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Sample records for cape cod massachusetts

  1. Cape Cod, Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  2. Sediments of Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts (HOUGH42 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cape Cod Bay, lying on the Massachusetts coast partly enclosed by Cape Cod, is in a glaciated region of low relief. Coarse sediments generally occur in areas...

  3. Bedrock Data from Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts (WELLSITE shapefile, Geographic, NAD27)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cores collected from recent drilling in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts provide insight into the topography and petrology of the underlying bedrock. Cores from 64...

  4. Mortality trends of stranded marine mammals on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts, USA, 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolni, Andrea L; Pugliares, Katie R; Sharp, Sarah M; Patchett, Kristen; Harry, Charles T; LaRocque, Jane M; Touhey, Kathleen M; Moore, Michael

    2010-01-25

    To understand the cause of death of 405 marine mammals stranded on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts between 2000 and 2006, a system for coding final diagnosis was developed and categorized as (1) disease, (2) human interaction, (3) mass-stranded with no significant findings, (4) single-stranded with no significant findings, (5) rock and/or sand ingestion, (6) predatory attack, (7) failure to thrive or dependent calf or pup, or (8) other. The cause of death for 91 animals could not be determined. For the 314 animals that could be assigned a cause of death, gross and histological pathology results and ancillary testing indicated that disease was the leading cause of mortality in the region, affecting 116/314 (37%) of cases. Human interaction, including harassment, entanglement, and vessel collision, fatally affected 31/314 (10%) of all animals. Human interaction accounted for 13/29 (45%) of all determined gray seal Halichoerus grypus mortalities. Mass strandings were most likely to occur in northeastern Cape Cod Bay; 97/106 (92%) of mass stranded animals necropsied presented with no significant pathological findings. Mass strandings were the leading cause of death in 3 of the 4 small cetacean species: 46/67 (69%) of Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, 15/21 (71%) of long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, and 33/54 (61%) of short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis. These baseline data are critical for understanding marine mammal population health and mortality trends, which in turn have significant conservation and management implications. They not only afford a better retrospective analysis of strandings, but ultimately have application for improving current and future response to live animal stranding. PMID:20225675

  5. Spatial-temporal analysis of breast cancer in upper Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The reasons for elevated breast cancer rates in the upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts remain unknown despite several epidemiological studies that investigated possible environmental risk factors. Data from two of these population-based case-control studies provide geocoded residential histories and information on confounders, creating an invaluable dataset for spatial-temporal analysis of participants' residency over five decades. Methods The combination of statistical modeling and mapping is a powerful tool for visualizing disease risk in a spatial-temporal analysis. Advances in geographic information systems (GIS enable spatial analytic techniques in public health studies previously not feasible. Generalized additive models (GAMs are an effective approach for modeling spatial and temporal distributions of data, combining a number of desirable features including smoothing of geographical location, residency duration, or calendar years; the ability to estimate odds ratios (ORs while adjusting for confounders; selection of optimum degree of smoothing (span size; hypothesis testing; and use of standard software. We conducted a spatial-temporal analysis of breast cancer case-control data using GAMs and GIS to determine the association between participants' residential history during 1947–1993 and the risk of breast cancer diagnosis during 1983–1993. We considered geographic location alone in a two-dimensional space-only analysis. Calendar year, represented by the earliest year a participant lived in the study area, and residency duration in the study area were modeled individually in one-dimensional time-only analyses, and together in a two-dimensional time-only analysis. We also analyzed space and time together by applying a two-dimensional GAM for location to datasets of overlapping calendar years. The resulting series of maps created a movie which allowed us to visualize changes in magnitude, geographic size, and

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  7. Shallow geology, seafloor texture, and physiographic zones of the Inner Continental Shelf from Nahant to northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Foster, David S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Schwab, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and northern Cape Cod Bay has been profoundly affected by the occupation and retreat of glacial ice sheets and relative sea-level change during the Quaternary. Marine geologic mapping of this area is a component of a statewide cooperative effort involving the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management. Interpretation of high-resolution geophysical data (interferometric and multibeam swath bathymetry, lidar, backscatter, and seismic reflection), sediment samples, and bottom photographs was used to produce a series of maps that describe the distribution and texture of seafloor sediments, shallow geologic framework, and physiographic zones of this inner-shelf region. These data and interpretations are intended to aid efforts to inventory and manage coastal and marine resources, and provide baseline information for research focused on coastal evolution and environmental change.

  8. Character and distribution of exposed glaciodeltaic deposits off outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and their effects on hydrogeology and benthic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Foster, D.S.; Danforth, W.W.

    2006-01-01

    Seabed outcrops of glaciodeltaic sediments were identified in four places east of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during seismic-reflection, multibeam bathymetric and backscatter, bottom photographic, and sediment sampling surveys. These strata record coarser-grained ice-proximal glaciofluvial topset to finer-grained distal glaciolacustrine bottomset deposition within deltaic systems that prograded southwestward into glacial lakes from the South Channel lobe about 18 ka B.P. These beds are important because they (1) influence the outer Cape's hydrogeologic framework, and (2) constitute relatively stable, locally rough habitats within an area of seafloor dominated by mobile sand and gravelly sediment, and benefit the benthic fauna by providing shelter and a substrate amenable to burrow construction. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  9. MULTISPECIES REACTIVE TRACER TEST IN A SAND AND GRAVEL AQUIFER, CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS: PART 1: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND TRANSPORT OF BROMIDE AND NICKEL-EDTA TRACERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this report, we summarize a portion of the results of a large-scale tracer test conducted at the U. S. Geological Survey research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The site is located on a large sand and gravel glacial outwash plain in an unconfined aquifer. In April 1993, ab...

  10. MULTISPECIES REACTIVE TRACER TEST IN A SAND AND GRAVEL AQUIFER, CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS: PART 2: TRANSPORT OF CHROMIUM (VI) AND LEAD-, COPPER-, AND ZINC-EDTA TRACERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses the transport of a group of reactive tracers over the course of a large-scale, natural gradient tracer test conducted at the USGS Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Research site, near Falmouth, Massachusetts. The overall objectives of the experiment were ...

  11. Digital models of ground-water flow in the Cape Cod aquifer system, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, John H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    1981-01-01

    The Cape Cod aquifer system was simulated with three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow models. Five areas were modeled to provide tools which can be used to help predict the hydrologic impacts of regional water development and disposal schemes. Model boundaries were selected to represent the natural hydrologic boundaries of the aquifer. The boundary between fresh and saline ground water is treated as an interface of no dispersion, and the saline-water zone is treated as being non-flowing. Comparisons of calculated and observed head values, position of the freshwater and saline-water boundary, and ground-water-discharge rates at locations where data are available indicate that the simulated ground-water reservoirs generally agree with the field conditions and the models can be used for predictive studies. (USGS)

  12. Spondylitic changes in long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) stranded on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, between 1982 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Melinda M; Price, Janet M; Jones, Gwilym S; French, Thomas W; Early, Greg A; Moore, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    The primary bone pathology diagnoses recognized in cetacea are osteomyelitis and spondylosis deformans. In this study, we determined the prevalence, type, and severity of vertebral pathology in 52 pilot whales, a mass stranding species that stranded on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, between 1982 and 2000. Eleven whales (21%) had hyperostosis and ossification of tendon insertion points on and between vertebrae, chevron bones, and costovertebral joints, with multiple fused blocks of vertebrae. These lesions are typical of a group of interrelated diseases described in humans as spondyloarthropathies, specifically ankylosing spondylitis, which has not been fully described in cetacea. In severe cases, ankylosing spondylitis in humans can inhibit mobility. If the lesions described here negatively affect the overall health of the whale, these lesions may be a contributing factor in stranding of this highly sociable species. PMID:16456160

  13. Comparison of diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods to monitor volatile organic compounds in ground water, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, July 1999-December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time

  14. Infiltration and solute transport experiments in unsaturated sand and gravel, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Experimental design and overview of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D.L.; Kachanoski, R.G.; Celia, M.A.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Stevens, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    A series of infiltration and tracer experiments was conducted in unsaturated sand and gravel deposits on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. A network of 112 porous cup lysimeters and 168 time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes was deployed at depths from 0.25 to 2.0 m below ground surface along the centerline of a 2-m by 10-m test plot. The test plot was irrigated at rates ranging from 7.9 to 37.0 cm h-1 through a sprinkler system. Transient and steady state water content distributions were monitored with the TDR probes and spatial properties of water content distributions were determined from the TDR data. The spatial variance of the water content tended to increase as the average water content increased. In addition, estimated horizontal correlation length scales for water content were significantly smaller than those estimated by previous investigators for saturated hydraulic conductivity. Under steady state flow conditions at each irrigation rate, a sodium chloride solution was released as a tracer at ground surface and tracked with both the lysimeter and TDR networks. Transect-averaged breakthrough curves at each monitoring depth were constructed both from solute concentrations measured in the water samples and flux concentrations inferred from the TDR measurements. Transport properties, including apparent solute velocities, dispersion coefficients, and total mass balances, were determined independently from both sets of breakthrough curves. The dispersion coefficients tended to increase with depth, reaching a constant value with the lysimeter data and appearing to increase continually with the TDR data. The variations with depth of the solute transport parameters, along with observations of water and solute mass balance and spatial distributions of water content, provide evidence of significant three-dimensional flow during the irrigation experiments. The TDR methods are shown to efficiently provide dense spatial and temporal data sets for both flow and solute transport

  15. Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod to examine the utility of passive diffusion sampling for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in ground water. The diffusion samplers were constructed of 1-inch-diameter rigid, porous polyethylene tubing. The results of laboratory tests in which diffusion samplers were submerged in containers filled with ground water containing perchlorate, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) indicate that concentrations inside the diffusion samplers equilibrated with concentrations in the containers within the 19-day-long test period. Field tests of the diffusion samplers were conducted in 15 wells constructed of 2- or 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe with 10-foot-long slotted screens. Concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in the diffusion samplers placed in the wells for 42 to 52 days were compared to concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling from 53 days before to 109 days after retrieval of the diffusion samples. The results of the field tests indicate generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration levels.

  16. Bedrock topography of western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, based on bedrock altitudes from geologic borings and analysis of ambient seismic noise by the horizontal-to-vertical spectral-ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Gillian M.; Lane, Jr., John W.; Voytek, Emily B.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a topographic map of the bedrock surface beneath western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, that was prepared for use in groundwater-flow models of the Sagamore lens of the Cape Cod aquifer. The bedrock surface of western Cape Cod had been characterized previously through seismic refraction surveys and borings drilled to bedrock. The borings were mostly on and near the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The bedrock surface was first mapped by Oldale (1969), and mapping was updated in 2006 by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE, 2006). This report updates the bedrock-surface map with new data points collected by using a passive seismic technique based on the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) of ambient seismic noise (Lane and others, 2008) and from borings drilled to bedrock since the 2006 map was prepared. The HVSR method is based on a relationship between the resonance frequency of ambient seismic noise as measured at land surface and the thickness of the unconsolidated sediments that overlie consolidated bedrock. The HVSR method was shown by Lane and others (2008) to be an effective method for determining sediment thickness on Cape Cod owing to the distinct difference in the acoustic impedance between the sediments and the underlying bedrock. The HVSR data for 164 sites were combined with data from 559 borings to bedrock in the study area to create a spatially distributed dataset that was manually contoured to prepare a topographic map of the bedrock surface. The interpreted bedrock surface generally slopes downward to the southeast as was shown on the earlier maps by Oldale (1969) and AFCEE (2006). The surface also has complex small-scale topography characteristic of a glacially eroded surface. More information about the methods used to prepare the map is given in the pamphlet that accompanies this plate.

  17. Tracking Chemotactic Migration of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium in the Presence of Constructed Nutrient Gradients Within a Sandy Aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R. W.; Ford, R. M.; Metge, D. W.; Wang, M.; Toepfer, A. A.; McGowan, S. B.

    2008-05-01

    Due to our increasing dependence upon groundwater resources, there is a growing need to remediate shallow aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Often, trichloroethene (TCE) travels into zones of low permeability thereby making removal difficult by traditional pump-and-treat technologies. In addition, degradation of TCE by native microbial communities can result in buildup of highly toxic intermediates such as vinyl chloride. Bioaugmentation, involving addition of specialized bacterial consortia to an aquifer, can facilitate more complete degradation into harmless byproducts. Also, it is believed that chemotaxis, the ability of bacteria to swim towards higher concentrations of a chemical perceived as beneficial to survival, may expedite movement of introduced bacteria to where they are needed. However, there is no quantitative information about chemotaxis at the field scale and the evidence for bacterial chemotaxis during bioaugmentation has been largely anecdotal. In this study, the chemotactic migration of the bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri in a TCE-contaminated, sand- and-gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts was measured. P. stutzeri is known to denitrify as well as degrade a variety of aromatic and chlorinated solvents and is often advocated as a candidate for bioaugmentation. This bacterium was genetically engineered to be resistant to ampicillin and produce blue- fluorescing protein (BFP) in order to facilitate maintaining the bacteria in pure culture and later to track them in the environment. The study involved a natural-gradient injection and recovery test in which vertical gradients of an electron donor (acetate) and acceptor (nitrate) were created within the sandy aquifer sediments above an amendment of the genetically engineered P. stutzeri. The bacteria, nitrate, and acetate were allowed to be advected with the natural flow of groundwater past close-interval, multi-level samplers that were installed downgradient from the points of

  18. Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Thomas F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0 to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions. Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p

  19. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  20. Comparison of no-purge and pumped sampling methods for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related compounds in groundwater, Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2012-01-01

    Field tests were conducted near the Impact Area at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to determine the utility of no-purge groundwater sampling for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related explosive compounds and perchlorate in the sand and gravel aquifer. The no-purge methods included (1) a diffusion sampler constructed of rigid porous polyethylene, (2) a diffusion sampler constructed of regenerated-cellulose membrane, and (3) a tubular grab sampler (bailer) constructed of polyethylene film. In samples from 36 monitoring wells, concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4-), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the major contaminants of concern in the Impact Area, in the no-purge samples were compared to concentrations of these compounds in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling with dedicated bladder pumps. The monitoring wells are constructed of 2- and 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe and have approximately 5- to 10-foot-long slotted screens. The no-purge samplers were left in place for 13-64 days to ensure that ambient groundwater flow had flushed the well screen and concentrations in the screen represented water in the adjacent formation. The sampling methods were compared first in six monitoring wells. Concentrations of ClO4-, RDX, and HMX in water samples collected by the three no-purge sampling methods and low-flow pumped sampling were in close agreement for all six monitoring wells. There is no evidence of a systematic bias in the concentration differences among the methods on the basis of type of sampling device, type of contaminant, or order in which the no-purge samplers were tested. A subsequent examination of vertical variations in concentrations of ClO4- in the 10-foot-long screens of six wells by using rigid porous polyethylene diffusion samplers indicated that concentrations in a given well varied by less than 15 percent

  1. 77 FR 62257 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Herring River Restoration Project, Cape Cod National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Herring River Restoration Project in Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. The DEIS provides a systematic analysis of alternative approaches to restore the Herring River estuary to a more productive and natural condition after a century of diking and...

  2. Locations of bottom photographs collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_BOTTOMPHOTOS Esri Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  3. Locations and analysis of sediment samples collected offshore of Massachusetts within Northern Cape Cod Bay(CCB_SedSamples Esri Shapefile, and ASCII text format, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  4. Bathymetric depth contours at 5 meter intervals of interferometric sonar data collected offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_5MCNTR Esri Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  5. 75 FR 48990 - Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ..., Wellfleet, Massachusetts. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Commission was reestablished pursuant to Public Law 87-126 as amended by Public Law 105-280. The purpose of the Commission is to consult with the... Alternate Transportation funding Other construction projects Land Protection Cape Wide Bicycle...

  6. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Pseudo-colored Backscatter Intensity of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHPSEUDO_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes pseudo-colored backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northeastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a...

  7. 4-m Image of the Northern Half of the Pseudo-colored Backscatter Intensity of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTHPSEUDO_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes pseudo-colored backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northeastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a...

  8. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  9. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  10. CAPENORTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT: ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the northern half of USGS survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  11. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPESOUTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor...

  12. ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the northern half of USGS survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  13. 4-m Image of the Northern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPENORTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor...

  14. ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the southern half of USGS Survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  15. Implementing Project-Based Learning to Create "Authentic" Sources: The Egyptological Excavation and Imperial Scrapbook Projects at the Cape Cod Lighthouse Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garran, Daniella K.

    2008-01-01

    Chartered in 1994 and opened in 1996, the Cape Cod Lighthouse Charter School (CCLCS) was among the first charter schools in Massachusetts. CCLCS strives to foster "intellectual development, academic achievement, project based learning, interdisciplinary studies, community partnerships, environmental studies, global awareness, and an ethical…

  16. 5 meter ArcRaster hillshade of bathymetry acquired with a SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_FILL_HS Esri BINARY GRID, UTM Zone 19N).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  17. CCB_BATH_5m: 5 meter ArcRaster grid of bathymetry acquired using a SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (ESRI BINARY GRID, UTM 19N).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  18. 5 meter ArcRaster grid of bathymetry acquired using a SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_BATH_5m Esri BINARY GRID, UTM 19N).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  19. 5 meter ArcRaster grid (gaps filled) of bathymetry acquired using a SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_BATH_F Esri BINARY GRID, UTM Zone 19N).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  20. One meter acoustic backscatter mosaic acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_KLEIN_BS_1M.TIF GeoTIFF Image, UTM Zone 19N).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  1. JPEG formatted images of EdgeTech SB-512i, EdgeTech SB-424, and Knudsen 3200 chirp seismic-reflection profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  2. Survey lines along which acoustic backscatter data were acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar and a SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within the northern Cape Cod Bay survey area (CCB_BackscatterTracklines Esri Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  3. Survey tracklines along which bathymetric data were collected with a SEA, SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_BathTracklines EsriI Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  4. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel Ruthann A; Aschengrau Ann; Zota Ami R; Brody Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  5. caco_shore - Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Cod National Seashore in...

  6. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  7. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  8. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  9. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  10. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  11. Cape Cod Aquifer Management Project (CCAMP): demonstration of a geographic information system for ground water protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steppacher, L.

    1988-09-01

    This publication summarizes the application of GIS Technology to the project. Geographic Information systems (GIS) technology has the capability of overlaying various mapped data layers, determining distances from fixed points, automatic changing of map scales, and preparing maps from tabular point data to better understand the complex issues involved in decision making. GIS was used for a series of pilot analyses for Cape Cod. The work concentrated on the development of a digital data base and assessment at three different geographic levels of analysis: (1) the zone of contribution to nine public water-supply wells in a highly urbanized area; (2) a rural, seasonally populated, summer tourist town; and (3) the Cape Cod peninsula. The project was designed to raise issues and answer the types of ground water management questions being asked on Cape Cod, but also those faced by ground water managers in other areas of the country as well.

  12. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  13. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 100 meters along the Cape Cod National Seashore Resistivity Survey tracklines, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  14. Spatial analysis of lung, colorectal, and breast cancer on Cape Cod: An application of generalized additive models to case-control data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of geographic information from cancer and birth defect registries has increased public demands for investigation of perceived disease clusters. Many neighborhood-level cluster investigations are methodologically problematic, while maps made from registry data often ignore latency and many known risk factors. Population-based case-control and cohort studies provide a stronger foundation for spatial epidemiology because potential confounders and disease latency can be addressed. Methods We investigated the association between residence and colorectal, lung, and breast cancer on upper Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA using extensive data on covariates and residential history from two case-control studies for 1983–1993. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. The resulting continuous surface estimates disease rates relative to the whole study area. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. Results Maps of colorectal cancer were relatively flat. Assuming 15 years of latency, lung cancer was significantly elevated just northeast of the Massachusetts Military Reservation, although the result did not hold when we restricted to residences of longest duration. Earlier non-spatial epidemiology had found a weak association between lung cancer and proximity to gun and mortar positions on the reservation. Breast cancer hot spots tended to increase in magnitude as we increased latency and adjusted for covariates, indicating that confounders were partly hiding these areas. Significant breast cancer hot spots were located near known groundwater plumes and the Massachusetts Military Reservation. Discussion Spatial epidemiology of population-based case-control studies addresses many methodological criticisms of cluster studies and generates new exposure

  15. Breeding biology of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw) in acidic temporary ponds at Cape Cod, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between water chemistry and breeding success of spotted salamanders Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw) was examined in temporary woodland ponds on outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts in 1985 and 1986. Most pond waters were dilute (3median coductivity = 57 umhos cm-1 (1 umhos cm-1 = 0?1 mSm-1)), acidic (median pH = 4?82), and highly colored (median = 140 Pt-Co units). Most acidity was due to abundant organic acids. Salamander survival to hatching was over 80% at 8 of 12 ponds monitored. Complete mortality, preceded by gross abnormalities, was observed only among embryos in the most acidic spawning pond (pH 4?3-4?5) in both years. Embryo transfers between ponds and laboratory studies indicated that reduced survival was due to the interaction of low pH with high tannin-lignin concentration. The use of amphibian embryonic survival to indicate acid rain effects is complicated by multiple habitat parameters and should only be attempted in conjunction with long-term population monitoring.

  16. Observations of internal solitary wave reflection at a step-like submarine bank and strong oblique interaction at Race Point Channel, (Cape Cod).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jose C. B.; Grimshaw, Roger H. J.; Magalhaes, Jorge M.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study revealed that Race Point Channel (in Cape Cod, Massachusetts) is a hotspot of internal solitary wave generation. SAR images suggest that the waves are generated within the channel (which has a flat bottom) during the ebb phase of the tide (flowing offshore) and propagate upstream during the initial stages of their formation. Some of these waves propagate into Massachusetts Bay (further North) and interact with the well known Stellwagen Bank internal waves that are generated on the lee-side of the Bank. The southern flank of Stellwagen Bank has very sharp bathymetric gradients and can be considered as a vertical step. Here we discuss the results of analysis of 25 TerraSAR-X radar images (in very high spatial resolution, 3 meters) and a collection of ENVISAT/ERS tandem mission acquisitions (separated in time by approximately 30 minutes) that reveal details about internal wave reflection at the southern flank of Stellwagen Bank. The SAR data also show transmission of internal waves over the Bank and subsequent interaction with lee-waves generated at the eastern side of Stellwagen Bank. The radar backscatter profiles are compared with theory of the transformation of a weakly nonlinear interfacial solitary wave in a two-layer model over a step. The coefficients of wave reflection and transmission are calculated based on typical stratification of the region and assuming linear theory of long interfacial waves. In addition, collision of reflected waves from the Bank with internal waves generated at the Race Point channel (one tidal cycle after) has been occasionally observed. The radar backscatter profiles suggest that the total wave amplitude during the interaction is greater than that obtained by simply adding the individual solitary wave amplitudes, which is in agreement with the theory of obliquely interacting solitary waves at a near critical angle (150°). This may imply localized turbulent mixing as a result of internal solitary wave interaction at

  17. Environmental contaminants in tissues from an Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) recovered in Wellfleet, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On February 2, 2007, a family walking along a Cape Cod beach in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, came upon a large dead sturgeon in the sand. Since very little information...

  18. Tracer test with arsenic(V) in an iron-reducing environment at the USGS Cape Cod Site (Mass. USA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, R.; Isenbeck-Schröter, M.; Niedan, V.;

    2001-01-01

    conditions, a small scale con-tinuous tracer test was performed in the zone with iron reduction in a sandy aquifer at the USGS Cape Cod test site. During 4 weeks, a tracer solution containing suboxic water, arsenic (V) (6.7 μmol) and bromide (1.6 mmol) was injected. Downstream the breakthrough of bromide...

  19. One meter backscatter mosaic acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey with the 117- kHz SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_SWATH_BS_1M GeoTIFF IMAGE, UTM19 N).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  20. Shot point navigation at even 500 shot intervals for EdgeTech SB-512i, EdgeTech SB-424, and Knudsen 3200 chirp seismic-reflection data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_SeismicShot_500 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  1. Survey lines along which EdgeTech SB-512i, EdgeTech SB-424, and Knudsen 3200 chirp seismic-reflection data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_SeismicTrackline Esri Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  2. Petrology and U-Pb geochronology of buried Avalonian plutonic rocks on southeastern Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, G.W.; Mortensen, J.K.; Barreiro, B.; Phillips, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonic rocks have been intersected by two separate drill holes on souteastern Cape Cod. Hole CC2 is located about 7 km south of the Nauset anomaly, an east-northeast-trending magnetic lineament that was considered to separate the distinct plutonic zones of Avalon terrane. This drill hole intersected weakly foliated, fairly homogeneous biotite granite. Zircons from this granite give a U-Pb age of 584+9/-8 Ma. Hole CC1 is located about 12 km north of the Nauset anomaly. The drill core intersected foliated, sheared, biotite granodiorite and biotite-hornblende-clinopyroxene-quartz gabbro, metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The deformed and altered state of these rocks, as well as their geochemistry, suggest that their origin and possibly their ages are distinct from the granite in hole CC2. No datable zircons were obtained from rocks in CC1. -from Authors

  3. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 500 meters along the Cape Cod National Seashore Resistivity Survey Tracklines, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  4. Cape Cod Bay, MA (N180) Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model(30 meter resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic SurveySoundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry for Cape Cod Bay was derived from fifteen surveys containing139,022 soundings. One entire overlapping, older, less accurate surveywas omitted, and the...

