WorldWideScience

Sample records for capamis study effectiveness

  1. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  2. Factors Effecting on Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objectives to find out the impact of Socio-economic Status as well as sex differences on study habits of class VII students (100) of Government Colleges of Amroha District. The effects of two independent variables on study habits of the aforementioned students were assessed by using two Psychological tests…

  3. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  4. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1949-11-16

    This paper discusses procedures for research on biological effects of radiation, using mouse tissue: activation trace analysis including methods and proceedures for handling samples before during and after irradiation; methods and procedures for ion exchange study; method of separation and recovery of copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, pubidium and cesium. Also included are studies of trace elements with radioactive isotopes: the distribution of cobalt 60, zinc 65, and copper 64 in the cytoplasm and nuclei of normal mice and those with tumors. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Study on Soil Magnetic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIYAN-LI; LIUXIAO-YI

    1995-01-01

    A study on the effect of applied magnetic field was performed with six types of soils collected from northeastern China.Magnetic field was found to cause changes of soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activities.An appropriate applied magnetic field could cut down soil zeta-potential,soil specific surface,soil water potential and soil swelling capacity;raise the charge density on soil colloids and the activities of invertase,hydrogen peroxidase and amylase in the soils;enhance soil aggregation and improve soil structural status and soil water-releasing capability.

  6. A Study on Effective Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦淑玲

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, effective teaching has become an important phrase in English language teaching, and causes great attention. As a result of the emergence of teacher-led initiatives, the need of teacher effectiveness has been given renewed focus. This essay outlines what roles teachers play in effective teaching, and what personal qualities teachers maintain that qualify them as effective teachers.

  7. Controlled study of ISA effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Lisbeth; Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry;

    2007-01-01

    The present study is a part of the ISA PAYD project being conducted in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. The first part of the study compared background data and attitudes between young ISA-volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers and nonvolunteers differed only with respect to their judgeme...

  8. Controlled study of ISA effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Lisbeth; Klarborg, B.; Lahrmann, Harry;

    2008-01-01

    This study is a part of an ongoing ISA project in Denmark. Its aim was to clarify two human factors issues, (1) the difference in attitude between ISA-volunteers and non-volunteers, and (2) the relative impact on speeding of two factors, ISA-information and driver motivation. The first part...... part of the study was a driving experiment in which two factors, informative ISA and an economic incentive for not speeding, were manipulated between groups of volunteers. A control group had ISA switched off and received insurance discount independent of their speeding. This group did not reduce...

  9. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  10. Study on Effect of Kangyanling(

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy and mechanism of Kangyanling (KYL) in treating patients with systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (SIRS/MODS) after abdominal surgery. Methods: Eighty-two patients of SIRS/MODS after abdominal surgery were divided into two groups according to admission time, the KYL treated group (n=35) and the control group (n=47). The levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured at the 1st, 3rd and 7th days post-operationally. Results: The levels of CRP, TNFα and IL-6 decreased gradually after surgical operation in both groups, but the reducing velocity was shorter in the KYL group than that in the control group, so the comparison of the levels in the two groups showed significant difference on the 3rd day after operation. Conclusion:KYL could inhibit the release of inflammatory mediator and relieve the inflammatory response so as to treat post-operational SIRS/MODS effectively.

  11. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  12. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  13. VisitScotland.com Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Horan, Patrick; Frew, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This report is a culmination of a comprehensive piece of research that studied the effectiveness of Visitscotland.com on a longitudinal basis over an eight month period from January 2009 up until August 2009. The purpose of the research is twofold. Firstly, the main purpose of the study was to evaluate how effectively VisitScotland.com serves its many stakeholders from a wide variety of perspectives. The second reason for conducting this research was to validate an expert system created speci...

  14. A Study of Curriculum Effectiveness in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Catherine A.; Feng, Annie Xuemei; VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Rogers, Karen B.; Avery, Linda D.

    2007-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examines the effects on student performance of a Javits-funded curriculum designed to respond to the needs of high-ability students in elementary and middle school social studies. The curriculum, implemented with all students in heterogeneous classrooms, addresses state standards while integrating advanced content,…

  15. Study of irradiation effect on curcuma polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin (Curcuma Longa rhizome) component, particularly the polyphenolic fraction. Powdered rhizome was irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 15 KGy (dose rate of 6 KGy / H). Polyphenolics were extracted and total polyphenols conent (TPC) was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The irradiation effect was also evaluated by the HPLC technique. The chromatographic analysis showed that the irradiated and non-irradiated curcumin spectrum gave similar data. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the phenolic extracts were also assessed. the anti oxidative potential of the sample was evaluated using two radical scavenging methods with DPPH and ABTS. The antimicrobial analysis showed that the phenolic extracts of curcumin inhibited the growth of the studied microorganisms. Our results showed that irradiated samples were not affected in terms of polyphenols content and characteristics. (Author)

  16. A CASE STUDY ON MEASUREMENT EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Modrák

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the measurement effectiveness of Cost of Quality (COQ implementations presents steadily a practical managerial problem. Even though there are many approaches to measurement COQ optimal methods for this purpose in real conditions often depend on confrontation and evaluation of different calculation models. The paper based on a case study describes a procedure for comparison between so called controllable costs and incurred cost of poor quality. Presented study confirms assumption of a propitious influence of preventive costs on an overall COQ and a change of structure of separate cost of quality items.

  17. Winter study of power plant effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.

    1980-10-01

    As a part of DOE's Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) program a field study was undertaken at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant (Plant Bowen) in December 1979. The study was a joint endeavor of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the main objective of determining the effects of the plant's smokestack effluents on aerosol characteristics and precipitation chemistry. Other objectives included studies of cooling tower temperature and humidity (T/h) plumes and drift drop concentrations. Conducted over a period of three weeks, the study involved an instrumented aircraft, pilot balloons, a tethered balloon system, a dense network of wetfall chemistry collectors and numerous ground- and tower-based meteorological instruments. Rainfall samples collected during the precipitation event of December 13, 1979, revealed some evidence of plume washout. The tethered balloon flights rarely detected the faint presence of the T/h plumes while the airborne measurements program concentrated on the study of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate conversion. A series of plume observations confirmed the suitability of the plant's windset for plume direction determinations.

  18. STUDY OF CNS EFFECTS OF MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Macrolides are an old, well established class of an tibacterial agents which play an important role in the management of infectious dise ases. The present study was undertaken to study the CNS effects of some of the macrolides ant ibiotics namely erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin in r ats. 30 healthy adult albino rats of either sex of Haffkine’s strain weighing 100-200g were use d for the study. Each group consists of six animals. Various tests were used for screening of drugs on CNS activity. Amongst the macrolides namely erythromycin claritromycin, azith romycin and roxithromycin, only roxithromycin showed CNS depressant activity in rat s. Similarly only roxithromycin and azithromycin showed anti-inflammatory property.

  19. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  20. Study of radioprotective effect of the resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resveratrol (3,4,5 trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin occurring naturally in a wide variety of plants, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is present at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. This high capacity to scavenge the free radicals generated by several biologic processes by resveratrol can provide a prevention of human cardiovascular diseases and several types of cancer. The main objective of this study was to determine the in vitro radioprotective effect of resveratrol in cell culture with the aid of the tests of cytotoxicity of resveratrol (IC50%) and lethal dose 50% of gamma radiation (LD50). Studies of the level of resveratrol toxicity, found by cytotoxicity test performed by neutral red uptake assay, and lethal dose 50% (LD50) of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) was performed in cell culture NCTC Clone 929 from ATCC. The IC50% of resveratrol was about 50 M/L. The DL50 of gamma radiation showed a value of about 354 Gy. On the basis of these biological results, it was performed studies of radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the same experimental conditions, verifying that the resveratrol in concentrations between 12.5 M/L and 25 M/L showed a more pronounced radioprotective effect. (author)

  1. Studies of Current Dependent Effects at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A S; Huttel, E; Pérez, F; Pont, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The ANKA electron storage ring is operated at energies between 0.5 and 2.5 GeV. A major requirement for a synchrotron light source, such as ANKA, is to achieve a high beam current. A multitude of mostly impedance related effects depend on either bunch or total beam current. This paper gives an overview over the various beam studies performed at ANKA in this context, specifically the observation of current dependent detuning, the determination of the bunch length change with current from a measurement of the ratio between coherent and incoherent synchrotron tune and an assessment of the effective longitudinal loss factor from the current dependent horizontal closed orbit distortion.

  2. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 1015/cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 μsec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 μF, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption

  3. A longitudinal study of marijuana effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikas, J A; Weller, R A; Morse, C L; Hoffmann, R G

    1985-05-01

    One hundred regular marijuana users volunteered to be extensively interviewed in 1968-1970, and 97 were located and reinterviewed 6 to 8 years later. As part of each interview the subjects filled out a checklist review of 105 effects of marijuana. This report focuses on the differential patterns of effects found at the two time intervals. Scores on groupings of items were examined for changes over time. Reports of sensory and hallucinatory items dropped substantially. Reports of appetite effects, sex effects, and intoxication effects on sleep remained stable. Reports of cognitive effects, mood effects, and aftereffects on sleep appeared to be shifting from desirable to undesirable, with the frequency of desirable effects dropping while frequency of undesirable effects remained the same.

  4. Study of beamstrahlung effects at CEPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Qing-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Bo; Yue, Teng; Lou, Xin-Chou

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs boson at the LHC marked a breakthrough in particle physics. The relative lightness of the new particle has inspired consideration of a high-luminosity Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs Factory to study the particle’s properties in an extremely clean environment. Given the high luminosity and high energy of the CEPC, beamstrahlung is one of the most important sources of beam-induced background that might degrade the detector performance. It can introduce even more background to the detector through the consequent electron-positron pair production and hadronic event generation. In this paper, beamstrahlung-induced backgrounds are estimated with both analytical methods and Monte Carlo simulation. Hit density due to detector backgrounds at the first vertex detector layer is found to be ∼0.2 hits/cm2 per bunch crossing, resulting in a low detector occupancy below 0.5%. Non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) and total ionizing dose (TID), representing the radiation damage effects, are estimated to be ∼1011 1 MeV n eq/cm2/yr and ∼300 kRad/yr, respectively. Supported by CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams, CAS and IHEP Thousand Talent and Hundred Talent programs, and grants from the State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Electronics and Particle Detectors.

  5. Comparative nuclear effects of biomedical interest. Civil effects study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.S.; Bowen, I.G.; Richmond, D.R.; Corsbie, R.L.

    1961-01-12

    Selected physical and biological data bearing upon the environmental variations created by nuclear explosions are presented in simplified form. Emphasis is placed upon the ``early`` consequences of exposure to blast, thermal radiation, and ionizing radiation to elucidate the comparative ranges of the major effects as they vary with explosive yield and as they contribute to the total hazard to man. A section containing brief definitions of the terminology employed is followed by a section that utilizes text and tabular material to set forth events that follow nuclear explosions and the varied responses of exposed physical and biological materials. Finally, selected quantitative weapons-effects data in graphic and tabular form are presented over a wide range of explosive yields to show the relative distances from Ground Zero affected by significant levels of blast overpressures, thermal fluxes, and initial and residual penetrating ionizing radiations. However, only the ``early`` rather than the ``late`` effects of the latter are considered.

  6. Effects of curriculum organisation on study progress in engineering studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, M.; Jansen, E.P.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Procrastination and time investment are important issues in the study of student performance and progress. Previous research on these issues has mainly concentrated upon individual differences between students in personality and time management skills. However, study progress depends not only on stu

  7. Study of ozone "weekend effect" in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG WenYuan; ZHAO ChunSheng; GENG FuHai; PENG Li; ZHOU GuangQiang; GAO Wei; XU JianMing; TIE XueXi

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of observed ozone data in 2006 from five monitoring sites (Xujiahui, Chongming, Baoshan, Pudong, Jinshan) in Shanghai reveals that ozone (O3) concentrations in Xujiahui are higher at weekends than those on weekdays, despite the fact that emissions of ozone precursor substances, such as oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are lower at weekends than those on weekdays.The possible chemical cause of ozone "weekend effect" is that NO2/NO ratio increases at weekends by 25.61% compared with those on weekdays.In addition, because of an average 12.13% reduction in NOx (NO + NO2) in the early morning (05:00-09:00) at weekends compared with that on weekdays, the ozone inhibition period ends 0.5 h earlier at weekends resulting in the longer duration of ozone accumulation and the higher ozone production rate.The rate of ozone production is a function of VOCs and NOx in the atmosphere.VOCs/NOx ratio in Xujiahui is 4.55 at weekends, and 4.37 on weekdays, belonging to the "NOx-limited".The increasing VOCs/NOx ratio at weekends leads to ozone enhancement from 73 ppbv to 80 ppbv, which are consistent with ozone "weekend effect" in Xujiahui.Furthermore, combining with MICAPS cloud amount data, the fact that ozone "weekend effect" in Xujiahui weakens gradually along with the increasing of cloud amount indicates that ozone photochemical production leads to ozone "weekend effect" in Xujiahui of Shanghai.

  8. Studies of the hemolytic effect of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.; Katz, E.; Porter, L.M.; Jacobson, L.O.; Watson, C.J.

    1945-07-10

    These studies were aimed at elucidating affects of radiation in inducing hemolysis independent of inhibition of erythropoiesis. Research studies were conducted both on human patients and dogs. Phosphorus-32 in mc amounts were administered either intravenously or orally to patients suffering Polycythemia rubra vera. Dogs were treated with either P-32 or x-radiation. Hemoglobin metabolism was monitored in all test subjects by hematology, blood chemistry, and fecal excretion of hemoglobin catabolites.

  9. Effective ABE Programming: Nine Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Douglas; Jacobson, Larry

    The document presents an indepth study of nine selected exemplary adult basic education (ABE) programs in Region 8: Volunteers Clearing House, Fort Collins, Colorado; Utah Navajo Development Council, Blanding, Utah; Adult Education Tutorial Program, Denver, Colorado; Project SAVE, Lemmon, South Dakota; Gates Rubber Company, Denver, Colorado;…

  10. A Meta-analysis of School Effectiveness Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Witziers, Bob; Steen, Rien

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out on the basis of 155 research studies on school effectiveness, comprising a total of 1.211 associations between school effectiveness enhancing factors and student outcome variables. The original studies were carried out between 1984 and 2005. The school effectiveness e

  11. Nuclear Effect Study Under K Factor's Nonconstancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhao-Yu; WU Wen-Wang; HE Ming-Zhong; ZHANG Ben-Ai

    2002-01-01

    A consistent approach to estimating nuclear effect functions RA RvA (x2) and RSA(x2) based on numerical iteration technique is presented in the quark-parton model when taking into account the nonconstancy of quantum chromodynamics correction factor K. ARv (x2) and RsA(x2) correspond respectively to the valence quark distributions for one bound nucleon within the nucleus and to the sea quark ones. Related numerical analysis is given for nuclei 6 12C,20 40Ca, and 26 56Fe. As the basis, it adopts both experimental data of the high energy proton-nucleus Drell-Yan process and of the high energy lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering.

  12. Studying Crystal Growth With the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David J., Jr.; Dressler, B.; Silberstein, R. P.; Poit, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Peltier interface demarcation (PID) shown useful as aid in studying heat and mass transfer during growth of crystals from molten material. In PID, two dissimilar "metals" solid and liquid phases of same material. Current pulse passed through unidirectionally solidifying sample to create rapid Peltier thermal disturbance at liquid/solid interface. Disturbance, measured by thermocouple stationed along path of solidification at or near interface, provides information about position and shape of interface.

  13. Study on Effect of Schima superba Fuelbreak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANXiaorui; ZHANGYouhui; YANGSidao; ZHONGYouhong

    2005-01-01

    Schima superba is widely used for shaded fuelbreaks in southern China. Experiments were done in the laboratory and wild for testing the effects of the shaded fuelbreaks. The cone calorimeter test results indicated that China red pine (Pinus massoniana) needles are easy to burn under the condition of the incident radiant flux at 75 kW/m2 and ignition source, the peak value of heat release rate of pine needles appears earlier (22 s) and higher (146 kW/m2). S. superba leaves burnt slowly and had a lower total heat release. The mass loss curves present that the peak value of pine needle is higher than that of S.superba leaves, which is 0.14 g/s versus S.superba 0.08 g/s. A fire experiment has been done in a suburb of Guangzhou City. It was measured that the fuel loads and their distribution of the stand of pine and fuelbreak before and after the fire experiment. There was almost no grass and litter on the ground of the fuelbreak due to clearing litter every year at the beginning of fire season. In the pine forest, there were shrubs, grasses and litter under the story.During the burning experiment, most of the pine forest has swept by surface fire at a spread speed of 2.2 m/min and fire intensity of 168-2961 kW/m. But in some area along the outside fire line, there occurred crown fire due to the high fuel load on the ground. The flame got 8.0-8.5 m high and fire intensity 24 881~28 379 kW/m. Part crown of several trees of the fuelbreak burnt because the crown fire spread. But the fire had not across the fuelbreak and no spotting fire happened. The fire experiment results indicated that the fuelbreak has effects on mitigating fire intensity and depress fire spread in some degree. The shaded fuelbreak has the ability of fire resistance and its dense crown can block spotting fire resources.

  14. Modelling and study of the Cherenkov effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishev, A. E-mail: libor.makovicka@pu-pm.univ-fcomte.fr; Duverger, E.; Makovicka, L.; Stamenov, J

    2001-06-01

    Studies at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy particularly in regard to cosmic ray detection and construction of the Muonic Cherenkov telescope at the University of Blagoevgrad indicate a need for the development of a theoretical model based on observed phenomena and a refinement of this for detection system optimisation. This was introduced in the EGS4 code system. The first simulations consecrate on a number of different geometries of the water tank in total reflection. The model was compared with experimental data involving a {sup 60}Co gamma source and the telescope. (author)

  15. Pollution effects on asthmatic children in Europe: the PEACE study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is based upon the 'Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE)' study. The PEACE study is a multi-centre study of the acute effects of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm (PM 10 ), Black Smoke (BS), SO 2 and NO 2 on re

  16. Studies on chronic effect on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic harzard of Co-60 low dose irradiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be a major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages as specified below were exposed to 60 m rads/week, 500 m rads/biweek of whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period and each period from the 1st week to the 3rd week to the 52nd week, from the 6th week to the 52nd week and from the 22nd week to the 52nd week after the birth. All the experimental mice were autopsied immediately after sacrificed at the 52nd week. And all of their major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells-W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  17. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions.

  18. Study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the demand for high integration and scaling down, recent integrated circuits have been designed with the design rule less than 100 nm. SEUs (Single-Event Upset) and SETs (Single-Event Transient) are serious problems for those devices because of the lower supply voltage and the lower threshold voltage of the transistors that makes more sensitive to smaller charge generated by an ion passage. To attain higher radiation tolerance for high integrated circuits, a DICE (Dual Interlocked Storage Cell)-based flip-flop with an SET pulse discriminator circuit on a 90-nm bulk CMOS was designed and fabricated and its performance was examined through radiation testing. SEU/SET sensitivity in the angular irradiation was measured and analyzed in this study. The test of edge-on irradiation was performed for the first time and the importance of the angular irradiation for the memory cells that have redundant memory nodes was demonstrated. (author)

  19. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions. PMID:26036835

  20. A Study of Organizational Effectiveness and its Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Cameron

    1986-01-01

    Some authors have argued that research on organizational effectiveness should cease. This study demonstrates why organizational effectiveness studies are crucial in certain types of organizations, and it points out how many of the weaknesses and criticisms of past investigations can be addressed. The results of this study of 29 organizations indicate that certain managerial strategies are strongly associated with high static scores and with improving effectiveness over time. Managerial strate...

  1. Gas Gun Studies of Interface Wear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tyler; Kennedy, Greg; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of interface wear were studied by performing gas gun experiments at velocities up to 1 km/s. The approach involved developing coefficients of constitutive strength models for Al 6061 and OFHC-Cu, then using those to design die geometry for interface wear gas gun experiments. Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments were performed to obtain coefficients of the Johnson-Cook constitutive strength model by correlating experimentally obtained deformed states of impacted samples with those predicted using ANSYS AUTODYN hydrocode. Simulations were used with validated strength models to design geometry involving acceleration of Al rods through a copper concentric cylindrical angular extrusion die. Experiments were conducted using 7.62 mm and 80 mm diameter gas guns. Differences in the microstructure of the interface layer and microhardness values illustrate that stress-strain conditions produced during acceleration of Al through the hollow concentric copper die, at velocities less than 800 m/s, result in formation of a layer via solid state alloying due to severe plastic deformation, while higher velocities produce an interface layer consisting of melted and re-solidified aluminum.

  2. Magnetocaloric Studies of the Peak Effect in Nb

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidis, N. D.; Dimitrov, I. K.; Mitrovic, V F; Elbaum, C.; Ling, X. S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a magnetocaloric study of the peak effect and Bragg glass transition in a Nb single crystal. The thermomagnetic effects due to vortex flow into and out of the sample are measured. The magnetocaloric signature of the peak effect anomaly is identified. It is found that the peak effect disappears in magnetocaloric measurements at fields significantly higher than those reported in previous ac-susceptometry measurements. Investigation of the superconducting to normal transition reveals t...

  3. The Effect of Using Case Studies in Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariseau, Susan E.; Kezim, Boualem

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect on learning of using case studies in business statistics courses. The authors divided students into 3 groups: a control group, a group that completed 1 case study, and a group that completed 3 case studies. Results evidenced that, on average, students whom the authors required to complete a case analysis received…

  4. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  5. Study on the Complexity of the Bullwhip Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yingjin; TANG Yong; Tang Xiaowo

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in the study of the dynamic behavior of replenishment rules of bullwhip effect. We prove that bullwhip effect and butterfly effect share a same the self-oscillation amplifying mechanism that is the ordering decisions the supplier self-oscillation amplify the perturbations brought by the errors in the processing of retailers' demand information. This results as an explicit self-similar structure of the sensitivity of the system to the initial values duty to the nonlinear mechanism. In this paper, the causes process of the bullwhip effect is described as the internal nonlinear mechanism and study on the complexity of bullwhip effect for order-up-to policy under demand signal processing. The methodology is based on fractal and chaotic theory and allows important insights to be gained about the complexity behavior of bullwhip effect.

  6. Study of electrokinetic effects to quantify groundwater flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.R. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haupt, R.W. [MIT Lincoln Lab., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    An experimental study of electrokinetic effects (streaming potential) in earth materials was undertaken. The objective was to evaluate the measurement of electrokinetic effects as a method of monitoring and predicting the movement of groundwater, contaminant plumes, and other fluids in the subsurface. The laboratory experiments verified that the electrokinetic effects in earth materials are prominent, repeatable, and can be described well to first order by a pair of coupled differential equations.

  7. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159602.html Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study ... increase risk for joint and tissue disease, including arthritis, new research suggests. "We keep having referrals coming ...

  8. The Fisher Effect in the Spanish Case: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Jareño; Marta Tolentino

    2012-01-01

    We revise previous literature about Fisher Effect, in order to check if the majority of nominal interest rates movements are caused by inflation rate fluctuations, remaining constant the real interest rate. Finally, we analyse the Fisher Effect in the Spanish case with a preliminary analysis in order to validate future studies.

