaling in both normal and salt stress conditions. Further research of this type should uncover H2S functions in plant metabolism more precisely, especially considering the potential practical value of this knowledge for plant stress resistance improvement and their productivity enhancement.

  18. 不同产地辣椒叶中钙,铁,锌元素含量比较分析%Determination of Ca, Fe and Zn in Capsicum Annuum Leaves from Different Places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝鹏飞; 黄昀; 李勇; 陈娜; 丁金祥; 唐劲天

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare and analyze the content of Ca, Fe, Zn in Capsicum annuum leaves from different origin. Methods The inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the content of calcium, iron and zinc in the Capsicum annuum leaves, and the total of 20 samples come from Sichuan, Gansu, Shandong, Hunan and Guangdong. Results The average calcium content in Capsicum annuum leaves was more than 28 mg/g, the content of iron was up to 0.4 mg/g, the zinc content was 49 μg/g. Conclusion Capsicum annuum leaves are the best source of calcium and iron.%  目的比较分析不同产地辣椒叶中钙、铁、锌元素含量。方法采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定产地为四川、甘肃、山东、湖南和广东的共14份辣椒叶样品中钙、铁、锌元素的含量。结果辣椒叶平均钙含量超过28 mg/g,铁含量高达0.4 mg/g,锌含量达49µg/g。结论辣椒叶中钙、铁含量丰富,食用价值高。

  19. Identification of whitefly resistance in tomato and hot pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Firdaus, S.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Capsicum, Bemisia tabaci, trichome density, cuticle thickness Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify whitefly-resistant accessions that will form the basis for future resistance breeding. Forty-four pepper accessions representing four species (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum) were ...

  20. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    OpenAIRE

    OKA, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as r...

  1. Cytotoxic Effect on MG-63 Cell Line and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Seed Extracts of Capsicum sp.

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    Nidhi Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Applying the concept of ethnobotany, plant extract was taken into consideration as an alternative to chemicals synthesis of silver nanoparticle. The extracts from the chilli seeds were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. In this study two species of chilli, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, have been used to analyse the characteristics of the bio-active compounds found in their seeds. Analysis of the bioactive compound was performed by using Soxhlet extraction with solvents followed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and GC-MS. Furthermore, green synthesis of nanoparticles with chilli extracts was carried out using silver nitrate to detect its antimicrobial activity. The characterizations of both the nanoparticles were carried out using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX. Antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens and the antioxidant assay using DPPH and FRAP assays were performed. The cytotoxicity effects on osteosarcoma cell lines were also evaluated with the synthesized AgNPs.

  2. Capsicum annuum‘un Denge Nem İçeriği ve Sorpsiyon İzotermlerine Uygun Denklemleri (İngilizce)

    OpenAIRE

    Akın, Alp; Özbalta, Necdet; Güngör , Ali

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Capsicum annuum tipi biberin farklı doymuş tuz çözeltilerindeki su aktivitesi ve nem içerikleri incelenmiştir. Capsicum annuum’un sorpsiyon izotermleri, üç farklı sıcaklıktaki (30 oC, 45 oC ve 60 oC), %10 ile %98 arasındaki bağıl hava neminde gravimetrik yöntem kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Ürünün, nem içeriği satış standartlarında olduğu gibi kullanılmış ve bu belirli nem değerinin altında mikrobiyel bozunmanın olmadığı kabul edilmiştir. Her bir sıcaklıktaki deneysel veriler i...

  3. FISH and AgNor mapping of the 45S and 5S rRNA genes in wild and cultivated species of Capsicum (Solananceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldaferro, Marisel A; da Cruz, M Victoria Romero; Cecchini, Nicolás M; Moscone, Eduardo A

    2016-02-01

    Chromosome number and position of rDNA were studied in 12 wild and cultivated species of the genus Capsicum with chromosome numbers x = 12 and x = 13 (22 samples). For the first time in these species, the 5S and 45S rRNA loci were localized and physically mapped using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and AgNOR banding. We focused on the comparison of the results obtained with both methods with the aim of accurately revealing the real functional rRNA genes. The analyzes were based on a previous work that reported that the 18S-5.8S-25S loci mostly coincide with GC-rich heterochromatic regions and likely have given rise to satellite DNAs, which are not active genes. These data show the variability of rDNA within karyotypes of the genus Capsicum, providing anchor points for (comparative) genetic maps. In addition, the obtained information might be useful for studies on evolution of repetitive DNA. PMID:26853884