  5. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Cod National Seashore to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2003-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within the Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO). The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. CACO consists of high glacial cliffs, beaches, sand spits, and salt marsh wetlands. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the lowest regional coastal slopes, geomorphologic types that are susceptible to inundation, and the highest rates of shoreline change. Most of CACO's infrastructure lies on high elevation uplands away from the shore; most high use areas are accessible by foot only. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  6. Revisiting the cape cod bacteria injection experiment using a stochastic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R.M.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Bromide and resting-cell bacteria tracer tests conducted in a sandy aquifer at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod site in 1987 were reinterpreted using a three-dimensional stochastic approach. Bacteria transport was coupled to colloid filtration theory through functional dependence of local-scale colloid transport parameters upon hydraulic conductivity and seepage velocity in a stochastic advection - dispersion/attachment - detachment model. Geostatistical information on the hydraulic conductivity (K) field that was unavailable at the time of the original test was utilized as input. Using geostatistical parameters, a groundwater flow and particle-tracking model of conservative solute transport was calibrated to the bromide-tracer breakthrough data. An optimization routine was employed over 100 realizations to adjust the mean and variance ofthe natural-logarithm of hydraulic conductivity (InK) field to achieve best fit of a simulated, average bromide breakthrough curve. A stochastic particle-tracking model for the bacteria was run without adjustments to the local-scale colloid transport parameters. Good predictions of mean bacteria breakthrough were achieved using several approaches for modeling components of the system. Simulations incorporating the recent Tufenkji and Elimelech (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 529-536) correlation equation for estimating single collector efficiency were compared to those using the older Rajagopalan and Tien (AIChE J. 1976, 22, 523-533) model. Both appeared to work equally well at predicting mean bacteria breakthrough using a constant mean bacteria diameter for this set of field conditions. Simulations using a distribution of bacterial cell diameters available from original field notes yielded a slight improvement in the model and data agreement compared to simulations using an average bacterial diameter. The stochastic approach based on estimates of local-scale parameters for the bacteria-transport process reasonably captured

  7. Revisiting the Cape Cod Bacteria Injection Experiment Using a Stochastic Modeling Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R M; Welty, C; Harvey, R W

    2006-11-22

    Bromide and resting-cell bacteria tracer tests carried out in a sand and gravel aquifer at the USGS Cape Cod site in 1987 were reinterpreted using a three-dimensional stochastic approach and Lagrangian particle tracking numerical methods. Bacteria transport was strongly coupled to colloid filtration through functional dependence of local-scale colloid transport parameters on hydraulic conductivity and seepage velocity in a stochastic advection-dispersion/attachment-detachment model. Information on geostatistical characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field from a nearby plot was utilized as input that was unavailable when the original analysis was carried out. A finite difference model for groundwater flow and a particle-tracking model of conservative solute transport was calibrated to the bromide-tracer breakthrough data using the aforementioned geostatistical parameters. An optimization routine was utilized to adjust the mean and variance of the lnK field over 100 realizations such that a best fit of a simulated, average bromide breakthrough curve is achieved. Once the optimal bromide fit was accomplished (based on adjusting the lnK statistical parameters in unconditional simulations), a stochastic particle-tracking model for the bacteria was run without adjustments to the local-scale colloid transport parameters. Good predictions of the mean bacteria breakthrough data were achieved using several approaches for modeling components of the system. Simulations incorporating the recent Tufenkji and Elimelech [1] equation for estimating single collector efficiency were compared to those using the Rajagopalan and Tien [2] model. Both appeared to work equally well at predicting mean bacteria breakthrough using a constant mean bacteria diameter for this set of field conditions, with the Rajagopalan and Tien model yielding approximately a 30% lower peak concentration and less tailing than the Tufenkji and Elimelech formulation. Simulations using a distribution

  8. Spatial-temporal evolution of aeolian blowout dunes at Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhar, Kimia C.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Gares, Paul A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores historical evolution of blowouts at Cape Cod National Seashore (CCNS), USA - a site that hosts one of the world's highest densities of active and stabilized blowouts. The Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Moving Polygons (STAMP) method is applied to a multi-decadal dataset of aerial photography and LiDAR to extract patterns of two-dimensional movement and morphometric changes in erosional deflation basins and depositional lobes. Blowout development in CCNS is characterized by several geometric (overlap) and movement (proximity) responses, including: i) generation and disappearance, ii) extension and contraction, iii) union or division, iv) clustering and v) divergence by stabilization. Other possible movement events include migration, amalgamation and proximal stabilization, but they were not observed in this study. Generation events were more frequent than disappearance events; the former were highest between 1985 and 1994, while the latter were highest between 2000 and 2005. High rates of areal change in erosional basins occurred between 1998 and 2000 (+ 3932 m2 a-1), the lowest rate (+ 333 m2 a-1) between 2005 and 2009, and the maximum rate (+ 4589 m2 a-1) between 2009 and 2011. Union events occurred mostly in recent years (2000-2012), while only one division was observed earlier (1985-1994). Net areal changes of lobes showed gradual growth from a period of contraction (- 1119 m2 a-1) between 1998 and 2000 to rapid extension (+ 2030 m2 a-1) by 2010, which is roughly concurrent with rapid growth of erosional basins between 2005 and 2009. Blowouts extended radially in this multi-modal wind regime and, despite odd shapes initially, they became simpler in form (more circular) and larger over time. Net extension of erosional basins was toward ESE (109°) while depositional lobes extended SSE (147°). Lobes were aligned with the strongest (winter) sand drift vector although their magnitude of areal extension was only 33% that of the basins. These

  9. H08503: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1959-09-21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. CapeCod_shorelines.shp - Shorelines of the Cape Cod coastal region from Provincetown to the southern end of Monomoy Island, Massachusetts, used in shoreline change analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  11. CapeCod_baseline.shp - Offshore baseline for Cape Cod coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates from Provincetown to the southern end of Monomoy Island, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  12. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3 and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0. Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6 and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed

  13. Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozonoff David

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.

  14. Point Shapefile of Core Locations Collected August, 2006 in the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  15. Point Shapefile of Piezometer Locations Collected August, 2005 in the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  16. JPEG Images of Cores Collected in August 2006 in the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  17. Point Shapefile of Electrical Conductance Geoprobe Locations Collected in August, 2005 in the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  18. Using ecological risk assessment to identify the major anthropogenic stressor in the Waquoit Bay Watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serveiss, Victor B; Bowen, Jennifer L; Dow, David; Valiela, Ivan

    2004-05-01

    The Waquoit Bay Watershed ecological risk assessment was performed by an interdisciplinary and interagency workgroup. This paper focuses on the steps taken to formulate the analysis plan for this watershed assessment. The workgroup initially conducted a series of meetings with the general public and local and state managers to determine environmental management objectives for the watershed. The workgroup then decided that more information was needed on the impacts of six stressors: nutrient enrichment, physical alteration of habitat, altered freshwater flow, toxic chemicals, pathogens, and fisheries harvesting. Assessment endpoints were selected to establish the link between environmental management objectives, impacts of stressors, and scientifically measurable endpoints. The following assessment end-points were selected: estuarine eelgrass cover, scallop abundance, finfish diversity and abundance, wetland bird distribution and abundance, piping plover distribution and abundance, tissue contaminant levels, and brook trout distribution and abundance in streams. A conceptual model was developed to show the pathways between human activities, stressors, and ecological effects. The workgroup analyzed comparative risks, by first ranking stressors in terms of their potential risk to biotic resources in the watershed. Then stressors were evaluated by considering the components of stressors (e.g., the stressor chemical pollution included both heavy metals and chlorinated solvents components) in terms of intensity and extensiveness. The workgroup identified nutrient enrichment as the major stressor. Nutrient enrichment comprised both phosphorus enrichment in freshwater ponds and nitrogen enrichment within estuaries. Because phosphorus impacts were being analyzed and mitigated by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, this assessment focused on nitrogen. The process followed to identify the predominant stressor and focus the analyses on nitrogen impacts on eelgrass and scallops will serve as an example of how to increase the use of the findings of a watershed assessment in decision making. PMID:15503390

  19. Analysis of steady-state salt-water upconing with application at Truro well field, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T.E.; Frimpter, M.H.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Goodman, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Sharp interface methods have been used successfully to describe the physics of upconing. A finite-element model is developed to simulate a sharp interface for determination of the steady-state position of the interface and maximum permissible well discharges. The model developed is compared to previous published electric-analog model results of Bennett and others (1968). -from Authors

  20. Eutrophication of Cape Cod estuaries: Effect of decadal changes in global-driven atmospheric and local-scale wastewater nutrient loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiela, Ivan; Owens, Caroline; Elmstrom, Elizabeth; Lloret, Javier

    2016-09-15

    Nitrogen (N) supply by atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizers controls estuarine eutrophication. In New England, atmospheric N loads recently decreased by 50% and land-derived contributions rose about 80%, owing to national-scale emission controls and local urban development. The decrease in atmospheric deposition was large enough to balance increases in land-derived N loads, so total N loads to Waquoit Bay estuaries in Cape Cod did not change significantly between 1990 and 2014. Unchanged N regimes were corroborated by finding no differences in estuarine nutrient concentrations and macrophyte biomass between pre-2005 and in 2015. Coastal zones, subject to reasonably rapid changes in global and local driver variables, will require that assessment and management of eutrophication include adaptive strategies that capture effects of changing baselines. Management initiatives will be constrained by spatial scale of driver variables: local efforts may address wastewater and fertilizer N sources, but atmospheric sources require national or international attention. PMID:27417571

  1. Locations of bottom photographs collected in the Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts Survey Area (BOTTOMPHOTOS shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  2. Locations of sediment samples collected in the Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (SEDIMENTSAMPLES - Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  3. General physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf between Cape Ann and Salisbury Beach Massachusetts (PHYSIOGRAPHICZONES, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  4. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  5. CapeCod_ST.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.1 Transects with Short-Term Rate Calculations for the Cape Cod region from Provincetown to the southern end of Monomoy Island, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  6. CapeCod_LT.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.1 Transects with Long-Term Rate Calculations for the Cape Cod region from Provincetown to the southern end of Monomoy Island, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  7. Long-Term Distribution and Transport of Nitrate and Ammonium Within a Groundwater Sewage Plume, Cape Cod, MA, After Removal of the Contaminant Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repert, D. A.; Smith, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    Disposal of treated sewage for 60 yrs. onto infiltration beds at a site on Cape Cod, MA produced a groundwater contaminant plume >6 km long. The plume was characterized by an anoxic ammonium-containing core, surrounded by an oxic-suboxic outer zone within the sand and gravel aquifer. In Dec. 1995 the sewage treatment facility ceased operation. A long-term study to characterize the distribution of sewage plume constituents was conducted along a 500 m-long transect (source to 3 yrs. groundwater travel distance). Prior to sewage-disposal cessation, total inorganic N within 30 m vertical profiles decreased from 6.6 moles N/m2 (92% NO3-, 8% NH4+) at the point of discharge to 3.3 moles N/m2 (77% NO3-, 23% NH4+) at the furthest point along the transect. Post-cessation nitrate concentrations increased within the first 6 mo. and then gradually decreased. The nitrate decrease was accompanied by an initial nitrite increase, an indication that denitrification was reducing nitrate after the oxygenated sewage discharge was discontinued. There was also an apparent increase in ammonium concentration in the first 6 mo. after cessation. Previous laboratory experiments on pre-cessation cores showed that nitrification was important in converting sorbed ammonium to nitrate under the sewage beds. However, with the removal of the oxygenated sewage source, nitrification ceased, allowing ammonium to initially increase. This increase was correlated with dissolved organic carbon concentrations within the groundwater. Ammonium concentrations decreased dramatically after a year, but subsequently increased in the core of the plume to pre-cessation levels through mineralization of organic N. Recent laboratory core experiments and extractions show that there is a large pool of sorbed organic carbon, although dissolved organic carbon concentrations have been consistently less than 3 mg/L for 6 yrs. Seven yrs. after cessation of the sewage disposal, there is still a significant amount (0.6 moles N

  8. 75 FR 76453 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    .... National Grid, Cape Wind, and the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities; Notice of Complaint...) and Barbara Durkin (Complainants) filed a complaint against National Grid, Cape Wind, and...

  9. Comma-delimited Text File of the Geoprobe Results Collected August, 2005 from the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  10. Comma-delimited Text File of Piezometer Groundwater Data Collected August, 2005 in the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  11. Comma-delimited Text File of the Porewater Salinity Values of Cores Collected August, 2006 in the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  12. Comma-delimited Text File of the Descriptive Logs of Cores Collected August, 2006 in the Nauset Marsh Area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  13. Physiographic Zones of the Sea Floor from Nahant to Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts (NAH_CCB_Pzones polygon shapefile, Geographic WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  14. Microbial characterization of nitrification in a shallow, nitrogen-contaminated aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts and detection of a novel cluster associated with nitrifying Betaproteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.N.; Smith, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater nitrification is a poorly characterized process affecting the speciation and transport of nitrogen. Cores from two sites in a plume of contamination were examined using culture-based and molecular techniques targeting nitrification processes. The first site, located beneath a sewage effluent infiltration bed, received treated effluent containing O2 (> 300????M) and NH4+ (51-800????M). The second site was 2.5??km down-gradient near the leading edge of the ammonium zone within the contaminant plume and featured vertical gradients of O2, NH4+, and NO3- (0-300, 0-500, and 100-200????M with depth, respectively). Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers enumerated by the culture-based MPN method were low in abundance at both sites (1.8 to 350??g- 1 and 33 to 35,000??g- 1, respectively). Potential nitrifying activity measured in core material in the laboratory was also very low, requiring several weeks for products to accumulate. Molecular analysis of aquifer DNA (nested PCR followed by cloning and 16S rDNA sequencing) detected primarily sequences associated with the Nitrosospira genus throughout the cores at the down-gradient site and a smaller proportion from the Nitrosomonas genus in the deeper anoxic, NH4+ zone at the down-gradient site. Only a single Nitrosospira sequence was detected beneath the infiltration bed. Furthermore, the majority of Nitrosospira-associated sequences represent an unrecognized cluster. We conclude that an uncharacterized group associated with Nitrosospira dominate at the geochemically stable, down-gradient site, but found little evidence for Betaproteobacteria nitrifiers beneath the infiltration beds where geochemical conditions were more variable.

  15. Sediment Texture Units of the Sea Floor from Nahant to Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts (NAH_CCB_sedcover polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  16. BATH_IS5m - 5 meter ArcRaster grid of swath bathymetry of inshore area of Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  17. SwathPlus and RESON Bathymetric Tracklines collected in the Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts Survey Area (BATHTRACKLINES, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  18. Survey lines along which SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey within the Northern Cape Cod Bay survey area (CCB_SeabossTrackline Esri shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  19. High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecek, Aaron M.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a high-resolution geophysical survey within Red Brook Harbor, Massachusetts, from September 28 through November 17, 2009. Red Brook Harbor is located on the eastern edge of Buzzards Bay, south of the Cape Cod Canal. The survey area was approximately 7 square kilometers, with depths ranging from 0 to approximately 10 meters. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey Research Vessel Rafael. The research vessel was equipped with a 234-kilohertz interferometric sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data, a dual frequency (3.5- and 200-kilohertz) compression high-intensity radar pulse seismic reflection profiler to collect subbottom data, a sound velocity profiler to acquire speed of sound within the water column, and a sea floor sampling device to collect sediment samples, video, and photographs. The survey was part of an ongoing cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to map the geology of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. In addition to inclusion within the cooperative geologic mapping effort, these data will be used to assess the shallow-water mapping capability of the geophysical systems deployed for this project, with an emphasis on identifying resolution benchmarks for the interferometric sonar system.

  20. 5 meter ArcRaster grid of swath bathymetry of inshore area of Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (BATH_IS5m, UTM Zone 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  1. 5 meter ArcRaster grid of multibeam bathymetry of the offshore area of Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts Survey Area (BATH_OS5m, UTM Zone 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  2. 5 meter multibeam-sonar backscatter GeoTIFF mosaic of the offshore portion of the Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (RESON_BS5M.tif, UTM Zone 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  3. 1 meter Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar backscatter GeoTIFF mosaic of the nearshore portion of the Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (KLEIN_BS1M.tif, UTM Zone 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  4. KLEIN_BS1M.tif - 1 meter Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar backscatter GeoTIFF mosaic of the nearshore portion of the Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  5. 5 meter ArcRaster Bathymetric Hillshade of both the inshore and offshore portions of the Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts Survey Area (CABATH5MHS, UTM Zone 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  6. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  7. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  8. Hillshaded relief image derived from elevations of the Holocene transgressive unconformity beneath the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and Northern Cape Cod Bay (Utelevhs GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  9. Elevation of the late-Wisconsinan regressive unconformity beneath the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and Northern Cape Cod Bay (urelev Esri binary grid; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  10. Elevation of the Holocene transgressive unconformity beneath the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and Northern Cape Cod Bay (utelev Esri binary grid; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  11. Interpretation of sea-floor geologic units on the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and Northern Cape Cod Bay (Nahant_CCB_surfgeol polygon shapefile; Geographic WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  12. Isochron of Holocene marine (Qmn and Qmd) sediment thickness on the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and Northern Cape Cod Bay (qmiso Esri binary grid; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  13. Isochron of Holocene fluvial and estuarine (Qfe) sediment thickness beneath the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and Northern Cape Cod Bay (qfeiso Esri binary grid; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  14. Hillshaded relief image derived from elevations of the late-Wisconsinan regressive unconformity beneath the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Nahant and Northern Cape Cod Bay (Urelevhs GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  15. 76 FR 40725 - Approval of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Permit Issued to Cape Wind Associates, LLC (EPA Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... offshore renewable wind energy project in federal waters off the coast of Massachusetts. DATES: Effective... AGENCY Approval of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Permit Issued to Cape Wind Associates, LLC (EPA Permit... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) air permit decision regarding Cape Wind Associates, LLC (Cape Wind)....

  16. Investigation of the Effects of COD/TP Ratio on the Performance of a Biological Nutrient Removal System

    OpenAIRE

    Punrattanasin, Warangkana

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory-scale University of Cape Town (UCT) process was designed to investigate the effects of changing COD/TP ratios on the performance of biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. Specific objectives of the research were to investigate the effects of COD/TP ratio on the rates of phosphorus removal, COD removal, nitrogen removal, PHB utilization and oxygen uptake. The system was fed with municipal wastewater and operated at 20° C. The influent COD concentration was held approximat...

  17. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    is to investigate the variation in lipid content, EFA and antioxidants of female Baltic cod gonads and livers during the reproductive cycle (Paper II) and to examine whether there is a deficiency in lipid energy and dietary EFA that could explain the delayed spawning time observed in the Baltic cod (Paper III...... may impact lipid content and FAC in cod. High proportions of ARA, EPA and the antioxidant, astaxanthin, in S. Entomon, compared to 9 clupeids, render it a valuable constituent in the diet of Baltic cod. However, the abundance of S. Entomon has declined in recent decades in the Baltic. FAC of ovary...... time. However the spawning period is not influenced by different ARA levels and EPA/ARA ratios in farmed cod (Paper IV). Uptake of DHA, EPA and ARA into cod eggs from broodstock diet is highly efficient (Paper IV). Diet with low EPA/ARA ratio has significantly higher realized fecundity and eggs from...

  18. A logistic regression equation for estimating the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2002-01-01

    indicate that the probability of a stream flowing perennially at a specific site in Massachusetts can be estimated as a function of (1) drainage area (cube root), (2) drainage density, (3) areal percentage of stratified-drift deposits (square root), (4) mean basin slope, and (5) location in the South Coastal Basin or the remainder of the State. Although the equation developed provides an objective means for estimating the probability of a stream flowing perennially at a specific site, the reliability of the equation is constrained by the data used to develop the equation. The equation may not be reliable for (1) drainage areas less than 0.14 square mile in the State or less than 0.02 square mile in the South Coastal Basin, (2) streams with losing reaches, or (3) streams draining the southern part of the South Coastal Basin and the eastern part of the Buzzards Bay Basin and the entire area of Cape Cod and the Islands Basins.

  19. Passive Surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), Their Biting Activity, and Associated Pathogens in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Mather, Thomas N; Hollingsworth, Craig S; Rich, Stephen M

    2016-08-01

    A passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the University of Massachusetts for PCR testing. The vast majority of these ticks were Ixodes scapularis from Massachusetts (N = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. Two TaqMan duplex qPCR assays were developed to test I. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. I. scapularis submissions were concentrated from Cape Cod, the eastern half of the state outside of the Boston metropolitan area, parts of Franklin and Hampshire counties along the Quabbin Reservoir watershed, and southwestern Berkshire county. Differences in seasonal activity pattern were observed for different developmental stages of I. scapularis. The largest proportion of tick bite victims were age 9 years and under. Nymphal ticks were found more often on lower extremities of their hosts, while more adult ticks were found on the head. Overall infection rate of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in human-biting ticks was 29.6%, 4.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were widely distributed, but A. phagocytophilum- and B. microti-infected I. scapularis were found mainly in the eastern half of the state. We found that 1.8%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of ticks were coinfected by B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and A. phagocytophilum and B. microti, respectively, and 0.3% of ticks had triple coinfection. PMID:27248292

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Active Renewable Energy Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Active renewable energy leasing areas on the Atlantic OCS - currently Cape Wind offshore Cape Cod Massachusetts, Rhode Island / Massachusetts (RIMA), Delaware,...

  1. Site characterization using 3H/3He ground-water ages, Cape Code, MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory drilling to locate new water-supply wells on Cape Cod, Massachusetts encountered fuel-related organic contaminants in a shallow unconfined aquifer. However, the plume could not be traced back to the water table and estimates of ground-water velocities were not consistent with plausible contaminant releases, and thus the source of contamination was not located. In conjunction with an expanded hydrogeologic investigation, tritium and helium isotope analyses were performed to delineate ground-water ages and flow rates. Vertical profiles of ground-water age were used to determine recharge rates that range from 70 to 115 cm/yr. The age of water near the leading edge of the contaminant plume along with estimates of dispersion were used to estimate when the contaminant release occurred (1975 ± 3 years). Recharge estimates, the geometry of the aquifer, and contaminant data were used in a simple mass balance model to determine both the location of the contaminant source and the horizontal ground-water velocity (ranging from 20 ± 12 m/y to 90 ± 20 m/y across the site). Concurrent site investigations revealed fuel floating on the water within the area (± 250 m) determined by the model. The configuration of the water table and recharge estimates were used to estimate a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 130 ± 30 m/d. The mean hydraulic conductivity from a subsequent 72 hr, 12 well pumping test was 100 m/d

  2. Summary of oceanographic and water–quality measurements in West Falmouth Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Thomas, Jennifer A.; Borden, Jonathan; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Twomey, Erin R.; Martini, Marinna A.

    2011-01-01

    This data report presents oceanographic and water-quality observations made at six locations in West Falmouth Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, from August 2009 to September 2010. Both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor are estuarine embayments; the input of freshwater on the eastern margin of Buzzards Bay adjacent to Cape Cod and West Falmouth Harbor is largely due to groundwater. In West Falmouth Harbor, the groundwater that seeps into the harbor is characterized by relatively high levels of nitrate. This high nitrate load has modified the ecology of the harbor (Howes and others, 2006) and may be a significant source of nitrate to Buzzards Bay during seasons with low biological nitrate uptake. The U.S. Geological Survey undertook these measurements to improve understanding of circulation, residence time, and water quality in the harbor and bay. We set up and monitored multiple sites in both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor, measuring depth, water velocity,salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, and nitrate concentration. In this report we present the processed time-series data at these locations and provide access to the data and metadata. The results will be used to understand circulation mechanisms and verify numerical models of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry.

  3. Cheating about the cod

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Rögnvaldur

    2006-01-01

    The Northeast Arctic cod is managed by a total quota shared evenly between Norway and Russia. It appears that Russia has been overfishing its quota by substantial amounts for a number of years, due to insufficient monitoring of fishing vessels. This paper considers what would be the best reply by Norway to given levels of Russian overfishing. It is found that in most cases the best Norwegian reply would be also to overfish its quota. An aggregate biomass model with stochastic growth and recru...

  4. Panorama from 'Cape Verde'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006). The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers. The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast. This approximately true-color view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  5. Equations for estimating bankfull channel geometry and discharge for streams in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Waite, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    variable in estimating these bankfull characteristics. The use of drainage area as an explanatory variable is also the most commonly published method for estimating these bankfull characteristics. Regional curves (graphic plots) of bankfull channel geometry and discharge by drainage area are presented. The regional curves are based on the simple regression equations and can be used to estimate bankfull characteristics from drainage area. Multiple regression analysis, which includes basin characteristics in addition to drainage area, also was used to develop equations. Variability in bankfull width, mean depth, cross-sectional area, and discharge was more fully explained by the multiple regression equations that include mean-basin slope and drainage area than was explained by equations based on drainage area alone. The Massachusetts regional curves and equations developed in this study are similar, in terms of values of slopes and intercepts, to those developed for other parts of the northeastern United States. Limitations associated with site selection and development of the equations resulted in some constraints for the application of equations and regional curves presented in this report. The curves and equations are applicable to stream sites that have (1) less than about 25 percent of their drainage basin area occupied by urban land use (commercial, industrial, transportation, and high-density residential), (2) little to no streamflow regulation, especially from flood-control structures, (3) drainage basin areas greater than 0.60 mi2 and less than 329 mi2, and (4) a mean basin slope greater than 2.2 percent and less than 23.9 percent. The equations may not be applicable where streams flow through extensive wetlands. The equations also may not apply in areas of Cape Cod and the Islands and the area of southeastern Massachusetts close to Cape Cod with extensive areas of coarse-grained glacial deposits where none of the study sites are located. Regardless of the setting

  6. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  7. MASSACHUSETTS TOWNS WITH COASTLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The political boundary datalayer is a 1:25,000 scale datalayer containing the boundaries of the 351 communities in Massachusetts. The seaward boundary of coastal communities has been defined at mean high water in this datalayer. The datalayer is named TOWNS, and it is stored as ...

  8. Vivienda unifamiliar, Andover (Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breuer, Marcel

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta casa de campo, situada en Andover —Massachusetts, U. S. A.—, contiene todas las características distintivas de la arquitectura de Breuer; es decir: nitidez, organigrama perfecto, utilización sabia de los materiales, adaptación al paisaje, simplicidad de líneas y estudiada modulación que proporciona los volúmenes y la distribución en planta.

  9. How cod shapes its world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Leeuwen; A.M. de Roos; L. Persson

    2008-01-01

    Cod stocks in the North West Atlantic and the Baltic Sea have shown similar dynamics in recent decades with a rapid decline in abundance and a lack of stock recovery following a period of large biomass. We explore whether the lack of recovery can be ascribed to an emergent Allee effect, which is a m

  10. Cape Verde Frontal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Walter; Klein, Birgit; Schröder, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The term Cape Verde Frontal Zone is introduced to characterize the southeastern corner of the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean far west of the upwelling area off the Mauretanean shelf. Two water mass fronts, one overlying the other, are identified with a quasi-synoptic set of CTD-OZ and nutrient data from November 1986. In the warm water sphere we encounter North and South Atlantic Central Water (NACWISACW) superimposed on extensions of Mediterranean outflow and Antarc...

  11. Tracks: EPHT Massachusetts Case Study

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-07-20

    This podcast highlights the Massachusetts Environmental Public Health Tracking Network and features commentary from Massachusetts Department of Public Health Associate Health Commissioner Suzanne Condon.  Created: 7/20/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/20/2009.

  12. A revised logistic regression equation and an automated procedure for mapping the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Steeves, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    . Stream sites included in the database had drainage areas that ranged from 0.04 to 10.96 square miles. Of the 66 stream sites with drainage areas greater than 2.00 square miles, 2 sites were intermittent and 64 sites were perennial. Thus, stream sites with drainage areas greater than 2.00 square miles were assumed to flow perennially, and the database used to develop the logistic regression equation included only those stream sites with drainage areas less than 2.00 square miles. The database for the equation included 285 stream sites that had drainage areas less than 2.00 square miles, of which 83 sites were intermittent and 202 sites were perennial. Results of the logistic regression analysis indicate that the probability of a stream flowing perennially at a specific site in Massachusetts can be estimated as a function of four explanatory variables: (1) drainage area (natural logarithm), (2) areal percentage of sand and gravel deposits, (3) areal percentage of forest land, and (4) region of the state (eastern region or western region). Although the equation provides an objective means of determining the probability of a stream flowing perennially at a specific site, the reliability of the equation is constrained by the data used in its development. The equation is not recommended for (1) losing stream reaches or (2) streams whose ground-water contributing areas do not coincide with their surface-water drainage areas, such as many streams draining the Southeast Coastal Region-the southern part of the South Coastal Basin, the eastern part of the Buzzards Bay Basin, and the entire area of the Cape Cod and the Islands Basins. If the equation were used on a regulated stream site, the estimated intermittent or perennial status would reflect the natural flow conditions for that site. An automated mapping procedure was developed to determine the intermittent or perennial status of stream sites along reaches throughout a basin. The procedure delineates the drainage area

  13. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Massachusetts Supplemental - Ciampa vs. Schweiker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Result of a Court Case. To identify to Massachusetts all individuals who are ineligible for SSI benefits during the past calendar year, potentially as a result of...