  9. Professionalizing teachers in career dialogue: an effect study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijpers, Marinka; Meijers, Frans

    2011-01-01

    As a result of the changing notions of work schools are increasingly acknowledging that they have a strong responsibility to guide students not only in their academic growth, but also in their career development. This paper presents the result of a study about effects of teachers training on career dialogue promoting career competency development in students. For the quantitative part of the study, a quasi experimental research design is used to measure effects among 2500 students. Video-reco...

  10. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  11. Simulation study on fluctuant flow stress scale effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu; YU Hu-ping; RUAN Xue-yu

    2006-01-01

    Crystal plasticity theory was used to simulate upsetting tests of different dimensions and grain size micro copper cylinders in this study on the fluctuant flow stress scale effect. Results showed that with the decrease of billet grain quantity, flow stress fluctuation is not always increased, but there is a maximum. Through this study, the fluctuant flow stress scale effect can be understood deeper, and relevant necessary information was obtained for further prediction and control of this scale effect and to design the microforming process and die.

  12. Mixed-effects and fMRI studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friston, K.J; Stephan, K.E; Ellegaard Lund, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    This note concerns mixed-effect (MFX) analyses in multisession functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. It clarifies the relationship between mixed-effect analyses and the two-stage 'summary statistics' procedure (Holmes, A.P., Friston, K.J., 1998. Generalisability, random effects and...... population inference. NeuroImage 7, S754) that has been adopted widely for analyses of fMRI data at the group level. We describe a simple procedure, based on restricted maximum likelihood (ReML) estimates of covariance components, that enables full mixed-effects analyses in the context of statistical...

  13. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  14. Realism and Romance: The Study of Media Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Gaye

    1993-01-01

    Compares and contrasts two studies representing diametrical approaches (Romanticism versus Realism) toward the issue of agency and media effects: P. Willis's "Common Culture" and W. A. Gamson's "Talking Politics." Argues that both studies find that people make their own uses of media. (SR)

  15. Assessing Medication Effects in the MTA Study Using Neuropsychological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Conners, C. Keith; Hervey, Aaron S.; Tonev, Simon T.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Wells, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: While studies have increasingly investigated deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant medication on these important neuropsychological outcome measures. Methods: 316 children who participated in the Multimodal…

  16. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by 3

  17. Learning about the Effectiveness of Teacher Education: A Chilean Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Beatrice; Tellez, Francisco; Navarro, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The article reviews some of the problems faced by teacher education in general and in Chile specifically, and on this basis, presents the results of a study focused on the effects of six teacher education programmes on future primary level teachers' learning of mathematics and mathematics pedagogy. The study describes the programmes and presents…

  18. Three conjectures about school effectiveness: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelande H. Hofman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness. Our review of previous evidence prompted us to look at three sets of factors connected with classroom teachers, school policies and processes, and matters of governance. All three have featured prominently in the public arena. In particular, we look for the relative contributions of teacher-, school-, and governance indicators for educational effectiveness (measured by Math achievement. About 100 Dutch primary schools form the database together with findings of international school effectiveness research (studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. School-level variables are the most substantial in explaining educational effectiveness. The sector effect (public/private explains 16% of the between school variance, other school-level variables explain 51%, and the teacher- or classroom-level variables explain 32%. Some of the underlying variables are identified and we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness.

  19. Tomographic Study of Ionospheric Effects Associated with a Solar Eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXiong-bin; XuJi-sheng; MaShu-ying; TianMao

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the ionospheric effects associated with the solar eclipse of October 24th, 1995 by means of Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT). Since the reconstructed profiles from experimental CIT are sporadically located in time, a time domain interpolation method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique is proposed and applied to extract the ionospheric effects. The effects can be extracted by comparison analysis between the interpolated CIT profiles of the eclipse days and that of the reference day that are time-aligned. A series of figs have been obtained showing the attenuation of photonization effect at low altitudes and the weakening of plasma's transportation process at high altitudes, etc. The photonization effect recovered to normal level soon after the last contact. The maximum electron density diminishing is observed about 2 h after the eclipse maximum and the effects seem vanished in the hours followed. Analysis on vertical TEC's latitudinal-temporal variation gives similar conclusions.

  20. Study on space charge effects of the CSNS/RCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) is a key component of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS).The space charge effect is one of the most important issues in the CSNS/RCS,which limits the maximum beam intensity,as well as the maximum beam power.Space charge effects are the main source of emittance growth and beam loss in the RCS.Space charge effects have been studied by simulation for the CSNS/RCS.By optimizing the painting orbit,the optimized painting distribution was obtained.The space charge effects during the acceleration are studied and dangerous resonances,which may induce emittance growth and beam loss,are investigated.The results are an important reference for the design and commissioning of the CSNS/RCS.

  1. Experimental study on effects of CBM temperature-rising desorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-min; LIN Ya-bing

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of CBM (coal bed methane) temperature-rising desorption,isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments on three ranks (anthracite,coking coal and lignite) of coal at different temperatures were designed based on the traditional CBM decompression desorption.The experimental results indicate that temperature-rising desorption is more effective in high-rank coal,and ever-increasing temperature of high-rank coal reservoir can reduce the negative effects of coal matrix shrinkage in the process of production and improve the permeability of the coal reservoir as well.It is also revealed that the technique of temperature-rising desorption applied in higher-rank coal reservoir can enhance CBM recovery ratio.This study provided theoretical support for the application of temperature-rising desorption technique in practical discharging and mining projects,which can effectively tackle the gas production bottleneck problem.

  2. Organizational effectiveness and financial performance: a healthcare study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, William; Elmuti, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on approaches to organizational effectiveness and financial performance in the healthcare industry. The purpose of this article is to study the Relationship Between Measures of Perceived Organizational Effectiveness and Actual Financial Performance in the Medical Group Practice Environment. The population in this study came from an annual survey of U.S. medical practices conducted by the Medical Group Managers Association (MGMA). The evaluation instruments developed are a composite of documented and currently active instruments, including components of organizational effectiveness, general demographics, locus of control, and constituent/environmental influences. Statistical analysis of data includes regression analysis and descriptive statistics measures. The three tested hypotheses in the study are not supported. However, the study does support an understanding of industry relationships and reinforces the findings of former studies. Additionally, a new level of confirmation is established indicating that even under greater levels of environmental control, perceived organizational effectiveness and actual financial performance has no significant relationship. This article provides a concise summary and update of a larger and more detailed body of work.

  3. Study on evaluation of photoelectric jamming effectiveness on ranging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jinxi; Yang, Haiqiang; Gao, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Range) is a brand-new field and research hotspot. Ranging lidar is studied in this paper. Specifically, its basic working principle and photoelectric jamming mechanism are introduced. Then, the ranging error jamming success rate rule is developed for laser distance deception jamming. And the effectiveness evaluation of laser blinding jamming is based on the influence level on ranging accuracy and ranging function. The results have some reference value to evaluation of jamming test effectiveness.

  4. Anti-Intrusion Effect of Lorazepam: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong-Seock; Lee, Heung-Pyo; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Choi, Yun-Kyeung

    2013-01-01

    Objective Easy triggering of trauma-related episodic memory fragments caused by perceptual cues is tied to strong perceptual priming in the implicit memory system. And among benzodiazepines, only lorazepam has been consistently reported to have an atypical suppression effect on perceptual priming processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of single doses of lorazepam, diazepam, and a placebo on intrusive memories after exposure to a distressing videotape and to explore wh...

  5. Inelastic effects in electron transport studied with wave packet propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Monturet, S.; Lorente, N.

    2008-01-01

    A time-dependent approach is used to explore inelastic effects during electron transport through few-level systems. We study a tight-binding chain with one and two sites connected to vibrations. This simple but transparent model gives insight about inelastic effects, their meaning and the approximations currently used to treat them. Our time-dependent approach allows us to trace back the time sequence of vibrational excitation and electronic interference, the ibrationally introduced time dela...

  6. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia...

  7. Shell closure effects studied via cluster decay in heavy nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sushil; Ramna; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The effects of shell closure in nuclei via the cluster decay is studied. In this context, we have made use of the Preformed Cluster Model ($PCM$) of Gupta and collaborators based on the Quantum Mechanical Fragmentation Theory. The key point in the cluster radioactivity is that it involves the interplay of close shell effects of parent and daughter. Small half life for a parent indicates shell stabilized daughter and long half life indicates the stability of the parent against the decay. In th...

  8. Role of emotional intelligence in managerial effectiveness: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Sahidur Rahman; Md. Aftab Uddin; Mostafizur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is very critical to the managerial effectiveness. The present study intends to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence and the three roles such as, interpersonal, informational, and decision of managerial effectiveness. Emotional intelligence is measured by using the Emotional Quotient Index (Rahim et al., 2002) [Rahim, M., Psenicka, C., Polychroniou, P., Zhao, J., Yu, C., Chan, K., Susana, K., Alves, M., Lee, C., Rahman, M.S., Ferdausy, S., & Wyk, R. (...

  9. Radioisotope studies of some effects and interactions of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coordinated programme of ''isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture'', initiated in 1973, had involved the participation of 12 scientists from 10 countries. Pesticide residues, toxic metals, atmospheric sulphur dioxide were studied, and the use of radiotracer techniques as monitoring tools for existing contaminant levels or for their biological effects. The programme had been successful in the development and application of selected labelled substrate techniques. Specific aspects studied were the effects of environmental contaminants at the molecular level of the cell nucleus, the development and significance of radioimmunoassay procedure for trace contaminants, action and joint action of toxic elements, and the radiometric analysis of cholinesterase as an index of exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Ten papers were presented and 12 coordinated investigations discussed. A number of recommendations were made

  10. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  11. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  12. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  13. Studying laser radiation effect on steel structure and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Gazaliyev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of laser radiation on the structure and properties of annealed and tempered steel with different content of carbon. For surface hardening there was used a laser complex equipped with Nd: YAG pulse laser with power density up to 30 kW/сm2. As a result of the carried-out studies there were calculated characteristics of laser, steel microstructure and properties.

  14. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding;

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...... studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation....

  15. Effect of tracheostomy on pulmonary mechanics: An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sofi Khalid; Wani Tariq

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken to find out the effect of early tracheostomy on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary mechanics and arterial blood gases were assessed before and after tracheostomy in patients with severe head injury (Glasgow coma score < 8) requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Patients and Methods: The study included 20 mechanically ventilated patients of either sex between 20 and 45 years of age, who had suffered brain injury due to head trauma du...

  16. A Comparative Study into the Effectiveness of Personalized Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Arlon, Guillaume P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide a comparative study of the effectiveness of personalized advertising. It provides a definition of a new form of advertising and defines it as the creation of an independent existence capable of entering language, daydreams and intuitions (Lannon and Cooper, 1983); in which the advertisement provides an informational or a creative message (Lannon and Cooper, 1983; Stewart and Koslow, 1989; Bhat, 1998) to promote goods or services to an individual using personally ide...

  17. Mössbauer-Effect Studies of Iron-Tin Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpy, Georg; Both, Erik; Djéga-Mariadassou, C.;

    1970-01-01

    Solid solutions FeSn and the compounds Fe3Sn, Fe5Sn3, Fe3Sn2, FeSn, and FeSn2 have been studied by the Mössabauer effect in both Fe and Sn nuclei. Also, standard x-ray diffraction and magnetization studies were performed. The magnetic hyperfine (hf) fields in the Fe and Sn components are not, in ...

  18. A Study of the effect of sound on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Bhoria,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief study of various effects of sound on the human brain activity. This can be shown through the study of EEG signal recorded. The effect is in the form of variation in either frequency or in the power of different EEG bands. A biomedical signal electroencephalography (EEG reflects the state of mind and is often used to verify the influence of music on human brain activity. In fact EEG signals are related to the characteristic parameters of brain electrical activity. Moreover as our mind state changes EEG changes accordingly. The raw EEG cannot be observed or used efficiently. Hence various techniques like time frequency analysis has been employed to read the effects.

  19. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  20. A Qualitative Study on the Effects of Teacher Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Aliyu Wushishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the researchers explored the effects of teacher attrition in Niger state, Nigeria. The study examined how attrition is affecting the educational development of the state from the teachers’ perspective. A qualitative method was used with the aim of extracting the inner feelings of the participants regarding the effects of attrition. Five serving teachers were purposively selected. An in-depth interview, non-participatory observation and document analysis were used as means for data collection. The findings discovered; cost implication, increased in workload, poor students’ performance and burden on school administration, as the major effects of teacher attrition. The paper therefore recommends that, the state government needs to improve the condition of service of teachers with the aim of reducing the rate of attrition so as to improve the educational standard of the state.

  1. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  2. A Study of the Effectiveness of the SWRL Kindergarten Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathy

    To investigate the effects of the Southwest Regional Laboratories (SWRL) Kindergarten Program on readiness for first grade as measured by the Metropolitan Readiness Test and the Gates-MacGinitie Readiness Skills Test was the purpose of this study. The subjects for the experiment were 52 kindergarten students who were randomly assigned either to a…

  3. DSC Study on Brain Tubulin and the Effect of Cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The thermal property of the polymerization of brain tubulin was studied by a high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter. The phenomenon that heat flows increased and decreased consistently and obviously was observed. This phenomenon was called heat flow oscillation. It was probably correlated to the dynamic instability of microtubules. The effect of cisplatin on it was reported, too.

  4. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  5. Effective Single-Parent Training Group Program: Three System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold E.; Miller, Keva M.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study highlights Dr. Elsie Pinkston and colleagues' research on the effectiveness of behavior parent training and examines the application of single-parent training group (SPG) programs to three parent-child dyads exposed to distressed family circumstances. Methods: Single-system evaluation designs were conducted with two…

  6. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential diffe

  7. Integrating Professional Development across the Curriculum: An Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Dinella, Lisa M.; Hatchard, Christine J.; Valosin, Jayde

    2016-01-01

    The current study empirically tested the effectiveness of a modular approach to integrating professional development across an undergraduate psychology curriculum. Researchers conducted a two-group, between-subjects experiment on 269 undergraduate psychology students assessing perceptions of professional preparedness and learning. Analysis…

  8. The Impact of OER on Instructional Effectiveness: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islim, Omer Faruk; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study aims to investigate the instructional effectiveness of Open Educational Resources (OER). It was conducted with 1196 university students who were enrolled in a general chemistry course with an experimental laboratory section. These students voluntarily used OER for their lab activities. Data were collected via a printed,…

  9. Professionalizing teachers in career dialogue : an effect study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Marinka; Meijers, Frans

    2011-01-01

    As a result of the changing notions of work schools are increasingly acknowledging that they have a strong responsibility to guide students not only in their academic growth, but also in their career development. This paper presents the result of a study about effects of teachers training on career

  10. Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Coping in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Daniel; Prchal, Alice; Vollrath, Margarete; Landolt, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    Findings about the influence of coping on psychological adjustment in children with different medical conditions are inconsistent and often based on cross-sectional data. This prospective study evaluated the effect of various coping strategies on children's post-traumatic stress symptoms and behavioral problems 1 month and 1 year after an…

  11. Effects of aquajogging in obese adults: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Nunen, Annemieke van; Geenen, Rinie; Kolotkin, Ronette; Vingerhoets, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Aim and method: To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results: Total fat mass

  12. Protopathic bias in observational studies on statin effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Huupponen, Risto; Ruokoniemi, Päivi; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja

    2009-01-01

    Protopathic bias in observational studies on statin effectiveness phone: +350-40-3552901 (Korhonen, Maarit Jaana) (Korhonen, Maarit Jaana) Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of Turku - 20014 - Turku - FINLAND (Korhonen, Maarit Jaana) School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio - POB 1627 - 70211 - Kuopio - FINLAND (Korhonen, Maarit Jaana) Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of T...

  13. Physician leadership styles and effectiveness: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Stoskopf, Carleen H

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the association between physician leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Executive directors of community health centers were surveyed (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9 percent) for their perceptions of the medical director's leadership behaviors and effectiveness, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items on a 0-4 point Likert-type scale), with additional questions on demographics and the center's clinical goals and achievements. The authors hypothesize that transformational leadership would be more positively associated with executive directors' ratings of effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, as well as the center's clinical goal achievement, than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Separate ordinary least squares regressions were used to model each of the effectiveness measures, and general linear model regression was used to model clinical goal achievement. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that physician leadership development using the transformational leadership model may result in improved health care quality and cost control. PMID:16330822

  14. Theoretical Study of Irradiation Effects in Close Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of irradiation is studied in a close binary systemassuming that the secondary component is a point source, moving in a circularorbit. The irradiation effects are calculatedon the atmosphere of the primary component in a 3-dimensional Cartesiancoordinate geometry. In treating the reflection effect theoretically, the totalradiation $(S_mathrm{T}$ is obtained as the sum of the radiation of 1 the effect ofirradiation on the primary component which is calculated by using onedimensional rod model $(S_mathrm{r}$ and 2 the self radiation of the primarycomponent which is calculated by using the solution of radiative transferequation in spherical symmetry $(S_mathrm{s}$. The radiation field is estimated alongthe line of sight of the observer at infinity. It is shown how the radiationfield changes depending on the position of the secondary component.

  15. Study on Thickness Effect of Three-Point-Bend Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masanori; Ishihara, Takehito

    The thickness effect of a three-point-bend (3PB) specimen on dimple fracture behavior is studied experimentally and numerically. At first, fracture toughness tests were conducted using 3PB specimens of different thicknesses. Fracture toughness values and R-curves are obtained, and the thickness effect is discussed. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dimple fracture surfaces are observed precisely. It is found that the thickness effect appears clearly in the void growth process. Finite element (FEM) analyses are conducted based on these experimental data. Using Gurson’s constitutive equation, the nucleation and growth of voids during the dimple fracture process are simulated. The distribution patterns of stress triaxiality and the crack growth process are obtained. The results show a good agreement with experimental ones qualitatively. The effects of specimen thickness on R-curves are explained well on the basis of these numerical simulations.

  16. Dispersant effectiveness testing : laboratory studies of fresh and weathered oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Sigouin, L.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    A dispersant called Corexit 9500 was tested to determine its effectiveness on various oils including several new and weathered oils. Dispersant effectiveness is defined as the amount of oil that the dispersant puts into the water column versus that which remains on the surface. Many factors influence dispersant effectiveness, including sea energy, oil composition, state of oil weathering, rate of dispersant application, dispersant type, temperature, and salinity of the water. In this study, a series of 6 oil-in-solvent standards were prepared for evaluating the efficiency of the dispersant for each dispersant/oil combination. The effectiveness of these oils was measured using the swirling flask test. Tests of crude oil as well as weathered crude oil were presented. The effectiveness for the weathered crude oils was found to drop off significantly. The weathering effect was analyzed using mathematical regressions. It was concluded that the dispersabilities of crude oils vary and the effectiveness of dispersion decreases as the oils are weathered or evaporated. The typical trend that emerged is oil specific and does not correlate with simple oil properties such as density, viscosity or maximum weathering percentage. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Study on effects of longwall mining on the underground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S. Peng

    2007-01-01

    It is very important for secure mining under water bodies to study the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water. In order to study this problem, piezometers for monitoring underground water levels were established in an American coalmine. Large amounts of pre-mining and post-mining monitoring data were collected. Based on the data,the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water was studied. The results demonstrate that when the piezometer monitoring wells have an interburden thickness less than 72.7 m, the groundwater level decreases immediately to immeasurable levels and go dry after undermining. The height of the fractured zone in is 72.7~85.3 m in this geological and mining conditions. The results also show that the calculated value of fractured zone by the empirical formulae used in China is smaller than the actual results. Therefore, it is not always safe to use them in analysis of mining under water bodies.

  18. Study of Gamification Effectiveness in Online e-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya V. Osipov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online distance e-learning systems allow introducing innovative methods in pedagogy, along with studying their effectiveness. Assessing the system effectiveness is based on analyzing the log files to track the studying time, the number of connections, and earned game bonus points. This study is based on an example of the online application for practical foreign language speaking skills training between random users, which select the role of a teacher or a student on their own. The main features of the developed system include pre-defined synchronized teaching and learning materials displayed for both participants, along with user motivation by means of gamification. The actual percentage of successful connects between specifically unmotivated and unfamiliar with each other users was measured. The obtained result can be used for gauging the developed system success and the proposed teaching methodology in general.

  19. Role of emotional intelligence in managerial effectiveness: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sahidur Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is very critical to the managerial effectiveness. The present study intends to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence and the three roles such as, interpersonal, informational, and decision of managerial effectiveness. Emotional intelligence is measured by using the Emotional Quotient Index (Rahim et al., 2002 [Rahim, M., Psenicka, C., Polychroniou, P., Zhao, J., Yu, C., Chan, K., Susana, K., Alves, M., Lee, C., Rahman, M.S., Ferdausy, S., & Wyk, R. (2002. A model of emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies: a study in seven countries. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(4, 302-326.] while managerial effectiveness is assessed by using Tsui’s (1984 scale [Tsui, A.S. (1984. A role set analysis of managerial reputation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 64-96.]. Data were collected by distributing self-administered questionnaires among the working MBA students using a convenience sampling technique. Respondents are asked to rate their emotional intelligence and managerial effectiveness scales. Finally 127 usable responses are received and, then, analyzed by using the descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation, and regression analysis. Analysis shows that emotional intelligence was positively related with interpersonal role, informational role, and decision role. The main implication is that emotional intelligence could enhance managerial effectiveness guiding the managers, academics, and professionals. The limitations are the sample size and the sampling technique which might limit the generalizability of the findings. Future directions are also discussed.

  20. Development of Plant Model to Study Biological Effects of Nanodilutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delinick (Delinikou A.N.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum as a model plant has been used extensively in fundamental research in different biological sciences. In vivo and in vitro pea models were used, as well, to study stress factors. Applying environment friendly technologies for overcoming biotic/abiotic stress increases its importance for sustainable agriculture. In this respect studies in the field of nanotechnology can contribute to solve some problems and to understanding of phenomena or practices that still lack methodology or specific instrumentation for scientific explanations. The interest to such studies was provoked by attempting an explanation on the potentization process and its therapeutic effect, and also by the possibility to apply similar approach in sustainable agriculture. The objectives of the experiments were to examine if potentized nanodilutions (PNDs have effects on different stages of seed development of pea aiming at the development of a plant model. Copper was chosen as stress factor as its excess is toxic and affects seed development. The experiments show for the first time that potentized nanodilutions (PNDs of metallic copprer have biological effects on pea seed development which are similar to the effect of copper (water solutions of CuSO4. The results, also, show that PNDs can stimulate response for overcoming the stress applied to seeds.

  1. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  2. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  3. Preliminary Studies on Chlorimuron Degradation in Soil by Effective Microogranisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaguang

    2006-01-01

    A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bioassay method was used for preliminary determination of chlorimuron degradation in soil by EM (effective microorganisms). Under the conditions of this study, chlorimuron half-life was greater than 30-50 days in soil containing different initial concentrations of chlorimuron. After adding EM, chlorimuron degradation half-life ranged from 10-15 days, which was about 15-30 days shorter than without EM. Chlorimuron phate and urea enhanced the ability of EM to degrade chlorimuron, but brown sugar had no significant effect.

  4. Experimental studies of surface plasmon polariton band gap effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Leosson, K.;

    2003-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation at a gold film surface covered by periodic arrays of ~40-nm-high scatterers arranged in a triangular lattice of different periods containing straight line defects is studied using collection scanning near-field optical microscopy. The results reveal...... the dependence of the SPP band gap (SPPBG) effect manifested via the SPP reflection and guiding (along line defects) on the parameters of the surface structures (period, filling factor and lattice orientation). We find that the SPPBG effect is stronger along &ggr;K direction for all investigated periodic...