  4. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; González-Mas, Maria del Carmen; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    The carotenoid patterns of fully ripe fruits from 12 Bolivian accessions of the Andean peppers Capsicum baccatum (ají) and C. pubescens (rocoto) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA)-mass spectrometry (MS). We include 2 California Wonder cultivars as C. annuum controls. A total of 16 carotenoids were identified and differences among species were mostly found at the quantitative level. Among red-fruited genotypes, capsanthin was the main carotenoid in the 3 species (25% to 50% contribution to carotenoid fraction), although ajíes contained the lowest contribution of this carotenoid. In addition, the contribution of capsanthin 5,6-epoxide to total carotenoids in this species was high (11% to 27%) in comparison to rocotos and red C. annuum. Antheraxanthin and violaxanthin were, in general, the next most relevant carotenoids in the red Andean peppers (6.1% to 10.6%). Violaxanthin was the major carotenoid in yellow-/orange-fruited genotypes of the 3 species (37% to 68% total carotenoids), although yellow rocotos were characterized by lower levels (Capsicum peppers are known for their content in carotenoids, although there is no information about 2 species with Andean origin: ajíes and rocotos. Due to their relevance for the Andean cuisine and increasing importance in ethnic restaurants in Europe, we studied their carotenoid pattern and vitamin A contribution. PMID:21535519

  5. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

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    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  6. Characterisation, immunolocalisation and antifungal activity of a lipid transfer protein from chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) seeds with novel α-amylase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Mariângela S; Carvalho, Andre O; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Da Cunha, Maura; Beltramini, Leila; Rodrigues, Rosana; Nascimento, Viviane V; Machado, Olga L T; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2011-07-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) were thus named because they facilitate the transfer of lipids between membranes in vitro. This study was triggered by the characterization of a 9-kDa LTP from Capsicum annuum seeds that we call Ca-LTP(1) . Ca-LTP(1) was repurified, and in the last chromatographic purification step, propanol was used as the solvent in place of acetonitrile to maintain the protein's biological activity. Bidimensional electrophoresis of the 9-kDa band, which corresponds to the purified Ca-LTP(1) , showed the presence of three isoforms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 6.0, 8.5 and 9.5. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis suggested a predominance of α-helices, as expected for the structure of an LTP family member. LTPs immunorelated to Ca-LTP(1) from C. annuum were also detected by western blotting in exudates released from C. annuum seeds and also in other Capsicum species. The tissue and subcellular localization of Ca-LTP(1) indicated that it was mainly localized within dense vesicles. In addition, isolated Ca-LTP(1) exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lindemunthianum, and especially against Candida tropicalis, causing several morphological changes to the cells including the formation of pseudohyphae. Ca-LTP(1) also caused the yeast plasma membrane to be permeable to the dye SYTOX green, as verified by fluorescence microscopy. We also found that Ca-LTP(1) is able to inhibit mammalian α-amylase activity in vitro. PMID:21382036

  7. Etude du comportement des cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. et de piment (Capsicum annuum L. conduites en lignes simples et lignes jumelées sous serre

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    Boujelben, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour Study of Tomato Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and Red Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Crops under Greenhouse Conditions Conducted in Single and Twinned Rows. Tomato (Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crops under greenhouse conditions and drip irrigation are widely developed in Tunisia. Although, it is known that drip irrigation permitted some water savings. Other cultural techniques such as single or twinned planting rows combined with drip irrigation system could improve the water management. In this aim we have conducted an experimental trial under greenhouse adopting drip irrigation with simple and double amounts of water and single and twinned planting rows. Some agronomic traits in the occurrence the height of plants, the fruit number and yield per plant, the precocity and the water efficiency were studied. The red pepper culture with a spacing of 80 cm between lines, gave the best results in the simple row and simple amount of irrigation treatment. On the other hand, tomato, in twinned rows (90 cm among rows with double amount of water gave the best reaps in yield and more precocious. Whereas the higher water irrigation efficiency was obtained for the treatment combining the twinned planting rows and simple amount of water.

  8. 观赏辣椒和食用辣椒生长特征%Growth characteristics of ornamental and edible Capsicum annuum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵峰; 龚记熠; 徐小蓉; 乙引; 张冬林

    2011-01-01

    研究了6种美国辣椒(Capsicum annuum L)品种生长特征.结果表明:6种辣椒品种在株高、分枝数和株幅3项指标上均达到显著差异.其中,4号品种株高和分枝数分别是64.5cm、37枝,两项指标优于其余品种,具有引种价值.%In this paper, the growth characteristics of six kinds of Capsicum annuum L from America were studied. The results showed that the height, branches number and crown radius of the six species had significant differences in the level of P = 0. 05. The plant height and branches number of No. 4 species were up to 64. 5cm and 37 separately, which were both better than other species. No. 4 species was worthy of introduction.