  15. Massachusetts Recreational Fishing Demand Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...

  16. Contaminant concentrations in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It appears that PCB levels in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink are high enough to adversely affect reproduction. Although levels of contaminants in Massachusetts...

  17. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of cod products available to consumers were analyzed, and different ways to analyze sensory results were viewed. Ten cod samples of different origin (wild and farmed cod), storage time (short and extended) and storage method (stored fresh, frozen or packed in modified...... atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between the...... products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...

  18. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  19. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    OpenAIRE

    Bisset, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun') most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The batter...

  20. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E E; Hansen, M M; Schmidt, C; Meldrup, D; Grønkjaer, P

    2001-09-20

    Most of the world's cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries are now tightly regulated or closed altogether. Being able to link individual fish to their population of origin would assist enormously in policing regulations and in identifying poachers. Here we show that microsatellite genetic markers can be used to assign individual cod from three different populations in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean to their population of origin. PMID:11565021

  1. 33 CFR 207.20 - Cape Cod Canal, Mass.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are defined as those items listed in 33 CFR 126.10 when carried in bulk (i.e., quantities exceeding 110 U.S. gallons in one tank) plus Class A explosives (commercial or military) as listed in 49 CFR 173.53 (commercial) and 46 CFR 146.29-100 (military), liquified natural gas and liquified petroleum...

  2. H11695: NOS Hydrographic Survey , North East Approaches to Cape Cod Canal, 2007-11-06

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. 76 FR 15888 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... areas would be consolidated and clearly delineated and educational outreach concerning hunting would be... and other parts of New England in the past, but populations have now been restored to the point where... available at various locations within CACO, and will be integrated into educational outreach...

  4. Gull contributions of phosphorus and nitrogen to a Cape Cod kettle pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J.W.; Soukup, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrient excretion rates and the annual contribution of P from the feces of the gulls Larus argentatus and L. marinus (and of N from L. argentatus) to the nutrient budget of Gull Pond (Wellfleet), a soft water seepage lake, have been estimated. Intensive year-round gull counts by species were combined with determinations of defecation rate and the nutrient content of feces to quantitatively assess the P loading rates associated with regular gull use of this coastal pond on a seasonal and annual basis. Total P loading from gulls was estimated to be 52 kg yr?1, with 17 kg from L. argentatus and 35 kg from L. marinus, resulting from about 5.0 ? 106 h yr?1 and 1.7 ? 106 h yr?1 of pond use. This compares with P loading estimates of 67 kg yr?1 from upgradient septic systems, 2 kg yr?1 from precipitation and 3 kg yr?1 from unpolluted ground water. Fifty-six percent of annual gull P loading was associated with migratory activity in late fall. Estimated annual N loading by L. argentatus was 14 kg TKN, 206 g NO3-N, and 1.85 g g NH3-N.

  5. 77 FR 9852 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... to allow for a spring season hunt for Eastern Wild Turkey. The Final Rule implements the Record of.... Public Law 87-126, Sec. 7 (Aug. 7, 1961). The Seashore comprises 43,608 acres of shoreline; salt marshes... applicable local, State and Federal law. The Secretary shall consult with officials of the Commonwealth...

  6. Project MA1101; GREEN HARBOR, PLYMOUTH, PROVENCETOWN, CHATHAM, HYANNIS, WOODS HOLE; PORTS OF CAPE COD; MA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improvethe coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmentaland private...

  7. 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  8. Characterization of trypsin forms from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Guðrún Birna Jakobsdóttir 1987

    2012-01-01

    Trypsins from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are highly active cold-adapted proteases. The purpose of this project was to characterize a benzamidine purified trypsin isolate from Atlantic cod with special emphasis on trypsin Y. Furthermore, the purpose was to compare the kinetic parameters (kcat, KM and kcat/KM) of cod trypsin Y and cod trypsin I towards various chromogenic substrates. The aim was also to compare the ability of cod trypsin and bovine trypsin to degrade native prot...

  9. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  10. 75 FR 61220 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor... Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II, the facility), located in Cambridge, Middlesex... MITR-II is a tank-type, light-water-cooled and heavy-water- moderated research reactor that will...

  11. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  12. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Bay anchovy

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The bay anchovy occurs along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Yucatan, Mexico (Hildebrand 1963), except for the Florida Keys where it is apparently absent (Daly 1970). (PDF contains 22 pages)

  13. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun' most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The battery was built because of fears of war with Russia and had been armed with two 9- inch Rifled Muzzle Loading guns by 1891. Lion Battery was remodelled in 1911.

  14. Cape Verde Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Cape Verde is a small country with a population of about 472,000 people spread over nine islands in a ten-island archipelago. It is more developed that most other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita is US$5,715 in purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted terms in 2004. The economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounted for about ...

  15. A Cape for Staying Connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    Some think a good superintendent these days shares a lot in common with a superhero. Larry Hill is one superintendent who really does don a cape. It is a flowing black one, complemented by a sparkly white bow tie and red top hat. And better yet, he wears it on his job as the top administrator of the North Iowa Community Schools in Buffalo Center,…

  16. The social and institutional aspects of urban agriculture in the Cape Flats, Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report is concerned with the status of urban agriculture in the Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of the Western Cape, South Africa. It focuses specifically on the nature of urban agriculture in the Cape Flats area and explores the conditions that influence the extent of urban agriculture in low-income township areas situated on the Cape Flats. A primary focus of this research is the socio- political and institutional context that affects the practice of urban and peri-urban farming, specific...

  17. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Babora Borri; Renata Medici Frayne Cuba; Francisco Javier Cuba Teran

    2012-01-01

    Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch) mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%), fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s...

  18. Distribution and Migration of Ordnance-Related Compounds and Oxygen and Hydrogen Stable Isotopes in Ground Water near Snake Pond, Sandwich, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Massey, Andrew J.; Cochrane, Jessica J.; King, Jonathan H.; Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive compounds, such as RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), and the propellant compound perchlorate are present in ground water near Snake Pond, a ground-water flow-through glacial kettle pond in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer on western Cape Cod near Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation. The contaminants originate from the J-3 Range ordnance training and testing area. Ground-water samples were collected at 10 sites near the pond to determine the paths of the contaminants as they underflow or completely or partially discharge into the pond. Water-quality profiles were developed for sites on opposite ends of a 200-foot-long intermittent island near the northern, upgradient end of the pond by collecting water samples from two temporary drive-point borings. RDX was detected at both locations between 60 and 90 feet below the pond level. The highest RDX concentration was 0.99 micrograms per liter. Perchlorate was detected at only one location on the island, between 95 and 100 feet below the pond level at a concentration of 0.61 micrograms per liter. Profiles of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes were developed for seven sites spaced 300 to 600 feet apart along the southern, downgradient shore of the pond. A transition from heavier to lighter oxygen and hydrogen isotopes was observed at an altitude of about -50 feet. This transition most likely is the boundary between evaporation-affected pond water that is seeping into the aquifer and ground water that has passed beneath the pond. RDX was not detected in the ground-water samples collected south of the pond. Perchlorate was detected only in one sample from a shallow depth in one boring. The results of these analyses indicate that the J-3 Range plume contains low concentrations of RDX and perchlorate (less than 1 microgram per liter) as it passes beneath the northern end of Snake Pond. Results of ground-water-flow modeling

  19. Magmatic associations of Cape granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-orogenic to orogenic calcalkaline peraluminous magmatism was important during the early stages of the geochemical evolution of the Cape granites. This stage was followed by late orogenic to post-orogenic subalkaline and eventually post orogenic transitional alkaline and alkaline magmatism. The intrusion of older peraluminous granites was the result of the subduction of continental crust and remelting of sedimentary material. Evidence suggesting the intrusion of granites alder than even the oldest Cape granite was found. Approximately sixty million years after the major period of peraluminous magmatism, emplacement of subalkaline magmas took place. The intrusion of the different subalkaline granites was controlled by continued re-activation along weak zones parallel to the subduction zone, causing pressure release and remelting. A mantle component became more important during the intrusion of the younger granites. The geochemical characteristics of some of the younger granites may be explained by remelting of mantle-metasomatized oceanic crust. This model explains the mature island arc geochemistry exhibited even by the peraluminous leucogranites. 3 refs

  20. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a...... collect the escapees, three sampling bags were attached beneath the raised fishing line. The selective haddock trawl reduced the total catch of cod by 55% during the day and 82% at night, and 99% of the marketable haddock was caught during the day and 89% at night. Cod escape rates were highly length...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Modeling early life history of cod

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Trond

    2007-01-01

    Newly hatched Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae face an uncertain future when they first enter their marine pelagic habitat. Prior to complete yolk absorption, the larvae will have to find food. This process includes the visual encounter, pursuit and attack, and capture and digestion of the prey item for utilization to meet energetic demands for metabolism and growth. However, food is not always easy to find and it is essential for larval survival that they encounter habitats ...

  2. Memory Book from Islamic Societies in Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Islamic Societies in Massachusetts

    2012-01-01

    Messages come from Harvard Islamic Society, Simmons Muslim Student Association, Tufts University Muslim Students Association, Islamic Society of Boston University, Westborough High School, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Shrewsbury High School

  3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    A. Sevtshuk oma magistritööst "The Self-aware City / Enesest teadlik linn". Juhendaja William J. Mitchell. Koolist Massachusetts Institute of Technology, selle arhitektuuriosakonnast, arhitektuuri teadusmagistrantuurist

  4. Massachusetts Supplemental - Lynch vs. Rank File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Result of a Court Case. To identify, to the States (except Massachusetts and others who have opted out), Title 2 beneficiaries who had lost SSI benefits during the...

  5. Click sounds produced by cod (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Heike I.; Folkow, Lars P.; Blix, A. S.

    2004-02-01

    Conspicuous sonic click sounds were recorded in the presence of cod (Gadus morhua), together with either harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus), hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) or a human diver in a pool. Similar sounds were never recorded in the presence of salmon (Salmo salar) together with either seal species, or from either seal or fish species when kept separately in the pool. It is concluded that cod was the source of these sounds and that the clicks were produced only when cod were approached by a swimming predatorlike body. The analyzed click sounds (n=377) had the following characteristics (overall averages +/- S.D.): peak frequency=5.95+/-2.22 kHz peak-to-peak duration=0.70+/-0.45 ms sound pressure level (received level)=153.2+/-7.0 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m. At present the mechanism and purpose of these clicks is not known. However, the circumstances under which they were recorded and some observations on the behavior of the seals both suggest that the clicks could have a predator startling function.

  6. Click sounds produced by cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Heike I; Folkow, Lars P; Blix, A S

    2004-02-01

    Conspicuous sonic click sounds were recorded in the presence of cod (Gadus morhua), together with either harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus), hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) or a human diver in a pool. Similar sounds were never recorded in the presence of salmon (Salmo salar) together with either seal species, or from either seal or fish species when kept separately in the pool. It is concluded that cod was the source of these sounds and that the clicks were produced only when cod were approached by a swimming predatorlike body. The analyzed click sounds (n = 377) had the following characteristics (overall averages +/- S.D.): peak frequency = 5.95 +/- 2.22 kHz; peak-to-peak duration = 0.70 +/- 0.45 ms; sound pressure level (received level) = 153.2 +/- 7.0 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m. At present the mechanism and purpose of these clicks is not known. However, the circumstances under which they were recorded and some observations on the behavior of the seals both suggest that the clicks could have a predator startling function. PMID:15000203

  7. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  8. Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian Royce; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the...... cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present...... knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these...

  9. The Cape San Blas Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret M Lamont; Percival, H. Franklin; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Colwell, Sheila V.; Kitchens, Wiley M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    1997-01-01

    Eglin AFB on Cape San Blas consists of approximately 250 acres located about 180 miles east of the main Eglin reservation. This area lies on the S1. Joseph peninsula, part of a dynamic barrier island chain that extends across the northern Gulf of Mexico. Due to the natural forces that formed Cape San Blas and those that maintain this area, St. Joseph Peninsula has experienced severe land form change over time (see GIS land form change maps). These changes allow for fluctuations...

  10. Potential Use of Atlantic Cod Trypsin in Biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ágústa Gudmundsdóttir; Hilmar Hilmarsson; Bjarki Stefansson

    2013-01-01

    Surface proteins of viruses and bacteria used for cell attachment and invasion are candidates for degradation by proteases. Trypsin from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was previously demonstrated to have efficacy against influenza viruses in vitro and on skin. In this paper, cod trypsin is shown to be 3–12 times more effective in degrading large native proteins than its mesophilic analogue, bovine trypsin. This is in agreement with previous findings where cod trypsin was found to be the most act...

  11. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  12. Panorama from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006). The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers. The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast. This view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet). It is presented in false color to emphasize

  13. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  14. 78 FR 32612 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule... collect on delivery (COD) service to mail an article for which the mailer has not been paid and have...

  15. Characterization of bone from red salmon and Pacific cod frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2008 estimated harvests of Pacific cod and all salmon species from Alaska waters was 207,000 mt and 322,000 mt, respectively. If all the harvest would be processed to boneless fillets it is estimated the amounts of frames produced would be 37,000 mt from cod and 58,000 mt from salmon. There is ...

  16. A sensometric approach to cod-quality measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.S.; Jørgensen, Bo

    1997-01-01

    The quality index method was used for describing the sensory quality of thawed whole cod and raw fillet and the quality of boiled fillet was assessed by profiling analysis. These data were compared to the water holding capacity of the minced cod by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial...

  17. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  18. 76 FR 65557 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  19. CETA in Eastern Massachusetts. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barocci, Thomas A.; Myers, Charles A.

    A study regarding the implementation of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) in four eastern Massachusetts prime sponsor areas (Cambridge, Lowell, New Bedford, and the Balance of State) was done to (1) examine the impact of the decisions made during the implementation of CETA on manpower services and institutions, program…

  20. 78 FR 2708 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  1. 78 FR 25336 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: 01/21/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  2. Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects of Cod Liver Oil in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahira Perveen*, Faiza Razi, Saida Haider, Hina Qayyum and Darakhshaan J. Haleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cod-liver oil is a rich source of omega 3 fatty acids and has been widely used as omega 3 fatty acids supplementation. Regarding omega-3 fatty acid beneficial effects in humans, this study was designed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of cod-liver oil on the locomotion and behaviors of rats, including depression, anxiety and the 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT metabolism. After four weeks oral administration of cod-liver oil, open field test was used to measure the locomotor and exploratory activity. Elevated plus maze test was used to measure anxiety. Cod-liver oil significantly increased locomotion and produced anxiolytic effects in rats. Antidepressant effect of cod-liver oil was monitored by forced swim test (FST in which struggling time of test animals was increased significantly. 5-HT turnover also increased significantly following the oral repeated administration of cod liver oil in test animals. The results suggest that cod-liver oil has antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects.

  3. Farmed cod escapees and net-pen spawning left no clear genetic footprint in the local wild cod population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Varne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a potential genetic introgression from farmed to wild cod Gadus morhua L. in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway. During the first 2 yr of operation of a cod farm in the inner part of the fjord, 2 large escape events and extensive pen spawning were reported. Analyses of 4 allozyme markers revealed no significant changes in allele frequencies between samples of wild cod before and after cod farming, although prominent allele frequency differences were demonstrated between wild and farmed samples. Analyses of 10 DNA markers showed a significant change between pre- and post-farming samples, due to contradictory allele frequency differences at Tch11, Pan I and Gmo132. Excluding those 3 markers due to null alleles (Tch11 and selection (Gmo132 and Pan I, the DNA markers paralleled the non-changed allele frequency signal from the allozymes. The topographies of the allozyme- and DNA-based dendrogram of the samples were congruent. Recaptures of tagged and released farmed cod indicated a seemingly random diffusion throughout the fjord and ended after approx. 6 mo. During an ongoing pen spawning, plankton net surveys sampling for cod eggs in the surroundings of the cod farm suggested the eggs originated from the farm. No larvae were present in the plankton samples. The apparent absence of introgression is explained relative to fitness and survival of pen-spawned larvae and adult escapees, and to a purging effect of the estuarine circulation of the Trondheimsfjord.

  4. Subtidal understorey algal community structure in kelp beds around the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape, South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Leliaert, F.; Anderson, R J; Bolton, J. J.; Coppejans, E.

    2001-01-01

    The subtidal understorey seaweed communities were studied along a coastal distance of 104 km around the Cape Peninsula, which is situated in an overlap region between two marine provinces and characterized by a considerable temperature gradient. Sampling was carried out at six sites (4 to 10 quadrats per site) around the Cape Peninsula. For each of the quadrats, biomass of each species, grazing, and environmental variables such as temperature, wave exposure and sand cover were determined. The...

  5. GEO-CAPE Aerosol Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Jethva, Hiren; Joiner, Joanna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Mattoo, Shana; Torres, Omar; Vasilkov, Alexander; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ciren, Pubu; Remer, Lorraine; Wang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    GEO-CAPE will measure a suite of short-lived species that are relevant to both air quality and climate. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  6. Master environmental plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Peters, R.W.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1991-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a master environmental plan (MEP) for Fort Devens, Massachusetts, for the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. The MEP is an assessment based on environmental laws and regulations of both the federal government and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MEP assess the physical and environmental status of 58 potential hazardous waste sites, including 54 study areas (SAs) that pose a potential for releasing contamination into the environment and 4 areas of concern (AOCs) that are known to have substantial contamination. For each SA or AOC, this MEP describes the known history and environment, identifies additional data needs, and proposes possible response actions. Most recommended response actions consist of environmental sampling and monitoring and other characterization studies. 74 refs., 63 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.;

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters...... both nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish...

  8. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, A.Q.

    2009-03-17

    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  9. Shaded-relief GeoTIFF image of a portion of Cape Cod and the surrounding sea floor

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean, geophysical surveys, geophysical probing, submarine groundwater...

  10. HERM(E)S CAPE COD Now equiped with Vaucher movement%专业机心的爱马仕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴力

    2007-01-01

    能成为奢侈品本身就意味着有至高的品质。对手表而言.除了品牌,还有对机心血统的祟拜。受马仕最近注资福榭(Vaucher)机心厂25%,唯“心”论者有了设计和机心兼优的选择。下面是时尚时间对爱马仕总裁吉奥母,德·赛恩先生《Guillaume DeSeynes》的专访。

  11. Hepatocyte vacuolation and autolytic changes in the liver of pilot whales, Globicephala melas, stranded on Cape Cod, MA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M J; Stegeman, J J

    1996-07-16

    Most cetacea available for internal sampling in recent times have died through mass or single stranding events. It is important to know how the time elapsed between death and sampling affect quality of tissues. This study evaluated histological quality in the liver of long-finned pilot whales that either died or were euthanased after mass stranding events. Histological detection of significant autolysis was found in animals when 2 or more hours elapsed between death and sampling. In addition, hepatocytes often had marked idiopathic cytoplasmic vacuolation that did not stain with hematoxylin and eosin. The extent of this vacuolation did not show any correlation with time between death and sampling, but did appear more often in animals of greater total length. These observations suggest that when animals die or are euthanased at a single or mass stranding, every effort should be made to obtain samples as soon as possible, although meaningful histological observations can still be made in the presence of significant autolysis. These data also suggest that a multi-disciplinary study should be conducted to determine whether increasing autolysis is associated with changes in the organic chemical residues, molecular biology, histopathology and microbiology of those tissues. PMID:8685702

  12. Semiautomated Determination of COD in Environmental Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Korenaga, Takashi; Ikatsu, Hisayoshi; Moriwake, Toshio; Takahashi, Teruo

    1980-01-01

    A new method based on the principle of flow injection analysis is presented for the semiautomated determinationof chemical oxygen demand (COD) in environmental watersamples. The method is rapid and continuous, and suitablefor the monitoring of COD in wastewaters. The apparatusused was simply constructed by parts commercially availablefor high performance liquid chromatography. Teflon tubing heated with a boiling water was used as a reactor and simultaneously used for mixing coils and transmis...

  13. Antiulcer activity of cod liver oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khare Salaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cod liver oil is used widely as a dietary supplement. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of cod liver oil (0.5 g/kg, p.o. and 1 g/kg, p.o. on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on different gastric ulcer models such as acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcers, pylorus ligation, indomethacin induced ulcers, stress induced ulcers and ethanol induced ulcers. The duodenal ulcers were induced using cysteamine hydrochloride (HCl. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg p.o. and misoprostol (100 µg/kg, p.o. were used as standard drugs. Results: Both doses of cod liver oil showed gastric ulcer healing effect in acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcers, produced gastric antisecretory effect in pylorus-ligated rats and also showed gastric cytoprotective effect in ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced ulcer. Cod liver oil also produced a significant reduction in the development of stress induced gastric ulcers and cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer. The high dose of cod liver oil (1 g/kg, p.o. was more effective compared to the low dose (0.5 g/kg, p.o.. Conclusion: Cod liver oil increases healing of gastric ulcers and prevents the development of experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.

  14. Fast COD data acquisition at the SPring-8 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stabilization of a beam orbit is one of important topics for synchrotron radiation accelerators. A periodic correction of a closed orbit of electron beam takes central role in the beam orbit stabilization, after major causes of beam orbit fluctuations were cured. Electronics of beam position monitor at the SPring-8 storage ring, which are in operation since 2006, have capability of re-configuration in signal detection scheme, since the electronics is composed of DSP and FPGA. We reconfigured the electronics and COD data at a repetition of every 1 ms is obtained as post-process. This 1 ms COD data is analyzed and the beam orbit fluctuation was evaluated. While the post-processing data, we have been developing software for periodic correction of the beam orbit in order to shortening the period of the correction. The period was shortened from 7 sec to 1 sec since 2012 April. After that we prepared reflective memory network which have good real time property. Owing to the reflective memory network, it have become possible that the COD data is obtained at 10 Hz with real-time. Moreover, the obtained 10-Hz COD data is recorded to a database system, which is newly developed as MADOCA II control system for future SPring-8 database. We report upgrading of the hardware and software for COD measurement and status of COD correction. (author)

  15. 78 FR 69404 - Massachusetts Water Resources Authority; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Massachusetts Water Resources Authority; Notice of Preliminary Determination... November 5, 2013, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority filed a notice of intent to construct a... Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's Ware Disinfection Facility in Hampshire County,...

  16. Intracardiac thrombosis in the Cape Mountain Zebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Bath

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra is one of the rarest species of mammals in South Africa, and is threatened with extinction. At present there are less than 200 in existence, of which approximately 160 occur in the Mountain Zebra National Park near Cradock. Because of the rarity of the species and the undesirable concentration of the majority in an area of only 6 536 ha, a post-mortem examination is performed, if possible, on all animals to establish cause of death with the purpose of preventing large-scale mortalities. This is done even if the carcass is in a fairly advanced state of decomposition. Amongst the examinations so performed were two zebra which were believed to have died as a result of intraventricular thrombosis. The rarity of this condition and of the Cape mountain zebra makes a report on these cases necessary.

  17. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Otis Air National Guard (USAF), Operable Unit 3, Falmouth, MA, September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, lies within the boundaries of the towns of Falmouth, Mashpee, Sandwich, and Bourne. The Area of Contamination (AOC) known as Chemical Spill 3 United States Coast Guard (CS-3 (USCG)) is located on Lee Road, in the south central portion of the MMR. The Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE) Installation Restoration Program Office at Otis Air National Guard (ANG) Base, Massachusetts.

  18. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions characterization of Karachi metropolitan wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove the hypothesis that the inert products are given to environment due to biological degradation of substrate in activated sludge operations. This study was design to investigate the inert fractions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in metropolitan effluent. An aerobic batch reactor system was experimentally setup and maintained up to 480 hours. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO = 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI 218 mg/L, respectively. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI = 218 mg/L respectively. This study is focused on inert COD fractions of metropolitan wastewater which consist of domestic as well as local industrial effluent. Soluble inert COD (SI) must be determined for discharge standards since it did not give any reaction in activated sludge system and was given with wastewater discharge. However particulate inert COD (XI) accumulated in system depending on sludge retention time due to it is only wasted from system by wasted sludge. Experimental techniques were used attained Zohu X. et al. [1, 2] in order to determine directly influent particulate and soluble inert fractions. The experimental study was carried out until COD profile reached to steady state or depletion of degradable substrate. The conventional parameters of municipal characterization were as follows: total COD (CTO) = 412 mg/L, total soluble COD (STO) = 131 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) = 197 mg/L, total biochemical oxygen demand (BODt) = 351 mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) = 264 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) = 26.6 mg/L, grease and oil (G and O) = 17.5 mg/L and pH were 7.4 SU, respectively. (author)

  19. Energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The study is not an engineering analysis but begins the process of exploring the potential for conservation and local renewable-resource development in a specific community, Northampton, Massachusetts, with the social, institutional, and environmental factors in that community taken into account. Section I is an extensive executive summary of the full study, and Section II is a detailed examination of the potential for increased local energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, including current and future demand estimates, the possible role of conservation and renewable resources, and a discussion of the economic and social implications of alternative energy systems. (MOW)

  20. Mercury and PCBs in Massachusetts River Otters.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Curtice R; John F. Organ

    2004-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in livers of trapper harvested river otters (Lontra canadensis) from Massachusetts were evaluated. We collected 210 river otters during 1986 and 1987 and composited them into 103 samples based on location. Comparisons among 20 watersheds were made using 96 samples. Mercury residues were detected in all samples and ranged from 0.45 to 4.82 ppm wet weight with an arithmetic mean of 1.93 ppm. PCB residues were detected in all but 2 samples and ...

  1. A New Spectrophotometric Method for Measuring COD of Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; JI Hongwei; XIN Huizhen; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    This research studied a new spectrophotometric method for measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of seawater. In this method, the COD was measured using a spectrophotometer instead of titrating with sodium thiosulphate.The measuring wavelength was selected to be 470 nm, and the COD of three standard glucose solutions (COD = 0.5, 1.5 and2.5 mgL-1, respectively) and two seawater samples (from the South Yellow Sea and Jiaozhou Bay) were measured using the spectrophotometric method and titrimetric method respectively. The results showed that the spectrophotometric method was somewhat better than the titrimetric method. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the spectrophotometric method was less than 2.7%, and the recovery of seawater samples ranged from 96.3% to 103.8%. In addition, the spectrophotometric method has other advantages such as expeditiousness, operation simplicity, analysis automatization, etc. Therefore the spectrophotometric method can be used to measure the COD of seawater with satisfactory results.