  5. Background studies: earthquake effects on underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the first stage of a programme of work leading to the development of a seismicity sub-model for the TIME2 simulation code and its successor(s) are presented. Potential future seismic activity levels in Britain are presented, within the context of historic seismicity (the last 800 years), tectonic activity and the effects of glacial advance and retreat. Methodological approaches to the estimation of seismic hazard due to faulting and ground shaking are presented. Seismic effects on rock and soil properties are also reviewed. Finally, recommendations for further studies are made. (author)

  6. Studies on EB radiation effect on PA610

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Kebin; Zhang Huaming; Li Xiurong; Xiong Ruilin [Sichuan Forever Group Co. Ltd., China Academy of Engineering Physics, Miangany (China)

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effect of PA610 with polyfunctional monomer trially isocyanurate (TAIC) was studied, the results show that crosslinking effect of EB radiation on PA610 is obvious. After the PA610 samples were radiated by EB with dosage 75KGY, the physical characters of PA610 materials were greatly improved, especially their tensile strength being increased about 18% and their impact strength about 50%, but their water and oil absorption were decreased. So, EB radiation can enhance PA610 materials physical strength, resistance to solvents and water and increase their thermal-deformation temperature. (author)

  7. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (15mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The organism showed resistance to aqueous extract giving an inhibition zone of 0.3mm. The data suggest that Tinospora cordifolia could be of benefit in arrhythmias and microbial infections.

  8. Tomographic Study of Ionospheric Effects Associated with a Solar Eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiong-bin; Xu Ji-sheng; Ma Shu-ying; Tian Mao

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the ionospheric effects associ-ated with the solar eclipse of October 24th, 1995 by means of Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT). Since the re-constructed profiles from experimental CIT are sporadically located in time, a time domain interpolation method based onSingular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique is proposed and applied to extract the ionospheric effects. The effects canbe extracted by comparison analysis between the interpolated CIT profiles of the eclipse days and that of the reference day that are time-aligned. A series of figs have been obtained showing the attenuation of photonization effect at low alti-tudes and the weakening of plasma's transportation process athigh altitudes, etc. The photonization effect recovered to nor-mal level soon after the last contact. The maximum electron density diminishing is observed about 2 h after the eclipse maximum and the effects seem vanished in the hours fol-lowed. Analysis on vertical TEC's latitudinal temporal variation gives similar conclusions.

  9. Experimental Study of Effect of Vents in Thermal Ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong; LIU Xiao-yu; ZHUANG Jiang-ting; SHEN Hui

    2009-01-01

    The effects of vents on thermal ventilation to save energy in the cold roUing workshop of Baosteel were investigated.According to the scale modeling theory,a small chamber was established.The details about construction of experiment On thermal ventilation and the preparation and arrangement of apparatus were dis-cussed,and then the effects of vents on thermal ventilation were studied through experiments,which includes the temperature distribution,the volume of ventilation,the temperature difference between inlets and outlets,the neutral plane,and the effective thermal coefficient of thermal natural ventilation.Based on this,the effects of natural ventilation based on varied area of inlets and oudets and those of vents on one side and on different sides were compared.According to the experiments,the area of inlet vents and outlet vents affect the tempera-ture distribution in chamber, and their effects on ventilation volume are difierent,but the effects of vents in sin-gle side or different sides aare the same under the condition that only thermal ventilation is considered.

  10. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  11. A study on the effects of personality traits on building effective relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shahab Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effects of five big personality traits on development of effective communication among middle level managers of the first private Iranian bank, Bank Eghtesade Novin, in city of Tehran, Iran. To measure the effects of five big personality traits, the study uses a questionnaire developed by Jackson (1974 [Jackson, D. N. (1974. Personality research form manual. Research Psychologists Press.]. In addition, to measure the impacts of effective communication we use another questionnaire. All questions are designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alphas for two mentioned questionnaires were calculated as 0.92 and 0.74, respectively. The implementation of Pearson test as well as regression analysis have revealed that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between four personality traits, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and effective communication. In addition, there was a negative and meaningful relationship between neuroticism and effective communication.

  12. Topics on study of low dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not exceptional but usually observed that a dose-effect relationship in biosystem is not linear. Sometimes, the low dose-effect relationship appears entirely contrary to the expectation from high dose-effect. This is called a 'hormesis' phenomena. A high dose irradiation inflicts certainly an injury on biosystem. No matter how low the dose may be, an irradiation might inflict some injury on biosystem according to Linear Non-Threshold hypothesis(LNT). On the contrary to the expectation, a low dose irradiation stimulates immune system, and promotes cell proliferation. This is called 'radiation hormesis'. The studies of the radiation hormesis are made on from four points of view as follows: (1) radiation adaptive response, (2) revitalization caused by a low dose stimulation, (3) a low dose response unexpected from the LNT hypothesis, (4) negation of the LNT hypothesis. The various empirical proofs of radiation hormesis are introduced in the report. (M . Suetake)

  13. Experimental study on decontamination effect of water jets spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear components, pipes, casks and so on are contaminated after long usage and should be decontaminated before their repair or maintenance. There are various ways of decontamination such as ultrasonic wave cleaning, mechanical brushing, electric polishing and so forth, but most common is water jet spray. Water jet dynamic pressure along the axis of the nozzle (Pm) depends upon that of nozzle exit (Po) and the distance between nozzle exit and the surface to be decontaminated. The decontamination effect greatly depends not only on the pressure (Pm) but on the nozzle scanning speed (Vs). But the relation of these effects on decontamination is not known yet. The authors studied the characteristics of water jets from various types of nozzles by measuring pressure distribution in the water jets, made simulated sample pieces of crud, and removed the deposit by water jets. As a result of these experimental studies, the authors can obtain the formulated relation between decontamination factor and the former various factors

  14. Correlative study on anemia and radiotherapy effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of oxygen-carrying ability of blood efficacy of radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Altogether 161 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were classified according to severity of anemia, and Hb, RBC, MCH, HCT, MCV, MCHC and RDW were tested before, during and after radiotherapy. The patients were followed-up for up to 5 years, the relationship and mechanism among anemia, radiotherapy effects and survival rate was discussed. Results: The survival rate between anemia group and non-anemia group was different significantly (P<0.05). Anemia before radiotherapy, anemia appearance or anemia deterioration during radiotherapy were sensitive factors affecting radiotherapy results. The anemia more severe, the radiotherapy worse. Conclusion: Anemia-hypohemoglobinemia leads to decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, resulting in oxygen deficiency of tumor cells and their radiotherapy resistance. Therefore this method is worthy of further studies

  15. Effect of Operating Conditions on CSTR performance: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Saponification reaction of ethyl acetate by sodium hydroxide is studied experimentally in a continuous stirred tank reactor at 1 atmospheric pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of operating conditions on the conversion and specific rate constant. The parameters considered for analysis are temperature, feed flow rate, residence time, volume of reactor and stirrer rate. The steady state conversion of 0.45 achieved after a period of 30 minutes. Conversion decreases with increase of reactant flow rate due to decrease of residence time. The stirrer rate has a positive effect on the conversion and rate constant. Specific rate constant and conversion increase with temperature within the studied temperature range. Within the range of reactor volume selected for analysis, conversion increases with increase in reactor volume. The results obtained in this study may be helpful in maximizing the conversion of ethyl acetate saponification reaction at industrial scale in a CSTR.

  16. Laboratory and community studies of aircraft noise effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. G.; Powell, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    The noise effects programs objective is to develop aircraft noise criteria and noise reduction methods for achieving greater community and passenger acceptance of air transportation systems. The approach consists of laboratory tests to subjectively evaluate the properties of aircraft-generated noise that are responsible for causing annoyance and field surveys to study the broader problems of community and passenger acceptability. The program is organized into two major thrusts: community acceptance and passenger acceptance. The community acceptance includes subjective response studies of single and multiple aircraft overflights as well as longer term community noise exposure. Emphasis is on the development of units and indices which accurately quantify annoyance. The passenger acceptance program includes studies to determine acceptably levels of interior noise and vibration for speech intelligibility and comfort of crew and passengers. Selected results from several recent studies are presented to indicate the nature, scope, and methods of the research program.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ROCK BREAKING EFFECT OF STEEL PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Meng; ZHAI Ying-hu; JI Guo-dong

    2011-01-01

    Particle impact drilling is an efficient drilling technology for deep-well hard formation, With this technology, the rock is cut mainly by high-speed spherical particle impact under hydraulic action. In this article, the influence of jet flow factors, hydraulic factors and abrasive factors on rock breaking is studied through indoor experiments of impact by steel particles. The results indicate that the particle water jet has an optimal standoff distance and particle concentration; the rock breaking effect declines with the increase of the confining pressure and the decrease of the pump pressure and particle diameter. This study will provide some food of thought for the development of particle impact drilling technology.

  18. Study of peak broadening effect in floor time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic design of secondary systems such components and piping is usually carried out by using the floor motions at their support points. These floor motions can be in the form of Floor Response Spectra (FRS) or the Floor Time Histories (FTH). In order to account for the various uncertainties in generating these floor motions, these motions should be peak broadened and smoothened as per the regulatory codes. Presented here in this paper is the methodology to account for such peak broadening effect in the FTH. Results of this study have been compared with the FRS approach and various important conclusions have been arrived at based on the study

  19. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Noma, Shun’ichi; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Haruka; Hayashi, Takuji

    2008-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacip...

  20. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Shun’ichi Noma; Teruhisa Uwatoko; Haruka Yamamoto; Takuji Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the ...

  1. Effective population management practices in diabetes care - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; Bellows, Jim; Nielsen, Bo Friis;

    2010-01-01

    Of fifteen diabetes care management practices, our data indicate that high performance is most associated with provider alerts and more weakly associated with action plans and with guideline distribution and training. Lack of convergence in the literature on effective care management practices...... suggests that factors contributing to high performance may be highly context-dependent or that the factors involved may be too numerous or their implementation too nuanced to be reliably identified in observational studies....

  2. Effects of a teaching evaluation system: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Hao Wen; Jing-Song Xu; Carline, Jan D; Fei Zhong; Yi-Jun Zhong; Sheng-Juan Shen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to identify the effects of evaluation on teaching and discusses improvements in the work of the evaluation office. Methods: Teaching evaluation data from 2006 to 2009 was collected and analyzed. Additional surveys were conducted to collect the perceptions of students, faculty members, peer reviewers, deans and chairs about teaching evaluation. Results: Evaluation scores for more than half of faculty members increased, significantly more for junior compared with sen...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF OUTDOOR ADVERTISEMENTS ON CONSUMERS: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gulmez; Sukran Karaca; Olgun Kitapci

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence ratio of outdoor advertisements on survey participants (consumers) who are living in Sivas city and to measure the effects on participants' purchasing behavior. The research also attempted to specify the different characteristics of outdoor advertisements in comparison to other advertising instruments. The other research aims are to designate the status of outdoor advertisements among the advertisement instruments which are thought to h...

  4. Study of removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti with oxidants*

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Jin-Long; Cui, Fu-Yi; Lin, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Cyclops of zooplankton propagates prolifically in eutrophic waterbody and it cannot be exterminated by conventional disinfection process. The mutagenicity of Mesocyclops leukarti and its extermination with oxidants in a drinking waterworks in China were studied. Among five oxidants for use in bench-scale, chlorine dioxide is the most effective and the potassium permanganate is the weakest against Mesocyclops leukarti under the same conditions. Full-scale results showed that Mesocyclops leukar...

  5. Effect of Power System Parameters on Transient Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Agber, J. U.,; Odaba, P. E; C. O. Onah

    2015-01-01

    Transient stability studies play a vital role in providing secured operating configurations in power system networks. This paper shows an investigation of the effects of some key power system parameters on transient stability. The parameters for which this analysis is carried out include fault location, load increment, machine damping factor, fault clearing time and generator synchronous speed. The analysis has been carried out on a 7-bus test system for an electric utility company. From this...

  6. Antitumor effect of metformin in esophageal cancer: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Kato, Kiyohito; Iwama, Hisakazu; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Mimura, Shima; Toyota, Yuka; Nomura, Takako; Nomura, Kei; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that metformin, which is a member of the biguanide family and commonly used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis of numerous types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of metformin on esophageal cancer remain unknown. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on the proliferation of human ESCC in vitro, and to study changes in the expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs), since miRNAs have previously been associated with the antitumor effects of metformin in other human cancers. The human ESCC cell lines T.T, KYSE30 and KYSE70 were used to study the effects of metformin on human ESCC in vitro. In addition, we used miRNA array tips to explore the differences between miRNAs in KYSE30 cells with and without metformin treatment. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of T.T, KYSE30 and KYSE70 cells in vitro. Metformin blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 in vitro. This blockade was accompanied by a strong decrease of G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D1, as well as decreases in cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)4, Cdk6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (Rb). In addition, the expression of miRNAs was markedly altered with the treatment of metformin in vitro. Metformin inhibited the growth of three ESCC cell lines, and this inhibition may have involved reductions in cyclin D1, Cdk4 and Cdk6. PMID:23229592

  7. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  8. Numerical study of vertical pneumatic conveying: Effect of friction coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K.; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, R. P.; Pan, R. H.; Yu, A. B.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of vertical pneumatic conveying by a combined approach of computational fluid dynamics for gas phase and discrete element method for solid phase. The effects of friction coefficient on the flows in regard with particle flow patterns and their transition, reverse flow, and gas pressure behavior are qualified. The forces acting on particles are analyzed in detail to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  9. On the biological effects of cosmic rays: Epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforto, A. M.; Signorini, C.

    1991-04-01

    The determination of the biological effects of cosmic rays and other natural radiation to resolve the more general problem of the consequences on human health, from the basis of ionizing radiation, is addressed. Difficulties relating to an epmidemiological study are outlined and results are discussed particularly concerning their inconsistency. In particular, high and low doses are discussed, referencing the Hiroshima bomb, the HBRA (High Background Radiation Area), and the CA (Control Area). High and low regions are discussed for the case of cancer.

  10. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  11. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  12. Instrumental resolution effects in neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, Jonathan D., E-mail: jnickels@ornl.gov

    2013-10-16

    Highlights: ► Resolution effects in neutron scattering measurements on protein are discussed. ► Three spectrometers of differing resolution were used. ► Fitting of spectra for the determination of EISF should use a flat background. ► MSD for dry and hydrated GFP shows resolution effects for the primary onsets. ► Hydration water shows resolution effects for the onset of translational motion. - Abstract: In this study, the dynamics of Green Fluorescent protein (GFP) are analyzed using three neutron scattering spectrometers. We focus on the effect of instrumental energy resolution in the analysis of the elastic incoherent structure factor (EISF) and mean square displacement (MSD). This topic still remains a source of controversy. Our data clearly demonstrate the presence of the resolution effect in the dynamic transition for hydrated protein and the onset of translational motions in hydration water consistent with previous results from quasielastic neutron scattering. The 190 K onset of motions in hydration water observed at ∼1 ns is also consistent with a T{sub g} of hydration water below 190 K.

  13. Partial volume effects in dynamic contrast magnetic resonance renal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, D. Rodriguez, E-mail: drodriguez@biotronics3d.co [CVSSP, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Wells, K., E-mail: k.wells@surrey.ac.u [CVSSP, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Diaz Montesdeoca, O., E-mail: o.diaz.montesdeoca@gmail.co [EUITT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Moran Santana, A. [EUITT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Mendichovszky, I.A., E-mail: iosifm@hotmail.co [Radiology and Physics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH (United Kingdom); Gordon, I., E-mail: i.gordon@ich.ucl.ac.u [Radiology and Physics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This is the first study of partial volume effect in quantifying renal function on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic image data were acquired for a cohort of 10 healthy volunteers. Following respiratory motion correction, each voxel location was assigned a mixing vector representing the 'overspilling' contributions of each tissue due to the convolution action of the imaging system's point spread function. This was used to recover the true intensities associated with each constituent tissue. Thus, non-renal contributions from liver, spleen and other surrounding tissues could be eliminated from the observed time-intensity curves derived from a typical renal cortical region of interest. This analysis produced a change in the early slope of the renal curve, which subsequently resulted in an enhanced glomerular filtration rate estimate. This effect was consistently observed in a Rutland-Patlak analysis of the time-intensity data: the volunteer cohort produced a partial volume effect corrected mean enhancement of 36% in relative glomerular filtration rate with a mean improvement of 7% in r{sup 2} fitting of the Rutland-Patlak model compared to the same analysis undertaken without partial volume effect correction. This analysis strongly supports the notion that dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of kidneys is substantially affected by the partial volume effect, and that this is a significant obfuscating factor in subsequent glomerular filtration rate estimation.

  14. A Case Study of Allelopathic Effect on Weeds in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most powerful and effective method of weed control is by chemical substances called herbicides. In recent years, they were published quite data on different side effects of herbicides on humans, animals, crops and the environment as a whole. Therefore, the increased interest for biological weed control lately is reasonable, since its improvement and expansion will contribute to limiting excessive use of herbicides, respectively their harmful effects and will support the successful implementation of complex weed control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of selected plant species, containing allelopathic active substances, on germination, growth and biomass of some widespread weeds in wheat. Experiments were carried out at laboratory conditions using seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., sort Sadovo 1 and most common weeds therein: Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L Pers, white pigweed (Chenopodium album L., twitch (Cynodon dactylon L. and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.. Allelopathic substances were extracted with distilled water from flowers of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., leaves of spearmint (Mentha longifolia (L Huds., and leaves of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Of the tested active allelopathic plants, the most negative impact on germination of all weeds seeds (including wheat, as well as on the development of plants exhibited the water extract of lavender. Lavender and basil had a stronger negative effect on white pigweed and twitch compared with both mint species. A significant inhibitory effect of spearmint even at low concentrations was recorded on the germination of all weed species tested while the wheat was slightly affected, which manifests this plant as a potential effective species in strategies for weed control management.

  15. Comparative Study of the Condensing Effects of Ergosterol and Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Chin; Lee, Ming-Tao; Chung, Hsien; Sun, Yi-Ting; Chen, Hsiung; Charron, Nicholas E; Huang, Huey W

    2016-05-10

    Cholesterol, due to its condensing effect, is considered an important regulator of membrane thickness. Other sterols, due to their structural similarities to cholesterol, are often assumed to have a universal effect on membrane properties similar to the condensing effect of cholesterol, albeit possibly to different degrees. We used x-ray diffraction to investigate this assumption. By the combination of lamellar diffraction and grazing-angle scattering, we measured the membrane thickness and the tilt-angle distribution of the lipid's hydrocarbon chains. This method is sensitive to phase separation, which is important for examining the miscibility of sterols and phospholipids. Mixtures of ergosterol or cholesterol with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine were systematically studied. We found that mixing ergosterol with phospholipids into a single phase became increasingly difficult with higher sterol concentrations and also with higher concentrations of unsaturated lipid chains. The only condensing effect of ergosterol was found in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, although the effect was less than one-third of the effect of cholesterol. Unlike cholesterol, ergosterol could not maintain a fixed electron density profile of the surrounding lipids independent of hydration. In dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, ergosterol made the membranes thinner, opposite to the effect of cholesterol. In all cases, the tilt-angle variation of the chain diffraction was consistent with the membrane thickness changes measured by lamellar diffraction, i.e., a thickening was always associated with a reduction of chain tilt angles. Our findings do not support the notion that different sterols have a universal behavior that differs only in degree. PMID:27166810

  16. The Study of Teaching Effective Strategies on Student's Math Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hassan Behzadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors in student's learning weakness and academic failure, is their unfamilarity or low awareness of the learning strategies and studying in mathematics. This study is performed to examine the students' math and reading skills and their study skills that impact on their academic progress. The main objective of the research is to study with emphasis on training study strategies versus ususal method (teaching without emphasis on training study strategies to increase the learning of mathematical concepts. The present method is quasi-experimental that via quasi-cluster sampling to adopt 17 guidance girly schools in grade 3th, to gauge effects of teaching reading skills on math learning of the students.The results of T-test showed that students who were taught with emphasis on study skills versus students who have been traditionally trained, had better math performance and higher academic achievement.Therefore it seems that teaching reading stratefies such as cognitive and meta-cognitive will ease mathematical learning process.

  17. Effectiveness of Using Online Discussion Forum for Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Seethamraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Business schools are exploring new pedagogical approaches to learning in order to deal with challenges such as increased class sizes, limited funding support, and difficulties in facilitating and encouraging active participation and learning among a diverse cohort of students. This paper reports on a study of the effectiveness of a pedagogical approach that blends online discussion board and case study. Analysing quantity and quality of online postings and comparing accounting students’ performance with previous cohort, this study observes a significant improvement in student learning. Appropriate design and delivery strategies and clear assessment criteria for assessment and use have provided an effective learning vehicle for students, helped them overcome their own language related barriers, and encouraged them to participate in a nonthreatening environment. This approach further complemented the benefits of peer-to-peer learning and case study pedagogy. Reported increase in workload for students and marking load for academics and measuring the value of learning, however, are some of the challenges that need further attention by researchers.

  18. Health effects study of the nuclear industry workers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the effects of low-dose and low-dose-rate exposure to the human body, study on the health effects of the nuclear industry workers in Japan was conducted since 1990 by the Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, the Radiation Effects Association, which had been entrusted by the Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese Government. In the first phase analysis between 1986 and 1992, the study population was selected from among persons who were engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants and associated facilities, and registered in the Radiation Dose Registration Center for Workers. The cohort consisted of 114,900 persons who satisfied the criteria of nationality, age, sex, etc. The average follow-up period was 4.6 years, and the average cumulative dose per person was 13.9 mSv. The total number of deaths among the study population was 1,758, including 661 deaths due to all malignant neoplasms. The Standardized Mortality Ratio of various death causes was compared. Furthermore, the cohort was grouped by five different dose levels, and the O/E was calculated to test whether there is a trend for the death rate to increase with dose. Among nuclear workers no significant increase in deaths nor any relationship with radiation dose was found, except the pancreatic cancer with 10-years lag. Since many previous studies of nuclear industry workers have demonstrated no significant association between exposure dose and pancreatic cancer, we cannot immediately conclude a causal relationship between with radiation. (author)

  19. In vitro studies of the antiherpetic effect of photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, V V; Makarov, O V; Khashukoeva, A Z; Svitich, O A; Dobrokhotova, Y E; Markova, E A; Labginov, P A; Khlinova, S A; Shulenina, E A; Gankovskaya, L V

    2016-07-01

    The number of viral infection cases in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics has tended to increase over last few years. Viruses form herpesvirus and cytomegalovirus families are associated with an increased risk for recurrent pregnancy loss. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising new approach to treat viral infections in which viral particles are inactivated. It exhibits great therapeutic potential, particularly among this group of patients. This study examined the use of PDT to treat herpesvirus infection (HVI) using an in vitro model. In this study, we used the Vero сell lineage as a suitable model of HVI, strains of HSV-1 (strain VR-3) and HSV-2 (strain MS) obtained from The National Virus Collection (London, UK), the photosensitizer Fotoditazine (Veta-Grand, Russia), an AFS physiotherapeutic device (Polironic Corporation, Russia). Laser light irradiation and the photosensitizer had different cytotoxic effects on the Vero cell cultures depending on the doses used. The optimal laser light and photosensitizer doses were determined. PDT had an antiviral effect on an in vitro model of HVI in cell culture. PDT has been shown to be effective treatment for HVI in vitro, leading to a reliable decrease of viral titer. PMID:27003896

  20. Comments on scaling effect of reciprocity in BRDF study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hongrui; WANG Jindi

    2004-01-01

    Reciprocity principle is a common theory in electromagnetics and optics. It is also one of the general principles of the radiation transformation theory. However, in many remote sensing studies, this principle cannot be always supported by experimental data, especially when the scaling effect of the remote sensing image pixel is considered. The debate over the issue of whether the reciprocity principle can be used as a fundamental standard in evaluating the effectiveness of remote sensing observations has lasted for years. Using geometrical optics model, Li and Wan proved the existence of the scaling effect in applying the reciprocity principle to a remote sensing image pixel in 1998. In 2002, Snyder challenged Li's proof, and attempted to prove that reciprocity principle is universally valid without any scale limitation. In this paper, we will argue with Snyder's theory and point out that Snyder's theory had neglected an important condition used in Li's proof and, as a result, drawn the wrong conclusion. Here we will restate Li's condition in his demonstration and offer a further proof to verify that reciprocity principle cannot be applied unconditionally to the study of bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of land surfaces in field or satellite remote sensing observation scale.