  9. An Observe of "Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro"%《辣椒花药离体培养》评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素文; 黄亚杰; 肖瑜; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reading the existing relative documents about pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) in vitro anther culture, this paper summarizes and comments a newly published article "Anther Culture in Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro" on the Acta Physiol Plant in 2011 from the effects of several main factors on pepper anther culture, plant regeneration ploidy identification and plant chromosome doubling ect. The authors think this article has briefly introduced the present status of pepper in vitro anther culture abroad, and the existing problems, which is of certain reference value.%在阅读已有辣椒花药离体培养相关文献的基础上,从影响辣椒花药培养的几个主要因素、再生植株倍性鉴定及植株染色体加倍等方面,总结并评述了最近国外发表的一篇文章《辣椒花药离体培养》,认为该文章概括了目前国外辣椒花药离体培养的现状及存在的问题,具有一定参考价值.

  10. Saikosaponin v-2 from Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Saikosaponin v-2(1), was isolated from the roots of the title plant and the structure was identified on the basis of spectral analysis. Saikosaponin v-2 is a new compound, which was identified as 3b,16a,23,28-tetrahydroxy-olean-11,13(18)-dien-30-oic acid-3-O-b-D-glucopyrano- syl-(1?2)glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-b-D-fucopyranosyl-30-O-xylitol ester.

  11. 不同无土固体基质对辣椒生长的影响%Effect of Culturing Vegetable Solid Medium on the Growth and Development of Capsicum annuum L. without Soil Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明福

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索辣椒对无土固体基质栽培的适应性.[方法]选用烟草育苗专用基质、荞壳、河砂3种无土固体基质,对无土栽培辣椒的生长发育进行研究.[结果]采用烟草育苗专用基质的辣椒株高、生物产量和根重都优于荞壳和砂,说明烟草育苗专用基质更有利于辣椒生长.[结论]在无土固体基质栽培辣椒生产中,以选用烟草育苗专用基质为最佳.%[ Objective] The research aimed to discuss the suitability of Capsicum annuum L.to the culture of soilless solid medium. [ Method ] Three kinds of soilless solid media (tobacco seedling special medium, buckwheat shell and river sand)were selected to study the growth and development of Capsicum annuum L. in soilless culture were studied. [ Result] The plant height, biomass and root weight of Capsicum annuum L. in tobacco seedling special medium were better than that of buckwheat shell and river sand ,which indicated that tobacco seedling special medium was more favorable for the growth of Capsicum annuum L. [ Conclusion ] In the production of Capsicum annuum L. in the culture of soilless solid media, tobacco seedling special medium was the best choice.

  12. Registro e proteção de cultivares pelo setor público: a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças Registration and protection of cultivars in Brazil: the experience of Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina IC de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O registro de cultivares permite a produção e comercialização de sementes no país. É um processo importante para os programas de melhoramento, pois assegura a identidade genética e a qualidade varietal das cultivares. Adicionalmente, a proteção de cultivares, que garante os direitos intelectuais aos obtentores, possibilita que empresas públicas e privadas de pesquisa possam ser beneficiadas com o ingresso de recursos decorrentes dos direitos sobre as cultivares que desenvolvem dando sustentabilidade parcial ou total à continuidade de programas de melhoramento e o subseqüente lançamento de novas cultivares de interesse para o agronegócio brasileiro. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças e o resultado dos processos de registro e proteção de cultivares de pimentas do grupo jalapeño, denominadas BRS Sarakura e BRS Garça. Foram utilizados 48 descritores, sendo que quatro apresentaram potencial discriminatório para diferenciar as duas cultivares: altura e largura das plantas, intensidade da coloração verde dos frutos antes da maturação e espessura do pedúnculo. Ambas cultivares apresentam uniformidade de plantas, alta produtividade, alto teores de capsaicina, estabilidade quanto aos descritores avaliados durante os dois ciclos, bem como se mostraram distintas de outras cultivares de pimentas do gênero Capsicum. Para a obtenção do registro e proteção das cultivares de pimenta foram relevantes a experiência na caracterização morfológica do banco de germoplasma e aplicação dos descritores, o conhecimento da morfologia da planta, o auxílio de um profissional na área de botânica para identificar as diversas espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum e o conhecimento e cumprimento das exigências burocráticas para efetivação dos processos.The process of registration of new cultivars in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply is an