  2. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the value of Sol-COD in the rivers is close to that of Lake Sanaru, the main origin of the Sol-COD was supposed to be the organic components in the river water especially those of detergents, because the Sol-CODof detergent didn’t decompose completely.Thus, the amount of detergent emitted in the upstreamlakeregion was determined using the public data of the pollution from the sewer system and the national average of detergent consumption. The calculated value of the detergent concentration agreed very well with the one measured in the upstream rivers, meaning that detergents strongly affected water quality in upstream rivers and also the majority of Sol-COD in Lake Sanaru.

  3. Professional Development Schools in Massachusetts: Maintenance and Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Barbara; Boris-Schacter, Sheryl

    This report focuses on three professional development school (PDS) programs in Massachusetts. The PDS collaborative programs involve the following partners: East Longmeadow High School and University of Massachusetts at Amherst; Devotion School (Brookline) and Wheelock College; and Coolidge Elementary School (Shrewsbury) and Anna Maria College.…

  4. 75 FR 51239 - University of Massachusetts Amherst, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ...: See notice at 75 FR 42377, July 21, 2010. Docket Number: 10-048. Applicant: The University of Texas at... International Trade Administration University of Massachusetts Amherst, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision... Avenue., NW., Washington, DC. Docket Number: 10-044. Applicant: University of Massachusetts...

  5. Staging Queer Temporalities: A Look at Miss Gay Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Bronson, Olivia Fairbanks

    2013-01-01

    Miss Gay Western Cape is a beauty pageant that takes place once a year in Cape Town. Though the event began during apartheid, it is only recently that it has gained visibility and emerged as the largest (recognized) gay pageant in South Africa. This project considers the ways in which different queer communities in Cape Town strive to be seen in spaces that remain governed by the logics of racialized segregation. As evidenced with this event, queer communities in Cape Town bare the wounds of ...

  6. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  7. Lidar Bathymetry Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  8. Color coded bathmetry map of Cape Canaveral, Florida, derived from boat based sounding data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  9. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h- 1, which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h- 1), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge.

  10. CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDowell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB, and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549 were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA, CAMP factor (Cfa, a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3, and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015 were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY and chemically defined media (CDM. No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate

  11. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Qian; Oomae Ayaka; Futamata Hiroyuki; Matsuda Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the va...

  12. Dengue in Cape Verde: vector control and vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, for the first time in Cape Verde, an outbreak of dengue was reported and over twenty thousand people were infected. Only a few prophylactic measures were taken. The effects of vector control on disease spreading, such as insecticide (larvicide and adulticide) and mechanical control, as well as an hypothetical vaccine, are estimated through simulations with the Cape Verde data.

  13. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M;

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...

  14. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  15. Automatic grunt detector and recognizer for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) have been heavily overfished in recent years and have not yet recovered. Passive acoustic technology offers a new approach to identify the spatial location of spawning fish, as well as their seasonal and long term persistence in an area. To date, the lack of a species-specific detector has made searching for Atlantic cod grunts in large amounts of passive acoustic data cumbersome. To address this problem, an automatic grunt detection and recognition algorithm that processes yearlong passive acoustic data recordings was designed. The proposed technique is a two-stage hypothesis testing algorithm that includes detecting and recognizing all grunt-like sounds. Test results demonstrated that the algorithm provided a detection probability of 0.93 for grunts with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 10 dB, and a detection probability of 0.8 for grunts with the SNR ranging from 3 to 10 dB. This detector is being used to identify cod in current and historical data from U.S. waters. Its use has significantly reduced the time required to find and validate the presence of cod grunts. PMID:27250148

  16. Comparison between methods for determining residual dichromate in COD evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods for determing residual dichromate in COD evaluation were compared. The methods were: volumetric titration, potentiometric titration and spectrophotometric determination. The statistical analysis did not show any significance difference among the methods. For routine analysis, the spectrophotometric method is preferable to the other two because it is shorter, easier to carry out and produces smaller amounts of toxic wasted reactants

  17. Excess post hypoxic oxygen consumption in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, M.; Deurs, Mikael van; Steffensen, J.F.; Tirsgaard, B.; Behrens, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic cod Gadus morhua experienced oxygen deficit (DO2 ) when exposed to oxygen levels below their critical level (c. 73% of pcrit) and subsequent excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption (CEPHO) upon return to normoxic conditions, indicative of an oxygen debt. The mean±s.e. CEPHO:DO2 was 6...

  18. An attempt to start feed cod larvae with artificial diets

    OpenAIRE

    Huse, Ingvar

    1981-01-01

    Larval cod were fed 8 different diets based on zooplancton and hen's eggs. All but one diets were ingested, but no growth was observed. The failure of the diets to promote growth is thouqht to be related to the low digestive potential of the larval gut.

  19. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they...... goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment....

  20. 78 FR 41305 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... INFORMATION: The Postal Service published a notice of proposed rulemaking on May 31, 2013 (78 FR 32612-32613... 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule... proposed rule were received, the Postal Service will adopt the proposed changes to Collect on Delivery...

  1. Improvement of COD control system of NewSUBARU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the NewSUBARU, the response matrix calculated from an optics model had been used for a closed orbit correction (COD) program. We measured the response matrix of NewSUBARU and used it in the new program. We compared performance of the new one with that of the old one. (author)

  2. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...

  3. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  4. Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts v. Bellotti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    The Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts instituted a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of a statute requiring minors seeking an abortion to obtain parental consent or to persuade a judge of their maturity to give informed consent or that abortion would be in their best interest. In order to invoke judicial review, the plaintiffs moved their suit to federal court. The District Court dismissed the case on grounds that federal review power would interfere with state administration. On appeal, the First Circuit Court of Appeals decided that the plaintiffs could proceed with their action. The Circuit Court found that federal adjudication would not unduly interfere with state administration and remanded the case for further proceedings. Although it affirmed the statute's validity, the circuit court ruled that the plaintiffs must be allowed the opportunity to demonstrate the statute's unconstitutionality. PMID:11648577

  5. Massachusetts Signing Bonus Program for New Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Clarke Fowler

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Massachusetts Signing Bonus Program for New Teachers, a nationally prominent program that has recruited and prepared $20,000 bonus recipients to teach after seven weeks' training at the Massachusetts Institute for New Teachers (MINT. Although state officials have trumpeted this initiative as a national model that other states are copying, they announced in November 2002 that they were radically changing it. The changes included halting the state's national recruitment efforts and replacing the seven-week, fast-track training program designed by the New Teacher Project with year-long programs to be designed by three of the state's education schools. Even though the state spent more than $50,000 recruiting individuals from states outside the Northeast over the first four program years, it garnered just seven bonus recipients from the non-Northeast states its recruiters visited, only four of whom were still teaching in Fall 2002. The state did, however, generate a substantial number of applicants in each program year (ranging from 783 to nearly 950, most of whom came from Massachusetts or nearby states. Contrary to state officials' claims, though, it appears that many of these individuals had substantial prior educational experience. Although officials stated that all bonus teachers would go to 13 designated high-need urban districts, the state has never met this commitment, sending fewer bonus teachers to these districts in each of the first three years of the program. The state has lost a high percentage of its bonus teachers to attrition particularly in state-designated, high-need districts. These attrition rates are substantially higher than comparable national rates. Although the state has portrayed the Bonus and MINT programs, combined, as highly successful, officials exaggerated many of the purported positive outcomes. On the positive side, independent survey data (Churchill et al., 2002 indicated that principals

  6. Emergence of community doubts at Plymouth, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Three Mile Island affected the attitudes not only of residents in the immediate vicinity of Middletown, Pennsylvania, but also of citizens in other communities that hosted nuclear plants. This chapter describes the evolution of public attitudes toward nuclear power in the town of Plymouth, Massachusetts, from the time plans for the construction of the Pilgrim-1 plant were announced in 1967 until after the accident at Three Mile Island in March 1979. The ideas developed here arose from three summers of anthropological fieldwork in Plymouth. This study includes a review of the social science literature on nuclear-power plant sitings, interviews with town officials and utility-company representatives, a content analysis of articles in the local newspaper, collection of demographic and other social statistics, attendance at public hearings and town meetings, and interviews with Plymouth citizens

  7. Infrared Correlation Radiometer for GEO-CAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, D. O.; Boldt, J.; Edwards, D. P.; Yee, J.

    2009-12-01

    We present our plans as part of NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program to characterize the performance of a 2.3 μm infrared correlation radiometer (IRCR) prototype subsystem for an instrument designed specifically to measure carbon monoxide (CO) from geostationary orbit. The Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey mission GEO-CAPE specifies infrared correlation radiometry to measure CO in two spectral regions. CO measurements at 2.3 μm are uniformly sensitive throughout the troposphere, and 4.7 μm measurements are most sensitive to the free troposphere. In combination, the measurements yield information of this Criteria Pollutant near Earth's surface. The success of NASA’s Shuttle-based Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) and Terra/MOPITT infrared gas correlation radiometers for CO measurements at 4.7 μm shifts the technology focus toward improving existing 2.3 μm CO measurement capability. GEO-CAPE uses this robust IRCR measurement technique at GEO, nearly 50 times farther away than the Terra/MOPITT orbit, to determine hourly changes in CO across a continental domain. We have structured the IRCR project around an analytical performance model to enable rapid evaluation of design specifics once the mission is defined. We present the architecture of the performance model, and the design of the simulator hardware and test plan which will populate the performance model.

  8. The Nainital-Cape Survey-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Santosh; Chowdhury, Sowgata; Chakradhari, N K; Joshi, Y C; van Heerden, P; Medupe, T; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Kuhn, R B

    2016-01-01

    The Nainital-Cape survey is a dedicated ongoing survey programme to search for and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars to understand their internal structure and evolution. The main aims of this survey are to find new pulsating Ap and Am stars in the northern and southern hemisphere and to perform asteroseismic studies of these new pulsators. The survey is conducted using high-speed photometry. The candidate stars were selected on the basis of having Stromgren photometric indices similar to those of known pulsating CP stars. Over the last decade a total of 337 candidate pulsating CP stars were observed for the Nainital-Cape survey, making it one of the longest ground-based surveys for pulsation in CP stars in terms of time span and sample size. The previous papers of this series presented seven new pulsating variables and 229 null results. In this paper we present the light curves, frequency spectra and the various astrophysical parameters of the 108 additional CP stars observed si...

  9. Cape Fear: an outdoor hillslope laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Petroselli, Andrea; Fiori, Aldo; Romano, Nunzio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Porfiri, Maurizio; Palladino, Mario; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological processes occurring at the hillslope scale highly influence the response of natural catchments. However, modelling hillslope dynamics is often extremely challenging, and conceptualizations may be inadequate to simulate such complex processes. Towards this aim, field experiments on natural and artificial catchments have proved highly beneficial. In this work, we present Cape Fear, an ad hoc designed experimental plot whereby traditional and new measurement systems are integrated for improved comprehension of hillslope processes. This outdoor hillslope laboratory hosts diverse sensing apparatuses, spanning from a system of rainfall simulators, a v-notch weir for input and output fluxes analysis, sophisticated instrumentation for continuous measurements of surface and subsurface water and soil transport, to innovative image-based setups to remotely sense surface waters. We demonstrate the potential of such a versatile and thoroughly instrumented outdoor laboratory through a proof-of-concept experiment conducted during a natural rainfall event. The response of the plot to the storm is reconstructed based on continuous monitoring of input and output fluxes. Further, an innovative tracer-based approach involving the use of fluorescent particles is utilized to remotely investigate the onset of overland flow from captured images. Insight from experimental observations is utilized to identify the physical phenomena governing the response of the hillslope to the precipitation event. Cape Fear is a powerful resource for the hydrological community and this small scale experimental observatory is expected to provide diverse and innovative observations to advance current knowledge on hydrological processes at the hillslope scale.

  10. Estimation of bacterial quality of cod fillets with the disc flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoilage bacteria of cod fillets were desorbed off the fillet surface by ultrasonication. Catalase activity of these bacteria was determined using the disc flotation method after selective heat inactivation of the endogenous cod catalase and then correlated with the colony forming units. The method was applied to cod fillets from ten retail sources with satisfactory results

  11. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.; Eero, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the...

  12. Simulation-based investigation of the paired-gear method in cod-end selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René; O'Neill, F.G.

    had a small mesh cover. Thus, estimates of the selectivity parameters of the test cod-end can be made using both the paired-gear method and the covered cod-end method. These estimates are compared and, as it is assumed that the covered cod-end method is objective, we conclude that the paired...

  13. CodY of Streptococcus pneumoniae : Link between nutritional gene regulation and colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Wouter T.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Estevao, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; de Jong, Anne; de Groot, Ronald; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a nutritional regulator mainly involved in amino acid metabolism. It has been extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. We investigated the role of CodY in gene regulation and virulence of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a codY mutant and ex

  14. Nantucket, Massachusetts Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nantucket, Massachusetts Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  15. Characterizing freshwater and nutrient fluxes to West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present oceanographic and water-quality observations made at 4 locations in West Falmouth Harbor and 3 in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. While both...

  16. Coastal Massachusetts Submerged Aquatic Beds 1994-1996 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) at NOAA Office for Coastal Management partnered with The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Wetlands...

  17. Coastal Massachusetts Submerged Aquatic Beds 1994-1996 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) at NOAA Office for Coastal Management partnered with The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Wetlands...

  18. 2006 URS Corporation Bare Earth Topographic Lidar: Shawsheen River, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — URS Corporation contracted EarthData International to acquire topographic elevation data for 82 square miles in Essex and Middlesex Counties, Massachusetts during...

  19. 2006 URS Corporation Bare Earth Topographic Lidar: Shawsheen River, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — URS Corporation contracted EarthData International to aquire topographic elevation data for 82 square miles in Essex and Middlesex Counties, Massachusetts during...

  20. Coastal Massachusetts Submerged Aquatic Beds 1994-1996 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) at NOAA Office for Coastal Management partnered with The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Wetlands...

  1. Coastal Massachusetts Submerged Aquatic Beds 1994-1996 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) at NOAA Office for Coastal Management partnered with The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Wetlands...

  2. Massachusetts Bay - Internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery at 1:350,000 scale in Massachusetts Bay. Internal waves are nonsinusoidal waves that...

  3. The Cost of Employment Discrimination against Transgender Residents of Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jody L

    2011-01-01

    Transgender residents of Massachusetts have reported experiencing discrimination in employment. Loss of employment due to anti-transgender bias often means lost wages, lost health insurance coverage, and housing instability. Therefore, employment discrimination might affect the budget of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in several ways: reduced income tax revenues, higher public assistance expenditures, and other costs. For instance, if a worker is fired for being transgender and loses wages...

  4. Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) - Monitoring of organic pollutants in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Hodzic, Elvisa

    2011-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are two methods used for measuring organic pollutants in wastewater. Both methods are widely used but the COD method results in production of hazardous wastes, including mercury.The purpose of this study was to validate the method TOC that will replace COD and find a factor to convert TOC to COD. In this study 26 samples were analyzed from four sewage treatment plant in the municipality of Enköping.The results show that the COD metho...

  5. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.; Smedbol, R.K.; Cook, D.; Goddard, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  6. Massachusetts Water Resources Administration Sediment Data for Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay acquired in 1993 - 1995 (MWRA shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The samples in this dataset were collected and analyzed under the direction of the Massachusetts Water Resources Administration. The data were generated to study...

  7. Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraak, S.B.M.; Bailey, N.; Cardinale, M.;

    2013-01-01

    mortality in targeted fisheries, although fishers experienced them as prohibiting the full uptake of other quotas. Recommendations for future plans include (i) management through catch rather than landings quotas, (ii) the internalisation of the costs of exceeding quotas, (iii) use of more selective gear......The performance of the EU long-term management plan for cod stocks, in force since 2009, is analysed focusing on the human and institutional factors. The plan operates through landings quotas (TACs) and effort restrictions following a Harvest Control Rule, and deploys a novel instrument allowing...... Member States to 'buy back' or increase fishing effort for fleet segments engaged in cod-avoidance measures. The stipulated fishing mortality reductions have not been achieved. On the positive side, the 'buy-back' instrument has led to increased uptake of selective gear and implementation of permanent...

  8. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH; Huwer, B; Hüssy, K; Klügel, A; Böttcher, U; Hanel, R

    2012-01-01

    Microchemical otolith analyses have been shown to provide valuable information on the life history, dispersal and stock characteristics of teleost fish. In the present study, the suitability of this technique for identifying the origin and distribution of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from the...... Baltic Sea was examined using laser ablation-ICPMS. The capacity to distinguish individuals from different Baltic Sea stocks and from the adjacent North Sea stock based on incoporation of stock-specific elemental fingerprints along otolith growth axes was investigated. It was further tested if different...... origins led to spawning-site specific element concentrations in otolith cores. The results indicate that microchemical analyses of Baltic cod otoliths are applicable for differentiating individuals of different stocks. Analyses of similarities including 12 element/calcium ratios resulted in significant...

  9. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a...... process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze-chilling on the...... quality attributes of cod and rainbow trout portions. Sensory profiling and chemical analyses were used to determine the changes in quality after slow thawing and subsequent chill storage and to find the high-quality shelf life. RESULTS: Cod had a consistent and high sensory quality during the first 6...

  10. COD and Color Removal from Real Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-min; Yuan, Jian-mei

    2016-05-01

    Ozonation of real dye wastewater for removal of color and COD reduction covering a wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92.5% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions (pH=11; ozone flow rate: 6×10(-3) m(3)/minute). Further the biodegradability index of the dye effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment. PMID:27131304

  11. Three new species of Lachenalia (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae from Western and Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Duncan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the sixth in a series of papers on Lachenalia, towards a revision of the genus. Three new species are described. L. lutea from the southwestern part of the Western Cape, L. cernua from the southern Cape Peninsula and the Worcester Valley of the Western Cape, and L. nardousbergensis from the Bokkeveld Plateau of the Northern Cape, and the Nardousberge and Middelburg Plateaus of the Western Cape.

  12. Measuring consumer awareness in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rousseau

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to measure and compare different levels of consumer awareness amongst a multi-cultural sample of urban and rural consumers in the Eastern Cape. The study is based on past research in the field and used an extended version of a questionnaire developed for urban samples. A non-probability convenience sample (N = 326 was drawn from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking consumers. Field work was carried out by the University of Port Elizabeth and the Consumer Protection Committee of the Eastern Cape. Different levels of consumer awareness emerged from the sample. These differences can be attributed to socio-demographical variables such as language, household size and income. Results further suggest a low level of personal consumer knowledge amongst the sample. This implies an urgent need for more consumer information and education of consumers in the province regarding consumer rights and problem solving skills. Opsomming Die hoof doelstelling van hierdie studie is die meting en vergelyking van verskillende vlakke van verbruikersbewustheid onder 'n multi-kulturele steekproef van stedelike en plattelandse verbruikers in die Oos-Kaap. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en maak gebruik van 'n uitgebreide weergawe van 'n vraelys ontwikkel vir stedelike steekproewe. 'n Nie-ewekansige gerieflikheidsteekproef (N = 326 is getrek uit Engels/ Afrikaans en Xhosa-sprekende verbruikers. Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth en die Verbruikersbeskermingskomitee vir die Oos-Kaap. Verskillende vlakke van verbruikersbewustheid het na vore getree uit die steekproef. Hierdie verskille kan toegeskryf word aan sosio-demografiese veranderlikes soos taal, huishoudelike grootte en inkome. Bevindinge suggereer verder 'n lae vlak van persoonlike verbruikerskennis onder die steekproef. Dit impliseer 'n ernstige behoefte aan meer verbruikers inligting en opvoeding aan verbruikers in die provinsie

  13. Growth, temperature and density relationships of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Jensen, Henrik; Schrum, Corinna

    2008-01-01

    temperature; however, although temperature increased, distribution of 1-year-olds changed concurrently and no increase in length at age 1 occurred. Growth from age 1 to age 2 decreased as ambient biomass of sandeel and density of cod decreased, whereas growth of cod older than 2 years decreased with......This study presents an analysis of the relationship between ambient temperature, cod density, fishing mortality, prey fish biomass, and growth of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) as estimated from survey catches during the period from 1983 to 2006. Growth of young cod was positively related to...... increasing density of cod and increased with increasing biomass of demersal fish prey. Though growth of juveniles was strongly positively correlated to ambient temperature, no indication of direct temperature limitation of growth of older North Sea cod was found....

  14. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cod-ends are the rearmost part of trawl fishing gears. They collect the catch, and for many important species it is where fish selection takes place. Generally speaking they are axisymmetric, and their shape is influenced by the catch volume, the mesh shape, and the material characteristics. The ...... of the netting. The software package developed to solve this problem is freely available. Comparisons are carried out with a previous model and experimental data....

  15. Crack lenghts calculation from COD measurement for cement based composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Hanzlovský, Radovan; Knésl, Zdeněk

    Plzeň : Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, 2012 - (Lukeš, V.; Hajžman, M.; Byrtus, M.), s. 137-140 ISBN 978-80-261-0097-3. [Applied Mechanics 2012. Plzeň (CZ), 16.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : COD * fatigue * crack propagation * Paris’ law * composites Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  16. COD Removal of Different Industrial Wastewater by Fenton Oxidation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yogita Sindhi*1

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are possibly one of the most effective methods for the treatment of wastewater containing organic products (effluents from chemical and agrochemical industries, the textile industry, paints, dyes, etc.).Fenton process is a one of advanced oxidation process. Fenton’s process have been extensively used for the removal of COD, TOC, dyes, phenolic compounds other organic chemicals from industrial and municipal wastewater. In this study, the laboratory s...

  17. Avoidance from petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1982-01-01

    In laboratory experiments cod was presented a choice situation between different concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, appearing as "water soluble fraction" and emulsified droplets derived from Fuel Oil No. 2. In most experiments, the fishes seemed to avoid water containing hydrocarbons, though some fishes for periods was indifferent also to considerable contaminated water. The over all results indicates that a majority of the fishes avoided water containing total hyd...

  18. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl- concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm-3 kW h-1 while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates

  19. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctwwang@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Chou, W.-L. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, HungKuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-15

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl{sup -} concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm{sup -3} kW h{sup -1} while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates.

  20. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  1. COD FRACTIONS CHANGES DURING SEWAGE TREATMENT WITH CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research work was to find out COD fractions in raw wastewater and during treatment with constructed wetland (CW system. The tests were performed in CW system with average flow of about 4 m3/day. In raw wastewater the highest concentration of fraction in organic suspended solid easy biodegradable (XS – 250 mg O2/l was observed. The same situation was with dissolved organic easy biodegradable matter (SS – 250 mg O2/l. Lower quantity of non-biodegradable fractions dissolved and in suspended solids were observed (SI – 27 mg O2/l, XI – 83.33 mg O2/l. More than 80% of total COD was as biodegradable fractions (SS + XS. After treatment with CW system the highest concentration was observed for dissolved non-biodegradable fraction (SI – 27 mg O2/l. Lower concentration was for biodegradable fraction in suspended solid (XS – 3.33 mg O2/l. More than 89% of total COD was in biological non-biodegradable fraction (SI + XI.

  2. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS

  3. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  4. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

  5. Massachusetts Metabolic Disorders Screening Program: III. Sarcosinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, H L; Coulombe, J T; Benjamin, R

    1984-10-01

    Sarcosinemia has been detected by routine screening of urine for metabolic and transport disorders in Massachusetts. Three infants who had sarcosinemia were detected through the neonatal urine specimen, an observed incidence of 1:350,000. A fourth child had sarcosinemia detected through family screening after his brother was found to have Hartnup disease by neonatal urine screening. These four children with sarcosinemia have plasma sarcosine concentrations ranging from 80 to 603 mumol/L and urine sarcosine from 2.1 to 9.4 mumol/mg of creatinine, findings similar to those reported for persons with sarcosinemia. No treatment has been given. At 3.8 to 15 years of age, the children had normal findings on physical examination and had no specific illnesses. Their full-scale IQ scores ranged from 89 to 111. The oldest child had a learning and emotional disorder, and one other child was emotionally unstable. It was concluded that sarcosinemia as a specific disorder is probably benign and that the mental retardation and dysmorphic features described in some affected persons are likely coincidental with the biochemical defect. The emotional disturbances that were encountered in two children are also probably coincidental but need further attention in this disorder. PMID:6207480

  6. Massachusetts Large Blade Test Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahul Yarala; Rob Priore

    2011-09-02

    Project Objective: The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (CEC) will design, construct, and ultimately have responsibility for the operation of the Large Wind Turbine Blade Test Facility, which is an advanced blade testing facility capable of testing wind turbine blades up to at least 90 meters in length on three test stands. Background: Wind turbine blade testing is required to meet international design standards, and is a critical factor in maintaining high levels of reliability and mitigating the technical and financial risk of deploying massproduced wind turbine models. Testing is also needed to identify specific blade design issues that may contribute to reduced wind turbine reliability and performance. Testing is also required to optimize aerodynamics, structural performance, encourage new technologies and materials development making wind even more competitive. The objective of this project is to accelerate the design and construction of a large wind blade testing facility capable of testing blades with minimum queue times at a reasonable cost. This testing facility will encourage and provide the opportunity for the U.S wind industry to conduct more rigorous testing of blades to improve wind turbine reliability.

  7. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf south of Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (shatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami...

  9. The vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, 7 750 ha in extent, occupies the southern end of the Cape Peninsula. Geologically, it is composed of sandstone beds of the Table Mountain Group of the Cape Supergroup. Topographically, it comprises an interior plateau bounded partly by hills and mountains which reach 360 m on the False Bay coast. Two structural formations, fynbos and broadleaved scrub, are recognized. Within fynbos, the two floristic categories, Inland and Coast Fynbos, reflect the two major soil types present. The flora of the Reserve, with 1 060 species (35% monocots, 65% dicots comprises 40% of the flora of the Cape Peninsula. About 40 species are either endemic or rare and endangered to varying degrees. Alien woody plants that have invaded the veld over the past half-century are presenting a serious and costly management problem.

  10. Cape Romain Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Cape Romain Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of...

  11. Cape May National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cape May NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  12. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge : Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cape May NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  13. Evolutionary Stages of Submarine Volcanism in the Cape Verdean Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasnitschka, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The thesis has 3 topics: 1. Disussion of 10 Cape Verdean Seamounts based on Bathymetry 2. Introduction of a close range deep sea photogrammetry workflow 3. Application of the workflow to deep sea explosive volcanoes

  14. 2010 Cape Canaveral, Florida Single-beam Bathymetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetric surveys were conducted on July 27-29, 2010 along 37 cross-shore transects offshore from Cape Canaveral, Fla. The transects were spaced 500...

  15. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  16. Seabird abundance and behavior on Cape Peirce, Alaska, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the seabird abundance and behavior on Cape Peirce on Togiak National Wildlife Refuge. Methods and results are discussed. Species covered include...