  1. Study of antiseizure effects of Matricaria recutita extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, M R; Dadollahi, Z; Mehrabani, M; Mehrabi, H; Pourzadeh-Hosseini, M; Behravan, E; Etemad, L

    2009-08-01

    Matricaria recutita L. is a well-known medicinal plant that is suggested as being carminative, analgesic, and anticonvulsant in traditional medicine. In the present investigation the effect of hydro-methanolic percolated extract of this plant on seizure induced by picrotoxin was studied in male mice. This study was performed on animals pretreated with doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of extract or 40 mg/kg phenobarbital as the reference drug via intraperitoneal injection. After 20 min each animal received 12 mg/kg picrotoxin for induction of seizure. Latency of onset time of seizure, duration of seizure, death latency, and death rate were determined in experimental and control groups. The results showed that latency of the beginning time of seizure was increased in groups that were pretreated with different doses of extract. The most effective dose was 200 mg/kg (P recutita possesses suitable effects on seizure induced by picrotoxin, and more experiments are needed in this field. PMID:19723069

  2. A study on effective factors on employee motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is often considered as collaboration with others and this requires knowing about employers' behavior and the factors influencing their behaviors to motivate them for obtaining some predicted aims. This paper presents a study to detect important factors influencing motivation of some employees who work for a public offices in city of Kashan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 160 randomly selected participants. The questions are divided into two groups of management performance and motivational factors. To evaluate the effect of demographic factors on the quality of respondents' statements, a rating analysis based on Kruskal–Wallis test is used. To measure the effective vote, the motivation levels are divided into three groups of highly motivated, motivated and not motivated and they are analyzed based on rating mean variance with freedman scale. The results indicate that interesting job, job security, good salary and benefits and promotions, etc. are important factors to impact on the employers' motivation. For the newly – employed personal, job security is the most important motivation factor and for old – established employees, job attractive and sense of being considered is the most effective factor.

  3. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  4. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  5. Study of the effects of uranium on kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical toxicity of inhaled or ingested soluble uranium, especially its nephrotoxicity surpasses its radiotoxicity. Because of the functional overcapacity of the kidney, it is probable that adverse effects on renal function due to occupational uranium exposure may be sustained long before this becomes evident. The advent of more sensitive and specific tests, particularly of proximal tubular dysfunction, suggests that it may now be possible to detect and monitor such sub-clinical effects on renal function. The Atomic Energy Control Board requires an updated review of uranium nephrotoxicity, and an evaluation of the various tests available which might be used to detect altered kidney function in uranium workers. Recommendations are also required regarding occupational studies which could be conducted in these workers to assess their current state of kidney function and possibly serve as monitoring tools in the future

  6. Study on Analgesic Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan; XU Ling; WEI Pin-kang; QIN Zhi-feng; LI Jun; PENG Hai-dong

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicine has been used in treating pain for a long time.Much progress has been made in studies on the mechanism of the analgesic effect of Chinese medicine in animal experiments.It is found that the analgesic action may be related to the following actions:(1)Reducing the secretion of peripheral algogenic substances and inducing the secretion of pain-sensitive substances;(2)Alleviating the accumulation of local algogenic substances;(3)Increasing the release of endogenous analgesic substances;(4)Regulating c-fos gene and increasing the secretion of such substances in the central newous system,etc.In this paper,the experimental methods and analgesic effect of Chinese medicines are reviewed.

  7. Studying Effective Factors on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Representing a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleimani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and advancement of current organizations depends on Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE and its anticipants considerably. Therefore purpose of conducting this survey is to study effective factors on corporate entrepreneurship (personal characteristics of entrepreneurship, human resource practices, organizational culture and employees' satisfaction. This survey was conducted using descriptive-field methodology. Statistical population included managers and experts of Hexa Consulting Engineers Company (Tehran/Iran and the sample consisted of forty seven of them. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. Data was collected in cross-sectional form in July-August 2011. Descriptive and inferential (spearman correlation statistics methods were used for data analysis. According to results, there is a positive significant relationship among all factors (personal characteristics of entrepreneurship, human resource practices, organizational culture and employees' satisfaction and corporate entrepreneurship. In other words, the proposed variables as effective factors on corporate entrepreneurship were confirmed in conceptual model of survey.

  8. Fracture energy and size effect studies for nuclear concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, analysis and testing of large size nuclear concrete structures pose problems due to varying sizes of the test specimens, models and prototype structures and exhibit the structural size effect. In this paper the structural size effect law for such structures is revisited and is explained through nonlinear fracture mechanics description. The new experimental programme of material characterization for softening behavior of concrete in compression and tension are described. The fracture energy evaluation on notched/unnotched, plain and reinforced Three Point Bend (TPB) beam specimens using conventional instrumentation, acoustic b-value analysis and high resolution image processing systems is presented. Further, a few case studies are presented with numerical finite element cohesive crack and crack band models to illustrate the issues of mesh sensitivity as observed in the classical strength/strain based non-linear finite element theories

  9. Study of the radiation effect in breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno T, L. R.; Ramirez R, A., E-mail: lumor2000@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-01

    This breast cancer is one of the most important death causes in women. Among the more frequently medical treatment for advanced breast cancer is the mastectomy. This situation leads to silicone implants as an esthetic option. There have been cases in patients with implants where cancer was frequently detected, in which a conventional radiotherapy is required. In this work is presented a study of the probable adverse effects caused by the application of high power X-rays (6-10 MV) to the silicone implants and to the surrounding tissues. In the research carried out at the clinic, none Bolus effect was detected in patients with implants. Our results prescribe that in the case of patients with implants and frequent breast cancer, the removal of implants is not necessary due radiotherapy works directly in the damaged tissues. (Author)

  10. Radial electrical field effects in TJ-II. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the radial electric field upon the neoclassical transport coefficients of TJ-II helical axis Stellarator has been calculated as well on the microwave heating stage (ECRH) as on the neutral injection one (NBI). The influence of the solutions for the self-consistent ambipolar field on confinement times and temperatures has been studied by means of a zero-dimensional energy balance. The simultaneous presence of two roots, the electronic and the ionic one, is observed for the ECRH phase, while for NBI only the ionic root appears, although with a strong field intensity that could produce a favourable effect on confinement. The interest and need of the extension of these calculations to include radial profile effects by using spatial dependent transport codes in stressed

  11. Study of density fronts and their effects on coastal pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemas, V.; Polis, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    Density fronts represent regions of extremely high gradient or discontinuity in various parameters of physical interest, the most important being the water velocity and density fields. Such fronts strongly influence pollutant dispersion, by capturing oil slicks and other pollutants concentrated in surface films and drawing them down into the water column. Satellites, aircraft and boats were used to study the behavior of different types of fronts in Delaware Bay and their effect on pollutants in order to provide a basis for improving an oil drift and spreading model. LANDSAT satellites provided the most effective means of determining the location and extent of frontal systems over all portions of the tidal cycle. Satellite observations of flood-associated fronts on the New Jersey side of the Bay and ebb-associated fronts on the Delaware side agreed with boat measurements and model predictions.

  12. Studying the effects of dynamical parameters on reactor core temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khodabakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase productivity, reduce depreciation, and avoid possible accidents in a system such as fuel rods' melting and overpressure, control of temperature changes in the reactor core is an important factor. There are several methods for solving and analysing the stability of point kinetics equations. In most previous analyses, the effects of various factors on the temperature of the reactor core have been ignored. In this work, the effects of various dynamical parameters on the temperature of the reactor core and stability of the system in the presence of temperature feedback reactivity with external reactivity step, ramp and sinusoidal for six groups of delayed neutrons were studied using the method of Lyapunov exponent. The results proved to be in good agreement with other works

  13. Study of removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti with oxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cyclops of zooplankton propagates prolifically in eutrophic waterbody and it cannot be exterminated by conventional disinfection process. The mutagenicity of Mesocyclops leukarti and its extermination with oxidants in a drinking waterworks in China were studied. Among five oxidants for use in bench-scale, chlorine dioxide is the most effective and the potassium permanganate is the weakest against Mesocyclops leukarti under the same conditions. Full-scale results showed that Mesocyclops leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation combined with conventional removal physical process. After filtration, chlorite, a by-product of prechlorine dioxide, is stable at 0.45 mg/L, which is lower than the critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination and Ames test further showed that the quantity of organic substance and the mutagenicity in water treated by chlorine dioxide preoxidation are obviously less than those of prechlorination.

  14. In Vivo Study of Immunomodulatory Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh HQ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study immunomodulatory activity of hydroalcoholic plant extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. The test animals chosen for the present experiment were Wistar albino rats. The tests carried out were haemagglutination inhibition, delayed type hypersensitivity test, complete blood counts and histopathology (Liver and Spleen. The dried plant powder extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. was evaluated for immunosuppressive activity using Cyclophosphamide as an immunosuppressive drug and for immunostimulant activity using Septilin as an immunostimulant drug. Humoral immune response was evaluated by withdrawing blood from immunized wistar albino rats for haemagglutination inhibition test. Cell mediated immune response was studied using paw edema test conducted on immunized wistar albino rats. The blood cell counts were evaluated for generalized study of effect of the plant drugs of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Histopathological examination of liver and spleen were evaluated for the effect of plant drug of Gmelina arborea Roxb. on liver and spleen. The results obtained indicates that the plant Gmelina arborea Roxb. Possess immunostimulant activity in vivo.

  15. A proteomics study of auxin effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqing Xing; Hongwei Xue

    2012-01-01

    Many phytohormones regulate plant growth and development through modulating protein degradation.In this study,a proteome study based on multidimensional non-gel shotgun approach was performed to analyze the auxin-induced protein degradation via ubiquitinproteasome pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana,with the emphasis to study the overall protein changes after auxin treatment (1 nM or 1 μM indole-3-acetic acid for 6,12,or 24 h).More than a thousand proteins were detected by using label-free shotgun method,and 386 increased proteins and 370 decreased ones were identified after indole-3-acetic acid treatment.By using the auxin receptor-deficient mutant,tir1-1,as control,comparative analysis revealed that 69 and 79 proteins were significantly decreased and increased,respectively.Detailed analysis showed that among the altered proteins,some were previously reported to be associated with auxin regulation and others are potentially involved in mediating the auxin effects on specific cellular and physiological processes by regulating photosynthesis,chloroplast development,cytoskeleton,and intracellular signaling.Our results demonstrated that label-free shotgun proteomics is a powerful tool for large-scale protein identification and the analysis of the proteomic profiling of auxin-regulated biological processes will provide informative clues of underlying mechanisms of auxin effects.These results will help to expand the understanding of how auxin regulates plant growth and development via protein degradation.

  16. Effect of orthostasis on endothelial function: a gender comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Goswami

    Full Text Available As the vascular endothelium has multiple functions, including regulation of vascular tone, it may play a role in the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. We investigated the effect of orthostasis on endothelial function using EndoPAT®, a non-invasive and user-independent method, and across gender. As sex steroid hormones are known to affect endothelial function, this study examined the potential effect of these hormones on the endothelial response to orthostasis by including females at different phases of the menstrual cycle (follicular and luteal-where the hormone balance differs, and females taking an oral contraceptive. A total of 31 subjects took part in this study (11 males, 11 females having normal menstrual cycles and 9 females taking oral contraceptive. Each subject made two visits for testing; in the case of females having normal menstrual cycles the first session was conducted either 1-7 (follicular or 14-21 days (luteal after the start of menstruation, and the second session two weeks later, i.e., during the other phase, respectively. Endothelial function was assessed at baseline and following a 20-min orthostatic challenge (active standing. The EndoPAT® index increased from 1.71 ± 0.09 (mean ± SEM at baseline to 2.07 ± 0.09 following orthostasis in females (p<0.001. In males, the index increased from 1.60 ± 0.08 to 1.94 ± 0.13 following orthostasis (p<0.001. There were no significant differences, however, in the endothelial response to orthostasis between females and males, menstrual cycle phases and the usage of oral contraceptive. Our results suggest an increased vasodilatatory endothelial response following orthostasis in both females and males. The effect of gender and sex hormones on the endothelial response to orthostasis appears limited. Further studies are needed to determine the potential role of this post orthostasis endothelial response in the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance.

  17. Study on depressurization measurements and effect in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of new regulations on nuclear powered plant design and operation raise new design and management requirement for plants, and the operational plants also need accident management to enhance the reactor operation safety. Thus, for sake of reducing risk of high-pressure and mitigating the consequence, depressurization is a measure carried out to reduce primary pressure. With SCDAP/RELAP5 this paper studies the depressurization measurements and effect factors in pressurized water reactor under the important severe accident sequences induced by very small break lost of coolant accident (VSBLOCA), anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) and station blackout (SBO) plus auxiliary feedwater failure. (author)

  18. Effect of Acupuncture on Premature Ovarian Failure: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yingru Chen; Yigong Fang; Jinsheng Yang; Fei Wang; Yingying Wang; Li Yang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of acupuncture on women with premature ovarian failure (POF), prospective consecutive case series study was applied. 31 women with POF were included; all patients were treated with acupuncture once every other day, three times a week for three months. Acupoints, GV 20, GV 24, GB 13, CV 3, CV 4, BL 23, BL 32, ST 25, ST 28, ST 29, ST 36, SP 6, KI 3, and LR 3, were selected. Serums FSH, E2, and LH level, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Kupperman score were measured...

  19. Effect of Power System Parameters on Transient Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agber, J. U.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient stability studies play a vital role in providing secured operating configurations in power system networks. This paper shows an investigation of the effects of some key power system parameters on transient stability. The parameters for which this analysis is carried out include fault location, load increment, machine damping factor, fault clearing time and generator synchronous speed. The analysis has been carried out on a 7-bus test system for an electric utility company. From this analysis, the impact of these parameters on power system transient stability has been highlighted.

  20. Study on the Clinical Effectiveness of Thymectomy for Myasthenia Gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANTiecheng; YANHua; ZHANGNi; PANYouming; TANGYingxiong; WENXiang; SONGDingwei; HUMing; LIULigang; LIUZixiong; YANGMingshan; XUJinzhi; PUBitao; GAOBoting

    2002-01-01

    Objectiv:To investigate the theoretical basis and clinical significance of thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods:Analyze the changes in the contents of serum AchRab and sIL-2R, lymphocyte subtypes in Peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after thymectomy in 69 patients. Results:In the study group significant changes were found in serum contents of AchRab and sIL-2R before and after operation and there was also remarkable change in the number and constitution of peripheral blood lymphocyte subtypes. Conclusion:Thymectomy is an effective therapy for MG.

  1. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  2. Simulation study of the parallax effect of gaseous detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Hu; WU Jun-Long; LI Jiang-Bo

    2012-01-01

    A simulation study of the parallax effect of gaseous detectors using the Garfield program is reported.A method that mainly uses non-uniform cathode potentials to reduce the parallax error of planar type gas detectors is described.By applying it to MWPC and Micro-pattern gas detectors,the method reduces the parallax broadening with very good results.For a 13° incidence track,the width (FWHM) of the parallax broadening is reduced to less than 20% of the normal one after using the special cathode potentials.

  3. Results of the Study of Mutagenic Effects of Microbial Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Sidorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of mutagenic effects of Pseudomonas alcaligenеs polysaccharides. Pseudomonas genus – non-fermentative ubiquitous bacteria, having specific metabolic cycles and unique physical, chemical and biological properties was used as a producer of natural exopolysaccharides. In an experiment using the Ames test, three variants of test compounds were studied: 1. a compound of the Pseudomonas alcaligenes biofilm, 2. exopolysaccharide matrix and the microorganism cell wall compound, and 3. actually the microbial exopolysaccharide. In all cases the lack of mutagen action of polysaccharides of Pseudomonas alcaligenes is proved that make them perspective for use as nanomaterials of new generation – alternative wound coverings.

  4. Studying an Effective Contribution of Techniques of Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the use of 3G and 4G network, the channel capacity of a network is highly increased to fit various dynamic need of existing customers, where majority of the applications they preferred are video based e.g. video calls, sharing and downloading video, video streams etc. Hence, in such situation video compression plays a very important role that not only targets to minimize size of the video but also targets to retain maximum quality of the video and channel capacity optimization. This paper presents a state-of-art study of the majority of the significant research papers in the past and most recent showcase the fact that area of video compression is still in the progression phase. The paper also discusses the effectiveness of the outcomes of the prior studies and explicitly discusses the research gaps with the support of challenges and scope of emerging trends of technological development in this domain.

  5. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  6. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Y. R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yogic practices can be used as psycho-physiological stimuli to increase in physiological functions and human performance. Yoga breathing or Pranayama is the science of breath control. Rapid succession of forcible expulsion is a characteristic feature of Bhastrika Pranayama. To determine the effects of Bhastrika Pranayama on Vital Capacity of lung (PFT, sixty (n = 60 randomly selected volunteers to participate in the study from OPD of Government Ayurved College, Nanded, Maharashtra. These volunteers were subjected to the 12 week Pranayama training programme that includes “Bhastrika Pranayama”. The before after differences were assessed using the Student’s t-test for dependent data. The level of p < 0.05 was considered significant. The Pulmonary function significantly improved after 12 weeks of study comparing with base line values. Pranayama exercises are beneficial for the better maintenance of Pranavaha strotasa functions, particularly pulmonary functions, even in normal healthy.

  7. Lattice Study of Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterowd, Christopher; Detar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of graphene ranks as one of the most important developments in condensed matter physics in recent years. As a strongly interacting system whose low-energy excitations are described by the Dirac equation, graphene has many similarities with other strongly interacting field theories, particularly quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Graphene, along with other relativistic field theories, have been predicted to exhibit spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) when an external magnetic field is present. Using nonperturbative methods developed to study QCD, we study the low-energy effective field theory (EFT) of graphene subject to an external magnetic field. We find strong evidence supporting the existence of SSB at zero-temperature and characterize the dependence of the chiral condensate on the external magnetic field. We also present results for the mass of the Nambu-Goldstone boson and the dynamically generated quasiparticle mass that result from the SSB.

  8. An Interlaboratory study of lipid effects on steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid effects on the performances of routine steroid radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been assessed using the scheme of the CNR interlaboratory quality control program. Cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assays have been considered. In the study, ca 80 laboratories were supplied with two sets of control plasma samples with different triglyceride contents (pool N, ca 120 mg/dl; pool L, ca 310 mg/dl), each corresponding to three steroid levels (level 0: charcoaldeprived samples; levels 1 and 2: the same added with increasing steroid amounts). A comparison of the neat results obtained by partecipants for both levels 1 and 2 of N and P panels - after subtraction of the concentrations estimated for level 0 - gave a direct information on lipid effects (triglycerides being assumed as an index of lipemia). In no case the abnormality high triglyceride content proved effective in practical terms, though significant differences were observed for testosterone and progesterone (ca 10% underestimation in pool L) and for estradiol (ca 10% overestimation in pool L)

  9. Topics on study of low dose-effect relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takeshi [Toho Univ., School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohyama, Harumi

    1999-09-01

    It is not exceptional but usually observed that a dose-effect relationship in biosystem is not linear. Sometimes, the low dose-effect relationship appears entirely contrary to the expectation from high dose-effect. This is called a 'hormesis' phenomena. A high dose irradiation inflicts certainly an injury on biosystem. No matter how low the dose may be, an irradiation might inflict some injury on biosystem according to Linear Non-Threshold hypothesis(LNT). On the contrary to the expectation, a low dose irradiation stimulates immune system, and promotes cell proliferation. This is called 'radiation hormesis'. The studies of the radiation hormesis are made on from four points of view as follows: (1) radiation adaptive response, (2) revitalization caused by a low dose stimulation, (3) a low dose response unexpected from the LNT hypothesis, (4) negation of the LNT hypothesis. The various empirical proofs of radiation hormesis are introduced in the report. (M . Suetake)

  10. Exploratory study on performance measures as indicators of IS effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy

    1992-01-01

    The Information Systems Directorate at JSC/NASA has undertaken the reevaluation of its performance measures process and measures. Under the direction of a quality approach it is essential to identify an external perspective of how well an organization is performing. This study was conducted with two major objectives: (1) survey and summarize the academic literature on performance measures as indicators of information systems (IS) effectiveness; and (2) survey organizations for their experience in measuring for IS effectiveness. Four approaches to measuring the effectiveness of IS performance were identified: (1) listen to the customer for the things they need; (2) align with corporate goals; (3) benchmark against well-respected organizations; and (4) ask yourself what critical factors lead to success. The list of known methods for soliciting customer feedback are as follows: (1) executive visit; (2) survey, interview, and focus group; (3) complaints and compliments; and (4) service level agreements. A common set of characteristics that satisfy customers was identified from the literature. The list includes elements such as the following: accuracy, timeliness, relevance, understandability, reliability, and completeness. Future research in this topic area should prove beneficial to determine the metrics for external validity.

  11. Effective Thermal Diffusivity Study of Powder Biocomposites via Photoacoustic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariucci, V. V. G.; da Cruz, J. A.; Bonadio, T. G. M.; Picolloto, A. M.; Weinand, W. R.; Lima, W. M.; Medina, A. N.; Bento, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    The effective thermal diffusivity for biocomposites of hydroxyapatite (HAp), and niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) on powder form was studied via photoacoustic method adapted for porous materials. The concentration of each element was accompanied with the results of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A theoretical model for the thermal coupling of a three layered sample, designed to contain the powder material is proposed. The method for mixtures obeyed the formula [(1 - x) H A p + ( x) N b 2O5] for 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0. Experimental results for effective thermal diffusivity ranged between (6.4 ± 0.3) × 10-6 m2 s-1 and (9.8 ± 0.4) × 10-6 m2 s-1 for x ≤ 0.7. Values of the effective thermal diffusivity have decreased sharply to (0.7 ± 0.03) ×10-6 m2 s-1 for x > 0.7. SEM micrographs showed a coating of HAp over the particles of Nb2O5 for some mixtures.

  12. Numerical study of water mitigation effects on blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M.; Hung, K. C.; Chong, O. Y.