  13. Presencia de Diferentes Virus de Pimiento (Capsicum annuum L. en Especies de Malezas Asociadas al Cultivo Presence of Different Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Viruses on Associated Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En prospecciones de malezas realizadas durante dos temporadas agrícolas, 30 especies anuales y 13 perennes fueron determinadas en cultivos de pimientos (Capsicum annuum L. de los Valles de Elqui y Limarí, Región de Coquimbo (29° a 30º lat. Sur. Los muestreos fueron aleatorios dentro y fuera de los potreros, con y sin cultivo presente, en invierno y primavera. Se recolectaron 676 plantas de malezas, analizándose un total de 379 muestras. Utilizando la prueba DAS-ELISA se determinó Virus del mosaico del pepino (CMV, Virus del bronceado del tomate (TSWV, Virus del mosaico de la alfalfa (AMV, Virus Y de la papa (PVY y Virus INSV (Impatients necrotic spot virus. Un 17% (64 de las muestras fueron positivas al menos a un virus, de las cuales 7,4% (28 provinieron de plantas con síntomas y 9,4% (36 fueron hospederos asintomáticos. Chamico (Datura spp. hospedó a CMV y PVY; nicandra (Nicandra physalodes a AMV, CMV y PVY; tomatillo (Solanum nigrum a CMV y PVY; ñilhue (Sonchus spp. a AMV y TSWV; pacoyuyo (Galinsoga parviflora a AMV, CMV, TSWV y INSV; quingüilla (Chenopodium spp. a AMV, CMV, TSWV, PVY e INSV, entre las principales. Usando un índice potencial de infección relativa (IPIR, los mayores valores se obtuvieron con pacoyuyo (74,7, nicandra (11,2, tomatillo (6,3 y quingüilla (6,0. Especies como ñilhue, chamico, pila-pila (Modiola caroliniana, quilloi-quilloi (Stellaria media y bledo (Amaranthus spp., tuvieron índices inferiores a 1,0. Nicandra y pacoyuyo portaron más de un virus y estas infecciones múltiples prevalecieron sobre las simples. Controlar malezas portadoras tanto dentro como en las inmediaciones de los potreros, resulta imperioso para poder minimizar la incidencia y dispersión de las enfermedades virales en pimientos.In a two growth-cycle survey, 30 annual and 13 perennial weed species were determined in different sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. growing areas of the Limari and Elqui valleys of Coquimbo Region of Chile

  14. Efeitos da irrigação por gotejamento na produção de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) em casa-de-vegetação Effects of drip irrigation on red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) growth and yield under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    R.E.F. Teodoro; Oliveira, A. S.; Minami, K

    1993-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de água, aplicada na forma de gotejamento, em cultura de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) em condições de casa-de-vegetação coberta com lençol de polietileno. O cultivar utilizado foi "Agronômico 10G". O delineamento empregado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As irrigações eram feitas quando consumidos 10; 30; 50 e 70% da água disponível no solo para os respectivos tratamentos. O ...

  15. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia Morphological characterization of accesions of Capsicum spp. from the germoplasm collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica) C.I. Palmira

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Villota-Cerón; Martha Liliana Bonilla-Betancourt; Horacio Carmen-Carrillo; Juan Jaramillo-Vásquez; Mario Augusto García-Dávila5

    2012-01-01

    Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica) Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos ...

  16. Herança de caracteres relacionados à produção de frutos em Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum com base em análise dialélica de Hayman Inheritance of traits related to fruit production in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum based on Hayman's diallel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves; Rosana Rodrigues; Cintia dos Santos Bento; Renata Rodrigues Robaina; Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar parâmetros genéticos relacionados à produção de frutos em um dialelo de pimenta (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum). Foram avaliados cinco genitores de pimenta (UENF 1616, UENF 1624, UENF 1629, UENF 1639 e UENF 1732) e seus respectivos híbridos F1, a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos. O experimento foi conduzido em cultivo protegido (politúnel), na área de convênio UENF/PESAGRO-RIO, Campos dos Goytacazes, no período de julho a dezembro de 2009...