  17. Parental Loss and Schooling: Evidence from Metropolitan Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Cally Ardington; Murray Leibbrandt

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes use of the Cape Area Panel study (CAPS), a longitudinal study of youth and their families in metropolitan Cape Town in order to broaden the empirical body of evidence of the causal impact of parental death on children’s schooling in South Africa in two dimensions. First, analysis of CAPS allows us to examine the extent to which results may generalize across geographically and socioeconomically distinct areas. Second, CAPS allows for an explicit exploration of whether the caus...

  18. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  19. John Herschel and the Cape flora, 1834 - 1839.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, J. P.

    John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.

  20. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Perko; Anđelić Tomislav; Zekić Ranko; Kovačević Milojko S.; Vasić Vladimir; Savić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  1. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, un-characterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy ...

  2. Prioritizing species conservation: does the Cape Verde kite exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A; Watson, Richard T; Mindell, David P

    2005-07-01

    The Cape Verde kite (Milvus milvus fasciicauda) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey in the world and at significant risk of extinction. For this reason there is great interest in both the taxonomic and the population status of this group. To help resolve its taxonomic status, we provide phylogenetic analyses based on three mitochondrial genes for a sampling of kites in the genus Milvus, including a broad geographical sampling of black kites (Milvus migrans), red kites (Milvus milvus), Cape Verde kite museum specimens collected between 1897 and 1924, and five kites trapped on the Cape Verde Islands during August 2002. We found that the historical Cape Verde kites, including the type specimen, were non-monophyletic and scattered within a larger red kite clade. The recently trapped kites from the Cape Verde Islands were all phylogenetically diagnosed as black kites. Our findings suggest that the traditional Cape Verde kite is not a distinctive evolutionary unit, and the case for species status, as recently suggested by others, is not supported. We do find support for recognition of at least one clade of yellow-billed kites, traditionally considered as a black kite subspecies, as a distinctive phylogenetic species. PMID:16006325

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Payment Reform: Observations from Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    Policy makers and private health plans are expanding their efforts to implement new payment models that will encourage providers to improve quality and deliver health care more efficiently. Over the past five years, payment reforms have progressed faster in Massachusetts than in any other state. The reasons include a major effort by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts to implement global payment, the presence of large integrated systems willing to take on financial risk, and a supportive state policy environment. By 2014, thirty-seven percent of Massachusetts's residents enrolled in health plans were covered under risk-based payment models tied to global budgets. But the expansion of payment reform in Massachusetts slowed between 2012 and 2015 because some commercial enrollment shifted from risk-based health maintenance organization products to fee-for-service preferred provider organization (PPO) plans, and the state Medicaid program fell short of its payment reform goals. Provider groups will not fully commit to population-based clinical models if they believe it will result in large reductions in fee-for-service revenue. The use of alternative payment models will accelerate in 2016 when Blue Cross begins implementing PPO payment reforms, but it is unknown how quickly other payers will follow. Massachusetts's experience illustrates the complexity of payment reform in pluralistic health care markets and the need for complementary efforts by public and private stakeholders. PMID:27127259

  4. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  5. Integrated solid waste management of Springfield, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1993 cost of the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for Municipal Solid Waste management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of managing MSW in Springfield; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  6. 78 FR 59962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Anthropology, Amherst, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... request to the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology. If no...

  7. Case study: Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Southeastern Massachusetts health study on leukemia around Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station: Who won?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1990, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health released their Southeastern Massachusetts health study. This is a study of leukemia incidence in 22 towns around Pilgrim NPP, for the period 1978 through 1986. Pilgrim Station had been returned to operation following a 3 year outage, from 1986-1989. During this period, some $300 million in capital outlay was invested by Boston Edison in upgrading safety systems and installing the so-Called Three Mile Island upgrades. A copy of the peer review panel report is attached to this paper. Because of the interest in the Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study in Europe. There are three major points the Panel made which can summarized: 1. No excess of leukemia was found around Pilgrim Station. 2. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study over-predicted by a factor of 90 the number of leukemia cases attributable to plant operation. 3. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study failed to account for exposure to natural background radiation, which represents far larger biological exposure than plant Operation. Given All Of This, One Might Ask Why Didn't Common Sense Prevail In The Beginning? One Answer Might Be The Energy Of The Media In Pursuing The Story And Playing It Up No Matter What. Another Answer Might Be That The Original Study Purported To Show 'What Everyone Knows'. No One Really Stopped To Question Whether The Study Was Politically Motivated, Given That The Division of Environmental Health's Budget Had Been Cut

  8. Conopeptides from Cape Verde Conus crotchii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine Cone snails of the genus Conus contain complex peptide toxins in their venom. Living in tropical habitats, they usually use the powerful venom for self-defense and prey capture. Here, we study Conus crotchii venom duct using a peptide mass-matching approach. The C. crotchii was collected on the Cape Verde archipelago in the Boa Vista Island. The venom was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. About 488 molecular masses between 700 Da and 3000 Da were searched bymatching with known peptide sequences from UniProtKB protein sequence database. Through this method we were able to identify 12 conopeptides. For validation we considered the error between the experimental molecular mass (monoisotopic and the calculated mass of less than 0.5 Da. All conopeptides detected belong to the A-, O1-, O2-, O3-, T- and D-superfamilies, which can block Ca2+ channels, inhibit K+ channels and act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. Only a few of the detected peptides have a 100% UniProtKB database similarity, suggesting that several of them could be newly discovered marine drugs.

  9. AMMONIA AND COD REMOVAL FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE USING RICE HUSK COMPOSITE ADSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Abdul Halim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD were the most two problematic parameters in the landfill leachate. In this study, a new composite adsorbent derived from rice husk ash waste is evaluated with respect to its ability to remove these contaminants from synthetic leachate. Results indicate that the new composite adsorbent is able to adsorb both ammonia and COD. It has a higher adsorption capacity for ammonia (Q = 2.2578 mg/g and an almost equal adsorption capacity for COD (Q = 2.8893 when compared with commercially activated carbon. The adsorption kinetics of this new product for ammonia and COD were primarily represented by the pseudo second-order mechanism. The overall adsorption rate of the ammonia and COD adsorption processes appears to be determined by chemisorption process. The regenerated composite adsorbent indicated higher adsorption capacities of ammonia and COD, i.e. 12.9366 mg/g and 3.1162 mg/g, respectively.

  10. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management...... unit can mask the relatively poor state of the western Baltic cod population. Second, the current fishing mortality estimates for the entire western Baltic management unit, used as basis for fisheries management, are difficult to interpret as these are highly influenced by mixing of biological...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...

  11. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI ASCII GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  12. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline, and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  13. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported by...... a scale from 0 to 5. There was no relation between texture and fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence of fish muscle could be related to the storage time. However, this relation seemed not to be induced by changes in collagen....

  14. Observations of cod behaviour reveal insights into the function and properties of the swimbladder under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kooij, Jeroen; Righton, David; Michalsen, Kathrine; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; Svedäng, Henrik; Neat, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) is a highly adaptive boreal species with a broad distribution through different ecosystems in the North Atlantic. Diet, environmental factors and population dynamics vary enormously throughout this range, and behaviours are therefore extremely plastic. However, the behaviour of cod will always be constrained by physiology, be it temperature tolerance, swimming speeds or buoyancy control. Cod, like other gadoids, are physoclists, i.e. they have ...

  15. Optimal feedback controls : comparative evaluation of the cod fisheries in Denmark, Iceland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Arnason, Ragnar; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Vestergaard, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative efficiency of the fish harvesting policies of Iceland, Norway and Denmark. We have chosen to concentrate on the cod fishery as this is the single most important fishery in all three countries. The three nations conduct their cod fisheries in quite different contexts. First, there is a difference in national control over the respective fisheries. Iceland has been in virtual sole control of her cod fishery. Norway, on the other hand, shares h...

  16. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh penetra......-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. Finally, based on the results obtained, ideas to improve the size selection of cod in towed gear are presented....

  17. Population genetic structure in gadoid fish with focus on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    OpenAIRE

    Guðni Magnús Eiríksson 1970

    2015-01-01

    In the present study genetic variation and population genetic structure in spawning Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, around Iceland was examined. Earlier research on population genetic structure in cod has not been conclusive and the use of different molecular methods have shown different patterns. It is important to determine why different methods show different patterns in order to describe the population genetic structure in cod. In the present study both microsatellite DNA variation and mitoch...

  18. Reproduction and winter biology of polar cod Boreogadus saida from Svalbard waters

    OpenAIRE

    Korshunova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered to be a key species in the Arctic marine ecosystems. Yet detailed or even basic knowledge regarding its biology and adaptations, especially during the polar night, are in many cases poor. No field data is presently available on the gonad development of polar cod, its reproductive biology and associated bioenergetics. Accordingly, polar cod was sampled at different locations in Svalbard waters in August, September, November and January. Gonadosomatic ...

  19. System Dynamics Modeling of the Massachusetts SREC Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rickerson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As states across the country struggle to increase local development of renewable energy, policymakers are turning to innovative program designs to meet their renewable electricity targets. Massachusetts recently adopted a unique, auction-based price support mechanism for the solar portion of its renewable portfolio standard. During the program development process, the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER used system dynamics to simulate potential solar renewable energy certificate market conditions under the proposed regulations. The modeling exercise resulted in several program design changes that will lead to a more stable certificate market. System dynamics can be a useful tool for developing and improving sustainability programs.

  20. 76 FR 14067 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, Amherst...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Wampanoag Tribe, Massachusetts; Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) of Massachusetts; and the Assonet... accounts and Wampanoag oral history, indicate that the Wampanoag people and their allies, through marriage...; Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) of Massachusetts; and the Assonet Band of the Wampanoag...

  1. A review of the battle for food in the Barents Sea: cod vs. marine mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Bogstad, Bjarte; Gjøsæter, Harald; Haug, Tore; Lindstrøm, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Cod, harp seal and minke whale are the main top predators in the Barents Sea ecosystem. In the last decade, the abundance of cod has increased considerably, and is at a record high level. In spite of this, the growth and condition of cod has remained rather stable, although some decrease is seen in size at age of large, mature cod. During the same period, the abundance of harp seals has declined whereas the minke whale stock has been at a stable level. The body condition (blubber thickness) o...

  2. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland.Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  3. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur;

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract and fractions towards haemoglobin- (Hb-) catalysed lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle system and cod protein isolates during ice storage were examined. The extract and fractions were characterised in terms of total phlorotannin content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl...... washed cod muscle and protein isolates, phlorotannin-enriched ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed higher inhibitory effect than crude 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract. The addition of oligomeric phlorotannin-rich subfraction (LH-2) separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, completely inhibited the...

  4. Cruise Report: Summer 2008 Ecological Assessment of Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER NF-08-09-CCEHBR (June 14-June 21, 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Summary: This cruise report is a summary of a field survey conducted within the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS), located between Cape Cod and Cape Ann at the mouth of Massachusetts Bay. The survey was conducted June 14 – June 21, 2008 on NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER Cruise NF-08-09-CCEHBR. Multiple indicators of ecological condition and human dimensions were sampled synoptically at each of 30 stations throughout SBNMS using a random probabilistic sampling design. Samples we...

  5. Measurement of sewage COD and BOD using fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the biodegradable component of wastewater is measured by a series of wet chemical methods, of which the most important is considered to be the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) TEST. The BOD test is inadequate for effective and efficient process control because of the time required to complete the test (5 days) and the difficulty in achieving consistently accurate measurements. Other chemical tests such as the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), despite being more rapid the the Bod test, do not distinguish between 'biodegradable' and 'non-biodegradable' organic matter. We designed fluorescence instrument that was excited by UV-lamp. The biodegradable chromophoric constant species are considered to be the major contributors to the overall fluorescence within 300-600 nm (using 244 nm excitation). The total intensity of this band has been found to have a good linear correlation (r=0.99) with the COD and BOD parameters. CCD and PMT are used as the fluorescence detectors and the experimental results of correlation were compared.

  6. Treatment of COD analysis liquid wastes generated in environmental laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mañunga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available COD analysis is often carried out in environmental labs. Its wastes are considered hazardous due to the content of metals such as Cr, Ag and Hg; treating these wastes is considered complex and expensive. The experimental results of metal ion precipitation in COD wastes with affordable chemical products are reported in this work. Cr (VI was chemically reduced by adding 200 mg.L-1 of glucose to Cr (III. Final Cr (VI concentration was less than 0.5 mg.L-1. Cr (III was precipitated as a metallic hydroxide by adding NaOH and Ag was reduced to less than 0.2 mg.L-1 by adding 2 g.L-1 of NaCl. Hg was reduced to less than 0.005 mg.L-1 with 10 g.L-1 of FeS. The proposed reduction-precipitation methodology allowed minimising the liquid residue’s hazardous characteristics so that it complied with the maximum allowable values established in Chapter 6, Article 74 of Decree 1594/1984 that regulates the use of water and liquid residues.

  7. Digestibility of chitin in cod, Gadus morhua, in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danulat, Eva

    1987-12-01

    Sixteen cod, Gadus morhua (L.), were individually fed a single ration of shrimps, Crangon allmanni. Four fish were killed and examined 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the fish had been fed. Chitinase activities were measured in the extracts of stomach contents, stomach tissue, pyloric caecae, intestinal contents and intestinal tissue. The level of enzyme activity in different parts of the digestive tract was shown to be dependent on the phase of the digestive process. High concentrations of the chitin degradation product N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were determined in the stomach and in the intestinal contents. Based on the chitin concentration in the food organisms and the individual food uptake, the amount of chitin consumed by each fish could be calculated. Only up to 9% of the ingested chitin was recovered from the intestinal contents of the fish at any given time after feeding (6, 12, 24 and 48 h). In addition, only 2.4% of the chitin consumed with the food could be recovered in the collected faeces of the fish. The 4 cod killed 48 h after feeding had completely emptied their stomach. Chitin digestion in these fish was calculated to have been 90%.

  8. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua hemoglobin genes: multiplicity and polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamperl A Kurt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin (Hb polymorphism, assessed by protein gel electrophoresis, has been used almost exclusively to characterize the genetic structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua populations and to establish correlations with phenotypic traits such as Hb oxygen binding capacity, temperature tolerance and growth characteristics. The genetic system used to explain the results of gel electrophoresis entails the presence of one polymorphic locus with two major alleles (HbI-1; HbI-2. However, vertebrates have more than one gene encoding Hbs and recent studies have reported that more than one Hb gene is present in Atlantic cod. These observations prompted us to re-evaluate the number of Hb genes expressed in Atlantic cod, and to perform an in depth search for polymorphisms that might produce relevant phenotypes for breeding programs. Results Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs led to the identification of nine distinct Hb transcripts; four corresponding to the α Hb gene family and five to the β Hb gene family. To gain insights about the Hb genes encoding these transcripts, genomic sequence data was generated from heterozygous (HbI-1/2 parents and fifteen progeny; five of each HbI type, i.e., HbI-1/1, HbI-1/2 and HbI-2/2. β Hb genes displayed more polymorphism than α Hb genes. Two major allele types (β1A and β1B that differ by two linked non-synonymous substitutions (Met55Val and Lys62Ala were found in the β1 Hb gene, and the distribution of these β1A and β1B alleles among individuals was congruent with that of the HbI-1 and HbI-2 alleles determined by protein gel electrophoresis. RT-PCR and Q-PCR analysis of the nine Hb genes indicates that all genes are expressed in adult fish, but their level of expression varies greatly; higher expression of almost all Hb genes was found in individuals displaying the HbI-2/2 electrophoretic type. Conclusion This study indicates that more Hb genes are present and expressed in adult

  9. Report of findings: Contaminant study of the environment surrounding the Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site (Cape Romanzof) contains many petroleum-related spills and hazardous substances. Therefore, in 1987 and 1988 a field study...

  10. About Massachusetts Colleges Online June 2006 Sharing Best Practices Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Ialenti, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes trends and issues in online learning in the United States of America as reflected in the presentations of the Massachusetts Colleges Online “Sharing Best Practices in E-Learning” Conference held on June 13-14, 2006.

  11. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  12. Cost effectiveness of the 1995 model energy code in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1995 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in Massachusetts. The goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1995 MEC to the energy conservation requirements of the Massachusetts State Building Code-based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each.. This comparison was performed for three cities representing three geographical regions of Massachusetts--Boston, Worcester, and Pittsfield. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily condominium unit. Natural gas, oil, and electric resistance heating were examined. The Massachusetts state code has much more stringent requirements if electric resistance heating is used rather than other heating fuels and/or equipment types. The MEC requirements do not vary by fuel type. For single-family homes, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are more energy-efficient than the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. For multifamily housing, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are approximately equally energy-efficient to the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. The 1995 MEC is generally not more stringent than the electric resistance requirements of the state code, in fact; for multifamily buildings the 1995 MEC is much less stringent.

  13. Primary Supervision: Massachusetts General Hospital's child and adolescent psychiatry seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes "Primary Supervision", a seminar he has led for approximately 20 years, which is designed for the entire class of nine first-year residents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry training at Massachusetts General Hospital. The seminar meets for 1 hour each week throughout the first year. Through 900 hours of…

  14. Access and use of information resources by Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.R. [Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Boston (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the way in which the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection uses risk assessment to implement the state`s environmental laws. It focuses on the Office of Research and Standards, which was created to provide information on adverse health effects of environmental contaminants, to recommend exposure levels, and to direct and manage research programs.

  15. Education Finance Reform, Local Behavior, and Student Performance in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yinger, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact on student performance of the education finance reform enacted in 1993 in Massachusetts and of school districts' institutional structure. Estimating education expenditure and demand functions, this study presents evidence that changes in the state education aid following the education reform resulted in significantly…

  16. The Cost of Employment Discrimination against Transgender Residents of Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jody L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgender residents of Massachusetts have reported experiencing discrimination in employment. Loss of employment due to anti-transgender bias often means lost wages, lost health insurance coverage, and housing instability. This study estimates that the impact of discrimination is likely to cost the Commonwealth millions of dollars each year.

  17. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have occurred…

  18. Religious and secular Cape Malay Afrikaans: Literary varieties used by Shaykh Hanif Edwards (1906-1958)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Luffin; Gerald Stell; Muttaqin Rakiep

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the White and Christian-dominated Afrikaans language movements, followed by apartheid, little attention has been paid to an Afrikaans literary variety used among Muslim Cape Coloureds, a group often referred to as ‘Cape Malays’. Descending mainly from Asian slaves brought by the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, Dutch East India Company), and bearing the marks of cohabitation with non-Asian populations at the Cape, the Cape Malays at an early stage developed a distinct...

  19. Feeding opportunities of larval and juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) in a Greenlandic fjord: temporal and spatial linkages between cod and their preferred prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Malanski, Evandro; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2014-01-01

    . The present analysis is based on nine cruises each covering 5 stations visited between 24 May and 5 August 2010 comparing zooplankton abundance, cod gut content and distribution patterns. Cod 4–25 mm in length preferred prey of about 5 % of their own length. During ontogeny, their preferences changed......Feeding of fish depends on a spatial and temporal match with prey, and since larval and juvenile feeding can be highly selective, their preferences for given prey sizes and taxa should be considered when quantifying the actual availability of potential prey. We investigated the diet and prey...... preferences of the early-life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to quantify the availability of prey during a spring-summer season in a West Greenlandic fjord. We hypothesized that abundances of larval and juvenile cod at size were synchronized to optimal availability of preferred prey in space and time...

  20. 75 FR 69700 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road... Environmental Impact Statement for the Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan. SUMMARY... Cape Hatteras National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan/ FEIS). The...

  1. 78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations to allow the importation of cape gooseberry from Colombia into the United States. As a condition... importation of cape gooseberry from Colombia into the United States while continuing to provide...

  2. 75 FR 10500 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in... review and comment of an EA and Draft FONNSI prepared by MMS for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the...

  3. 75 FR 23798 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in...), announces the availability of an EA and FONNSI for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound... Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the physical, biological,...

  4. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary to......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  5. Hydrolysis of Marine Cod (Gadus Morhua) Head - Utilization of rest raw material from cod for production of ingredients for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Meldstad, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possibility of utilizing frozen marine cod head for further processing into high-quality and high-yield fish protein hydrolysates. The project included determination of the effect of mincing versus whole head, frozen storage and thawing methods on the composition and yield of FPH. The results show that freezing and thawing of cod head lead to small changes in the composition of raw material and consequently the resulting ...

  6. Notes on the Vegetation of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Though the Cape Flats, adjoining Cape Town, were among the first explored parts o f South Africa, their vegetation, rapidly being altered by encroachment o f alien plants, has not been described before. In these notes, five inland and four coastal plant communities, delineated by habitat, are described; their relationships with one another and with coast-flats vegetation elsewhere are suggested. Observations on means of regeneration after fire show that the woody, tropical-derived element regenerates rapidly from coppice, while the “fynbos” or temperate sclerophyll element contains many seed-regenerating species. Succession in the fynbos is thus more complex and prolonged.

  7. Profiling participants of the Cape Argus Cycle Tour / Helga Streicher

    OpenAIRE

    Streicher, Helga

    2009-01-01

    Sport tourism, as a segment of tourism, is one of the fastest growing industries. Sport events have grown enormously over the last two decades and, as a part of sport tourism, they are a very powerful tool that is used to market a country. Sport tourism also creates an internationally recognised image and attracts tourists from all over the world. One of the internationally recognised sport events held annually in Cape Town is the Pick In Pay Cape Argus Cycle Tour (ACT). Originally starte...

  8. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  9. L’écodéveloppement participatif en question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Dejouhanet

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Si les politiques forestières indiennes ont évolué d’un paradigme directif à un paradigme participatif, les aires protégées sont encore gérées par des textes de loi qui privilégient la séparation entre activités humaines et espaces à protéger. L’écodéveloppement, soutenu par la Banque Mondiale, se voulait un moyen de favoriser des activités alternatives à l’exploitation des ressources et de faire participer les populations à la protection de leur environnement. Lancé en 2001 dans la réserve naturelle de Parambikulam au Kérala, ses résultats quelques années après sont peu concluants. Alors qu’un rapport de 2003 accuse le délitement social des populations concernées, cet article insiste davantage sur l’inadaptation des projets des comités d’écodéveloppement au contexte des villages ; le cliché essentialiste attaché aux populations adivasi constitue une vision a-historique qui ne permet pas de penser le développement aujourd’hui. L’écodéveloppement, s’il veut atteindre ses objectifs, doit permettre une réelle négociation entre acteurs des aires protégées et proposer des compromis réalistes entre limitation des activités et survie des populations.While Indian forest policies have evolved from a directive paradigm to a participative one, protected areas are still managed by legislative acts, which advocate a clear separation between human activities and areas to be protected. Eco-development financed by the World Bank was planned as a tool for developing alternative activities to resource exploitation and for involving local populations in environment protection through participation. Started in 2001 in the Wildlife Sanctuary of Parambikulam in Kerala, its results few years after are rather inconclusive. While a report in 2003 was accusing the social disintegration of concerned people, I am more stressing on the inappropriateness of EDC to villages’ context. The essentialist clich

  10. Estimating abundances of 0-group western Baltic cod by using pound net fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Robert; Stepputtis, Daniel; Storr-Paulsen, Marie; Weigelt, Ronny; Hammer, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Nearshore 0-group western Baltic cod are frequently caught as bycatch in the commercial pound net fishery. Pound net fishermen from the Danish Isle of Funen and Lolland and the German Isle of Fehmarn have recorded their catches of small cod between September and December 2008. Abundance patterns...

  11. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    recruitment of the West Greenland cod stock. It is also shown that cod eggs and larvae occasionally drift from Southwest Iceland across the Denmark Strait to the East Greenland shelf from where a subsequent transport and immigration of juveniles to West Greenland waters can occur. Larval transport across the...

  12. Application of the crack tip opening displacement method (COD) to the study of steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C.O.D. method was applied to steel welded plates (steel 15 MDV-4-05 intended for pressure vessels). In order to select a welding technique, the impact strength of various welded joints at different temperatures was compared with the respective value of C.O.D. for notches located in the melted zone or in the heat affected zone

  13. Characterization of the Escherichia coli codBA operon encoding cytosine permease and cytosine deaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, S; Kilstrup, M; Barilla, K;

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 3.1 kb segment carrying the cytosine deaminase gene (codA) from Escherichia coli was determined. The sequence revealed the presence of two open reading frames, the first (codB) specifying a highly hydrophobic polypeptide and the second specifying cytosine deaminase. A...

  14. Characterization of relA and codY mutants of Listeria monocytogenes: identification of the CodY regulon and its role in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hayley J; Pearce, David M; Glenn, Sarah; Taylor, Clare M; Kuhn, Michael; Sonenshein, Abraham L; Andrew, Peter W; Roberts, Ian S

    2007-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular parasite and the causative organism of human listeriosis. In this article we demonstrate that L. monocytogenes encodes a functional member of the CodY family of global regulatory proteins that is responsive to both GTP and branched chain amino acids. By transcript analyses we identified the CodY regulon in L. monocytogenes and demonstrated that it comprises genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nitrogen assimilation as well as genes involved in sugar uptake and incorporation, indicating a role for CodY in L. monocytogenes in both carbon and nitrogen assimilation. A DeltarelA mutation reduced expression of the CodY regulon in early stationary phase and introduction of a DeltacodY mutation into a DeltarelA strain restored virulence. These data indicate that the avirulence of the DeltarelA mutant can in part be explained by the continued repression of the CodY regulon. The phenotypes of DeltarelA and DeltacodY mutants were studied in J774.A1 and Caco-2 cells and the DeltarelA mutation shown to effect intracellular growth. These results provide the first direct evidence that the activity of a CodY-type protein influences pathogenesis and provides new information on the physiological adaptation of L. monocytogenes to post-exponential phase growth and virulence. PMID:17302820

  15. Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Åkesson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.

  16. Cod Gadus morhua and climate change: processes, productivity and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    , predators, parasites and diseases are much more difficult to estimate and predict. Climate can affect all life-history stages through direct and indirect processes and although the consequences in terms of growth, survival and reproductive output can be monitored, it is often difficult to determine...... the causes. Investigation of cod Gadus morhua populations across the whole North Atlantic Ocean has shown large-scale patterns of change in productivity due to lower individual growth and condition, caused by large-scale climate forcing. If a population is being heavily exploited then a drop in productivity...... can push it into decline unless the level of fishing is reduced: the idea of a stable carrying capacity is a dangerous myth. Overexploitation can be avoided by keeping fishing mortality low and by monitoring and responding rapidly to changes in productivity. There are signs that this lesson has been...