    2005-11-01

    The mitigating effect of a water wall on the generation and propagation of blast waves of a nearby explosive has been investigated using a numerical approach. A multimaterial Eulerian finite element technique is used to study the influence of the design parameters, such as the water-to-explosive weight ratio, the water wall thickness, the air-gap and the cover area ratio of water on the effectiveness of the water mitigation concept. In the computational model, the detonation gases are modelled with the standard Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state. Water, on the other hand, is treated as a compressible fluid with the Mie Gruneisen equation of state model. The validity of the computational model is checked against a limited amount of available experimental data, and the influence of mesh sizes on the convergence of results is also discussed. From the results of the extensive numerical experiments, it is deduced that firstly, the presence of an air-gap reduces the effectiveness of the water mitigator. Secondly, the higher the water-to-explosive weight ratio, the more significant is the reduction in peak pressure of the explosion. Typically, water-to-explosive weight ratios in the range of 1 3 are found to be most practical.

  13. Study on the electromagnetic field effect on linear electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schemotechnical methods of noise stability electronic equipment (EE) design are under study. Noises arising under the effect of electromagnetic fields are classified into primary and indirect noises. Primary induced noises are the noises due to the field effecting EE element parameters and indirect induced noises are the noises due to alternation of current and charge distribution in EE without variability device parameters. The review of basic galvanomagnetic effects in standard EE elements showed that it is possible to neglect primary noises up to magnetic field intensities of 105-106 A/m and electric field intensities of 106 B/m. Approximate integral equation describing the indirect noise formation in linear and stationary systems in respect to exciting action is given. On the basis of relations obtained, several methods of magnetic indirect noise compensation are suggested. Techniques of approximate calculation of indirect noise formed by electric component of exciting action are considered. The above experiments confirmed the correctness of expressions obtained and efficiency of compensation methods

  14. Effective thermal diffusivity study of powder biocomposites via photoacoustic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariucci, V.V.G.; Cruz, J.A. da; Bonadio, T.G.M.; Picolloto, A.M.; Weinand, W.R.; Lima, W.M.; Medina, A.N.; Bento, A.C., E-mail: vgmariucci@hotmail.com, E-mail: pg51508@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2015-10-15

    The effective thermal diffusivity for biocomposites of hydroxyapatite (HAp), and niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on powder form was studied via photoacoustic method adapted for porous materials. The concentration of each element was accompanied with the results of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A theoretical model for the thermal coupling of a three layered sample, designed to contain the powder material is proposed. The method for mixtures obeyed the formula [(1 - x)HAp + (x)Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}] for 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0. Experimental results for effective thermal diffusivity ranged between (6.4 ± 0.3) x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2} s{sup -1} and (9.8 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2} s{sup -1} for x ≤ 0.7. Values of the effective thermal diffusivity have decreased sharply to (0.70 ± 0.03) x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2} s{sup -1} for x > 0.7. SEM micrographs showed a coating of HAp over the particles of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} for some mixtures. (author)

  15. Adverse effect profile of trichlormethiazide: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichlormethiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was introduced in 1960 and remains one of the most frequently used diuretics for treating hypertension in Japan. While numerous clinical trials have indicated important side effects of thiazides, e.g., adverse effects on electrolytes and uric acid, very few data exist on serum electrolyte levels in patients with trichlormethiazide treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the adverse effects of trichlormethiazide, focusing on serum electrolyte and uric acid levels. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2010, to identify cohorts of new trichlormethiazide users (n = 99 for 1 mg, n = 61 for 2 mg daily dosage and an equal number of non-users (control. We used propensity-score matching to adjust for differences between users and control for each dosage, and compared serum chemical data including serum sodium, potassium, uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of trichlormethiazide of 1 mg and 2 mg users was 58 days and 64 days, respectively. Results The mean age was 66 years, and 55% of trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose were female. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the mean age was 68 years, and 43% of users were female. There were no statistically significant differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, past drugs, and current antihypertensive drugs between trichlormethiazide users and controls for both doses. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the reduction of serum potassium level and the elevation of serum uric acid level were significant compared with control, whereas changes of mean serum sodium, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were not significant. In trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose, all tests showed no statistically significant change from baseline to during the exposure period in

  16. Effect of caffeine on the vocal folds: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, S; Wood, G; Rubin, J S; O'Flynn, P E; Ratcliffe, P

    1999-04-01

    Caffeine is considered to be a dehydrating agent with detrimental effects on the quality of voice of persons ingesting it. This has led medical personnel dealing with voice disorders, especially in the case of professional voice users, to give advice against the use of caffeine. Yet this is an anecdotal truth as an extensive Medline literature search did not reveal any scientific evidence of caffeine being proven to have adverse effects on the vocal folds. We, therefore, initiated this pilot study to ascertain the connection between caffeine and voice quality on a laboratory basis. Two hundred and fifty mg of caffeine were provided to eight volunteers in tablet form, and blood levels along with laryngograph readings were recorded to document the changes produced. Analysing the irregularities of frequencies in a) free speech b) a reading passage and c) singing 'Happy Birthday', substantial changes were seen to authenticate the fact that caffeine does produce alterations in voice quality but these alterations have considerable intra-subject variability. A full study with wider parameters is to be performed on this subject as we consider it to be of importance in the management of voice disorders. PMID:10474669

  17. Prospect Theory: A Study of the Endowment Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Sell Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a recent field of study which contradicts the presupposition supported by Modern Finance that decision makers act rationally. Prospect Theory, developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979, is presented as an alternative model to the Theory of Expected Utility in relation to the way people decide in face of possibilities of risk. According to Prospect Theory, people define gains and losses based on a given point of reference, which can be established on grounds of a given level of expected gain. This fact leads to the Endowment Effect - a behavioral trend investigated in this study – whereby investors are influenced by a portfolio which they have received as an inheritance or endowment. The reason this occurs is that individuals usually define their expectations of gain according to the future profitability of the portfolio received, and not according to the future profitability of the market. Using an investment simulation, the Endowment Effect was tested among 226 university students taking courses in the subject of capital markets. The results demonstrate that the students were influenced by the different initial portfolios, which were randomly assigned.

  18. Effects of a teaching evaluation system: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hao Wen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to identify the effects of evaluation on teaching and discusses improvements in the work of the evaluation office. Methods: Teaching evaluation data from 2006 to 2009 was collected and analyzed. Additional surveys were conducted to collect the perceptions of students, faculty members, peer reviewers, deans and chairs about teaching evaluation. Results: Evaluation scores for more than half of faculty members increased, significantly more for junior compared with senior faculty, over the period of the study. Student attendance and satisfaction with elective courses increased after interventions identified by teaching evaluations. All participants believed that teaching evaluation had positive effects on teaching quality and classroom behavior. Seventy-three percent of faculty believed the evaluation helped to improve their teaching skills. Faculty perceptions of the helpfulness of teaching evaluation were related to the speed in which evaluations were reported, the quality of comments received, and the attitudes held by faculty towards evaluation. All the faculty members, chairs and deans read evaluation reports, and most of them believed the reports were helpful. Conclusions: Teaching evaluation at SMMU was perceived to improve both the teaching quality and classroom behavior. Faster feedback and higher quality comments are perceived to provide more help to faculty members.

  19. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics ex- periment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  20. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ShengLi; CHEN ShunYun; LIU PeiXun; HU XiaoYan; WANG KaiYing; HUANG YuanMin

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics experiment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  1. A Study on the Effectiveness of In-Game Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENG Ho Keat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, commercial organizations have shown an increasing interest in advertising their products in video games. While there is some research in this area, the complexities of product placement research, with in-game advertisement research in particular, suggest that more research is needed in this area. The aim of this paper is to add to the literature on the effectiveness of in-game advertisements through recognition and recall tests. By using the same survey instrument for three different games from the same genre, this research allows for comparison across games and findings can be generalized to games in the same genre. The sampling strategy adopted allows for the findings to be compared between genders and addresses one of the common criticisms of earlier studies. In addition, this research also examines whether gamer experience and perceptions of game can influence recall and recognition rates of in-game advertisements. The findings concur with earlier studies that recall rates of in-game advertisements are low, and that gender and gamer experience had no effect on recall rates. The research also suggests that the relationship between perceptions of game in affecting recall rates is complicated and require further research.

  2. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun’ichi Noma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.Keywords: milnacipran, specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, binge eating, vomiting, eating disorder, pharmacotherapy

  3. Effect of retraction materials on gingival health: A histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatale Sushma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival retraction methods are used in dentistry for impressions of subgingival crown margins, such as, mechanical, chemical, chemicomechanical, and surgical. These methods may injure the gingival sulcular epithelium. Hence, the present study is carried out to evaluate the effect of different retraction materials, such as, Expasyl, Magic Foam Cord, and impregnated retraction cord on the gingival sulcular epithelium. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cases of bilateral premolar extraction patients with Loe and Silness gingival index zero. Retraction materials were kept in the dry, isolated labial gingival sulcus for the required time. The retraction materials were removed by rinsing with water. Retracted gingiva of 2 - 3 mm from the gingival margin along with the tooth was extracted and the decalcified sections were microscopically studied. Data analysis: Data were analyzed by applying the chi-square test. Results: This study showed better results with retraction paste as compared to the retraction cord, and there was a significant association between retraction materials and the relative degree of injury to the sulcular epithelium. Conclusion: There is a significant association between retraction materials and gingival sulcular epithelium. It can be stated that impregnated retraction cord, may be used commonly but it needs proper tissue manipulation and is technique sensitive. Newly advanced material in the form of retraction paste like Expasyl or Magic Foam Cord was found to be better than cord as assessed histologically, it respects periodontium.

  4. Urbanization effects on the microclimate of Manaus: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Diego Oliveira de; Alvalá, Regina Célia dos Santos; Nascimento, Marília Guedes do

    2016-01-01

    Activities associated with land use and land cover changes and urbanization induce local impacts, such as changes in atmospheric composition in water and energy balances and changes in the ecosystem. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the possible relationship between urban growth and local and regional changes. In the last 30 years, the population of Manaus grew by over 500%, with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in 2010. Trying to understand the effects of the urban growth of the city of Manaus on its microclimate and atmospheric processes, the present study aims to evaluate the possible physical mechanisms related to the urbanization process observed through a study of atmospheric modeling. The results allowed to assess that the presence of the urban area significantly modifies the surface energy balance (SEB), generating a thermal gradient between the city and the surrounding regions, favoring the formation and intensification of local atmospheric circulations. The results indicated that with urban growth there is an increase in temperature, decrease in the atmospheric water content and significant changes in the flow at low levels, mainly in the breeze circulations, with significant changes observed in the structure and characteristic of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the study area. A positive correlation between the increase of the urban area and increased rainfall was also observed. From the results, it was possible to observe that there is a direct relationship between urban growth and changes in the local microclimate in Manaus.

  5. A Statistical study of effects of bacterial Decaffeination on Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naina Thangaraj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine degradation has been popularized due to its promising scope in food applications and environmental safety. Hence we conducted a study of bacterial caffeine degradation and its effect on sensory qualities through a survey and reported the data using Correspondence Analysis- Symmetrical Model of SPSS software to identify key sensory attributes and study what factors could lead to them. The decaffeinated beverages showed undesirable sensory attributes, especially those containing milk and other extraneous substances and hence it was concluded that decaffeination is most desirable during raw material processing. Also a background study of the bacterial growth curve and its relation with caffeine degradation and N-Methyl Urea formation was done using Origin software and ways to ensure the release of non-toxic products were hypothesized. An alternate glyoxylate pathway was considered to avoid the release of toxic metabolites, which is possible by media starvation. Thus avoiding degradation of sensory qualities and alternating the production of N-methylurea would reflect positively on human consumption and acceptance and this can be a scope of future study.

  6. Microstructural Studies of Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes which act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the moon, it includes a variety of processes which have formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. However, the regolith processes that cause these effects are not well known, nor is the petrographic setting of the products of these processes fully understood. An interesting confluence of events occurred in the early 1990s. First, came the discovery of vapor deposited coatings on lunar regolith grains by Keller and McKay, who showed that amorphous coatings from 50-100 nm thick containing fine-grained Fe metal (1-10 nm in diameter) were common in the fine size fraction of several mature lunar soils. The other discovery was the recognition that the optical properties of lunar soils were dominated by fine grain sized material (less than 45 micrometer fraction) by Pieters and coworkers. These discoveries led to coordinated studies that looked at the mineralogy, chemistry, and optical properties of lunar soils as function of composition, maturity, and grain size fraction. One of the major revelations from these studies was the recognition that much of the nanophase Fe metal is surface-correlated especially in the finest size fractions, and that it was this nanophase Fe that dominated the optical properties of the soil.

  7. Study on calculation methods for the effective delayed neutron fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective delayed neutron fraction βeff is one of the important neutronic parameters from a view point of a reactor kinetics. Several Monte-Carlo-based methods to estimate βeff have been proposed to date. In order to quantify the accuracy of these methods, we study calculation methods for βeff by analyzing various fast neutron systems including the bare spherical systems (Godiva, Jezebel, Skidoo, Jezebel-240), the reflective spherical systems (Popsy, Topsy, Flattop-23), MASURCA-R2 and MASURCA-ZONA2, and FCA XIX-1, XIX-2 and XIX-3. These analyses are performed by using SLAROM-UF and CBG for the deterministic method and MVP-II for the Monte Carlo method. We calculate βeff with various definitions such as the fundamental value β0, the standard definition, Nauchi's definition and Meulekamp's definition, and compare these results with each other. Through the present study, we find the following: The largest difference among the standard definition of βeff , Nauchi's βeff and Meulekamp's βeff is approximately 10%. The fundamental value β0 is quite larger than the others in several cases. For all the cases, Meulekamp's βeff is always higher than Nauchi's βeff. This is because Nauchi's βeff considers the average neutron multiplicity value per fission which is large in the high energy range (1MeV-10MeV), while the definition of Meulekamp's βeff does not include this parameter. Furthermore, we evaluate the multi-generation effect on βeff values and demonstrate that this effect should be considered to obtain the standard definition values of βeff. (author)

  8. Temperature effects studies in light water reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CREOLE experiments performed in the EOLE critical facility located in the Nuclear Center of CADARACHE - CEA (UO2 and UO2-PuO2 lattice reactivity temperature coefficient continuous measurements between 200C and 3000C; integral measurements by boron equivalent effect in the moderator; water density effects measurements with the use of over cladding aluminium tubes to remove moderator) allow to get an interesting and complete information on the temperature effects in the light water reactor lattices. A very elaborated calcurated scheme using the transport theory and the APOLLO cross sections library, has been developed. The analysed results of the whole lot of experiments show that the discrepancy between theory and experiment strongly depends on the temperature range and on the type of lattices considered. The error is mainly linked with the thermal spectrum effects. A study on the temperature coefficient sensitivity to the different cell neutron parameters has shown that only the shapes of the 235U and 238U thermal cross sections have enough weight and uncertainty margins to explain the observed experimental/calculation bias. Instead of arbitrarily fitting the identified wrong data on the calculation of the reactivity temperature coefficient we have defined a procedure of modification of the cross sections based on the consideration of the basic nuclear data: resonance parameters and associated statistic laws. The implementation of this procedure has led to propose new thermal cross sections sets for 235U and 238U consistent with the uncertainty margins associated with the previously accepted values and with some experimental data

  9. nvestigating the Effective Factors on Organizational Effectiveness and Marketing Capabilities Growth (Case Study: Food Distribution Subsidiaries of Isfahan)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shaemi; Sepideh Fazel

    2014-01-01

    This study entitled "Investigating the effective factors on organizational effectiveness marketing capabilities growth investigates the effective factors on Viewpoint on managers and experts of food distribution subsidiaries of Isfahan In relation to the potential impact on the effectiveness of marketing. In this study there is two main hypothesis and there are ten lateral hypotheses. This study is an applied research regarding the purpose and is a survey based study with the correlation appr...

  10. Analogue model studies of induction effects at auroral latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viljanen

    Full Text Available In addition to field observations and numerical models, geomagnetic induction effects can be studied by scaled analogue model experiments. We present here results of analogue model studies of the auroral electrojet with an Earth model simulating the Arctic Ocean and inland conductivity structures in northern Fennoscandia. The main elements of the analogue model used were salt water simulating the host rock, an aluminium plate corresponding to the ocean and graphite pieces producing the inland highly conducting anomalies. The electrojet was a time-harmonic line current flowing at a (simulated height of 100 km above northern Fennoscandia. The period simulated was 9 min.

    The analogue model results confirmed the well-known rapid increase of the vertical field when the coast is approached from the continent. The increase of the horizontal field due to induced ocean currents was demonstrated above the ocean, as well as the essentially negligible effect of these currents on the horizontal field on the continent.

    The behaviour of the magnetic field is explained with a simple two-dimensional thin-sheet model. The range, or the adjustment distance, of the ocean effect inland was found to be some hundreds of kilometers, which also agrees with earlier results of the Siebert-Kertz separation of IMAGE magnetometer data. The modelled inland anomalies evidently had too large conductivities, but on the other hand, their influence decayed on scales of only some tens of kilometers.

    Analogue model results, thin-sheet calculations, and field observations show that the induction effect on the horizontal magnetic field Bx near the electrojet is negligible. On the other hand, the vertical component Bz is clearly affected by induced currents in the ocean. Evidence of this is the shift of the zero point of Bz 0-1° southwards

  11. Effects of Omeprazole on Iron Absorption: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing numbers of pediatric and adult patients are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. PPIs are known to inhibit gastric acid secretion. Nonheme iron requires gastric acid for conversion to the ferrous form for absorption. Ninety percent of dietary and 100% of oral iron therapy is in the nonheme form. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of PPIs on iron absorption has not been studied in humans. Our study assessed the relationship between omeprazole therapy and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: We recruited 9 healthy volunteers between June 2010 and March 2011. Subjects with chronic illness, anemia, or use of PPI therapy were excluded. Serum iron concentrations were measured 1, 2, and 3 h after the ingestion of iron (control group. The measurements were repeated on a subsequent visit after 4 daily oral administrations of omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg (treatment group. Results: One female and 8 male volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 33 years. There was no statistical difference detected between baseline, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h iron levels between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Administration of omeprazole for a short duration does not affect absorption of orally administered iron in healthy individuals.

  12. Matrix effect studies with empirical formulations in maize saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In X-ray fluorescence, the earlier derived matrix effects from fundamental relations of intensities of analyte/matrix elements with basic atomic and experimental setup parameters and tested on synthetic known samples were found empirically related to analyte/matrix elemental amounts. The present study involves the application of these relations on potassium and calcium macronutrients of maize saplings treated with different fertilizers. The novelty of work involves a determination of an element in the presence of its secondary excitation rather than avoiding the secondary fluorescence. Therefore, the possible utility of this process is in studying the absorption for some intermediate samples in a lot of a category of samples with close Z interfering constituents (just like Ca and K). Once the absorption and enhancement terms are fitted to elemental amounts and fitted coefficients are determined, with the absorption terms from the fit and an enhancer element amount known from its selective excitation, the next iterative elemental amount can be directly evaluated from the relations. - Highlights: ► Empirical formulation for matrix corrections in terms of amounts of analyte and matrix element. ► The study applied on K and Ca nutrients of maize, rice and potato organic materials. ► The formulation provides matrix terms from amounts of analyte/matrix elements and vice versa.

  13. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  14. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-15

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  15. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  16. Butterfly Effect-The Effects That English Study Exerts on Art Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In the history of human beings, every choice we make is the birth of the next. Even something simple can completely reshape one’s life. It's just like the Butterfly Effect-one never knows what is at the end. English study, also, may produce pro-found influences on the creation of art works. This passage aims at proving English study, as a disputable topic in present educa-tion in art schools, has its importance for art learners to enhance their creative thinking in the process of art creation.

  17. Audit Committee Effectiveness: a case study of informal processes and behavioural effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, M, Hudaib, M and Haniffa, R

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the conditions and processes affecting the operation and potential effectiveness of audit committees (ACs), with particular focus on the interaction between the AC, individuals from financial reporting and internal audit functions and the external auditors. Design/methodology/approach – A case study approach is employed, based on direct engagement with participants in AC activities, including the AC chair, external auditors, internal auditors, and sen...

  18. Study of Plume Impingement Effects in the Lunar Lander Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichalar, Jeremiah; Prisbell, A.; Lumpkin, F.; LeBeau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plume impingement effects from the descent and ascent engine firings of the Lunar Lander were analyzed in support of the Lunar Architecture Team under the Constellation Program. The descent stage analysis was performed to obtain shear and pressure forces on the lunar surface as well as velocity and density profiles in the flow field in an effort to understand lunar soil erosion and ejected soil impact damage which was analyzed as part of a separate study. A CFD/DSMC decoupled methodology was used with the Bird continuum breakdown parameter to distinguish the continuum flow from the rarefied flow. The ascent stage analysis was performed to ascertain the forces and moments acting on the Lunar Lander Ascent Module due to the firing of the main engine on take-off. The Reacting and Multiphase Program (RAMP) method of characteristics (MOC) code was used to model the continuum region of the nozzle plume, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Analysis Code (DAC) was used to model the impingement results in the rarefied region. The ascent module (AM) was analyzed for various pitch and yaw rotations and for various heights in relation to the descent module (DM). For the ascent stage analysis, the plume inflow boundary was located near the nozzle exit plane in a region where the flow number density was large enough to make the DSMC solution computationally expensive. Therefore, a scaling coefficient was used to make the DSMC solution more computationally manageable. An analysis of the effectiveness of this scaling technique was performed by investigating various scaling parameters for a single height and rotation of the AM. Because the inflow boundary was near the nozzle exit plane, another analysis was performed investigating three different inflow contours to determine the effects of the flow expansion around the nozzle lip on the final plume impingement results.

  19. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 10C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  20. Study of the Effects of Globalization on Iranian Caviar Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Barghandan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is integration of national economies in globaleconomy and infers on increasing the flow of goods andservices. In this study the consequences of globalization werestudied through the analysis of Level of International Tradeindex (LIT in the caviar export equation. The required datawere gathered from Statistical Yearbook of Foreign Trade,Statistical Yearbook of fisheries, Statistical Yearbook of the International Monetary Fund, United Nations Food and AgricultureOrganization and different issues of Central Bank of Iran over1974-2007. The results showed that domestic production ofcaviar have significant and positive effects on its export. Inaddition, sign of level of international trade variable in theestimated model is positive and indicates trade restrictionsremove lead to increase in caviar export.

  1. The distinct effects of internalizing weight bias: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Both experiencing and internalizing weight bias are associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes, but internalization may be a more potent predictor of these outcomes. The current study aimed to differentiate between causal effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias on emotional responses and psychological well-being. Adults with overweight/obesity (N=260) completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to focus on either the experience or internalization of weight bias, and completed measures of affect, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Results indicated that the Internalization condition led to more negative affect, less positive affect, and lower self-esteem than the Experience condition. The Internalization condition also led to heightened body dissatisfaction among men, but not women. These findings suggest that weight bias internalization may be a stronger predictor of poor mental and physical health than experiences alone, and carry implications for developing weight bias interventions. PMID:26927688

  2. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  3. Study of ageing side effects in the DELPHI HPC calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W

    1997-01-01

    The readout proportional chambers of the HPC electromagnetic calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment are affected by large ageing. In order to study the long-term behaviour fo the calorimeter, one HPC module was extracted from DELPHI in 1992 and was brought to a test area where it was artificially aged during a period of two years; an ageing level exceeding the one expected for the HPC at the end of the LEP era was reached. During this period the performance of the module was periodically tested by means of dedicated beam tests whose results are discussed in this paper. These show that ageing has no significant effects on the response linearity and on the energy resolution for electromagnetic showers, once the analog response loss is compensated for by increasing the chamber gain through the anode voltage.