  17. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas ecombinadas de Capsicum annuum L. em sistema orgânico sob cultivo protegido Agronomic performance of recombinant inbred of Capsicum annuum L. lines cultivated under organic system and greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Ola Moreira; Rosana Rodrigues; Maria Luíza de Araújo; Elaine Manelli Riva-Souza; Rebeca Lourenço de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    O manejo de plantas em cultivo protegido e a busca de produtos orgânicos pelos consumidores têm sido um desafio para produtores e pesquisadores de hortaliças. Para que essas formas de cultivo proporcionem lucratividade ao produtor e frutos de qualidade para o consumidor, faz-se necessária a busca por genótipos adaptados a esse manejo diferenciado. Neste trabalho, objetivouse avaliar o desempenho de 12 linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de Capsicum annuum L., obtidas do cruzamento entre os acesso...

  18. Effects of dietary addition of capsicum extract on intake, water consumption, and rumen fermentation of fattening heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Zwieten, J; Gonzalez, L; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2012-06-01

    Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P < 0.04), ruminal pH (6.03, 5.84, 5.96, and 5.86; P < 0.08) and total VFA (134.3, 144.8, 140.1, and 142.8 mM; P < 0.08). There was a strong correlation between water consumption and DMI (R(2) = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P < 0.05) in all CAP treatments compared with control. The molar proportion of acetate tended to decrease linearly (from 59.6 to 55.5 mol/100 mol; P < 0.06), and ammonia N concentration tended to increase linearly (from 14.4 to 16.0 mg N/dL; P < 0.08). In contrast, the molar proportion of propionate (23.8 mol/100 mol), butyrate (14.2 mol/100 mol), and lactate (0.28 mol/100 mol) were not affected by treatments. Results indicate that

  19. PA-559: A New, Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Red-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to develop a root-knot nematode resistant, red-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were completed with the official release of PA-559 on September 18, 2008. The new breeding line is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a dominant root-kno...

  20. PA-560, A Southern Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Yellow-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA has developed a yellow-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes. The new breeding line, designated PA-560, is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a root-knot nematode resistance gene from the S...

  1. Notice of Release of PA-560, a Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Yellow-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA has developed a yellow-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes. The new breeding line, designated PA-560, is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a root-knot nematode resistance gene from the S...

  2. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  3. Transference of Double Gene Cecropin B and D into Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)%双价抗菌肽基因转化辣椒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃坚; 余小林; 李颖; 黄自然; 张银东; 王得元

    2000-01-01

    在建立高效快速辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)子叶离体培养和植株再生体系的基础上,将昆虫抗菌肽B、D基因构建而成的双价质粒pCDB-Ⅱ以农杆菌为介导转入5个辣椒栽培品种,共获得KanR植株1 200多株,对部分KanR植株进行点杂交、PCR、Southern杂交检测,结果证明了外源基因被成功整合.盆栽接青枯菌试验,结果显示,转基因植株具有较强的抗病力.

  4. 辣椒 AFLP 反应体系的优化与建立%Optimization and Establishment of AFLP Analysis System in Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明磊; 詹玉丝; 陈晓; 樊红杰

    2008-01-01

    以5个辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)材料为研究对象,对 AFLP 反应体系中的 DNA 用量、酶切连接时间、预扩增产物的稀释倍数等关键因素进行优化分析,建立了适宜辣椒作物的 AFLP 反应体系.研究结果:酶切连接反应中,基因组 DNA 适宜用量为100 ng,反应时间是6h最为合适,预扩增产物适宜稀释倍数在30~50倍时较为理想.

  5. Study on Hot Pepper(Capsicum annuum L) Inbred by Genotype Value%辣椒自交系的基因型值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任羽; 王得元; 尹俊梅; 张银东

    2006-01-01

    利用Steuclid遗传距离对31个自交系的10个性状的基因型值基于UPGMA法进行研究,在遗传距离GD为6.0处,可将辣椒的两个变种分开,即Capsicum annuum var.grossum变种群和Capsicum annuum var.longum变种群;在遗传距离GD为4,6处,可将31个自交系分为5类.第一类:7号,灯笼椒变种;第二类:9号和5号,植株较高大、晚熟、感病;第三类:25号,中抗、矮杆、早熟;第四类:6、12、10、19、14、11、29、31、30、24、16、20、18、17、21、15、13、23、22、8、4号,这一类在熟性、抗性方面属于中间类型,在植株高度方面存在较大的差异;第五类:27、26、28、3、2、1号,植株高大、晚熟、抗病.这种分类结果有助于利用这些自交系进行杂交亲本的选配.