  17. Automatic feeding and Harvesting of Juvenile Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua L. in a Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Øiestad

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of juvenile Atlantic cod has been carried out since 1980 in a saltwater pond. A break-through was obtained in 1983 with high survival rates of cod larvae to metamorphosis. In 1985 we made progress in two fiels, reduced cannibalism and automatic harvesting. Juvenile cod formed large schools while fed dry pellets in the currents set up by five propellers. An underwater loudspeaker was programmed to give sound pulses just before feeding. During harvesting dry pellets were released inside a fish trap while giving the sound signals the cod juveniles were conditioned to. The cod readily entered the trap and a computer-controlled fish pump transported the fish from the fish trap into a storing tank and grading grids. The trap gradually emptied the pond of fish and more than 80

  18. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans Harald; Eero, Margit; Temming, Axel

    Cod (Gadus morhua L.) recruitment success in the central Baltic Sea is influenced by various abiotic and biotic factors, which include ambient salinity and oxygen conditions as well as predation pressure on early life stages by planktivore clupeids, such as sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring...... (Clupea harengus). After a period of very low recruitment and stock size during the 1990s–early 2000s, the eastern Baltic cod stock exhibits signs of recovery, at least partly owing to several stronger year classes formed in recent years. In this paper we investigate whether or not changes in predation...... pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  19. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    2012-01-01

    of Baltic cod from spring/early summer to midsummer since the early 1990s remain unresolved and may partly be diet related. This study demonstrated that a substantial amount of lipid was invested in cod ovarian development, and that lipid composition varied substantially with the reproductive cycle......This study describes lipid composition and antioxidants of Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. during the reproductive cycle, and investigates whether they reflect its dominant prey and whether levels of fatty acids important for reproductive performance were low. Reasons for a shift in peak spawning time...... in cod diet, while the level of 16:1n-7 and astaxanthin indicated the presence of the isopod Saduria entomon in cod diet. It is likely that food web alterations in the Baltic ecosystem related to environmental and hydrographic changes caused a decrease in ARA availability. Low ARA content coincides...

  20. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) CC chemokines: Diversity and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Tudor; Stone, Cynthia; Rise, Matthew L; Bowman, Sharen; Johnson, Stewart C

    2010-08-01

    Chemokines are a large, diverse group of small cytokines that can be classified into several families, including the CC chemokines that are characterized by two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. CC chemokines play a pivotal role in host defense mechanisms by inducing leukocyte chemotaxis under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Analysis of CC chemokines from teleost fishes indicates that the number of CC chemokine genes and their tissue expression patterns vary largely in this group of vertebrates. Here we describe 32 distinct CC chemokine sequences from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) identified by analysis of approximately 206,000 ESTs. Phylogenetic analysis of Atlantic cod CC chemokines placed these sequences in seven clusters, most likely resulting from species-specific gene duplications, and two unique sequences; 12 of these CC chemokines, including at least one member of each cluster, were analyzed by QPCR using four immune-related tissues (head kidney, liver, spleen and blood) obtained from unstimulated, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC)-stimulated and formalin-killed atypical Aeromonas salmonicida-stimulated individuals. EST abundance and QPCR analysis indicate that the expression of closely related CC chemokines GmSCYA101 and GmSCYA102, GmSCYA108 and GmSCYA109 or GmSCYA122 and GmSCYA124 can be highly tissue-specific despite substantial sequence identity. Stimulation with the viral mimic pIC or formalin-killed atypical A. salmonicida resulted in increased expression of most of the CC chemokines, indicating that they can be regarded as either inducible (inflammatory) or dual-function rather than constitutive (homeostatic). Tissue specificity, and the level of induction, varied broadly; for example, GmSCYA123 was at least 4-fold up-regulated by both inducers in all tissues analyzed, whereas pIC increased the expression of GmSCYA124 in liver over 1500 times. PMID:20381521

  1. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer; Venter, Jan A; Colleen T Downs

    2015-01-01

    Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9) were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mo...

  2. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian; Olsvik, P.A.; Hansen, M.M.; Loeschcke, V.

    salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na...... findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  3. Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter Sampled in Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta Almeida, Susana; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Pio, Casimiro; Nunes, Teresa; Cardoso, João; Cerqueira, Mário; Reis, Miguel; Chaves, Paula Cristina; Taborda, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Due to its geographical position, Cape Verde is highly affected by the transport of dust from the Sahara desert. Consequently, very high concentrations of particles are registered in this archipelago, being essential to elucidate the role that Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality, human health, wellbeing, visibility, tourism and economy. The objective of this study was to identify the main sources and origins of particles sampled in Cape Verde. PM10 was sampled during 2011 and chemical characterization of particles was performed by Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission for elemental measurements, by Ion Chromatography for the determination of water soluble ions and by a Thermal-optical system for the measurement of carbonaceous aerosol. Source apportionment was performed by integrating Positive Matrix Factorization and Backward Trajectory Analysis. Results showed that in average 68% of the PM10 mass in Cape Verde had a natural origin, being 48% associated with the soil and 20% associated with the sea. During the transport of dust from the Sahara desert the contribution of mineral aerosol increased significantly (69% during periods affected by trajectories provided from Sahara desert versus 13% during periods affected by local sources).

  4. Cape Mendocino, CA Earthquakes, April 25 & 26, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes, magnitudes 6.6 and 6.7 occurred the next morning. The...

  5. A Posteriori Integration of University CAPE Software Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, Gregor; Fillinger, Sandra; Wozny, Guenter;

    2015-01-01

    This contribution deals with the mutual integration of existing CAPE software products developed at different universities in Germany, Denmark, and Italy. After the motivation MOSAIC is presented as the bridge building the connection between the modelling tool ICAS-MoT and the numerical processing...

  6. Training Corporate Outsiders: Doing It the Cape Breton Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Judith A.

    This report provides culture-specific information about Cape Breton Island in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada, and describes a communication skills training model that complements its cultural foundation. Data in the report are based on the researcher's experience, on interviews with several trainers and directors of training, and on the…

  7. ADMIRAL ELPHINSTONE AND THE CONQUEST AND DEFENCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 1795-96

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thean Potgieter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vice Admiral of the Blue the Honourable Sir George Keith Elphinstone(1746-1823 was appointed as commander of the British force dispatched to capturethe Cape of Good Hope in 1795. As an experienced naval officer and a capablecommander acquainted with the Cape and the Far East, he was the correct choice tocommand the expedition. Due to the strategic location of the Cape of Good Hope –literally halfway on the sea route to the East – it was vital for maritimecommunications, and Britain had to ensure that the Cape did not fall into Frenchhands. To secure a safe base on the sea route to the East, a British expeditionary forcewas sent to the Cape. The British task force arrived in False Bay on 11 June 1795 andwhen negotiations with the Dutch authorities at the Cape failed, a military campaigncommenced that resulted in the capitulation of the Cape on 16 September 1795. InAugust 1796, when a Dutch squadron under the command of Rear Admiral E. Lucasanchored in Saldanha Bay, Elphinstone speedily neutralised the threat, forcing Lucasto surrender. After a very successful service period at the Cape, Elphinstone returnedto Britain on 7 October 1796. He conducted the defence of the Cape with vigour andactively sought out his enemy, confirming British control of the Cape and the virtualimpossibility of taking back the Cape with force of arms.

  8. Otter Work in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Somers

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results and secondly, to contribute to our understanding of carnivore behavioural ecology.The first stage in determining the distribution and status of spotted-necked otters and Cape clawless otters, in South Africa, and possible effects of environmental variants have, is almost complete. A detailed autecological study of Cape clawless otters in two rivers is now the main focus of the project. Six otters have had radio transmitters implanted: MP/300/L, implantable transmitter, 40g 80 x 20 mm diameter cylinder (Telonics Inc., Arizona, USA. Since implanting, one male has died of unknown causes. A post mortem revealed total healing from the operation. Much new behavioural and ecological information has been gained by the use of the radio tracking. One adult male has a home range of at least 45 km, much more than first expected for the species. Work has also been done in the Eastern Cape Province determining the diet of three coexisting carnivores, spotted-necked otters, Cape clawless otters and water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus. This work is about to be submitted for publication. We thank the Southern African Nature Foundation (WWF, for providing funds, and Mazda Wildlife Fund for providing a vehicle for the project.

  9. IN and CCN Measurements on RV Polarstern and Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, André; Herenz, Paul; Henning, Silvia; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Two field campaigns, one situated on RV Polarstern (Oct. - Dec. 2015) and one on the Cape Verde islands (Jan. - Feb. 2016) measuring ice nuclei (IN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations as a function of supersaturation and temperature are presented. The Polarstern cruise from Bremerhaven to Cape Town yields a cross section of IN and CCN concentrations from 54°N to 35°S and passes the Cape Verde Islands at 15°N. Measurements were conducted using the commercial CCNC and SPIN instruments from DMT. During both campaigns, a comprehensive set of aerosol characterization data including size distribution, optical properties and chemical information were measured in parallel. The ship based measurements provide a measure of variability in IN/CCN concentration with geographic position. As an example a clear influence on IN and CCN number concentration of the Saharan desert dust outflow between the Canary Islands and Cape Verde or the continental aerosol from Europe and South Africa was observed. The measurements on Cape Verde provide information on the temporal variability at a fixed position varying between clean marine and dust influenced conditions. Both datasets are related to auxiliary data of aerosol size distribution and chemical composition. The datasets are used to distinguish the influence of local sources and background concentration of IN/CCN. By combining of the geographically fix measurements with the geographical cross section, typical ranges of IN and CCN concentration are derived. The datasets will be part of the BACCHUS database thereby providing valuable input for future climate modeling activities.

  10. The Massachusetts Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector: structure and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischko, Amy M; Bachman, Sara S; Vangeli, Alyssa

    2009-05-01

    The Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector Authority is the centerpiece of Massachusetts' ambitious health care reforms, which were implemented beginning in 2006. The Connector is an independent quasi-governmental agency created by the Massachusetts legislature to facilitate the purchase of affordable, high-quality health insurance by small businesses and individuals without access to employer-sponsored coverage. This issue brief describes the structure and functions of the Connector, providing a primer to policymakers interested in exploring similar reforms at the state and national level. The authors describe how the Connector works to promote administrative ease, eliminate paperwork, offer portability of coverage, and provide some standardization and choice of plans. National policymakers looking to achieve similar policy goals may find some of the structural components and functions of the Connector to be transferable to a national health reform model, say the authors. PMID:19492496

  11. Designing and regulating health insurance exchanges: lessons from Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Keith M Marzilli; Starc, Amanda

    The Massachusetts health care reform provides preliminary evidence on the function of health insurance exchanges and individual insurance markets. This paper describes the type of products consumers choose and the dynamics of consumer choice. Evidence shows that choice architecture, including product standardization and the use of heuristics (rules of thumb), affects choice. In addition, while consumers often choose less generous plans in the exchange than in traditional employer-sponsored insurance, there is considerable heterogeneity in consumer demand, as well as some evidence of adverse selection. We examine the role of imperfect competition between insurers, and document the impact of pricing and product regulation on the level and distribution of premiums. Given our extensive choice data, we synthesize the evidence of the Massachusetts exchange to inform the design and regulation on other exchanges. PMID:23469676

  12. Occupational health profile of Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Roche, Andrea Gouveia

    2013-01-01

    The occupational health and safety conditions of a sample of Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts are examined in this article. We administered a main survey to a convenience sample of 626 Brazilian immigrant workers of all trades and a supplemental survey to 163 Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts in 2005 and 2006. Survey questions addressed housecleaner demographics, socioeconomic status, working conditions, and hazards of housecleaning work. Housecleaners are exposed to a variety of ergonomic, chemical, and biological hazards. Professional housecleaners' work is fast-paced, requires awkward postures, and involves repetitive movements, use of force, and heavy lifting. The most common symptoms reported include back pain, and pain in the muscles, arms, legs, neck, shoulder, hands, fingers, and feet. To reduce exposures to occupational hazards, we propose the substitution of green cleaners for toxic chemical cleaning products, the use of ergonomic equipment, the use of personal protective equipment, and changes in work organization. PMID:24401486

  13. Sea-floor texture and physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf from Salisbury to Nahant, Massachusetts, including the Merrimack Embayment and Western Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    A series of maps that describe the distribution and texture of sea-floor sediments and physiographic zones of Massachusetts State waters from Nahant to Salisbury, Massachusetts, including western Massachusetts Bay, have been produced by using high-resolution geophysical data (interferometric and multibeam swath bathymetry, lidar bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection profiles), sediment samples, and bottom photographs. These interpretations are intended to aid statewide efforts to inventory and manage coastal and marine resources, link with existing data interpretations, and provide information for research focused on coastal evolution and environmental change. Marine geologic mapping of the inner continental shelf of Massachusetts is a statewide cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management.

  14. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Effect of reflux ratio on COD and nitrogen removals from coke plant wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X L; Hu, X B; Wang, Z; Ding, L L; Ren, H Q

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic-moving bed biofilm reactor (A1-A2-O-MBBR) system was undertaken to treat coke plant wastewaters from two different factories (wastewater A and B). Wastewater B had higher BOD5/COD ratio and COD/TN ratio than wastewater A. The effects of reflux ratios on COD, TN and NH3-N removals were studied. Results indicated that, with the reflux ratio increased from 2 to 5, COD removals of wastewater A and wastewater B increased from 57.4% to 72.6% and 78.2% to 88.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, TN removals were also increased accompanying reflux ratio rise, from 53.1% to 74.4% for wastewater A and 64.2% to 83.5% for wastewater B. At the same reflux ratio, compared with wastewater A, higher COD and TN removal efficiencies were observed in wastewater B, which had higher BOD5/COD and COD/TN ratio. Reflux ratio had no significant influence on NH3-N removal; 99.0% of the overall NH3-N removal efficiency was achieved by the system for both coke plant wastewaters at any tested reflux ratio. MBBR was effective in NH3-N removal, and about 95% of the NH3-N was removed in the MBBR. PMID:20555197

  16. Hydroacoustic ex situ target strength measurements on juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo

    1999-01-01

    Most TS-measurements on fish have been carried out for 38 kHz, and the existing TS algorithm for 120 kHz on cod is based on measurements on stunned fish. The main objective of these experiments was to establish an empirical estimate of the relation between acoustic reflection (target strength, TS...... relationship is compared to other TS measurements on juvenile cod in literature. TS at 120 kHz for the investigated cod size range seems to decrease faster by length than the 20 logL relation used for larger cod. The results were used to check the expected range limits of TS for juvenile cod during survey, and......) and length of live juvenile cod (7-10 cm and 15-20 cm) at 120 kHz. This was done by recording the variation in TS of freely swimming cod tracking single fish targets for the two size groups within the acoustic beam held. The experiment was set up in an open air 2000 m(3) tank where the small 5-10 cm...

  17. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks.

  18. Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Eric H.; Freund, Karen M; Posner, Michael A.; David, Michele M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used ...

  19. Evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-free Workplace Law

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, DMD, MPH, Gregory N; Carpenter, MS, Carrie; Alpert, ScM., BSc, Hillel R.; Skeer, MSW, MPH, Margie; Travers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES This report describes an evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-Free Workplace Law. The main objectives were to: (1) assess the change in indoor air quality that occurred in a sample of hospitality venues pre and post the law; (2) determine compliance with the law after implementation; and (3) evaluate economic changes pre and post the law, including patronage, sales revenue, and employment rates.

  20. Reorganization of craniofacial/cleft care delivery: the Massachusetts experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, G L; Hagberg, N; Jakubiak, C; Temple, J

    1993-05-01

    Until 1989, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts operated a mandated care program known as Services for Handicapped Children (SHC) for children with cleft lip/palate or craniofacial anomalies. During the mid 1980s, the federal government reduced its block grant funds and encouraged the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to develop Project SERVE to address this changing fiscal reality. The principal outcome of Project SERVE was the recommendation that the SHC direct care programs, including all craniofacial and cleft palate clinics, should be dismantled over a number of years. However, due to the economic recession, all government funding was suddenly withdrawn from cleft palate teams and the state-run SHC clinics were abruptly dissolved. To treat patients left without coordinated care, former team members reassembled and began a new craniofacial team based at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Difficulties with the transition of the clinic included recruiting and retaining team members; remuneration procedures for team members; maintenance of patient records previously kept by the state; coordination of clinical/clerical responsibilities; identifying a physical locale to hold the clinics; and solicitation of referring health care provider referrals and follow-up. All these issues required specific interventions that are presented in this paper. Project SERVE, begun under federal auspices, in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, has recently been promoted as a model for a new and improved approach to the management of cleft palate and craniofacial care delivery nationwide. Awareness of the potential for abrupt, radical change in funding for federally mandated cleft/craniofacial care is essential, and a successful transition to a medical center-based model is possible using the procedures established at our center. PMID:8338866

  1. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    non-additive threshold models. In contrast to previous studies on recruitment dynamics of Kattegat cod Gadus morhua, we found that recruitment variability may be explained by a combination of the size of the spawning stock and external conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature and oxygen concentrations......Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using...

  2. Amino acid sequence of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Nielsen, Berit Noesgaard; Højrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic cod is a marine fish that lives at low temperatures of 0-10 degrees C and contains a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase (AP). Preparations of AP from either the lower part of the intestines or the pyloric caeca area were subjected to proteolytic digestion, mass spectrometry and amino acid...... sequencing by Edman degradation. The primary structure exhibits greatest similarity to human tissue non-specific AP (80%), and approximately 30% similarity to AP from Escherichia coli. The key residues required for catalysis are conserved in the cod AP, except for the third metal binding site, where cod AP...

  3. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, Ditte;

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), Storage time (short/extended) and Storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European...... countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives/barriers and fish purchase behaviour was collected. The aim was to investigate how sensory quality corresponded to consumers liking of different cod products and to study the...

  4. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne; Støttrup, Josianne; Buchmann, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested to be...... related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  5. Evaluation of Electrical Stunning of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Turbot (Psetta maxima) in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Vis, van de, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess electrical stunning of Atlantic cod and turbot in seawater to develop a protocol for the process of stunning and killing. An induced general epileptiform insult (unconscious) had a duration of 40 ± 27 s (n =14) in cod (2.6 ± 0.5 kg) and 34 ± 18 s (n = 19) in turbot (520 ± 65 g). Seven cod and 3 turbot displayed a physical reaction, and 11 turbot registered an electroencephalogram (EEG) response to pain stimuli administered 30 s post-stun. The heart rate was...

  6. A GIS Library of Multibeam Data for Massachusetts Bay and the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Offshore of Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Valentine, Page C.; Middleton, Tammie J.; Danforth, William W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has mapped the sea floor of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary and western Massachusetts Bay, offshore of Boston, Massachusetts (figure 1a, figure 1b). The mapping was carried out using a Simrad Subsea EM1000 Multibeam Echo Sounder (95 kHz) on the Frederick G. Creed on four cruises between 1994 and 1998. The mapping was conducted in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and with support from the Canadian Hydrographic Service and the University of New Brunswick. This GIS Library contains images and grids of bathymetry, shaded relief bathymetry, and backscatter intensity data from these surveys in an Environmental Systems Research Institute (http://www.esri.com) (ESRI) ArcMap 9.1 Geographic Information System (GIS) project. The shapefiles, images, grids and associated metadata may also be downloaded individually. Descriptions and interpretations of the data are available in a series of published maps.

  7. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten;

    1998-01-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified...... atmospheres with and without added oxygen. The shelf life of 11 to 12 days in the fresh MAP cod was extended to more than 20 days in the thawed MAP cod at 2 degrees C. This shelf life extension was most likely due to the inactivation of the spoilage bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum during frozen storage...

  8. The effectiveness of permethrin-treated deer stations for control of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis on Cape Cod and the Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of animal host-targeted pesticide application to control blacklegged ticks, which transmit the Lyme disease bacterium between wildlife hosts and humans, is receiving increased attention as an approach to Lyme disease risk management. Included among the attractive feature...

  9. The effectiveness of permethrin-treated deer stations for control of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis on Cape Cod and the islands: a five year experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of animal host-targeted pesticide application to control blacklegged ticks, which transmit the Lyme disease bacterium between wildlife hosts and humans, is receiving increased attention as an approach to Lyme disease risk management. Included among the attractive features...

  10. Spatial analysis of lung, colorectal, and breast cancer on Cape Cod: An application of generalized additive models to case-control data

    OpenAIRE

    Aschengrau Ann; Weinberg Janice; Webster Thomas; Vieira Verónica; Ozonoff David

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The availability of geographic information from cancer and birth defect registries has increased public demands for investigation of perceived disease clusters. Many neighborhood-level cluster investigations are methodologically problematic, while maps made from registry data often ignore latency and many known risk factors. Population-based case-control and cohort studies provide a stronger foundation for spatial epidemiology because potential confounders and disease late...

  11. Animal abuse in Massachusetts: a summary of case reports at the MSPCA and attitudes of Massachusetts veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, L; Patronek, G J; Luke, C

    1999-01-01

    This article reports information abstracted from 200 randomly sampled animal abuse complaints that the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals received in 1996, along with the results of 1 10 surveys that Massachusetts veterinarians completed concerning their experience with and attitudes and perceptions of animal mistreatment. In 1996, there were a total of 4,942 complaints of animal mistreatment, or 2.2 complaints per 1,000 households in Massachusetts. The majority of sampled complaints involved dogs (69.5%), cats (21.5%), or both. Almost all complaints involved husbandry-related neglect (62.0%), medical neglect (26.0%), or both. A violation of the law was observed by the investigating officer in 75 (37.5%) cases. The majority (78.9%) of veterinarians reported having observed at least 1 instance of animal abuse in their patients, although few encountered more than 5 cases (16.4%) during their years of practice. Almost all respondents (93.6%) agreed that veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to report suspicions of abuse, but a smaller number (44.5%) believed that this responsibility should be mandated. PMID:16363962

  12. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. PMID:27295254

  13. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.;

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace...... element patterns in cod otoliths for age determination. By first identifying elements of interest in a stock without ageing problems, western Baltic cod, we then tested their applicability on another stock without ageing problems, North Sea cod, and finally applied this knowledge to estimate age of......, the same patterns in Cu, Zn, Rb, Mg, and Mn signals occurred. All eastern Baltic cod with low visual contrast between growth zones exhibited clearly defined synchronous cycles in Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb. Using a combined finite differencing method and structural break models approach, the statistical...

  14. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2003-01-01

    was the case for HbI-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an...... advantage for HbI-1 cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....... in northern regions, and the HbI(1) allele dominant in warmer areas. To determine if temperature is a selective parameter in the distribution of the haemoglobin types, the preferred temperature of the homozygous genotypes HbI-1 and HbI-2 was measured. We found that HbI-2 cod preferred a temperature...

  15. What will become of the medical mecca? Health care spending in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Massachusetts has been called a "medical mecca." It has also been called the world's most expensive health care market. This paper concludes that claims of excess costs in Massachusetts are overstated. Massachusetts hospitals have lower inpatient costs than peer institutions in other states, yet the state's concentration of academic hospitals tilts the system toward higher spending. In markets like Massachusetts, there is growing pressure to demonstrate tangible benefits to justify the additional costs of academic health centers (AHCs). Applying new information technologies to proactively manage patients with expensive chronic illnesses is a critical area for future collaboration between payers and AHCs. PMID:14649440

  16. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias in the...... change was insufficient to compensate for the decrease in stock size, and catch rates of all fleets decreased. Two factors that could lead to nonconstant catchability were investigated: (i) the presence of decoupling between stock size and density ill high-density areas and (ii) the presence of...... concurrent shifts in the spatial distribution of the cod stock and the cod fishery. No evidence of the former was found but there was a northern shift in the spatial distribution of both effort and the cod stock....

  17. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from Pacific cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from 250 recaptured (624 released) depth and temperature recording archival (data storage) tags attached to Pacific cod off Kodiak Island and in the eastern...

  18. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  19. Rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (cod) using microwave digestion followed by titrimetery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an important parameter in water-pollution control analysis. It is closely related to the organic contamination level of wastewater. The open-reflux Cr-COD titration method has long been the International standard method for COD determination /sup(1)/ however, it still requires a long time (2h) for the digestion step to be completed in this procedure. The objective of this research was to investigate the availability of a rapid procedure to determine the COD in wastewater by digesting samples in a microwave system followed by ferrous ammonium sulphate titration. The results obtained using this microwave aided digestion system were also compared with those obtained by conventional open reflux method. (author)

  20. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na(2)CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degrees C. In aerobically......Inhibition of the specific spoilage organism, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied in model substrates and in modified- atmosphere-packed cod fillets. The objective was to determine how inhibition of this organism influenced spoilage. The spoilage reactions limiting shelf life were studied...... stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf Life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions...

  1. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...... ‘differentiated citizenship’. Such differentiated citizenship is opposed to the universal inclusivity promised by post-apartheid South Africa. By exploring the specific merging of security and development in the Capetonian war on gangs as compared to counterinsurgency and the subsequent reconfiguration of...... citizenship, I am able to address a central question: How — and with what consequences — does power maintain itself when faced with an onslaught from those that it restricts to the margins of institutions and social life?...

  2. Host minerals for uranium and thorium in the Cape granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium and thorium in Cape granite reside chiefly in trace minerals. The principle host minerals differ much from pluton to pluton. The large composite Khubus pluton in the Richterveld is composed of a central body of syenite surrounded by various types of granite. The granites are usually very low in dark minerals. According to autoradiographic results, the bulk of the uranium and thorium in the Khubus pluton is situated in the zircon, rather than in the sphene, apatite and fluorite. In many intrusives of the Cape granite suite most of the uranium is situated in a single host mineral such a zircon, xenotime, sphene or even uraninte. The most important thorium host mineral is monazite. The radio-element host mineral spectrum is unique for each different intrusive

  3. COMPARED AESTHETICS FLASHES: READING CAPE-VERDEAN IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caputo Gomes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents, according to the theoretical line of Comparative Aesthetics, a gallery of Cape Verdean's paintings and texts to be read throughout  the relationship between literature and painting, in order to demonstrate how the male and female points of view perceive the images of women and their daily lives. Writers Fátima Bettencourt, Manuel Lopes, Maria Margarida Mascarenhas, Oswaldo Osório, Vasco Martins, Vera Duarte will dialogue among themselves and with the painters of Armando do Rosário, Kiki Lima, Misá, Sandro Brito, Tchalê Figueira and Tony Barbosa, from diverse visions of social situation of the social context of women in Cape Verde, under the inspiration or challenge to the canonical Botticelli Venus.

  4. Time for Fishing: Bargaining Power in the Baltic Swedish Cod Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist , Johan; Hammarlund, Cecilia; Waldo, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    How are market conditions affected by a change in fishery regulations? Who benefits and who loses? The paper discusses the price effects of a reform in the Swedish Baltic cod fishery where vessels using active gear were given annual quotas rather than the previously applied quarterly quotas. We investigate whether the bargaining power of fishers using trawlers have improved after the reform using a difference-in-difference approach. Since fishers have more freedom to fish for cod over the yea...

  5. Three chromosomal rearrangements promote genomic divergence between migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Paul R; Bastiaan Star; Christophe Pampoulie; Marte Sodeland; Julia M I Barth; Halvor Knutsen; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Sissel Jentoft

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genome-wide patterns of divergence provides insight on how genomes are influenced by selection and can reveal the potential for local adaptation in spatially structured populations. In Atlantic cod – historically a major marine resource – Northeast-Arctic- and Norwegian coastal cod are recognized by fundamental differences in migratory and non-migratory behavior, respectively. However, the genomic architecture underlying such behavioral ecotypes is unclear. Here, we have ana...