  4. Study on Effect of Compounding Sulfurized Isobutylene with Thioester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongjun; Qiu Yansheng

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen is introduced into the sulfurized isobutylene by compounding the sulfurized isobutylene with thioester. This paper studies the synergistic effect of commingling the sulfurized isobutylene with thioester during testing in the four-ball machine and the high-speed Timken machine. Tests in the four-ball machine and the high-speed Timken machine have revealed an improvement in EP performance of sulfurized isobutylene in admixture with thioester. The interfacial tension test and electrochemical analysis of anodic polarization have discovered increase of adsorptive force of the additive package on metal surface following compounding sulfurized isobutylene with thioester. The XPS and AES analyses indicate to the formation of FeS, Fe203 and FeSO4 on the metal surface. The sulfurized film formed by the additive package on the metal surface is thicker than that formed by simple sulfurized isobutylene.

  5. A Study on Antimicrobial Effects of Plantago Psyllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2011-06-01

    The antimicrobial effect of Plantago psyllium extract with commercial antimicrobial agents were compared. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using one-way ANOVA and chi-square test. Results: Findings of the present study revealed that in l0 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml concentrations of the extract, all bacteria were resistant to Plantago psyllium. In 40 mg/ml concentration, only Staphylococcus areus and staphylococcus epidemidis showed zone of inhibition (ZOI of 10 mm and 13 mm respectively while in 80 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 20 mm in Staphylococcus areus and 18 mm in staphylococcus epidemidis. The acceptable MIC and MLC were 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml in Staphylococcus areus and staphylococcus epidemidis respectively. Conclusion: Our data clearly indicated that the extract displayed equivalent compatibility with standard antibiotics on Staphylococcus areus and staphylococcus epidemidis bacteria.

  6. NMR study of starch based polymer gel electrolytes: Humidity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to study the effect of water absorption in polymer gel electrolytes formed by amylopectin rich starch, plasticized with glycerol and containing lithium perchlorate. The position of the 7Li spin-lattice relaxation rate maximum is shifted progressively towards lower temperatures with increasing hydration, reflecting an increase of the lithium mobility. The mechanism responsible for the spin-lattice relaxation of the 7Li nuclei in the gel electrolytes are the fluctuations of the quadrupolar interaction due to the lithium motions. The 7Li relaxation results of the gel electrolyte hydrated with 2.2 water per complex unit suggest that the lithium ions are almost decoupled from the polymer chain and coordinate, hence preferring the water molecules

  7. A STUDY OF EFFECT OF LEKHANIYA MAHAKASHAYA ON LIPID PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Naresh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the heart diseases are closely associated with rise in the level of serum lipids, the condition known as ‘hyperlipidaemia’ which further leads to atherosclerosis. In Ayurvedic view, hyperlipidaemia could be considered analogous with increased dusht medo dhatu in the body which is caused by hypo functioning of medo-dhaatwaghi. According to Sharangdhara, any drug possessing laghu and tikshana properties, katu vipaka and ushana virya performs lekhan karma i.e. curretive and absorptive action on Dosha, Dhatu and Mala. Along with lekhan karma, owing to above said attributes, these drugs improve strength of agni particularly Jathragni and dhaatwagni which further reduces and ultimately stops production of Dhust Medo Dhatu in the body. The Lekhaniya Mahakashaya, mentioned in Charaka Samhita possesses above mentioned characteristics. The only need was to prove its hypolipidaemic effect in human body by conducting clinical trials. The present study proved this fact.

  8. Study of Purchase Process Modeling and Reengineering Effects Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhenhuanJiang; LiangQuan; PeiwuDong

    2004-01-01

    Purchase process is an important part in the process of running an enterprise.For reengineering the process of'enterprise, raise business efficiency of enterprise , make enterprise competitive among complicated and changeable market environment. Use the method of planning to evaluate the technology modeling and method to set up evaluation index, based on the basic principle business process reengineering, studied the methods of modeling and evaluating of the reengineering of the purchase process. Given the intact method of modeling process. Give the mathematics express method and figure express method of the process, propose using PT reducing rate to evaluate the effect of the process reengineer, and has analysed three kinds of situations that affect the reducing rate of PT.

  9. A Simulation Study of Hall Effect on Double Tearing Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chenglong; MA Zhiwei; DONG Jiaqi

    2008-01-01

    A Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation is carried out to study the dy-namic process of double tearing mode. The results indicated that the growth rates in the earlier nonlinear and transition phases agree with the previous results. With further development of reconnection, the current sheet thickness is much smaller than the ion inertia length, which leads to a strong influence of the Hall effects. As a result, the reconnection in the late nonlinear phase exhibits an explosive nature with a time scale nearly independent of resistivity. A localized and severely intensified current density is observed and the maximum kinetic energy is over one order of magnitude higher in Hall MHD than that in resistive MHD.

  10. The Study of Frequency Effects in Syntactic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    پهلوان نژاد پهلوان نژاد

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The writers of this paper introduce two kinds of linguistic frequency, type frequency and token frequency. Then, the effects of each kind of frequency on syntactic structures are analyzed. The token frequency effects are divided into two main types: conserving effect and reduction effect. The type frequency is mainly effective in syntactic productivity. The two effects of token frequency on syntax and their interaction with type frequency over time allows us to explain many situations in language that otherwise appear very arbitrary. Keywords: Token frequency, type frequency, reduction effect, conserving effect, syntactic productivity

  11. Computational study of buoyancy effects in a laminar starting jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortical structures formed in evolving jets are important in applications such as fuel injection in diesel engines and fuel leaks. When the jet fluid is different from the ambient fluid, the buoyancy can play an important role in determining the jet flow structure, and hence, the entrainment and fluid mixing processes. In the present study, a jet of helium injected in air is investigated, with emphasis placed on delineating the buoyancy effects on vector-scalar fields during the starting phase. We utilize a computational model, previously validated to predict the flow field of low-density gas jets. The model incorporates finite volume approach to solve the transport equation of helium mass fraction coupled with conservation equations of mixture mass and momentum. Computations were performed for a laminar jet to characterize the advancing jet front, and to capture the formation and propagation of vortex rings and the related pinch-off process. Results show significant effects of buoyancy on jet advancement, as well as on vorticity and helium concentration in the core of the vortex rings

  12. Neurotrophic effects of perfluorocarbon emulsion gel: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive neurotrophic effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment may be more easily achieved by applying a Perflourocarbon (PFC emulsion gel to the repair site. PFCs are halogen substituted carbon oils with unique oxygen transport potentials that are capable of increasing oxygen availability in local tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of a PFC emulsion to a repaired nerve would improve recovery. Materials and methods The left tibial nerve of 21 immature female Sprague-Dawley rats was transected, immediately repaired, and then circumferentially coated with PFC gel (Group A, n = 7, PFC-less gel (Group B, n = 7, or nothing (suture only, Group C, n = 7. At eight weeks post surgery, electrophysiological testing and histological and morphological analysis was performed. Results No statistically significant differences between experimental groups were found for muscle size and weight, axon counts, or nerve conduction velocity. Group A had a significantly smaller G-ratio than Groups B and C (p Conclusion Overall results do not indicate a functional benefit associated with application of a PFC emulsion gel to rodent tibial nerve repairs. A positive effect on myelination was seen.

  13. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  14. The effects of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias;

    lasting 1 – 2 hours for six weeks. The primary outcome is BMI. Secondary outcomes are BMI z-scores, fat percentage by DXA scanner and a composite metabolic risk z-score. Results: At 6 and 52 weeks follow up the DCIA has 2.2 and 1.2 lower BMI than the SIA, respectively. The same pattern is seen in favor of...... the DCIA in BMI z-score, clustered risk z-score, systolic blood pressure, abdominal fat-%, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. In body fat-%, waist circumference and triglycerides, there is only a significant group difference at 6 weeks and not at 52 weeks....... Conclusions: The DCIA has a clear positive health effect in key parameters; BMI, BMI z-score, body fat-%, and clustered risk. The effect is pronounced at 6 weeks and, though reduced, still present after 52 weeks. The results of the study shows the potential of an activity camp as a basis for health change...

  15. Effectiveness of Iphone’s Touch ID: KSA Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new trend of incorporating Touch ID sensors in mobile devices is appearing. Last year, Apple released a new model of its famous iPhone (5s. One of the most anticipated and hailed features of the new device was its Touch ID. Apple advertised that the new technology will increase the security of its device, and it will also be used in different applications as a proof of identity. To make the issue more controversial, Apple announced a new financial service (Apple Pay that allows iPhone 6 users to use their iPhone as a replacement to credit cards. The minute the new technology was introduced; many questions appeared that needed immediate answers. Users were concerned about how it will work? Is it easy to use? Is it really safe? And whether it will be effective in protecting their private data or not? In this paper we provide a comprehensive study of this feature. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using it. Then we analyze and share the results of a survey that we conducted to measure the effectiveness of such feature in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. In this study, we only focus on users from KSA, because if the device fails to protect mobile’s data, severe consequences might happen. Due to cultural believes in KSA, releasing mobile contents to unauthorized people could lead to crimes. Survey analysis revealed somewhat controversial results, while 76% of all participants believe that this technology will improve the device security, only 33% use it to lock/unlock their devices, and even a smaller percentage use it to make purchases.

  16. Comparison of different UV models for cloud effect study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of UV radiation (290–400 nm) at Yanting, China (31°16′ N, 105°27′ E and 420 m above sea level) from 2005 to 2012 were used for investigating UV variability and its relationship with global solar radiation in Southwest China. Daily UV/G ratios generally increased from 3.7% in January to 4.5% in July with annual mean value of 4.2%. Clearness index was used for characterizing sky conditions and model development. Linear regression between UV and global solar radiation has been carried out and the results showed that the slope changed from 0.05 under overcast skies to 0.04 in clear skies. Nine UV models have been introduced by studying the dependence of hourly UV irradiation on the relative optical air mass, cloud modification factor and clearness index, respectively, which was assessed through the statistical indices: mean bias error, mean-absolute error and root-mean-square error. By comparing the statistical indices from different models, the most suitable UV model was chosen for analyzing the cloud effects. Finally, it was found that the attenuation of UV radiation caused by clouds increased from 35.6% in July to 64.4% in January. - Highlights: • 8-Year observations are used to show the temporal variability of UV and UV/G. • Relationship between both clearness indices is investigated. • Nine different UV models have been proposed. • UV attenuation indices are calculated for cloud effect study

  17. A DFT study of substituent effects in corannulene dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josa, Daniela; Rodríguez Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro Lago, Enrique M

    2011-12-21

    Corannulene dimers made up of corannulene monomers with different curvature and substituents were studied using M06-2X, B97D and ωB97XD functionals and 6-31+G* basis set. Corannulene molecules were substituted with five alternating Br, Cl, CH(3), C(2)H or CN units. Geometric results showed that substituents gave rise to small changes in the curvature of corannulene bowls. So, there was not a clear relationship between the curvature of bowls and the changes on interaction energy generated by addition of substituents in the bowl. Electron withdrawing substituents gave rise to a more positive molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of the bowl, which was able to get a strong interaction with the negative MEP at the surface of a fullerene. Substitution with CN caused the largest effect, giving rise to the most positive MEP and to a large interaction energy of -24.64 kcal mol(-1), at the ωB97XD/6-31+G* level. Dispersive effects must be taken into account to explain the catching ability of the different substituted corannulenes. For unsubstituted dimers, calculations with DFT-D methods employing ωB97XD and B97D functionals led to similar results to those previously reported at the SCS-MP2/cc-pVTZ level for corannulene dimers (A. Sygula and S. Saebø, Int. J. Quant. Chem., 2009, 109, 65). In particular, the ωB97XD functional led to a difference of only 0.35 kcal mol(-1), regarding MP2 interaction energy for corannulene dimers. On the other hand, the M06-2X functional showed a general considerable underestimation of interaction energies. This functional worked quite well to study trends, but not to obtain absolute interaction energies.

  18. Study of aspect ratio effects on MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aspect ratio affects kinetic instabilities in many ways. In this paper we describe explicit aspect ratio scaling studies of kinetic instabilities using the NSTX and DIII- D devices and introduce new theoretical work on the general kinetic physics of KBM, TAE, CAE with applications on NSTX. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the DIII-D tokamak are nearly ideal for an Alfven mode similarity experiment, with similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but the major radius differs by a factor of two. A similarity study of the toroidal Alfven mode (TAE) shows that the most unstable toroidal mode number scales as expected, supporting an expectation of a 'sea' of unstable modes in a reactor. Alfvenic instabilities with frequencies that chirp rapidly are common in NSTX but rare in DIII-D. Efforts to understand this difference in terms of the hole-clump theory of Berk and Breizman are reported. Compressional Alfven modes (CAE) on NSTX have the frequency scaling, polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, and low frequency limit qualitatively consistent with CAE theory. Experiments are planned to compare the stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. The ballooning instability results from the release of free energy of non- uniform pressure that has a gradient in the same direction as the magnetic field curvature. We show that the combined kinetic effect of trapped electron dynamics and ion Larmor radii produces a large parallel electric field and hence a parallel current that greatly enhances the stabilizing effect of field line tension. We are grateful to the NSTX and DIII-D teams. (author)

  19. a Mossbauer Effect Study of Iron(iii) Dithiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddy, Judith Mary

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Ever since the pioneering work of Cambi iron(III) trisdithiocarbamates, which have the formula Fe(R _2NCS_2]_3 where R is an alkyl or an aryl group, have formed the basis for understanding spin-state equilibria in iron(III) complexes. Magnetic and infrared studies clearly indicate equilibrium between the high-spin and low-spin states. The Mossbauer spectra, however, show only a single component, indicating rapid relaxation between the two spin states on the Mossbauer timescale. It has been assumed that the spectral parameters are therefore a function of the relative spin-state populations. In this thesis, the results of Mossbauer experiments carried out on a series of iron(III) trisdithiocarbamates with various organic substituents, known to give a range of high-spin and low-spin state populations at room temperature, are presented. An iron(III) bisdithiocarbamate complex, Fe^{57} ((C_5 H_{10})_2NCS _2]_2NCS, was also investigated. The samples were studied at temperatures from 1.3K to 295K, and at pressures between atmospheric pressure and 80kbar at room temperature only. It was found that, in fact, the spin-equilibrium plays only a minor role in determining the Mossbauer spectra of the trisdithiocarbamate compounds. The effects of spin -state relaxation on the temperature dependence of the spectra are, in general, masked by those of slow paramagnetic relaxation which, in contrast to the effects of the spin-equilibrium, are marked and different for each compound. By fitting the spectra to models of paramagnetic relaxation the temperature dependence of the relaxation rates and possible directions of the magnetic hyperfine field relative to the major axis of the electric field gradient were found. The pressure dependence of the spectra was found to be rather similar for all the compounds, the main differences being in the widths and in the asymmetry of the areas of the spectral lines. Both these effects can

  20. The theoretical studies of piezoresistive effect in diamond films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG; Chunyang

    2002-01-01

    [1]Jiang, X., Schiffmann, K., Klages, C. P., Nucleation and initial growth phase of diamond thin films on(100)silicon, Phys. Rev., 1994, B50(12): 8402-8410.[2]Jiang, X., Klages, C. P., Zachai, R. et al., Epitaxial diamond thin films on(100)silicon substrate, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1993, 62(26): 3438-3440.[3]Deguchi, M., Kitabatake, M., Hirao, T. et al., PR properties of chemical-vapor-deposited p-type diamond strain-gauges fabricared on diaphragm structure, Diamond Relat. Mater., 1996,5: 728-731.[4]Wang, W. L., Liao, K. J., Feng, B. et al., PR of p-type heteroepitaxial diamond films on Si(100), Diamond Relat. Matet., 1998, 7: 528-532.[5]Wang, W. L., Jiang, X., Taube, K. et al., PR of polycrystalline p-type diamond films of various doping levels at different temperatures, J. Appl. Phys., 1997, 82(2): 729-732.[6]Fang, L., Wang, W. L., Ding, P. D. et al., Study on the PR effect of crystalline and polycrystalline diamond under uniaxial strains, J. Appl. Phys., 1999, 86(9): 5185-5193.[7]Fang, L., Wang, W. L., Ding, P. D. et al., Study on the PR effect in p-type polycrystalline diamond, Science in China, 1999, 42(7): 769-778.[8]Aslam, M., Taher, I., Masood, A., Piezoresistivity invapor deposited diamond films, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1992, 60: 2923-2925.[9]Sondheimer, E. H., The mean free path of electrons in metals, Advan. Phys., 1952, 1: 1-42.[10]Fuchs, K., The conductivity of thin metallic films according to the electron theory of metals, Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc., 1938, 34: 100-108.[11]Xue, Z. Q., Wu, Q. D., Li, J., Physics of Thin Films(in Chinese), 2nd ed., Beijing: Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 1991, 282-284.[12]Beer, A. C., Willardson, R. K., Hall and transverse magnetoresistance effects for warped bands and mixed scattering, Phys. Rev., 1958, 110: 1286-1294.[13]Kenneth, J. R., William, J. L., High-field magnetoresistance of semiconducting diamond, Phys. Rev., 1972, B6: 4588-4592.

  1. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bellifa; L Pirault-Roy; C Kappenstein; A Choukchou-Braham

    2014-05-01

    MTi samples with different atomic chromium percentages were synthesized by sol–gel method and calcined at 400 °C under air. The effects of Cr and temperature on titanium dioxide phase transition were studied. In situ measurement showed the presence of anatase phase for all samples at temperature < 500 °C. Without Cr content, the anatase–rutile transition takes place at 600 °C and the rutile fraction increases with increase of temperature. In the presence of Cr content, rutile phase appeared at 700 °C. Cr2O3 phase was shown only in the case of CrTi20 content at 800 °C which indicates that the segregation remains modest. We have also studied the anatase–rutile transition kinetics by using in situ X-ray measurements. It was found that the anatase phase stability increases as the chromium content increases. Results confirm that the transformation of anatase–rutile is of first order.

  2. Effect of tracheostomy on pulmonary mechanics: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to find out the effect of early tracheostomy on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary mechanics and arterial blood gases were assessed before and after tracheostomy in patients with severe head injury (Glasgow coma score < 8 requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Patients and Methods: The study included 20 mechanically ventilated patients of either sex between 20 and 45 years of age, who had suffered brain injury due to head trauma during admission (Glasgow coma scores of < 8. Mean airway pressure, peak airway pressure, plateau pressure, PaO 2 and PaCO 2 were measured 24 h before and after tracheostomy. Static and dynamic compliances were calculated. Results: Plateau airway pressures were not affected by tracheostomy, but peak airway pressure was reduced (29.90 ± 3.21 cm H 2 O before tracheostomy versus 24.30 ± 1.83 cm H 2 O after tracheostomy, P < 0.001. Dynamic compliance, but not static compliance, was improved by tracheostomy. Tracheostomy did not affect PaCO 2 , but it improved PaO 2 (83.09 ± 5.99 mmHg before versus 90.84 ± 5.61 mmHg after, P ≤ 0.001. Conclusions: The work of breathing through a tracheostomy tube may be less than through an endotracheal tube of same internal diameter.

  3. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  4. A study on effects of organizational learning on organizational innovation: A case study of insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Marvasti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organization learning and organization innovation in one of Iranian insurance firm. The proposed study selects a sample of 300 employees who work for different positions for the case study of this paper and using Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests determines the relationship and ranks different components of the survey. The results of this implementation have indicated that organization innovation influences on organizational learning, data distribution, interpretation and memory significantly but the effect of organizational innovation on data collection cannot be confirmed when the level of significance is five or even ten percent. The implementation of Freedman test has also indicated that Information interpretation is number priority followed by information learning, organizational distribution and organizational memory.

  5. Studies of effects of radiation exposure on children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the title subject from the aspect of age difference in humans and experimental animals. Epidemiological studies on A-bomb survivors have revealed that the effects are dependent on the dose, sex, age at exposure and attained age after the exposure. Analysis of the survivor cohort shows that the younger is the age at exposure, the higher the risk of cancer death at an attained age. However, the risk is suggested small and insignificant regardless to the age of exposure at the low dose 0.005-0.5 Gy. The risk of carcinogenesis at the attained age 50 y of exposed children is 1.7 while that of exposed fetuses, 0.42. There are no confounding factors in animal experiments. Risks of carcinogenesis and life-span reduction have been found the highest in the exposed mouse neonate (0-7 days old). In authors' studies with gamma-ray, it is shown that females are more susceptible, the risk is the highest in 1 week old infants and is the lowest in fetuses at 17 days after gestation at <1 Gy dose. That the susceptible age to cancer formation differs on the organ is also shown, where at exposure to the late phase fetuses/neonates/infants, increased incidence of cancers thereafter is seen in the brain, kidney, liver, mammary gland, lung, gut and T-lymphocytes in contrast to adults in which the lung cancer and marrow leukemia are major. Carcinogenic radiation response of infant seems different from that of adult: after exposure, adult gut cells die due to the apoptosis through p53-Noxa-caspase pathway but at the developing age, p53-p21 pathway is activated leading to the arrest of cell cycle, resulting in survival of DNA-injured cells. Studies on the age difference of cancer formation is conceivably important for elucidation of radiation carcinogenesis for radiation protection and risk reduction. (T.T.)

  6. Appraisal of electromagnetic induction effects on magnetic pulsation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Arora

    Full Text Available The quantification of wave polarization characteristics of ULF waves from the geomagnetic field variations is done under ‘a priori’ assumption that fields of internal induced currents are in-phase with the external inducing fields. Such approximation is invalidated in the regions marked by large lateral conductivity variations that perturb the flow pattern of induced currents. The amplitude and phase changes that these perturbations produce, in the resultant fields at the Earth’s surface, make determination of polarization and phase of the oscillating external signals problematic. In this paper, with the help of a classical Pc5 magnetic pulsation event of 24 March 1991, recorded by dense network of magnetometers in the equatorial belt of Brazil, we document the nature and extent of the possible influence of anomalous induction effects in the wave polarization of ULF waves. The presence of anomalous induction effects at selected sites lead to an over estimation of the equatorial enhancement at pulsation period and also suggest changes in the azimuth of ULF waves as they propagate through the equatorial electrojet. Through numerical calculations, it is shown that anomalous horizontal fields, that result from induction in the lateral conductivity distribution in the study region, vary in magnitude and phase with the polarization of external source field. Essentially, the induction response is also a function of the period of external inducing source field. It is further shown that when anomalous induction fields corresponding to the magnitude and polarization of the 24 March 1991 pulsation event are eliminated from observed fields, corrected amplitude in the X and Y horizontal components allows for true characterisation of ULF wave parameters.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geomagnetic induction – Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  7. Effects of Smoking on Coronary Microcirculatory Function: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Cherie; Faber, Tracy; Votaw, John; Veledar, Emir; Goldberg, Jack; Raggi, Paolo; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Bremner, J. Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola

    2011-01-01

    Background In asymptomatic smokers, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction, assessed by coronary flow reserve (CFR), is an early indicator of cardiovascular risk. Inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanisms through which smoking affects the microvasculature. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between smoking and CFR, taking into account potential shared genetic effects. Methods We examined 360 male middle aged twins (288 non-smokers and 72 smokers), including 46 twin pairs discordant for current smoking. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) in response to adenosine was measured with positron emission tomography [N13] ammonia and quantitation of coronary blood flow at rest and after adenosine stress. Inflammation was assessed by measuring interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress was determined by measuring plasma hydroperoxides, glutathione (GSH), the oxidized form of GSH, GSSG, and the ratio of GSH to GSSG. Results CFR was significantly lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers (2.25 vs. 2.75, p<0.01). This relationship persisted after accounting for known cardiovascular disease risk factors, and was marginally affected by adjusting for inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. In addition, in smoking-discordant twin pairs, CFR in the smoking twin was significantly lower than in the non-smoking co-twin (2.25 vs. 2.67, p = 0.03) even after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the adverse effects of smoking in the early phases of cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms other than peripherally-measured inflammation and oxidative stress are involved. PMID:21315354

  8. Hall Effect Thruster Plume Contamination and Erosion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Hall effect thruster plume contamination and erosion study was to evaluate the impact of a xenon ion plume on various samples placed in the vicinity of a Hall effect thruster for a continuous 100 hour exposure. NASA Glenn Research Center was responsible for the pre- and post-test evaluation of three sample types placed around the thruster: solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton(R). Mass and profilometer), were used to identify the degree of deposition and/or erosion on the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton@ samples. Transmittance, reflectance, solar absorptance, and room temperature emittance were used to identify the degree of performance degradation of the solar cell cover glass samples alone. Auger spectroscopy was used to identify the chemical constituents found on the surface of the exposed solar cell cover glass samples. Chemical analysis indicated some boron nitride contamination on the samples, from boron nitride insulators used in the body of the thruster. However, erosion outweighted contamination. All samples exhibited some degree of erosion. with the most erosion occurring near the centerline of the plume and the least occurring at the +/- 90 deg positions. For the solar cell cover glass samples, erosion progressed through the antireflective coating and into the microsheet glass itself. Erosion occurred in the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone and Kapton(R) at different rates. All optical properties changed with the degree of erosion, with solar absorptance and room temperature emittance increasing with erosion. The transmittance of some samples decreased while the reflectance of some samples increased and others decreased. All results are consistent with an energetic plume of xenon ions serving as a source for erosion.