  6. 2种除草剂及混用对红花檵木容器苗杂草的防除效果%Weed Control Efficacy of Two Kinds of Herbicide and Their Mixture in Container Seedling Breeding of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金久宏

    2012-01-01

    A weed control experiment was conducted for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum container seedlings with 24% oxyfluorfen EC, 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC, and the combination of 24% oxyfluorfen EC and 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC. The results showed that the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 30 days after application was 90.3% out of the plants, and 87. 8% by the fresh weight. While the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 40 days after application was 91.7% out of the plants, and 91.6% by the fresh weight. The weed control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC was better than that of the other two types of herbicide. It was also safer to the container seedlings of L chinense var. rubrum, so it should be further extended to larger area.%用24.0%乙氧氟草醚乳油,10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油及这2种药剂的混合共3种处理对红花槛木容器苗进行杂草除治试验,结果表明:喷施24%乙氧氟草醚乳油20mL/667m2后,第30天的株防效为90.3%、鲜质量防效为87.8%;第40天的株防效为91.7%、鲜质量防效为91.6%,均明显好于另外2种药剂处理的除草效果,且对苗木较为安全,基本上能达到除治杂草的目的,可进一步推广应用.

  7. 湿法消解火焰原子吸收光谱法测定盆栽看椒果中微量元素%Determination of Microelement in Capsicum Annuum by FAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓红; 达古拉

    2013-01-01

    用HNO3-H2O2对样品进行消解,采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定盆栽看椒中6种微量元素K、Ca、Fe、Zn、Cu、Mn.结果表明,在优化的实验工作条件下,对样品中6种微量元素可进行分别测定,互不干扰,方法回收率为87.0%~103.3%.%Sample was digested with HNO3-H2O2,microelements of K、Ca、Fe、Zn、Cu、Mn in Capsicum annuum were determined by FAAS.The results showed that six microelements coxisted in Capsicum annuum did not interfere with each other under the optimized conditions . The addition standard recovery was 87.0%~103.3%.

  8. Utility of internally transcribed spacer region of rDNA (ITS) and β‐tubulin gene sequences to infer genetic diversity and migration patterns of Colletotrichum truncatum infecting Capsicum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Rampersad, Kandyce; Ramdial, Hema; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anthracnose is among the most economically important diseases affecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) production in the tropics and subtropics. Of the three species of Colletotrichum implicated as causal agents of pepper anthracnose, C. truncatum is considered to be the most destructive in agro‐ecosystems worldwide. However, the genetic variation and the migration potential of C. truncatum infecting pepper are not known. Five populations were selected for study and a two‐locus (internally t...

  9. Determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruits of Capsicum annuum by HPLC%HPLC 法测定不同产地辣椒中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹莉; 黄多临

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruits of Capsicum ann-uum,and compare the quality of the different areas of Capsicum annuum.Methods The HPLC system consisting of Agilent Eclipse SB C18 (250mm ×4.6mm,5μm) column and a solution system of methanol -water (50 ∶50),The detection UV wavelength was at 280nm,the flow rate was 1.0ml·min -1 ,the column temperature was 25 ℃.Results The contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruits of Capsicum annuum from different habitats are significantly different.Conclusion The method is simple,rapid and accurate, and can be used for the quality control of Capsicum annuum L.%目的:采用反相高效液相法测定不同产地辣椒中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素的含量。方法:采用安捷伦 Eclipse SB C18色谱柱(250mm ×4.6mm;5μm),流动相为甲醇-水(50∶50),流速为1.0ml /min,检测波长280nm,柱温25℃。结果:各产地辣椒中均含有辣椒素和二氢辣椒素,目不同产地的含量差别较大。结论:该方法准确、简便、可行,可作为辣椒药材的含量测定方法。

  10. La nécrose apicale en relation avec certains paramètres morphologiques et la teneur en calcium dans les fruits chez quatre variétés de piment (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jebari H.; R'him T.

    2008-01-01

    Blossom-end rot in relation to morphological parameters and calcium content in fruits of four pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.). The objective of this study is to identify, in the case of four pepper cultivars: ' J27 ', ' Marconi ', ' Beldi ' and ' Jerid ', a relation between vegetative growth rate, fruit weight and its calcium content with blossom-end rot induction. The results show that the more sensitive cultivars to blossom-end rot are ' Marconi ' and ' J27 ' cultivars, those having a...

  11. Detecção de capsaicina em extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires de Souza RODRIGUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta dedo-de-moça (Capsicum baccatum L. é uma espécie utilizada no mundo inteiro pelo seu sabor picante e por possuir inúmeras atividades medicinais. Essas atividades farmacológicas são proporcionadas por um grupo de substâncias presentes, os capsaicinoides, além de taninos, flavonoides, vitamina C, entre outros. Dos capsaicinoides presentes, a capsaicina possui especial importância. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença da capsaicina nos extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica. Os extratos foram preparados com acetona. A cromatografia foi realizada com placas de sílica gel G4, eluída com hexano:acetato de etila (60:40 e reveladas com reagente de Dragendorff. A capsaicina pode ser detectada somente no estágio imaturo (verde dos frutos de Capsicum baccatum L. pela metodologia de cromatografia em camada delgada e pelo teste histoquímico.