  6. Transport of North Sea cod larvae into the Skagerrak coastal populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Jorde, Per Erik; Skogen, Morten D.; Thuróczy, Emma; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2004-01-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is economically one of the world's most important marine species--a species presently suffering from heavy overexploitation throughout its range of distribution. Although not fully understood, the Atlantic cod is believed to be structured into populations in a rather complex manner, whereby both highly migratory and more confined ocean-spawning stocks coexist with stationary coastal populations. Owing to the complex population structure, little is presently kno...

  7. Vaccination of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) against atypical furunculosis using different adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Lemia M.O

    2003-01-01

    In recent years increased attention has been focussed on fish vaccines and vaccination against diseases in farmed fish. In this study, efficacy and side effects of vaccination against atypical furunculosis in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) were studied in an experimental trial by using different adjuvants. The different adjuvanted vaccines were administered by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) to Atlantic cod. The adjuvants used were CpG DNA, Aluminium hydroxide (Alhydrogel), an...

  8. Cod ranching in the Westfjords : a political, social, and spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Graham, 1982-

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to identify the legal, political, and social contexts necessary for the successful implementation of cod ranching projects in the Westfjords of Iceland. With the technical components tested and economic viability shown, cod ranching has been slow to develop mainly due to social and political obstacles. One such obstacle concerns the allocation of a large area of a fjord to an exclusive user, which could potentially displace fishing effort. Interviews with government agency ...

  9. WO3/W Nanopores Sensor for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Determination under Visible Light

    OpenAIRE

    Xuejin Li; Jing Bai; Qiang Liu; Jianyong Li; Baoxue Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A sensor of a WO3 nanopores electrode combined with a thin layer reactor was proposed to develop a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) determination method and solve the problem that the COD values are inaccurately determined by the standard method. The visible spectrum, e.g., 420 nm, could be used as light source in the sensor we developed, which represents a breakthrough by limiting of UV light source in the photoelectrocatalysis process. The operation conditions were optimized in this work, and t...

  10. Precautionary management of Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callaris) under different harvesting and environmental scenarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Isomaa, Marleena

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to increase knowledge of heavily harvested cod stock dynamics and attain information for more suitable and sustainable management strategies. Achieving sustainable management strategies requires sufficient knowledge about the population dynamics. One tool for research this is to introduce stochastic variation models in investigated species stock dynamics. As a model species we use eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callarias), where the population dynamics are...

  11. Demand characteristics for imported cod products in Portugal frozen, salted & dried and salted

    OpenAIRE

    Asche, Frank; Gordon, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted & dried and salted cod products. The estimated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index to measure shi...

  12. Long Distance Linkage Disequilibrium and Limited Hybridization Suggest Cryptic Speciation in Atlantic Cod

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Ian R.; Sharen Bowman; Tudor Borza; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Berg, Paul R.; Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta; Jackie Lighten; Ruzzante, Daniel E.; Christopher Taggart; Paul Bentzen

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid zones provide unprecedented opportunity for the study of the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the extent of hybridization across individuals and genomes can illuminate the degree of isolation. We examine patterns of interchromosomal linkage disequilibrium (ILD) and the presence of hybridization in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in previously identified hybrid zones in the North Atlantic. Here, previously identified clinal loci were mapped to the cod genome with most (∼70%) occurri...

  13. Mobile Library Service at UNISA Western Cape: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cele, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this poster is to describe the mobile library as a method of library service delivery in Open Distance Learning (ODL). In the context of this presentation the mobile library is a vehicle that carries library material and services to UNISA students. The mobile library is considered as one of the dynamic strategies of providing library and information service to students residing in outlying areas of Cape Town. It reaches out to students who would under normal circumstances not b...

  14. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae and T. hartigii. To resolve generic affiliations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on ITS (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and part of 28S rDNA. DNA data support the original generic concept of Truncatella,...

  15. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Uimonen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public s...

  16. Cenozoic bottom current sedimentation in the Cape Basin, South Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Wildeboer Schut, E.; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    The Cape Basin is located at a central location with respect to variouswater masses. The coldest and densest of these water masses is theLower Circumpolar Deep Water.The location and topography of the Agulhas Ridge effectively blocks itsnorthward flowing branches and deflects them into a south-westerndirection to follow the bathymetric contours of the Agulhas Ridge wheresuspended sediments accumulate in contourite drifts.Several hundred metres of sediments have accumulated since the onsetof A...

  17. Prioritizing species conservation: does the Cape Verde kite exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeff A; Watson, Richard T.; Mindell, David P

    2005-01-01

    The Cape Verde kite (Milvus milvus fasciicauda) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey in the world and at significant risk of extinction. For this reason there is great interest in both the taxonomic and the population status of this group. To help resolve its taxonomic status, we provide phylogenetic analyses based on three mitochondrial genes for a sampling of kites in the genus Milvus, including a broad geographical sampling of black kites (Milvus migrans), red kites (Milvus ...

  18. Otter Work in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis) in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results) and...

  19. Impact of influent COD/N ratio on disintegration of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. PMID:24950459

  20. Refined localization of an X-linked cone-rod dystrophy (COD1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash-Moi, A. [Univ. of Pitsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ferrell, R.E.; Gorin, M.B. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Several of us previously reported linkage of a COD1 family to DXS7 and MAOA, assigned to Xp11.3. Two recombination events between COD1 and DXS84 were observed, suggesting that COD1 is not associated with the RP3 locus. The diversity of clinical findings within the family, which include variable rod and cone involvement, suggests that COD1 may be allelic to the RP2 locus. We have conducted additional linkage of this family with markers DXS993 and DXS1003 and have added a smaller family with similar clinical findings and X-linked inheritance. Pairwise linkage analysis gave combined maximum lod scores and {theta}`s for COD1 of 4.41 at {theta}=0 with DXS993 and 2.75 at {theta}=0.05 with DXS1003. One obligate recombinant was observed with DXS1003. The two families were insufficient to test for genetic heterogeneity. The probable order and spacing of markers as determined with the CEPH families is pter-DXS84-(6.6 cM)-DXS993-(0.6 cM)-MAOA-(0.4 cM)-DXS7-(4.4 cM)-DSX1003-ARAF1-TIMP1-cent. These results support the co-localization of COD1 to a 12 cM interval between DXS84 and DXS1003 that includes the CSNB1 and RP2 loci.

  1. Effect of wastewater COD/N ratio on aerobic nitrifying sludge granulation and microbial population shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Wu; Chengyao Peng; Yongzhen Peng; Lingyun Li; Shuying Wang; Yong Ma

    2012-01-01

    The effect of COD/N ratio on the granulation process and microbial population succession was investigated.Four identical sequencing batch reactors,R1,R2,R3 and R4,were operated with various initial COD/N ratios ranging from 0/200 to 800/200 (m/n).Ethanol was fed as the source of COD.Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in R2 and R3,operating with the COD/N ratio of 200/200 and 400/200,respectively.Scanning electron microscope observations indicated that short rod-shaped and spherical bacteria were dominant in R2,while granules produced in R3 were surrounded with a large amount of filamentous bacteria.The average specific nitritation rate in R2 and R3 were 0.019 and 0.008 mg N/(mg MLVSS.hr),respectively.Fluorescence in situ hybridization results demonstrated that nitrifying bacteria population was enriched remarkably in R2.It indicated that nitrification ability and nitrifying bacteria population were enriched remarkably at low COD/N ratio.However,no granules were formed in R1and R4 which might attribute to either limited or excessive extracellular polymeric substances production.This study contributed to a better understanding of the role of COD/N ratio in nitrifying sludge granulation.

  2. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C

    2001-04-01

    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry. PMID:11308344

  3. Religious and secular Cape Malay Afrikaans: Literary varieties used by Shaykh Hanif Edwards (1906-1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Luffin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the White and Christian-dominated Afrikaans language movements, followed by apartheid, little attention has been paid to an Afrikaans literary variety used among Muslim Cape Coloureds, a group often referred to as ‘Cape Malays’. Descending mainly from Asian slaves brought by the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, Dutch East India Company, and bearing the marks of cohabitation with non-Asian populations at the Cape, the Cape Malays at an early stage developed a distinct religious culture through their adherence to Islam, as well as a distinct Cape Dutch linguistic identity through their connections with the Dutch East Indies and the Islamic world. These cultural idiosyncrasies found expression in a local literature, religious and (more rarely secular, using as a medium a variety of Cape Dutch/Afrikaans written either in the Arabic alphabet or in the Roman alphabet.

  4. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. PMID:22465310

  5. Can Cape Town's unique biodiversity be saved? Balancing conservation imperatives and development needs

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Wood; Rebelo, Anthony G; Clifford Dorse; Patricia M. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    Cape Town is an urban hotspot within the Cape Floristic Region global biodiversity hotspot. This city of 2,460 km² encompasses four local centers of fynbos plant endemism, 19 national terrestrial vegetation types (six endemic to the city), wetland and coastal ecosystems, and 190 endemic plant species. Biodiversity in the lowlands is under threat of extinction as a result of habitat loss to agriculture, urban development, mining, and degradation by invasive alien plants. Cape Town's popul...

  6. Effects of COD to Phosphorus Ratios on the Metabolism of PAOs in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal with Different Carbon Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jiang; Junguo He; Xiaonan Yang; Jianzheng Li

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the phosphorus removal and metabolism under various COD/P ratio, a sludge highly enriched in PAOs was used to investigate the impacts of COD/P in batch tests under different carbon supply conditions. Acetate, propionate and a mixture of acetate and propionate at a ratio of 3 ∶ 1 ( COD basis) was used as carbon sources with the COD/P of 20, 15,10 and 5�0 gCOD/gP, respectively. The minimum COD/P ratios for complete P removal were found to be 8�24 gCOD/gP for acetate, 11�40 gCOD/gP for propionate and 9�10 gCOD/gP for the 3 ∶ 1 mixture of acetate and propionate. Converted to a mass basis, all three cases had a very similar ratio of 7�7 gVFA/gP, which represented a useful guide for operation of EBPR plants to identify possible shortages inVFAs. The trend in PHV accumulation during the anaerobic period along with the decrease of COD/P ratios suggested that, PAOs may use the TCA pathway for anaerobic VFA uptake to maintain the required NADH production with reduced glycogen degradation. During the aerobic phase, the glycogen pool was reduced but remained enough compared to the requirement for anaerobic VFA uptake, and the synthesis and degradation of glycogen was not the inhibition factor of PAOs.

  7. Development of the university of Massachusetts Medical School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C R

    1969-04-01

    The creation of a library for the new Medical School of the University of Massachusetts presents an interesting opportunity to see how the principles of administrative technique, which have been found so effective in other areas of business and management, can be applied to the library profession. The solution of the logistical problem of having a base in Amherst and a field in Worcester lends itself to the prescribed pattern of progression from consultation to decision, decision to policy, and policy to action. The same pattern also emerges in the relationship of the librarian to the architect. PMID:5778725

  8. Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

    2013-07-30

    In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

  9. Estimation of the maximum allowable loading amount of COD in Luoyuan Bay by a 3-D COD transport and transformation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jialin; Li, Keqiang; Shi, Xiaoyong; Liang, Shengkang; Han, Xiurong; Ma, Qimin; Wang, Xiulin

    2014-08-01

    The rapid economic and social developments in the Luoyuan and Lianjiang counties of Fujian Province, China, raise certain environment and ecosystem issues. The unusual phytoplankton bloom and eutrophication, for example, have increased in severity in Luoyuan Bay (LB). The constant increase of nutrient loads has largely caused the environmental degradation in LB. Several countermeasures have been implemented to solve these environmental problems. The most effective of these strategies is the reduction of pollutant loadings into the sea in accordance with total pollutant load control (TPLC) plans. A combined three-dimensional hydrodynamic transport-transformation model was constructed to estimate the marine environmental capacity of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The allowed maximum loadings for each discharge unit in LB were calculated with applicable simulation results. The simulation results indicated that the environmental capacity of COD is approximately 11×104 t year-1 when the water quality complies with the marine functional zoning standards for LB. A pollutant reduction scheme to diminish the present levels of mariculture- and domestic-based COD loadings is based on the estimated marine COD environmental capacity. The obtained values imply that the LB waters could comply with the targeted water quality criteria. To meet the revised marine functional zoning standards, discharge loadings from discharge units 1 and 11 should be reduced to 996 and 3236 t year-1, respectively.

  10. 33 CFR 207.9 - Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mystic River, Mass.; dam of... Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission. (a... Massachusetts, M.D.C. Parks Division, Boston, Mass.; New England Division, Corps of Engineers, Division...

  11. 78 FR 5288 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ..., Waste treatment and disposal. 40 CFR Part 258 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Waste treatment... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Massachusetts's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The...

  12. The Massachusetts Community Colleges Developmental Education Best Policy and Practice Audit: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Charmian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study, funded by Jobs for the Future through a grant to the Massachusetts Community Colleges Executive Office, was to: (1) provide an update on the status of developmental education within Massachusetts community colleges; (2) shed light on the alignment between research-based best practices to advance success among…

  13. Where Politics Is a Blood Sport: Restructuring State Higher Education Governance in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, David A.; Anderson, Christian K.

    2012-01-01

    The 1991 restructuring of Massachusetts system of higher education is explained and analyzed using McLendon's "Policy Stream Model of Decentralization Agenda Setting," a revised Garbage Can model, which proves useful insofar as the case is placed in its historical context. Public higher education in Massachusetts has suffered as a "second class"…

  14. Increased Percentage of Passing Grades on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System after Implementation of Block Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined one public school system's change in its bell scheduling format from a seven period day to block scheduling. The data collected was from a three year period of the grade 10 students passing the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System exam. Students in Massachusetts must pass the mathematics and English/language arts…

  15. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  16. Cod liver oil/honey mixture: An effective treatment of equine complicated lower leg wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda mahmoud Ali and Khaled Radad

    Full Text Available Wounds are of great concern in animals as they affect animal productivity and their treatment represents an economic burden to the owners particularly in developing countries. The present study investigated the beneficial role of a mixture of cod liver oil and honey in treatment of old wounds in equines. In which, 3 horses and 7 donkeys were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt with old wounds at the metacarpus (5 cases and metatarsus (3 cases and at the level of fetlock and carpal joints (one case each. Treatment of these wounds with cod liver oil/honey mixture markedly decreased their sizes and resulted in formation of a healthy scar after one month of treatment. To explain the mechanisms that underlie the effects of this mixture, 9 surgically-induced wounds at the metacarpus in 9 donkeys were treated with honey, cod liver oil or the mixture (3 wounds each and compared with parallel untreated control wounds at the metatarsus. It was found that treatment of wounds with honey, cod liver oil and the mixture apparently decreased the size of wounds. Histopathological examination revealed that treated wounds with honey or cod liver oil showed complete epithelization over the wound areas. On the other hand, epithelization process was not complete in wounds treated with the mixture. Granulation tissue showed some variability between different treatments. Of which, wounds treated with the mixture showed a higher degree of maturity with increasing numbers of fibrocytes and parallel collagenous fibers. This could underlie the good results obtained in case studied wounds with the mixture. In conclusion, mixture of cod liver oil and honey is beneficial in treatment of old traumatized wounds in equine and this effect is primarily mediated by formation of healthy and mature scars. Cod liver oil or honey alone is beneficial for healing of recent and surgical wounds as they facilitate epithelization process. [Vet

  17. The Impact of Extending Marriage to Non-Resident Same-Sex Couples on the Massachusetts Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M. V. Lee; Sears, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Using information from Massachusetts as well as data on tourist spending and wedding spending compiled from industry sources, we find that the current policy of forbidding out-of-state same-sex couples to marry in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts reduces spending for Massachusetts businesses and tax revenues for the Commonwealth and local governments.

  18. Generation and propagation of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.

    2007-01-01

    During the summer, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) are commonly observed propagating in Massachusetts Bay. The topography of the area is unique in the sense that the generation area (over Stellwagen Bank) is only 25 km away from the shoaling area, and thus it represents an excellent natural laboratory to study the life cycle of NLIWs. To assist in the interpretation of the data collected during the 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment (MBIWE98), a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model covering the generation/shoaling region was developed, to investigate the response of the system to the range of background and driving conditions observed. Simplified models were also used to elucidate the role of nonlinearity and dispersion in shaping the NLIW field. This paper concentrates on the generation process and the subsequent evolution in the basin. The model was found to reproduce well the range of propagation characteristics observed (arrival time, propagation speed, amplitude), and provided a coherent framework to interpret the observations. Comparison with a fully nonlinear hydrostatic model shows that during the generation and initial evolution of the waves as they move away from Stellwagen Bank, dispersive effects play a negligible role. Thus the problem can be well understood considering the geometry of the characteristics along which the Riemann invariants of the hydrostatic problem propagate. Dispersion plays a role only during the evolution of the undular bore in the middle of Stellwagen Basin. The consequences for modeling NLIWs within hydrostatic models are briefly discussed at the end.

  19. Effect of catch size and shape on the selectivity of diamond mesh cod-ends: I. Model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent

    2005-01-01

    An individual-based model that simulates fish selection processes in diamond mesh cod-ends of towed fishing gears is outlined. The model is implemented in a computer program called PRESEMO. A typical simulation can be carried out within a few minutes on a personal computer. Up to four different...... populations of fish entering the cod-end during a tow can be accounted for. Each fish is assigned a weight, girth, width and height according to its length, and is assumed to have an elliptical cross-section. Fish are allocated a period of travel time down the cod-end, a period for swimming in the cod...... from information on the shape of the cod-end, which depends on the catch weight. The cod-end shape is updated dynamically as the catch builds up during the tow. During a simulation the selection process is continually visualized, that is, the entry, movement and escape attempts of individual fish are...

  20. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf with stretched histogram, from Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (composite_shatt_str.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf from Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (composite_shatt.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. EFFEKTIFITAS SARINGAN BIOFILTER ANAEROB DAN AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD5, COD DAN NITROGEN TOTAL LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI KARET

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanuddin, ishak; Hatijah; Seweng, Arifin

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to 1) compare effectiveness of aerobic and anaerob biofilters in reducing BOD5, COD, and Total Nitrogen levels, 2) examine the interaction between immersion times and biofilter medium in reducing BOD5, COD and Total Nitrogen levels. This study was an experimental study using biofilters of brick fraction and data analysis was permormed using ANOVE tes. Study result indicated that anaerobic and aerobic biofilters medium were effective in reducing BOD5, COD and Totall Nitrog...

  3. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Lior Lobel; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was c...

  4. Retention of Coastal Cod Eggs in a Fjord Caused by Interactions between Egg Buoyancy and Circulation Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Myksvoll, Mari Skuggedal; Sundby, Svein; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Frode B Vikebø

    2011-01-01

    Norwegian coastal cod form a stationary population of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua consisting of several genetically separated subpopulations. A small-scale differentiation in marine populations with pelagic eggs and larvae is made possible by local retention of early life stages in coastal environments. A numerical model was used to simulate the circulation in a fjord system in northern Norway over 2 years with different river runoff patterns. The dispersal of cod eggs was calculated with a par...

  5. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Octoviane Dyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic process is the right process for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment because of high content of organic compounds that can be utilized by anaerobic bacteria as a growth medium. Some research has been conducted among abattoir wastewater treatment using anaerobic reactors such as ABR, UASB and ASBR. Our research focuses on the search for the optimum results decline effluent COD levels to match the quality standards limbah and cow rumen fluid with biodigester ABR (Anaerobic Batch Reactor. The variables used were PH of 6, 7, and 8, as well as the concentration ratio of COD: N is 400:7; 450:7, and 500:7. COD value is set by the addition of N derived from urea [CO(NH2 2]. COD levels will be measured daily by water displacement technique. The research’s result for 20 days seen that optimum PH for biogas production was PH 7,719 ml. The optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6, 72.39 %. The operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal is 500:7, with the production value is 601 ml and COD removal value is 63.85 %. The research’s conclusion, the PH optimum for biogas production was PH 7, then the optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6. The optimum operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal was 500:7

  6. Diel variation in feeding and movement patterns of juvenile Atlantic cod at offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubens, Jan T.; De Rijcke, Maarten; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a commercially important fish species suffering from overexploitation in the North-East Atlantic. In recent years, their natural environment is being intensively altered by the construction of offshore wind farms in many coastal areas. These constructions form artificial reefs influencing local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. It has been demonstrated that Atlantic cod is present in the vicinity of these constructions. However, empirical data concerning the diel activity and feeding behaviour of Atlantic cod in the vicinity of these artificial reefs is lacking. Atlantic cod has a flexible diel activity cycle linked to spatio-temporal variations in food availability and predation risk. In this study we integrated acoustic telemetry with stomach content analysis to quantify diel activity and evaluate diel feeding patterns at a windmill artificial reef (WAR) in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Atlantic cod exhibited crepuscular movements related to feeding activity; a 12 h cycle was found and the highest catch rates and stomach fullness were recorded close to sunset and sunrise. It is suggested that the observed diel movement pattern is related to the prey species community and to predation pressure. Foraging at low ambient light levels (i.e. at dusk and dawn) probably causes a trade-off between foraging success and reducing predation pressure. Fish did not leave the area in-between feeding periods. Hence other benefits (i.e. shelter against currents and predators) besides food availability stimulate the aggregation behaviour at the WARs.

  7. PENURUNAN BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TEKSTIL DI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN DENGAN METODE MULTI SOIL LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi Soil Layering (MSL system is a method of wastewater treatment that increase the soils function to purify wastewater. In the construction of MSL, soils mixed with the charcoal and then filled into the box of size 50x14x50 cm in layers structured like brick pattern. The aims of this research are to determine the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater before and after the process by MSL method. It also determines the optimal loading rate of wastewater on the MSL system, and then it can determine the efficiency of MSL system on reducing the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater. The method which used in this research is an experimental method. The wastewater on the MSL system is loaded on the loading rate variety: 160, 320, 480, 640, and 800 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system to removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are determined on optimal loading rate. The research gave result that MSL method could remove BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater on the optimal loading rate 320 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system in removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are 96.52 and 80.87% respectively. This indicated that the method MSL serve the purpose of effective alternative method in processing of liquid waste textile industry.

  8. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  9. COD and BOD reduction from coffee processing wastewater using Avacado peel carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Rani; Singh, Vijender; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater from coffee processing plant using activated carbon made up of Avacado Peels. The complete study was done in batch mode to investigate the effect of operating parameters. The results of the COD and BOD concentration reduction with avocado peel carbon (APC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) were compared and optimum operating conditions were determined for maximum reduction. Adsorption isotherm was also studied besides the calculation of optimum treatment parameters for maximum reduction of COD and BOD concentration from effluent of the coffee processing plant. The maximum percentage reduction of COD and BOD concentration under optimum operating conditions using APC was 98.20% and 99.18% respectively and with CAC this reduction was 99.02% and 99.35% respectively. As the adsorption capacity of APC is comparable with that of CAC for reduction of COD and BOD concentration, it could be a lucrative technique for treatment of domestic wastewater generated in decentralized sectors. PMID:17493806

  10. Penentuan Kadar COD ( Chemical Oxygen Demand ) Pada Limbah Cair Rumah Sakit Sultan Sulaiman Dengan Menggunakan Spectroquant Nova 60

    OpenAIRE

    Windari, Rafika Tri

    2013-01-01

    The determination of COD level ( chemical oxygen demand ) waste water from Sultan Sulaiman’s hospital with Spectroquant Nova 60. Has been made carried out by heating for two hour at 148oC do into reactor’s COD result that COD level of waste water at the first week have average 40,150 mg/L, the second is 45,249 mg/L and the third 53,558 mg/L. COD level resulted below maximum level. From the result showed that waste water not effluent from standart quality required of KEP-58/MenLH/12/1995 ...

  11. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  12. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR DECREASING OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS) OF TOFU INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Suyata; Irmanto; Undri Rastuti

    2015-01-01

    Tofu industrial wastewater has high COD and TSS level, which it cause an environmental pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the value of COD and TSS of tofu industrial wastewater before discharge into the water body. Decreasing of COD and TSS values can be carried out using an electrochemical method. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of potential, electrode distance, pH, and time to decrease of COD and TSS value of the tofu industrial wastewater. The experi...

  13. Incidence, severity and management of cancer chemotherapy related oral mucositis in Eastern Cape and Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the incidence, duration and severity of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy in the Eastern and Western Cape, how this symptom was managed and whether the patients considered the management to be effective. An exploratory, contextual, quantitative survey was conducted. The sampling method was convenience. One hundred and sixty patients were recruited, with 106, (66.3% participating. Data were collected by means of self-reports, using a self-administered questionnaire. Oral mucositis was a common problem, with 71.7% (n = 76 reporting to have had mucositis. Pain was not effectively managed, as 69.8% (n = 53 of respondents experienced pain whilst only 17.1% (n = 13 reported to have used analgesics. More than half of the respondents used prescribed mouth and throat preparations, whilst 28.9% (n = 22 used non-prescribed self-care measures including potentially harmful products. A significant difference was found between using non-prescribed self-care measures and the duration of oral mucositis (χ² = 0.81; p = 0.01. The reported grade of mucositis did not influence the use of non-prescribed self-care measures, whilst the more pain patients experienced the less inclined they were to use these measures. The management of oral mucositis remains a challenge. Failure to palliate this distressing symptom can lead to the use of potentially harmful self-care measures. Die studie het die insidensie, tydsduur en intensiteit van orale mukositis in Oos en Wes Kaapse pasiënte wat kankerchemoterapie ontvang verken asook hoe hierdie simptoom hanteer is en die sukses hiervan volgens die pasiënte. ‘n Kwantitatiewe, ekploratiewe, kontekstuele opname is onderneem. ‘n Gerieflikheidsteekproef is gebruik om die deelnemers te verkry. Een hondered en sestig persone is genader en 66.3% (n = 106 het aan die studie deelgeneem. Die datainsamelingsmetode was self-rapportering met behulp van ’n vraelys en beskrywende statistiek is gebruik

  14. Cape Town: Negotiating the Public in the Neoliberal City

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, Sharone

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of apartheid, South Africa’s economic policies and governance models have become increasingly neoliberal. The concern of this paper is how those policies and governmental modalities play out and shape the city of Cape Town. The paper utilizes the analytic of ‘public’ to examine how a formerly apartheid city has been remade – and contested – as a neoliberal city. The analytic of public is employed as a ‘terrain’, across which neoliberal policies, privatizing practices, calls for ...

  15. Hydroxyester disaccharides from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Humberto; Duque, Carmenza; Knapp, Holger; Winterhalter, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and the diastereomeric 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosides of (3R) and (3S)-butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, respectively, were isolated by chromatographic methods from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) harvested in Colombia. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The three glycoconjugates can be considered as immediate precursors of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, which are important aroma volatiles found in the fruit. PMID:11830164

  16. Ophiolitic association of Cape Fiolent area, southwestern Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promyslova, M. Yu.; Demina, L. I.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Gushchin, A. I.; Koronovsky, N. V.; Tsarev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    An ophiolitic association consisting of serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentinite, layered mafic-ultramafic complex, gabbro and gabbrodolerite, fragments of parallel dike complex, pillow lava, black bedded chert, and jasper has been identified for the first time by authors in the Cape Fiolent area. The chemistry of pillow lavas and dolerites, including REE patterns and a wide set of other microelements, indicates suprasubduction nature of the ophiolites and their belonging to a backarc basin that has reached the stage of spreading in its evolution.