  9. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flow through the enhancement of local vascularization. This research aimed to investigate the biological effects of exposure to pulsed short waves at different doses on the adrenal glands of experimental animals, by structural and ultrastructural studies. The study included 35 animals assigned to 4 groups. Group I included 10 experimental animals exposed to radiation at a dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, group II, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, group III, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 6/600 impulses/sec, for 10 min/day, and the control group consisted of 5 unexposed animals. Structural and ultrastructural changes of adrenal glands induced by the dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, compared to the unexposed control group and the dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, include an intensification of protein synthesis processes, an enhancement of energy metabolism in providing the energy required for an increased production of hormones, an intensification of collagen fiber synthesis processes in the capsule, necessary for healing. It was demonstrated that this dose induced an intensification of hormone synthesis and secretion, a stimulation of adrenal function. At the dose of 6/600 cycles/sec, a slight diminution of hormone synthesis and secretion activity was found, which was not below the limits existing in the unexposed control group, but was comparable to group II. This dose is probably too strong for experimental animals, inducing them a state of stress. The

  10. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  11. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Materials and Methods: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. Results: For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H2O2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H2O2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. Conclusion: In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  12. Neural effects of prolonged mental fatigue: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Kanai, Etsuko; Funakura, Masami; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-09-01

    Mental fatigue, manifest as a reduced efficiency for mental work load, is prevalent in modern society. It is important to understand the neural mechanisms of mental fatigue and to develop appropriate methods for evaluating mental fatigue. In this study we quantified the effect of a long-duration mental fatigue-inducing task on neural activity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the time course change of neural activity over the long duration of the task trials. Nine healthy male volunteers participated in this study. They performed two mental fatigue-inducing tasks on separate days. The order of task presentation was randomized in a single-blinded, crossover fashion. Each task consisted of 25-min mental fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back task session for three times. Subjective rating of mental fatigue sensation and electrocardiogram, and resting state MEG measurements were performed just before and after each task session. MEG data were analyzed using narrow-band adaptive spatial filtering methods. Alpha band (8-13 Hz) power in the visual cortex decreased after performing the mental fatigue-inducing tasks, and the decrease of alpha power was greater when they performed 2-back task trials. The decrease in alpha power was positively associated with the self-reported level of mental fatigue sensation and sympathetic nerve activity level. These results demonstrate that performing the prolonged mental fatigue-inducing task causes overactivation of the visual cortex, manifest as decreased alpha power in this brain region. Our results increase understanding of the neural mechanisms of mental fatigue and can be used to develop new quantitative methods to assess mental fatigue.

  13. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  14. Learning approaches and studies of effect of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a presentation of 3P model of learning (Presage-Process-Product, which comprises learning approaches placed in a wider context of the set of variables related to personality, environment, process and outcomes of learning. Three approaches to learning - surface, deep and achievement-oriented - consist of motives and the corresponding learning strategies. There is a discussion of the findings and implications of a great deal of research using the instruments based on this model. We analyzed research findings about the effect of instruction on learning approaches acquired by pupils, and especially students. It is shown how based on learning approach employed by pupils it is possible to draw conclusions about the quality of instruction. Testing the instruments on various samples indicates that the model is applicable in different cultures. Cross-cultural research opened up the problem of relation between memorising and understanding. Further research is necessary, both empirical and theoretical, that is, development of conceptualization of these constructs, and especially their role in education. Perspectives for further research also open up in the direction of studying various factors connected with personality and their relations with learning approaches. The role of learning approaches of teachers in developing the learning approaches of pupils is yet to be examined.

  15. An experimental study on soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil-structure interaction effects play an important role in the earthquake response of large scale structures such as nuclear power plants. Recent decades, many experimental and analytical studies have been conducted. Even though sophisticated analytical tools are ready to use, complicated soil-structure interaction problems such as those with a complex geometry can not be solved yet. For such problems a laboratory experiment is a powerful alternative. In the laboratory experiment, a device to absorb the reflected waves is always necessary to be attached on the boundaries of the soil model to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. But unfortunately absorbing devices currently available are far from satisfactory. In this paper, a new experimental method is employed for soil-structure interaction problems to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. The present method utilizes the characteristics of transient response to an impulse load so that no special treatment on the boundaries of the soil model is required. This technique is applicable to a linear elastic system whose impulse response decreases to a small enough value before observing the reflected waves. (author)

  16. Aspect ratio effects in turbulent duct flows studied with DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, R.; Noorani, A.; Lozano-Durán, A.; Schlatter, P.; Fischer, P.; Nagib, H.

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional effects present in turbulent duct flows, i.e., side-wall boundary layers and secondary motions, are studied by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS). The spectral element code Nek5000, developed by Fischer et. al. (2008), is used to compute turbulent duct flows with aspect ratios 1 and 3 in streamwise-periodic boxes of length 25 h (long enough to capture the longest streamwise structures). The total number of grid points is 28 and 62 million respectively, and the inflow conditions were adjusted iteratively in order to keep the same bulk Reynolds number at the centerplane (Reb , c = 2800) in both cases. Spanwise variations in wall shear, mean-flow profiles and turbulence statistics were analyzed with aspect ratio, and also compared with the 2D channel. The simulations were started from a laminar duct profile, and transition to turbulence was triggered by means of trip-forcing in the wall-normal direction, applied at the two horizontal walls. In addition, we developed a convergence criterion aimed at assessing the necessary averaging time TA for converged statistics. We find that econdary motions present in duct flows require longer averaging times and the total shear-stress profile is not necessarily linear.

  17. Performance Study of optical Modulator based on electrooptic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodiya, V.; Raghuwanshi, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied and derive performance parameter of highly integrated Lithium Niobate optical modulator. This is a chirp free modulator having low switching voltage and large bandwidth. For an external modulator in which travelling-wave electrodes length L imposed the modulating switching voltage, the product of Vπ and L is fixed for a given electro optic material Lithium Niobate. We investigate to achieve a low Vπ by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient for a wide variety of electro-optic materials. A Sellmeier equation for the extraordinary index of congruent lithium niobate is derived. For phase-matching, predictions are accmate for temperature between room temperature 250°C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5µm. The Sellmeier equations predict more accmately refractive indices at long wavelengths. Theoretical result is confirmed by simulated results. We have analysed the various parameters such as switching voltage, device performance index, time constant, transmittance, cut-off frequency, 3-dB bandwidth, power absorption coefficient and transmission bit rate of Lithium Niobate optical Modulator based on electro -optic effect.

  18. Prosthetic alignment effects on gait symmetry: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, R O; Stimmel, S K

    1990-05-01

    The loss of a significant portion of a lower extremity causes changes in the usual pattern of human ambulation. These changes have been documented kinematically, kinetically and metabolically, giving insight into the costs of limb amputation relative to ambulatory efforts. The role of the prosthetist is to provide a limb substitute to achieve the best gait performance, while assuring maximum comfort for the patient. This case study examined the effects of antero-posterior alignment of a below-knee prosthesis on sagittal plane gait kinematics by comparing the anatomical side with the prosthetic side. The greatest changes due to variations of alignment were found during the prosthetic stance phase; knee angles showed the greatest asymmetry between anatomical and prosthetic sides. The stance phase on the prosthetic side was reduced with anterior socket displacement due to early knee flexion and toe-off. Posterior socket displacement caused a greater maximum centre of gravity height, but anterior socket displacement caused greater knee flexion which decreased the maximum centre of gravity height. Asymmetries in temporal and other kinematic parameters were not always minimal at the optimal alignment subjectively selected by a certified prosthetist. Comparisons of asymmetry ratios with prosthetic side data revealed the subclinical sensitivity of this amputee to antero-posterior alignment discrepancies.

  19. Atomic size effects studied by transport in single silicide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, I.; Edler, F.; Pfnür, H.; Appelfeller, S.; Dähne, M.; Holtgrewe, K.; Sanna, S.; Schmidt, W. G.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrathin metallic silicide nanowires with extremely high aspect ratios can be easily grown, e.g., by deposition of rare earth elements on semiconducting surfaces. These wires play a pivotal role in fundamental research and open intriguing perspectives for CMOS applications. However, the electronic properties of these one-dimensional systems are extremely sensitive to atomic-sized defects, which easily alter the transport characteristics. In this study, we characterized comprehensively TbSi2 wires grown on Si(100) and correlated details of the atomic structure with their electrical resistivities. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as all transport experiments were performed in situ using a four-tip STM system. The measurements are complemented by local spectroscopy and density functional theory revealing that the silicide wires are electronically decoupled from the Si template. On the basis of a quasiclassical transport model, the size effect found for the resistivity is quantitatively explained in terms of bulk and surface transport channels considering details of atomic-scale roughness. Regarding future applications the full wealth of these robust nanostructures will emerge only if wires with truly atomically sharp interfaces can be reliably grown.

  20. Fuzzy clustering analysis to study geomagnetic coastal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sridharan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of fuzzy set theory in cluster analysis and pattern recognition has been evolving since the mid 1960s, in conjunction with the emergence and evolution of computer technology. The classification of objects into categories is the subject of cluster analysis. The aim of this paper is to employ Fuzzy-clustering technique to examine the interrelationship of geomagnetic coastal and other effects at Indian observatories. Data from the observatories used for the present studies are from Alibag on the West Coast, Visakhapatnam and Pondicherry on the East Coast, Hyderabad and Nagpur as central inland stations which are located far from either of the coasts; all the above stations are free from the influence of the daytime equatorial electrojet. It has been found that Alibag and Pondicherry Observatories form a separate cluster showing anomalous variations in the vertical (Z-component. H- and D-components form different clusters. The results are compared with the graphical method. Analytical technique and the results of Fuzzy-clustering analysis are discussed here.

  1. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  2. Experimental study and Monte Carlo modeling of the Cherenkov effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishev, A.; Angelov, I.; Duverger, E.; Gschwind, R.; Makovicka, L. E-mail: libor.makovicka@pu-pm.univ-fcomte.fr; Stamenov, J

    2001-12-01

    Studies realised at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) particularly in cosmic ray detection and construction of Muonic Cherenkov Telescope at the South West University 'Neofit Rilski' Blagoevgrad show the need to develop a theoretical model based on observed phenomena and to refinement of this for detection system optimisation. The Cherenkov effect was introduced in EGS4 code system. The first simulations realised in collaboration between the french and the bulgarian team were consecrated to different geometries of water tank in total reflection. An additional modeling of photons mean trajectory and the mean number of reflections in the tank were made. This simple model was compared with experimental data realised with {sup 60}Co gamma source, the telescope and the most efficient water tank. A trajectory simulation of Cherenkov photons in water tank was made. An efficiency estimation of the detector registration was calculated. The atmospheric model was introduced in EGS4 code and a comparison between CORSIKA5.62 and EGS4 codes was made.

  3. Effects of montelukast sodium on tendon healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Polat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Montelukast sodium (MS a selective leukotriene antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, has been used in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MS on the early inflammatory phase (histological of nonsynovial tendon healing. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided randomly into two groups (n = 6 each. MS (Singulair was administered to one group at 10 mg/kg/day [250 g/day intraperitoneally (i.p.]. The control group was administered 250 g/day of 0.9% saline i.p. This nonsynovial tendon was longitudinally divided at the midportion, cut transversely and then sutured. In both groups, the rats were sacrificed by decapitation 10 days later. Results: Decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and more properly oriented collagen fibres were observed in the MS group′s histopathological specimens as compared to the control group′s (P < 0.05. Additionally, vascularity was decreased in the MS group. Conclusion: MS decreased tendon healing, apparently by inhibiting the early inflammatory phase of nonsynovial tendon healing.

  4. Effects of Aquajogging in Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline J. M. Wouters

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat mass and waist circumference decreased 1.4 kg (P=.03 and 3.1 cm (P=.005, respectively. The distance in the Six-Minute Walk Test increased 41 meters (P=.001. Three scales of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire improved: physical function (P=.008, self-esteem (P=.004, and public distress (P=.04. Increased perceived exercise benefits (P=.02 and decreased embarrassment (P=.03 were observed. Conclusions. Aquajogging was associated with reduced body fat and waist circumference and improved aerobic fitness and quality of life. These findings suggest the usefulness of conducting a randomized controlled trial with long-term outcome assessments.

  5. Study of Irradiation Effect onto Uranium silicide Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation effect onto the U3Si-Al and U3Si2-Al dispersion type of fuel element has been studied. The fuel material performs swelling during irradiation due to boehmite (Al2O3(H2O)) formation in which might occurs inside the meat and on the cladding surface, the interaction between the fuel and aluminium matrix that produce U(Al,Si)3 phase, and the formation of fission gas bubble inside the fuel. At a constant fission density, the U3Si-Al fuel swelling is higher than that of U3Si2-Al fuel. The swellings of both fuels increase with the increasing of fission density. The difference of swelling behavior was caused by formation of large bubble gases generated from fission product of U3Si fuel and distributed non-uniformly over all of fuel zone. On the other hand, the U3Si2 fission produced small bubble gases, and those were uniformly distributed. The growth rate of fission gas bubble in the U3Si fuel has shown high diffusivity, transformation into amorph material and thus decrease its mechanical strength

  6. A Study of Single Pass Ion Effects at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.M.; Thomson, J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Chao, A.W.; Heifets, S.; Minty, M.G.; Seeman, J.T.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zimmermann, F.; /SLAC; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /CERN

    2011-09-13

    We report the results of experiments on a 'fast beam-ion instability' at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). This ion instability, which can arise even when the ions are not trapped over multiple beam passages, will likely be important for many future accelerators. In our experiments, we filled the ALS storage ring with helium gas, raising the pressure approximately two orders of magnitude above the nominal pressure. With gaps in the bunch train large enough to avoid conventional (multi-turn) ion trapping, we observed a factor of 2-3 increase in the vertical beam size along with coherent beam oscillations which increased along the bunch train. Ion trapping has long been recognized as a potential limitation in electron storage rings. The ions, generated by beam-gas collisions, become trapped in the negative potential of the beam and accumulate over multiple beam passages. The trapped ions are then observed to cause a number of deleterious effects such as an increasing beam phase space, a broadening and shifting of the beam transverse oscillation frequencies (tunes), collective beam instabilities, and beam lifetime reductions. All of these effects are of concern for the next generation of accelerators, such as the B-factories or damping rings for future linear colliders, which will store high beam currents with closely spaced bunches and ultra-low beam emittances. One of the standard solutions used to prevent ion trapping is to include a gap in the bunch train which is long compared to the bunch spacing. In this case, the ions are first strongly-focused by the passing electron bunches and then over-focused in the gap. With a sufficiently large gap, the ions can be driven to large amplitudes where they form a diffuse halo and do not affect the beam. In this paper, we describe experiments that study a new regime of transient ion instabilities predicted to arise in future electron storage rings, and linacs with bunch trains. These future rings and linacs, which

  7. A study on efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system: A case study of oil products distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amaneh Bahraminasab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tools for improving the relative efficiencies of any organization is to establish suggestion system. Having a reliable system, which could reflect all employees’ comments and concerns, helps managers take necessary actions to remove any possible obstacle in the system. In this paper, we measure efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system in the National Iranian Oil Products Distribution. We also provide practical suggestions for improvement and necessary actions required to review the system. The proposed study of this paper uses a sample of 297 people from 1294 employees who work in different position for some of the regional offices of this firm in north part of Iran. The study has used two separate questionnaires, where the first one consists of 40 questions in Likert scale trying to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the suggestion system. In addition, we use another questionnaire to rank important factors detected in the first stage. The results of questionnaires have been analyzed using different statistical tests.

  8. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga, A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Matematica de Cordoba, Oficina 318 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: aiquiroga@famaf.unc.edu [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  9. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  10. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  11. A Case Study of Allelopathic Effect on Weeds in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Slaveya T. Petrova; Ekaterina G. Valcheva; Iliana G. Velcheva

    2015-01-01

    Most powerful and effective method of weed control is by chemical substances called herbicides. In recent years, they were published quite data on different side effects of herbicides on humans, animals, crops and the environment as a whole. Therefore, the increased interest for biological weed control lately is reasonable, since its improvement and expansion will contribute to limiting excessive use of herbicides, respectively their harmful effects and will support the successful implementat...

  12. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF ACID ETCHING ON AFFECTED ENAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Stoleriu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to establish and compare the effects of ortophosphoric and hydrochloric acids on the enamel affected by incipient carious lesions with different evolution. Materials and method. 20 teeth with acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions were considered for the study. The teeth were sectioned in two halves through the middle of the non-cavitary lesions. The halves of 5 white spot-type lesions and of 5 brown spot-type ones were analyzed as to their surface roughness, on an atomic force microscope (AFM. 5 halves with white spot-type lesions and 5 halves with brown spot-type ones were subjected to acid etching with 37% ortophosphoric acid (Scotchbond etchant gel, 3M ESPE, and an equal number of samples was subjected to the action of 15% hydrochloric acid (ICON-etch, DMG Dental Products Ltd for 2 min, then washed with water and analyzed by AFM. Results. The initial surface roughness of the enamel was higher in the white spot–type carious lesions, comparatively with the brown spot-type ones. For both types of carious non-cavitary lesions, acid etching with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid significantly increased the surface roughness of the enamel, comparatively with the status of the enamel surface prior to etching. The hydrochloric acid led to a surface roughness significantly higher than in the case of ortophosphoric acid, in both acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions. The roughness values obtained through etching with ortophosphoric and hydrochloric acid were higher in the white spot-type carious lesions, comparatively with the brown spot-type ones. Conclusions. Both the 37% ortophosphoric acid and the 15% hydrochloric acid determined a significantly higher surface roughness of the enamel affected by acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions. The surface condition of the brown spot-type carious lesions was less significantly modified, comparatively with that of the white spot-type lesions, by the

  13. Disorder effects in pnictides: a tunneling spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noat, Y; Cren, T; Dubost, V; Lange, S; Debontridder, F; Roditchev, D [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, CNRS UMR 7588, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, F-75015 Paris (France); Toulemonde, P; Marcus, J; Sulpice, A [Institut Neel, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Sacks, W, E-mail: yves.noat@insp.jussieu.f [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, CNRS UMR 7590, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, F-75015 Paris (France)

    2010-11-24

    We present the synthesis and the tunneling spectroscopy study of superconducting FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} (T{sub c} = 14 K), SmFeAsO{sub 0.85} (T{sub c} = 54 K) and SmFeAsO{sub 0.9}F{sub 0.1} (T{sub c} = 45 K). The samples were characterized by Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction patterns and transport as well as temperature-dependent magnetic measurements. Tunneling experiments on FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} revealed a single superconducting gap {approx} 1 meV in BCS-like tunneling conductance spectra. In SmFeAsO{sub 0.85} and SmFeAsO{sub 0.9}F{sub 0.1}, however, more complex spectra were observed, characterized by two gap-like structures at {approx} 4 and {approx} 10 meV. These spectra are qualitatively understood assuming a two-band superconductor with a 's {+-}' order parameter. We show that, depending on the sign relation between the pairing amplitudes in the two bands, the interband quasiparticle scattering has a crucial effect on the shape of the tunneling spectra. On the other hand, single-gap spectra found in FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} are more compatible with a disorder-induced 's '-wave gap, due to the Se-Te substitution.

  14. Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-related changes in bone metabolism of normal beagle dogs, from 3 months to 17 years of age, were examined by morphometric and serum biochemical values. From 3 months to 2 years of age, bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Th. Tb.) in the iliac trabecular bone, labeled with tetracycline and calcein, increased rapidly with an increase of body weight. Mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR, equivalent to bone turnover rate) decreased. The BFR at 3 months was approximately 11 times in males and 15 times in females higher than that at 2 years when bone metabolism was of adult type. From 2 to 10 years of age, BV/TV or Th. Tb. did not remarkably change, whereas both MAR and BFR had a tendency to decrease gradually with age. Parathyroid hormone level increased from 3 months to 17 years. Testosterone level increased up to 2 years and remained almost constant thereafter. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and phosphorus decreased rapidly up to 2 years, although calcium did not change with age. Effects of swimming (exercise) and lactate calcium on osteoporotic bones in rats were examined. The BV/TV and Th. Tb. increased, but the MAR and BFR were improved to be sustained. These changes were promoted by the administration of calcium and vitamin D3. Toxicological study on DTPA revealed the following results: (1) Both hypocalcemia, following an increase of blood pressure, and heart failure were observed by iv injection of Zn-DTPA, but not observed by iv injection of Ca-DTPA. When DTPA was given orally, Ca-DTPA was more toxic than Zn-DTPA. DTPA toxicity induced dysfunction of the kidney and liver, hemorrhage and congestion in the lamina propria, and vascular expansion of the small intestine. Vascular permeability was also enhanced by either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA. DTPA toxicity was found to be manifested by disturbed cardiovascular system. (Namekawa, K)

  15. Improving outpatient safety through effective electronic communication: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espadas Donna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology and electronic medical records (EMRs are potentially powerful systems-based interventions to facilitate diagnosis and treatment because they ensure the delivery of key new findings and other health related information to the practitioner. However, effective communication involves more than just information transfer; despite a state of the art EMR system, communication breakdowns can still occur. 123 In this project, we will adapt a model developed by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS to understand and improve the relationship between work systems and processes of care involved with electronic communication in EMRs. We plan to study three communication activities in the Veterans Health Administration's (VA EMR: electronic communication of abnormal imaging and laboratory test results via automated notifications (i.e., alerts; electronic referral requests; and provider-to-pharmacy communication via computerized provider order entry (CPOE. Aim Our specific aim is to propose a protocol to evaluate the systems and processes affecting outcomes of electronic communication in the computerized patient record system (related to diagnostic test results, electronic referral requests, and CPOE prescriptions using a human factors engineering approach, and hence guide the development of interventions for work system redesign. Design This research will consist of multiple qualitative methods of task analysis to identify potential sources of error related to diagnostic test result alerts, electronic referral requests, and CPOE; this will be followed by a series of focus groups to identify barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving the electronic communication system. Transcripts from all task analyses and focus groups will be analyzed using methods adapted from grounded theory and content analysis.