  12. Effects of Calcium and Heat Treatment on Storage Quality of Capsicum Annuum L.%钙和热处理对青椒贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凌云; 李瑜; 詹丽娟; 祝美云; 郭小丽

    2013-01-01

    研究氯化钙和热处理对青椒贮藏(8℃)过程中失重率、可溶性固形物含量、呼吸强度、可滴定酸含量、VC含量、叶绿素含量等品质指标的影响,结果表明:最佳处理条件是:3%氯化钙与45℃热处理相结合,处理25min.该方法有效降低了青椒的呼吸强度,提高了青椒叶绿素的稳定性,延缓了果实中VC含量的下降,但在一定程度上增加了青椒的失重.%The effects of calcium chloride and heat treatment on Capsicum annuum L. were studied. During the storage period (8℃), weight loss rate, soluble solids content, respiratory intensity, titratable acidity, VC content, chlorophyll content and other quality indexes were monitored. Results showed that Capsicum annuum L. treated with 3% calcium chloride at 45 ℃ for 25 min maintained the optimal quality during storage. This method could effectively reduce the respiration rate, improve the chlorophyll stability of green peppers, and prevent the loss of VC content. However, to some extent, this approach increased the weight loss of Capsicum annuum L.

  13. Pepper, chili (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung; Shin, Sun Hee; Jeon, En Mi; Park, Jung Mi; Hyun, Ji Young; Harn, Chee Hark

    2015-01-01

    Pepper is a recalcitrant plant for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Several obstacles to genetic transformation remain such as extremely low transformation rates; the choice of correct genotype is critical; and there is a high frequency of false positives due to direct shoot formation. Here, we report a useful protocol with a suitable selection method. The most important aspect of the pepper transformation protocol is selecting shoots growing from the callus, which is referred to as callus-mediated shoot formation. This protocol is a reproducible and reliable system for pepper transformation. PMID:25300851

  14. Analysis of a valuable chromosome rearrangement induced by ionizing radiations in a cultivated chili pepper line (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum - solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is an important genus including five crop species consumed by man as spice and food. Most contributions about induced mutagenesis in Capsicum refer to gene mutations while induced changes at chromosome level are scarce. We started a program to achieve chromosome rearrangements by ionizing radiations in C. baccatum variety pendulum cultivar 'cayenne', which has a karyotype with 2n=2x=24, 11 metacentrics + 1 subtelocentric pairs, 4 pairs (1, 3, 10, 12) carrying nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) and associated satellites in short arm. Seeds were treated with different acute doses of X-rays developing M1-4 generations. A rearranged chromosome carrying NORs in both arms was found in M2 seedlings from the only surviving M1 plant after a 300 Gy treatment. The structural change was analyzed by: 1) Feulgen's staining to observe chromosome number, size and shape; 2) silver impregnation to detect active NORs; 3) fluorescent chromosome banding to reveal type and position of constitutive heterochromatic regions [triple staining with chromomycin/distamycin/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CMA/DA/DAPI)]; 4) fluorescent in situ hybridization with 18S- 25S rDNA repeated sequence as probe. A reciprocal translocation between two NOR-bearing chromosomes in the M1 plant has occurred, which gave viable progeny carrying the chromosomal interchange without any deviating phenotype after four generations, nor in heterozygous neither in homozygous condition. The lack of chromosome instability suggests a small reciprocal interchange between a member of pair 1 and of 3, both carrying active NORs in shorts arms. The results of this rearrangement were two chromosomes with little change in size, one of them easily recognized by the presence of NORs and associated CMA+/DAPI- heterochromatin in both arms. As the translocation here reported produced a conspicuous rearranged marker chromosome, the obtained plant line is considered very valuable for studies on chromosome

  15. Caracterização de um isolado do Pepper mild mottle virus que não quebra a resistência do gene L3 em Capsicum sp. Characterization of a non-L3 gene-resistance breaking Pepper mild mottle virus isolate in Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Eiras; Alexandre L.R. Chaves; Silvia R. Moreira; Jansen Araujo; Addolorata Colariccio

    2004-01-01

    Sementes de pimenta (Capsicum baccatum) 'Dedo de Moça' destinadas ao plantio comercial e adquiridas no município de São Paulo, SP, analisadas quanto à presença de vírus, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos revelaram-se infetadas por uma estirpe do Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). Para confirmar a identidade do isolado, promoveu-se a RT-PCR com oligonucleotídeos que flanqueiam a ORF da capa protéica de espécies do gênero Tobamovirus do subgrupo 1. Os fragmentos de DNA amplificados, qu...