  17. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 109 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 235U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 238U, (0.2 - 0.3) % of 235U, 0.001 % of 234U, and only traces of 234Th, 234Pa and 231Th. If traces of the isotopes 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 106 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 238U and its decay products 234Th and 234Pa which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 106 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 235U and 231Th (0.16 · 106 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  18. GreaterBoston_shorelines.shp - Shorelines of the Greater Boston coastal region from the southern side of Cape Ann, Massachusetts to Sandy Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts, used in shoreline change analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  19. GreaterBoston_baseline.shp - Offshore baseline for Greater Boston coastal region from the southern side of Cape Ann, Massachusetts to Sandy Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts, generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  20. GreaterBoston_ST.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.1 Transects with Short-Term Rate Calculations for the Greater Boston region from the southern side of Cape Ann, Massachusetts to Sandy Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  1. GreaterBoston_LT.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.1 Transects with Long-Term Rate Calculations for the Greater Boston region from the southern side of Cape Ann, Massachusetts to Sandy Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  2. Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town…

  3. Survival of children in cape town known to be vertically infected with HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, GD; Reijnhart, RM; Sebens, AM; Burgess, J; Schaaf, S; Potgieter, S

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the survival patterns of children in Cape Town known to be vertically infected with HIV. Design. Retrospective record review of children diagnosed with symptomatic HIV infection during the period 1 December 1990 - 31 May 1995. Setting. Hospitals in the Cape Town metropolitan

  4. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  5. E-Powering the People: South Africa's Smart Cape Access Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This document examines the launch of the Smart Cape Access Project in Cape Town, South Africa. In a city where more than 80 percent of the citizens do not have access to computers and fewer still can access the Internet, public officials set out to build a "smart city," where "informed people could connect to the world and to each other by the…

  6. A Controversial Reform in Indigenous Education: The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a controversial initiative in Indigenous education: the establishment of the Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA). The article provides a brief description of the Academy's three campuses and their communities and considers: the circumstances of its creation, including the role of Noel Pearson and Cape York…

  7. Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still fa

  8. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost... Buoy “2CF”); thence to Oak Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of...

  9. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to...

  10. 75 FR 34152 - Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Minerals Management Service (MMS) Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to Comments From the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation on the Cape Wind Energy... the ROD for the Cape Wind Energy Project (the Project). The ROD for the Project records the...

  11. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René;

    2010-01-01

    Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...... 300 mm window is placed at the top section at about 3–6 m from the codline. Acoustic release technology was used to avoid catch loss during gear retrieval. Sea trials were conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat from a commercial trawler. The sorting box yielded a high reduction of the cod catch, but...... no improvement was observed for cod that came into contact with the window after reducing the distance from the window to the codline. The sorting box also showed a high reduction of flatfish and other roundfish species. The retention of Norway lobster above minimum landing size in the sorting box...

  12. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  13. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis. In the...... Eastern Baltic stock, depending on model assumptions, an average of 25-38% of the 0-group and 11-17% of the 1-group were removed by predation by adults. Thus, between age 0 and age 2 a year class may lose on average about 31% and 44% of the initial number as a result of cannibalism. Cannibalism is lower......, stock, recruitment, and cannibalism declined steadily until the early 1990s and then increased again. Problems identified in relation to data compilation and estimation procedure are discussed with respect to their impact on estimates of cannibalism and stock- recruitment relationships. (C) 2000...

  14. Evaluation of chemical markers for age validation of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stötera

    2015-11-01

    Baltic cod were intraperitoneally injected with the different chemicals and kept for 47 days in netpens. The lowest mortality and best ring formation was observed at 100mg/kg cod wet weight compared to 50 and 25mg/kg wet weight (TET only. Preliminary analysis suggests that the simultaneous injection of TET and STR decreases the visibility of TET-rings. This is probably due to a binding interaction between both markers in the body of the fish, so that less TET is bound in the otolith. The use of tetracycline hydrochloride in the concentrations of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg fish were considered the most appropriate to mark Baltic cod for age validation in large-scale mark-recapture experiments. TET and STR should not be injected together.

  15. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for...... organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate to...... stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...

  16. Removal of COD from olive mill wastewater by Fenton's reagent: Kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the application of Fenton's reagent (H2O2/Fe2+) to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The effect of different operational conditions, namely, hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion concentrations, temperature and initial pH were evaluated. ORP, pH and dissolved oxygen were on-line monitored. Working with an initial pH equal to 3.5, a temperature of 30 deg. C, a molar ratio H2O2/Fe2+ = 15 and a weight ratio R = H2O2/COD = 1.75 makes possible a COD conversion of 70%. A kinetic study was carried out using a modified pseudo-first-order model. The experiments performed at different temperatures allowed the calculation of the Arrhenius equation parameters and the global activation energy for the pseudo-first-order reaction (28.2 kJ/mol).

  17. Study on Migration and Transformation Rule of Organic Pollutants (COD) in Aerated Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Collecting waste water with a certain concentration of organic pollutants COD (chemical oxygen demand), static adsorption, static biodegradation and dynamic soil column experiments were made in laboratory, we researched migration and transformation of COD in aerated zone, and put forward a mathematical model showing the process. The results show that adsorption of organism in aerated zone is linear, which is represented by Henry's law s=Kdc+sd, adsorption coefficient Kd =0. 069 3;biodegradation diagram accord basically with first-order kinetics equation c=c0e-K1t , biodegradation coefficient K1 = 0. 049 9 d-1; dispersion coefficient D= 0. 002 42 m2/d in experiments. The migration and transformation of organic pollutants (COD) in aerated zone jointly result from many factors such as dispersion, adsorption and biodegradation etc..

  18. Removal of COD and turbidity to improve wastewater quality using electrocoagulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is becoming a popular process to be used for wastewater treatment. The removal of COD and turbidity from wastewater by EC using iron (Fe) electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, and operating time were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Wastewater sample was made from milk powder with initial COD of 1140 mgL-1 and turbidity of 491 NTU. Current density was varied from 3.51 to 5.62 mA cm-2, and operating time of between 30 and 50 minutes. The results show that the effluent wastewater was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. The removal efficiencies of COD and turbidity were high, being more than 65 % and 95 %. In addition, the experimental results also show that the electrocoagulation can neutralize pH of wastewater. (author)

  19. The crack opening displacement (COD) design curve approach to crack tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paper at an I.Mech.E. Conference in 1971 described The Welding Institute's COD design curve approach to the specification of tolerable crack sizes in pressure vessels. This paper reviews further developments in the design curve analysis and in addition examines the definition and fracture characterising role of COD in yielding fracture mechanics. Results are presented from a recent study aimed at assessing the degree of conservatism in the design curve through a statistical analysis of results from more than seventy COD bend and wide plate tensile tests. It is shown that the maximum allowable crack size includes a safety margin of approximately 2.5 on average, for both through and part-through cracks. The significance of residual stresses in the design curve prediction is also considered. (author)

  20. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper; Skovgaard, Alf; Munk, Peter; Buchmann, Kurt

    affect the cod stock in the North Sea. The objective of the present study was to elucidate if infections are associated with a decrease or an increase of fish size when examining fish of the same age. We investigated effects of H. aduncum infections on the growth rate of cod larvae by using the otolith......, lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod......Parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Ascaridoidea are distributed worldwide also with numerous representatives in fish. They have an important role to play in the aquatic environment and may affect survivability of fish. The life cycle of many of these fish infecting roundworm species includes...

  1. COD Removal Efficiencies of Some Aromatic Compounds in Supercritical Water Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Some aromatic compounds, phenol, aniline and nitrobenzene, were oxidized in supercritical water. It was experimentally found that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of these organic compounds can achieve a high level more than 90% in a short residence time at temperatures high enough. As temperature, pressure and residence time increase, the COD removal efficiencies of the organic compounds would all increase. It is also found that temperature and residence time offer greater influences on the oxidation process than pressure. The difficulty in oxidizing these three compounds is in the order of nitrobenzene > aniline > Phenol. In addition, it is extremely difficult to oxidize aniline and nitrobenzene to CO2 and H2O at the temperature lower than 873.15 K and 923.15 K, respectively. Only at the temperature higher than 873.15 K and 923.15 K, respectively, the COD removal efficiencies of 90% of aniline and nitrobenzene can be achieved.

  2. Mapping folds and fractures in basement and cover rocks using UAV photogrammetry, Cape Liptrap and Cape Paterson, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollgger, Stefan A.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2016-04-01

    Brittle and ductile deformation of alternating layers of Devonian sandstone and mudstone at Cape Liptrap, Victoria, Australia, resulted in upright folds with associated fold accommodation faults and multiple fracture sets. Structures were mapped at the Fold Stack locality at Cape Liptrap using high-resolution aerial photographs acquired by a digital camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Subsequent photogrammetric modelling resulted in georeferenced spatial datasets (point cloud, digital elevation model and orthophotograph) with sub-cm resolution and cm accuracy, which were used to extract brittle and ductile structure orientation data. An extensive dataset of bedding measurements derived from the dense point cloud was used to compute a 3D implicit structural trend model to visualise along-strike changes of Devonian (Tabberabberan) folds at the Fold Stack locality and to estimate bulk shortening strain. This model and newly collected data indicate that first generation shallowly south-southwest plunging upright folds were gently refolded about a steeply plunging/subvertical fold axis during a Devonian low-strain north-south shortening event. This also led to the local tightening of first generation folds and possibly strike-slip movement along regional scale faults. In order to distinguish fractures associated with Devonian compression from those that formed during Cretaceous extension and later inversion, we compared the five fracture sets defined at Cape Liptrap to previously mapped joints and faults within the overlying sedimentary cover rocks of the Cretaceous Strzelecki Group (Gippsland Basin), which crop out nearby. An east-southeast trending fracture set that is not evident in the Strzelecki Group can be linked to the formation of Devonian folds. Additionally, hinge line traces extracted from the Fold Stack dataset are aligned parallel to a dominant fracture set within the overlying cover sediments. This suggests that basement structures (folds

  3. Bacterial Colonization of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Eggs in Marine Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Geir Høvik; Olafsen, Jan A.

    1989-01-01

    Aquaculture has brought about increased interest in mass production of marine fish larvae. Problems such as poor egg quality and mass mortality of fish larvae have been prevalent. The intensive incubation techniques that often result in bacterial overgrowth on fish eggs could affect the commensal relationship between the indigenous microflora and opportunistic pathogens and subsequently hamper egg development, hatching, larval health, and ongrowth. Little information about the adherent microflora on fish eggs is available, and the present study was undertaken to describe the microbial ecology during egg development and hatching of two fish species of potential commercial importance in marine aquaculture. Attachment and development of the bacterial flora on cod (Gadus morhua L.) eggs from fertilization until hatching was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The adherent microflora on cod (G. morhua L.) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) eggs during incubation was characterized and grouped by cluster analysis. Marked bacterial growth could be demonstrated 2 h after fertilization, and at hatching eggs were heavily overgrown. Members of the genera Pseudomonas, Alteromonas, Aeromonas, and Flavobacterium were found to dominate on the surface of both cod and halibut eggs. The filamentous bacterium Leucothrix mucor was found on eggs from both species. While growth of L. mucor on halibut eggs was sparse, cod eggs with a hairy appearance due to overgrowth by this bacterium close to hatching were frequently observed. Vibrio fischeri could be detected on cod eggs only, and pathogenic vibrios were not detected. Members of the genera Moraxella and Alcaligenes were found only on halibut eggs. Caulobacter and Seliberia spp. were observed attached to eggs dissected from cod ovaries under sterile conditions, indicating the presence of these bacteria in ovaries before spawning. Adherent strains did not demonstrate antibiotic resistance above a normal level. Attempts to

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  5. Where does the cod come from? Panels of gene‐associated markers provide vastly improved origin assignment in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Taylor, Martin; Carvalho, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Methods for determining the geographical origin of individual fish are in high demand for fighting illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing and for independent control of catch certificates and “eco‐labels”. Hitherto, genetic origin assignment of marine fish has been hampered by the......‐European variation in more than 1200 gene‐associated SNPs in cod and found that levels of differentiation for a subset of 132 SNPs was best explained by a model including directional selection. These high‐differentiation SNPs were used for designing “minimum panels with maximum power” for a number of case studies...... relevant for controlling illegal fishing, ecolabels, and fisheries management. Our results demonstrate how application of gene‐associated markers will probably revolutionize origin assignment in cod by providing faster, cheaper, and more reliable tools for origin assignment...

  6. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Lior; Herskovits, Anat A

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes) and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY's regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA) under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes), integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner. PMID:26895237

  7. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Lobel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY's regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes, integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner.

  8. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  9. Radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Haywood, F.F.; Witt, D.A.; Myrick, T.E.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Loy, E.T.

    1981-12-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts, are given in this report. The survey was conducted over approximately eight acres which had received radioactive wastes from 1946 to 1965. The survey included measurement of the following: external gamma radiation at the surface and at 1 m (3 ft) above the surface throughout the site; beta-gamma exposure rates at 1 cm (0.4 in.) from the surface throughout the site; concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, and /sup 235/U in surface and subsurface soil on the site; and concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 210/Pb in groundwater on the site and in surface water on and near the site. Results indicate that the radioactive contamination is confined to the site and to the swamp immediately adjacent to the site.

  10. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  11. Radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts, are given in this report. The survey was conducted over approximately eight acres which had received radioactive wastes from 1946 to 1965. The survey included measurement of the following: external gamma radiation at the surface and at 1 m (3 ft) above the surface throughout the site; beta-gamma exposure rates at 1 cm (0.4 in.) from the surface throughout the site; concentrations of 226Ra, 238U, and 235U in surface and subsurface soil on the site; and concentrations of 226Ra, 238U, 235U, 230Th, and 210Pb in groundwater on the site and in surface water on and near the site. Results indicate that the radioactive contamination is confined to the site and to the swamp immediately adjacent to the site

  12. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  13. The 3D Elevation Program: Summary for Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, natural resources conservation, agriculture and precision farming, infrastructure and construction management, coastal zone management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  14. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1982 a high prevalence of skin ulcerations was observed in Baltic cod in the vicinity of the Danish island of Bornholm. In March the prevalence varied from G to 13%, and in May it had increased to between 26 and 48%. The ulcerations had a sequential development. The initial stage appeared as s...... escaping from the nets, combined with bilateral occurrence of the ulcers, strongly indicates that the skin ulcers were induced by the fishing gear. Features of the pathology could be linked to the temporary retention of cod in trawl meshes....

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus juveniles in Mutsu Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsu, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yasuyuki; KOOKA, Kouji; Sugimoto, Kouichi; Takahashi, Toyomi

    2001-01-01

    The spatial distributions of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) juveniles and their food organisms were examined in Mutsu Bay from April to July during 1988-1997. In April, large larvae (≤25 mm in total length (TL)) and pelagic juveniles (>25 mm TL) were widely distributed in the bay, and were concentrated at the same depths as calanoid copepodites during daylight hours. Geographical changes in cod TLs might have been due to transport by the Tsugaru Warm Current. After mid- and late May, juven...

  16. Effects of handling stress and storage conditions on quality of farmed cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Minh Phu

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic cod is a promising species for fish farming in Norway. In order to maintain a high fish quality and achieve higher fish quality, it is necessary toincrease the understanding of pre and post mortem biochemical processes in fish.The effects of pre slaughter handling stress on fish quality have been observed in many studies. Stress and storage temperature had effect on the color and texture of pre rigor filleted farmed cod. The main objectives of this study were to determine effects of ...

  17. The effect of external dummy transmitters on oxygen consumption and performance of swimming Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, M.F.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Steffensen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased critical swimming speed and increased oxygen consumption (Mo-2) was found for externally tagged Atlantic cod Gadus morhua swimming at a high speed of 0 center dot 9 body length (total length, L-Gamma) s(-1). No difference was found in the standard metabolic rate, indicating that the hig...... higher Mo-2 for tagged cod was due to drag force rather than increased costs to keep buoyancy. (c) 2006 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  18. Penentuan Kadar COD Dan BOD Dalam Pengolahan Limbah Cair DIPKS PT. Multimas Nabati Asahan Kuala Tanjung

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Sherly Mayrina

    2011-01-01

    It has been done analysis of COD and BOD value of effluent in PKS PT.Multimas Nabati Asahan Kuala Tanjung on Finish Pond. From result of analysis is gitten by COD value is 239,53 mg/l and BOD value is 100,45 mg/l . As according to state’s minister citizenship and environment concerning standart of liquid quality for the palm oil industry, therefore the palm oil milling wastewater still fullfill standart to be thrown to water body.

  19. Demography of coastal Atlantic cod in relation to the establishment of a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Jan-Harald

    2012-01-01

    Use a mark-recapture approach to study the demography of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a small (1 km2) marine protected area (MPA) on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. A total of 9713 Atlantic cod where tagged during 2005-2010. Inside the MPA, only hook and line fishing is allowed. Data are partly live capture-recaptures from the research fishing activity, and partly dead recoveries from commercial and recreational fishers. A high-reward system was applied to quantify the tag reporting rate fro...

  20. Production of cod trypsin I in cold-adapted expression systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Ósk Pétursdóttir 1985

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to produce recombinant cod trypsin I in two different cold-adapted protein expression systems, Escherichia coli and Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. The results show that the P. haloplanktis system is better suited for expression of the recombinant trypsin I than the E. coli system. The specific activity of the recombinant cod trypsin I was 39.8 U/mg in the P. haloplanktis expression system compared to 17.9 U/mg in previous expression experiments. For compa...

  1. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Changes in ATP, IMP, lactate and glycogen contents in the muscle of cod were followed during freezing at temperatures of -20C and -45C. ATP degradation was accompanied by a corresponding increase in IMP content. Simultaneous measurement of temperature showed that at both freezing rates, the...... greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  2. Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport in Bacillus subtilis CodY Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Belitsky, Boris R.

    2015-01-01

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid-responsive transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of several dozen transcription units in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of isoleucine, valine, and leucine in the growth medium is essential for achieving high activity of CodY and for efficient regulation of the target genes. We identified three permeases—BcaP, BraB, and BrnQ—that are responsible for the bulk of isoleucine and valine uptake and are also involved in leucine uptake. At least o...

  3. Atmospheric aerosol characterisation at Cape Grim and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australia Global Baseline monitoring station at Cape Grim in north western Tasmania is operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. ANSTO has been sampling, measuring and characterising fine particles of 2.5 μm diameters and less (PM2.5) at Cape Grim since the middle of 1992. Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques [2-41 have been used to identify over 25 different elemental species present in over 500 filters collected to date. The elements measured by PIXE, PIGME, ERDA and RBS include, H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. Of the measured elements not listed the majority occurred at concentrations below 10 ng/m3. The average monthly mass variations over the 5 year period from 1992 to 1997 are given. The average non-soil potassium was 92% of the total potassium, showing that the vast majority of fine potassium was associated with smoke from biomass burning. The highest lead value of 542 ng/m3 occurred on 21 June 1992 and was associated with 337 ng/m3 of bromine which, after correction for bromine in sea salt (Na was 3), was about the correct ratio to be associated with combustion of leaded petrol in motor vehicles

  4. Spiders are Mammals: Direct Instruction in Cape York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dow

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, SRA Direct Instructioni was introduced across the curriculum in two remote Cape York schools, as a key aspect of social and welfare reform. There is national political interest in these reforms, which link welfare policy to State primary school education conceived as basic skills training. Reflecting the political interest, national newspapers ran the story that Direct Instruction had provided almost miraculous results after 17 weeks (Devine 2010a. Alternative approaches to literacy development in Indigenous education did not get the same sort of media attention. Noel Pearson provides the intellectual basis for Cape York social reforms, through his writing, political advocacy and leadership of organisations involved in the reforms. His ultimate goal is successful mainstream education leading to economic integration, where young people are „completely fluent in their own culture and the wider culture‟ (Pearson 2009:57. The question posed by this vision is „What kind of education can produce these flexible, bicultural, working people who keep their traditions alive?‟

  5. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Uimonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public screens, followed by live music performances and narrowcast interaction with the audience. Building on recent research on public screens during global media events, this article addresses the mediated mourning rituals at the Grand Parade in terms of a sacred drama. Focusing on social relationality, the article discusses how digital visuality mediated a sense of global communitas, thus momentarily overcoming historical frictions between the global north and the global south, while expanding the fame of Madiba. Paying attention to the public display of visual memory objects and the emotional agency of images, it argues that digital visuality mediated social frictions between the living and the dead, while recasting a historical subject as a historical object. The article further discusses how digital visuality mediated cultural frictions of apartheid and xenophobia, through the positioning of Mandela in the pantheon of Pan-African icons, thus underlining the African origin of this global icon. The analysis is based on ethnographic observations and experiences in Cape Town.

  6. An Examination of Library Anxiety at Cape Breton University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard J. Lawless

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Library anxiety as a phenomenon has been discussed for decades. While it is generally recognized, seeing its effects within a specific institution can often be difficult. This study examined the presence and degree of library anxiety among students at Cape Breton University in Canada. Methods – A modified version of the Library Anxiety Scale (LAS was provided to the students via an online survey. Invitations to take the survey were sent to students by email and via the Student Union’s social networking site.Results – The average score on the LAS showed only mild anxiety levels among all the respondents. When categorizing the results by either program of study or program year, the results vary from no to mild anxiety. Little variation was seen between the sexes, with both males and females scoring close to the overall average of mild anxiety.Conclusions – With no segments of the student body scoring in the moderate to severe levels, the overall LAS scores for Cape Breton University’s students appear to be in a range that could be considered “normal.”

  7. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  8. Facilities at ARIES for the Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Sagar; David L. Mary

    2005-06-01

    A collaborative programme searching for mmag pulsations in chemically peculiar stars in the northern hemisphere was initiated in 1997 between Nainital, India, and Cape Town, South Africa. It was therefore named as the Nainital–Cape Survey programme. The detection limits imposed by the observing conditions (including atmospheric noise and telescope size) at both Manora Peak and Devasthal sites are described. The scintillation noise on the best photometric nights is ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 mmag for these sites. Both places allow one to detect few mmag variation in bright stars ( ≤ 12 mag), and are therefore particularly well-suited for carrying out the proposed surveywork. The main characteristics of the three-channel photometer developed at ARIES for carrying out the observations are also presented. This excellent instrument has been used extensively since 1999 at the f/13 Cassegrain focus of ARIES’ 104 cm telescope. In particular, it allowed the survey to result in the discovery of Scuti like pulsations in four Am stars, in one rapidly oscillating Ap star, and in a number of probable variables so far. The future prospects are then presented, which regard the acquisition of a high speed time series CCD photometer, a project to build a 3-metre class telescope at Devasthal, and collaborative observations with Indian and foreign astronomical sites.

  9. From disasters to decisions: Cape Canaveral Marine Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five years ago, in August 1992, a tropical depression off the western coast of Africa formed, intensifying and gathering storm clouds as it began its journey westward. By the time it reached the US mainland, it had become a full-fledged hurricane -- Hurricane Andrew -- that blasted over south Florida and into south-central Louisiana. In Florida City, Fla., things went from bad to worse. One piece of metal debris -- airborne from the hurricane's 145 mile-per-hour winds -- punctured an oil tank, triggering a rapidly spreading oil spill that needed to be contained, and fast. The tank had a mechanism whereby oil was replenished when the container was less than full; so as oil was sucked out by the high winds, more came pouring in. In addition, a berm that would have somewhat contained the spill was stuck in open position. Enter Cape Canaveral Marine Services, Inc., (CCMS, Cape Canaveral, Fla.), an environmental services company well-versed in emergency spill response activities. Within seven weeks, CCMS had cleaned up and mitigated the impacts of the spill. Although the job posed significant challenges, the company was uniquely situated to respond quickly, efficiently, and effectively. After all, it had already been in the business for 20 years

  10. Geotourism, Medical Geology and local development: Cape Verde case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, F.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    Geotourism and Geoparks in particular are real opportunities to rural developments promoting the rate decline of unemployment and emigration through engaging the local communities in geopark activities and tourism marketing in the form of adventure tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism and health geotourism. Geotourism is closely linked with Medical Geology. The intake of minerals and chemical elements for food, water, soil (through geophagy) or dust can be accomplished by ingestion, inhalation or dermal absorption. Pelotherapy or “Mudtherapy” is the use of mud/clay for therapeutic applications, internal or external. Cape Verde archipelago is located in Atlantic ocean, 400 km westwards of Senegal coast. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo island huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine. A cooperative program established between Cape Verde University (UCV) and Aveiro University (UA, Portugal) is under way, aiming, on a first stage, to identify Geotouristic potentialities and, on a second stage, to develop products. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo isl. huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine.

  11. Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David S.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Schwab, William C.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Andrews, Brian D.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples. The interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.

  12. Impact of prey field variability on early cod larval survival: a sensitivity study of a Baltic cod Individual-based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn O. Schmidt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Baltic larval cod drift, growth and survival use idealised constructed mean prey fields of nauplius distributions. These simulations revealedthe best feeding conditions for Baltic cod larvae longer than 6 mm. For shorter, first feeding larvae (between 4.5 and 6 mm pronounced differences in growth and survival were observed,which depend on food availability and to a lesser degree on ambient temperature. We performed runs with an Individual-based Model (IBM for Baltic cod larvae in order to demonstrate hownatural variability in prey abundance influences the survival success of first feeding larvae. In the Baltic, this larval stage lives mainly between 20 and 40 m depth and feeds exclusivelyon the nauplii of different calanoid copepods (Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus acuspes, Temora longicornis and Centropages hamatus.Prey data obtained from vertically stratified samples in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea in 2001 and 2002 indicate a strong variability at spatial and temporal scales. We calculatedlarval survival and growth in relation to natural variation of prey fields, i.e. species-specific nauplius abundance.The results of the model runs yielded larval survival rates from 60 to 100% if the mean size of nauplii species was taken and lower survival if prey consisted of early nauplius stages only.

  13. 77 FR 67580 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ....20(d)(1)(iii) on June 29, 2012 (77 FR 39183, July 2, 2012). As of November 5, 2012, NMFS has... opening of the directed Pacific cod fishery by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  14. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... established by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), revision to the final 2012 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (76 FR 81860, December 29, 2011), and inseason adjustment to the final 2012 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (77 FR...

  15. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  16. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... established by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), revision to the final 2012 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (76 FR 81860, December 29, 2011), and inseason adjustment to the final 2012 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (77 FR...

  17. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  18. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...

  19. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), revision to the final 2012 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (76 FR 81860, December 29, 2011), and inseason adjustment to the final 2012 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (77 FR 438, January 5,...

  20. 77 FR 65640 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ....20(d)(1)(iii) on October 12, 2012 (77 FR 62464, October 15, 2012). As of October 23, 2012, NMFS has... opening of the directed Pacific cod fishery by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...