  16. Efeitos da irrigação por gotejamento na produção de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. em casa-de-vegetação Effects of drip irrigation on red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. growth and yield under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.F. Teodoro

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de água, aplicada na forma de gotejamento, em cultura de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. em condições de casa-de-vegetação coberta com lençol de polietileno. O cultivar utilizado foi "Agronômico 10G". O delineamento empregado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As irrigações eram feitas quando consumidos 10; 30; 50 e 70% da água disponível no solo para os respectivos tratamentos. O controle das irrigações baseou-se na evaporação do tanque "Classe A". O tratamento que era irrigado, quando haviam sido consumidos 30% de água disponível, apresentou uma tendência de elevar a produção, qualidade dos frutos e desenvolvimento vegetativo do pimentão. As variações da umidade do solo, no intervalo de água disponível, comprovam a importância da irrigação.The present study intended to ascertain the effects of different water levels, applied as dripp irrigation, on red pepper growth (Capsicum annuum L. under greenhouse conditions, covered with a polyethylene sheet. The cultivar used was the "Agronômico 10G". A randomized design was used, with four treatments and eight replications. Treatments were such that irrigation was applied after 10, 30, 50 or 70% of available soil water consumption. Irrigation control was based on "Class A" pan evaporation. The tratment which was irrigated when 30% of the available water had been consumed was superior to the other levels, as regards to yield increase, fruit quality and vegetative growth. Soil moisture changes, in the available water range, confirm the importance of irrigation.

  17. Effect of ultrasound on the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from dedo de moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Arthur Luiz Baião; Arroio Sergio, Camilla Scarelli; Santos, Philipe; Barbero, Gerardo Fernandéz; Rezende, Camila Alves; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Extracts with bioactive compounds were obtained from the red pepper variety "dedo de moça" (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) through supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide assisted by ultrasound (SFE-US). The process was tested at pressures of 15, 20 and 25 MPa; temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and ultrasonic powers of 200, 400 and 600 W applied during 40, 60 and 80 min of extraction. The CO2 mass flow rate was fixed at 1.7569 × 10(-4) kg/s. Global yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoid concentration were evaluated in the extracts. The application of ultrasound raised the global extraction yield of SFE up to 45%. The phenolic content of the extract increased with the application of higher ultrasound power and radiation time. The capsaicinoid yield was also enhanced with ultrasound up to 12%. However, the antioxidant capacity did not increase with the ultrasound application. The BET-based model and the broken and intact cell model fitted well to the kinetic SFE curves. The BET-based model with three adjustable parameters resulted in the best fits to the experimental data. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that SFE disturbed the vegetable matrix, releasing particles from the inner region of the plant cells to their surface. When the ultrasound was applied this effect was more pronounced. On the other hand, cracks, fissures or any sign of rupture were not identified on the sample surface. PMID:26964951

  18. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-01

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed. PMID:26888016

  19. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; de Oliveira Salvi, Aguisson; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile. PMID:26970882

  20. Evaluación agronómica de accesiones de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de bloques incompletos 10 x 10 con tres repeticiones se estudiaron descriptores cuantitativos relacionados con producción por planta, contenido de capsaicina y presencia de virus en 100 accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Las diferencias entre las accesiones fueron explicadas por el contenido de capsaicina, características asociadas con la producción por planta y características del fruto. Se encontró correlación inversa entre el contenido de capsaicina y producción; número de frutos por planta con peso de fruto. La dispersión de las accesiones en el plano cartesiano situó las variedades comerciales Cayenne, Tabasco y Habanero, en función de producción, peso y cantidad de frutos, en posiciones desventajosas con respecto a los promedios generales de las características de las otras accesiones. Cuatro accesiones superaron a Tabasco en contenido de capsaicina. Cuatro tipos de virus (potyvirus, geminivirus y cucumovirus y virus del mosaico del tabaco TMV se presentaron en el lote de evaluación. Los virus actuaron en forma conjunta; los potyvirus con los cucumovirus y TMV; los geminivirus con TMV.