  16. Studying of ion implantation effect on the biology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since low energy ion effect on the biology was observed, the ion implantation as a new mutagenic source has been widely used in improving crops and modifying microbes in China. The basic phenomenon of ion implantation effect on the biology and analytical results are reported, and the examples of its application and its further development are shown

  17. A Study of the Creep Effect in Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Thorborg, Knud; Tinggaard, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the creep effect, the visco elastic behaviour of loudspeaker suspension parts, which can be observed as an increase in displacement far below the resonance frequency. The creep effect means that the suspension cannot be modelled as a simple spring. The need for an accurate...

  18. Exploring Genetic and Environmental Effects in Dysphonia: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Soveri, Anna; Varjonen, Markus; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the existence of genetic effects as well as the interaction between potential genetic effects and a voice-demanding occupation on dysphonia. Method: One thousand seven hundred and twenty-eight Finnish twins (555 male; 1,173 female) born between 1961 and 1989 completed a questionnaire concerning vocal symptoms and occupation.…

  19. Psychological effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers - Phenomenological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomarol-Clotet, E.; Honey, G. D.; Murray, G. K.; Corlett, P. R.; Absalom, A. R.; Lee, M.; McKenna, P. J.; Bullmore, E. T.; Fletcher, P. C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The psychosis-inducing effect of ketamine is important evidence supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the symptoms the drug produces have not been described systematically. Aim: To examine the effects of ketamine in healthy people using a structured psychiatric i

  20. In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Farabollini, Francesca; Newbold, Retha R.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2007-01-01

    Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10–1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.

  1. Advances in the study of lunar opposition effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Chunlai; ZOU Yongliao

    2005-01-01

    Photometry is one of the main methods of planetary remote sensing. The opposition effect is a sharp surge in brightness around zero phase angles. Research on opposition effect is an important branch of photometry and also is an important tool in remote sensing of the Moon. In this paper, we reviewed the main laboratory experiments, which depend on simulate samples, lunar soil samples, telescope observations and spacecraft data, performed by all kinds of work on the lunar opposition effect. And we also reviewed the theoretical development of the lunar opposition effect (i.e., the major causes of the lunar opposition effect): the shadow hiding mechanism causes the lunar opposition effect, which includes the famous models (Hapke model and Lumme & Bowell model); then, the coherent backscatter mechanism; and now, the model combining the shadow hiding and coherent backscatter. China has sponsored the Chang'e plan of lunar exploration, and the plan along with the SMART-1 gives a good chance to lunar opposition effect research when the data on the opposition surge at very small phase angles are obtained by the spacecrafts.

  2. Study IDs Effective Rx for Burned-Out Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out don't have to suffer, researchers report. Burnout affects more than half of U.S. doctors, according ... the effectiveness of interventions across a range of burnout outcomes," review lead author Dr. Colin West said ...

  3. Further studies on the anti-inflammatory effect of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottlecz, A; Koltai, M; Gecse, A

    1977-10-01

    Experiments performed on rats showed that insulin, when applied i.v. or s.c., inhibited the foot edema induced by carrageenin, thermic effect of 45.7 degrees C, compound 48/80 and 5-HT, but moderately increased the paw swelling evoked by kallikrein, a kinin-forming enzyme. The increased vascular permeability elicited by intradermal injection of histamine, 5-HT, bradykinin, PGE1, carrageenin and compound 48/80 was also suppressed. The anti-inflammatory effect was not significantly altered by propranolol and adrenalectomy on the thermal and carrageenin edema, it was variably inhibited on the skin test, and was completely abolished on the paw swelling induced by 5-HT and compound 48/80. Since insulin had little or no effect on the vascular response when given topically together with the vasoactive agents, its complex effect on the acute inflammation appears to be brought about via indirect mechanisms. PMID:930760

  4. Experimental study of EMP effects on 8086CPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel testing system, which can be used to test the 8086 CPU EMP effects, was introduced. With it the experiment results were obtained. At the end of this paper, the application of he testing system was discussed. (authors)

  5. [STUDYING SOME PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NEW 3-HYDROXYPYRIDINE DERIVATIVE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnetsov, V V; Tsublova, E G; Yasnetsov, Vic V; Skachilova, S Ya; Karsanova, S K; Ivanov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    It was established that a new 3-hydroxypyridine (3-HP) derivative, 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine L-aspartate (3-HP), in small doses (1 and 5 mg/kg) increased physical performance in treadmill and swimming tests on rats. The new substance showed greater or equal effects compared to the reference actoprotector drugs metaprot and ladasten in much higher doses. The gluconeogenesis inhibitor tryptophan significantly (74 ± 5%, p nootropic drug piracetam in a dose of 200 mg/kg, but had equal effect with these drugs in doses of 50 and 800 mg/kg, respectively. 3-HPA (30 mg/kg per day) had neuroprotective effect in rats with brain ischemia and decreased the neurologic deficiency more effectively than mexidol (50 mg/kg per day). PMID:27416675

  6. A Brief Study of Body Language in Effective Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡梦蓉

    2008-01-01

    Body language is a key note of non-verbal communication and shaped by culture. The article illustrates sign meaning of bodylanguage and devotes to a comparison and contrast of body language so as to achieve effective communication.

  7. Exercise Effective Leadership in the Study of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    In order to promote the study of theory in revolutionary cadre training schools, emphasis is on acknowledging the significance of Marxist theory. Tutoring and class schedules foster conscientious study. Physical labor is part of the learning process. (AV)

  8. The Effect of Student Participation in International Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDee, Lynda S.; Stewart, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Responses were received from 38 of 100 nursing graduates who completed a 2-week international study tour. International study had a significant impact on personal development, the nurse's role, international perspective, and intellectual development. (SK)

  9. Three conjectures about school effectiveness: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Roelande H. Hofman; W.H. Adriaan Hofman; Gray, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness. Our review of previous evidence prompted us to look at three sets of factors connected with classroom teachers, school policies and processes, and matters of governance. All three have featured prominently in the public arena. In particular, we look for the relative contributions of teacher-, school-, and governance indicators for educational effectiveness (measured by Math achi...

  10. Numerical study of flow around NACA0015 in ground effect

    OpenAIRE

    Malti Khadidja; Hebow Hanaa; Imine Bachir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a numerical simulation of flow around a wing profile NACA0015 under the ground effect. CFD software has been used to determine the aerodynamic performance for different angles of incidence. The flow is considered two-dimensional and the adopted meshing considered the effects of the boundary layer. The Spalart-Almaras turbulence model was adopted for the investigation of complex flow around the profile. The results obtained by CFD were compared to those obtai...

  11. The Social Norm to Study Abroad: Determinants and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Knut; Peter, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of intercultural skills by studies abroad is often considered as desirable. But although we can observe a steady increase of studies abroad in the last two decades, the vast majority of students can, obviously, compete on the labor market also without study abroad experience. This leads to the consideration that it could be…

  12. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  13. An fMRI study on sunk cost effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianmin; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Changming; Yu, Rongjun; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-06-26

    Sunk cost effect (also called escalation of commitment, etc) is a pervasive, interesting and famous decision bias, which has been intensively discussed in psychology, economics, management, political science, zoology, etc. To date, little has been known about the neural basis of this phenomenon. We investigated it by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor healthy subjects' brain activities when they made decisions in a task wherein sunk cost and incremental cost were systematically manipulated. Higher sunk cost only increased activity of some brain areas (mainly lateral frontal and parietal cortices, which are involved in risk-taking), whereas lower incremental cost mainly increased activity of some brain areas (including striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, which are sensitive to rewards). No overlapping brain areas were found to respond to both sunk cost and incremental cost. These results favor certainty effect over self-justification or diminishing sensitivity as account of sunk cost effect.

  14. STUDY OF WING SHIELDING EFFECT OF PROPELLER AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The calculation of wing shielding effect starts from solving Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation without quadrupole source in time domain. The sound scattering of the wing and fuselage which are surrounded by a multi-propeller sound field is modeled as a second sound source. A program is developed to calculate the acoustical effects of the rigid fuselage as well as wings with arbitrary shape in motion at low Mach number. As an example, the numerical calculation of the wing shielding of Y12 aircraft with an approximate shape is presented. The result manifests clearly the shielding effect of the wing on the fuselage and the approach is more efficient than that published before.

  15. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  16. Study on Rural Poverty Reduction Effect of Traffic Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping; GUO; Bin; ZHANG; Xiyan; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    To systematically comb and explore the rural poverty reduction effect of traffic infrastructure,the author analyzed the mechanism,main channels and actual effect of rural traffic infrastructure on poverty reduction.It revealed that rural traffic infrastructure exerts positive or negative effect on poverty reduction directly or indirectly.The positive channel includes increasing non-agricultural employment opportunities,reducing costs for agricultural production,transportation and labor transfer,increasing availability of social service,and promoting adjustment of agricultural industrial structure and development of rural tourism resources.On the whole,traffic infrastructure has significant positive influence on rural poverty reduction.Finally,it summarized policy recommendations for building pro-poor traffic infrastructure,and came up with vacancy of related research field and future exploration direction.

  17. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris

    2015-02-01

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe2 TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe2 TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.

  18. The control of independent students’ work effectiveness during pathophysiology study

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova, О. V.

    2013-01-01

    The course of Pathophysiology study includes both auditoria hours (lectures and practical classes) and independent work of students. The latter makes up 38% of total hours given for Pathophysiology study. Independent work of students includes the following items: preparation for practical classes, writing reviews on different topics, preparation for current and final computer testing, study of the topics which are not discussed during lectures and practical classes. In order to assimilate the...

  19. Numerical study of flow around NACA0015 in ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malti Khadidja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present a numerical simulation of flow around a wing profile NACA0015 under the ground effect. CFD software has been used to determine the aerodynamic performance for different angles of incidence. The flow is considered two-dimensional and the adopted meshing considered the effects of the boundary layer. The Spalart-Almaras turbulence model was adopted for the investigation of complex flow around the profile. The results obtained by CFD were compared to those obtained by the literature.

  20. Numerical study of flow around NACA0015 in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Khadidja; Hebow, Hanaa; Imine, Bachir

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to present a numerical simulation of flow around a wing profile NACA0015 under the ground effect. CFD software has been used to determine the aerodynamic performance for different angles of incidence. The flow is considered two-dimensional and the adopted meshing considered the effects of the boundary layer. The Spalart-Almaras turbulence model was adopted for the investigation of complex flow around the profile. The results obtained by CFD were compared to those obtained by the literature.

  1. Hysteretic effects of dry friction: modelling and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Jerzy; Stefański, Andrzej; Wiercigroch, Marian; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2008-03-13

    In this paper, the phenomena of hysteretic behaviour of friction force observed during experiments are discussed. On the basis of experimental and theoretical analyses, we argue that such behaviour can be considered as a representation of the system dynamics. According to this approach, a classification of friction models, with respect to their sensitivity on the system motion characteristic, is introduced. General friction modelling of the phenomena accompanying dry friction and a simple yet effective approach to capture the hysteretic effect are proposed. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations for the proposed friction model. PMID:17947206

  2. Studying Effective Factors on Traffic Culture Improvement (Najafabad City as a Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fatehi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is a multi-dimensional category that if all its dimensions are not considered, dealing with problems will be impossible. Due to urban development in Najafabad County the problem of traffic has been regarded for more than a decade. Therefore, the present paper intended to study effective factors on improving the traffic culture in viewpoint of managers and authorities of Police and the Municipality in Najafabad County. Descriptive-field method was used due to the nature of the topic and research purposes. The statistical population included all managers and authorities of Police and the Municipality of Najafabad County in 2012. They were equal to 60 and 340 persons respectively among whom the statistical sample was estimated for two groups equal to 52 and 181 persons using Morgan et al's Table. Having separated altered questionnaires, the statistical sample of police managers and authorities was obtained equal to 31 persons and that of the municipality was equal to 173 persons. Stratified and cluster random sampling methods were used for sampling. Researcher self-made questionnaire was tool of data collection which included 45 closed questions on the basis of Likert scale and one open question. Reliability of the questionnaire for managers and authorities of Police and the Municipality was calculated equal to 0.93 and 0.94 using Cronbach alpha. Also content validity was used to determine validity of the questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the data through SPSS software. Results reveal scores of three components of research have normal distribution according to managers and authorities of Police and the Municipality and degree of effective cultural-social, organizational and technical and economic factors on culture improvement is more than the assumed mean (3. Similarly there is a significant difference among degree of the above three factors in viewpoint of managers and authorities of Police and

  3. Daily temperature and mortality: a study of distributed lag non-linear effect and effect modification in Guangzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jun; Ou Chun-Quan; Ding Yan; Zhou Ying-Xue; Chen Ping-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although many studies have documented health effects of ambient temperature, little evidence is available in subtropical or tropical regions, and effect modifiers remain uncertain. We examined the effects of daily mean temperature on mortality and effect modification in the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China. Methods A Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to assess the non-linear and lag patterns of the association between d...

  4. Mossbauer effect studies at pressures to 300 kbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent experiment carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with Prof. Moshe Paz Pasternak of Tel Aviv University, we have used the diamond anvil cell for a Mossbauer effect absorber experiment. A high-atomic-weight gasket material was developed; it served both to contain the pressure and to collimate the 27.8-keV Mossbauer effect gamma rays and nearby K x-rays emitted from the source. Elemental iodine is known to transform with pressure becoming metallic near 160 kbar. Furthermore, it has been reported that I2 becomes monatomic at about 215 kbar. The Mossbauer effect of iodine-129 was employed to check this latter supposition. The Mossbauer effect ''fingerprint'' of I2 was found to change slowly with pressure up to about 160 kbar whereupon a new high pressure phase or site began to appear. At 300 kbar the Mossbauer spectrum shows about half of the low temperature phase (I2) is still present. This contradiction with x-ray results and or their interpretation is still under investigation

  5. The Asch Conformity Effect: A Study in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Taha

    1984-01-01

    Investigated whether conformity in the experimental setting suggested by Asch was related to American culture and less likely to be replicable elsewhere. Kuwaiti subjects (N=200) were used in replicating the original experiment. Obtained an 'Asch effect' of a comparable magnitude to that of Asch. Individual differences in conformity were evident.…

  6. Studies on Male Antifertilitic and Immunomodulatory Effects of TW19

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王作鹏; 王晓凤; 曹霖; 陆荣发; 赵世兴; 李晓玉; 顾芝萍

    2000-01-01

    TW 19 is a diterpene compound isolated from the root cortex of Tripterygium Wilfordii Hood. F. . Its effects on the immune function in ICR mice and the male fertility in SD rats, ICR mice and Kunming mice were evaluated. TW19 was given orally for 5 weeks. Then the antifertilitic effect was assessed by mating test. The results showed that EDso for anti-fertilitic were 332 μg/kg, 369. 9 μg/kg and 286. 8 μg/kg per day in SD rats, ICR mice and Kunming mice respectively. After the treatment of TW 19 at anti fertility dose for 5 weeks consecutively, the spermatozoa density and motility of trial animals reduced significantly. The weight of testis also declined in SD rats and Kunming mice, but no effects were observed in ICR mice. TW 19 inhibited proliferation of splenic T and B-lymphocytes of ICR mice in vitro and hence inhibited the antibody formation in vivo, but compared with T 4, the immunosuppressive effect of TW 19 was less obvious.

  7. Study of anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Satya Venkatesh

    2016-08-01

    Results: At a dose of 40 mg Simvastatin showed anti-inflammatory effect which is statically highly significant. Conclusions: However, the above preclinical experiments only give us an idea about the anti-inflammatory activity, but large scale clinical trials are necessary for final assessment. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1520-1523

  8. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  9. Effects of organizational and team commitment - a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neininger, A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.; Henschel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially teamcommitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of te

  10. Study of microwave effects on the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Devi, C Shobha; Chang, Po-Chi; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating on lipase-catalyzed reaction remains controversial. It is not clear whether the reaction rate enhancements are purely due to thermal/heating effects or to non-thermal effects. Therefore, quantitative mass spectrometry was used to conduct accurate kinetic analysis of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triolein by microwave and conventional heating. Commercial lipases from Candida rugosa (CRL), Porcine Pancreas (PPL), and Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) were used. Hydrolysis reactions were performed at various temperatures and pH levels, along with various amounts of buffer and enzymes. Hydrolysis product yields at each time point using an internal-standard method showed no significant difference between microwave and conventional heating conditions when the reaction was carried out at the same temperature. CRL showed optimum catalytic activity at 37 °C, while PPL and BCL had better activities at 50 °C. The phosphate buffer was found to give a better hydrolysis yield than the Tris-HCl buffer. Overall results prove that a non-thermal effect does not exist in microwave-assisted lipase hydrolysis of triolein. Therefore, conventional heating at high temperatures (e.g., 50 °C) can be also used to accelerate hydrolysis reactions.

  11. How to Study the Doppler Effect with Audacity Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marco Adriano; Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Ventura, Daniel Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect is one of the recurring themes in college and high school classes. In order to contextualize the topic and engage the students in their own learning process, we propose a simple and easily accessible activity, i.e. the analysis of the videos available on the internet by the students. The sound of the engine of the vehicle…

  12. A Study of the Effects of Air Pollution on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Irene B.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation of the possible effects of air pollution on the absenteeism of elementary school children showed that a greater percent of absences occurred in the test group than in a comparable group. There is little question as to the importance that such information should have for educators, informed parents, and other adults in community…

  13. Microscopic models for the study of taxpayer audit effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    A microscopic dynamic model is here constructed and analyzed, describing the evolution of the income distribution in the presence of taxation and redistribution in a society in which also tax evasion and auditing processes occur. The focus is on effects of enforcement regimes, characterized by different choices of the audited taxpayer fraction and of the penalties imposed to noncompliant individuals. A complex systems perspective is adopted: society is considered as a system composed by a large number of heterogeneous individuals. These are divided into income classes and may as well have different tax evasion behaviors. The variation in time of the number of individuals in each class is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations of the kinetic discretized Boltzmann type involving transition probabilities. A priori, one could think that audits and fines should have a positive effect on the reduction of economic inequality and correspondingly of the Gini index G. According to our model, however, such effect is rather small. In contrast, the effect on the increase of the tax revenue may be significant.

  14. Studies of ionizing radiation effects on STAR silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 63 x 63 mm rectangular silicon drift detector was irradiated using a 60Co source and its performance was studied. The total accumulated dose was 23.5 krad. The detector performance after room temperature annealing was studied. The detector was found to be sufficiently radiation hard for RHIC applications

  15. Using a Case-Study Article to Effectively Introduce Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Community college students in a nonmajors biology class are introduced to mitosis by reading a case-study article that allows them to gauge how many times various parts of their bodies have been regenerated. The case-study article allows students to develop a conceptual framework of the cell cycle prior to a lecture on mitosis. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Study Confirms Demonstrator Horses Can Have Calming Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Leste-Lasserre, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Naive horses that watched an experienced demonstrator horse perform a scary task—crossing a tarp, in this study's case—were less spooked when it was their turn.......Naive horses that watched an experienced demonstrator horse perform a scary task—crossing a tarp, in this study's case—were less spooked when it was their turn....

  17. Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne substances studied is a first step in developing effective radioprotectors that can prevent radiation damage to healthy tissue., cannot forget that these studies must be accompanied by in vitro studies of toxicity and bioavailability to profile designing radioprotective substance.

  18. Study on the ionospheric effects with different heat-conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fang; ZHAO Zhengyu; NI Binbin; ZHANG Yuannong

    2007-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed.Based on the numerical simulation results,the spatial effects of the ionosphere,mainly consisting of the change on electron density(ED)and electron temperature(ET),heated by the high frequency(HF)pump wave have been analyzed quantitatively.Results are presented as the space-time evolution regulation on the main parameters of the ionosphere resulted by the HF heating waves under the different heat-conditions,iust as different regions,such as high latitude and mid-low latitude;different heating power or frequency,such as underdense heating and over-dense heating and regions at different altitudes.The heating effects in different regions with different heating conditions have been presented in figures.Finally,some primary conclusions are given by comparing the simulation results with experimental observation.

  19. Experimental Study of Effect of Perfluorohexyloctane to Retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfang Li; Xiaoyan Ding; Lin Lu; Guanguang Feng; Huling Zheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of perfluorohexvloctane to the retina of rabbit eyes.Methods: Perfluoroh-exyloctane (experimental group) or BSS(control group) intovitreous cavities of fifteen vitrectomized New Zealand white rabbits. A slit-lampbiomicroscope and an indirect ophthalmoscope were used to examine all the eyes pre- andpostoperation. Histopathological examination was performed after the rabbits weresacrificed. Results:Perfluorohexyloctane was injected into the vitreous cavity forming a single largeclear globe. No retinal detachment and cataract were found. The edema of outer plexiformlayer was significant, and then get thin, inner nuclear layer and ganglion cell bodies hada darker cytop: lasm and nucleoplasm. Conclusions: Perfluorohexyloctane in vitreous cavity had significant side effects on retinaAs a silicone solvent, it should be removed out completely after injection. We don′trecommend to use it as a new intraocular temponade.

  20. Study of a model equation in detonation theory: multidimensional effects

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R

    2015-01-01

    We extend the reactive Burgers equation presented in Kasimov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 (2013) and Faria et al. SIAM J. Appl. Maths, 74 (2014), to include multidimensional effects. Furthermore, we explain how the model can be rationally justified following the ideas of the asymptotic theory developed in Faria et al. JFM (2015). The proposed model is a forced version of the unsteady small disturbance transonic flow equations. We show that for physically reasonable choices of forcing functions, traveling wave solutions akin to detonation waves exist. It is demonstrated that multidimensional effects play an important role in the stability and dynamics of the traveling waves. Numerical simulations indicate that solutions of the model tend to form multi-dimensional patterns analogous to cells in gaseous detonations.

  1. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  2. Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

  3. How to study the Doppler effect with Audacity software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano Dias, Marco; Simeão Carvalho, Paulo; Rodrigues Ventura, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The Doppler effect is one of the recurring themes in college and high school classes. In order to contextualize the topic and engage the students in their own learning process, we propose a simple and easily accessible activity, i.e. the analysis of the videos available on the internet by the students. The sound of the engine of the vehicle passing by the camera is recorded on the video; it is then analyzed with the free software Audacity by measuring the frequency of the sound during approach and recede of the vehicle from the observer. The speed of the vehicle is determined due to the application of Doppler effect equations for acoustic waves.

  4. Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) Project Studied "Green House" Effects on Fire Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Ronney, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) project, slated for flight aboard the International Space Station, reached a major milestone by holding its Science Concept Review this year. REEFS is led by principal investigator Paul Ronney from the University of Southern California in conjunction with a project team from the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study is focusing on flame spread over flat solid fuel beds to improve our understanding of more complex fires, such as those found in manned spacecraft and terrestrial buildings. The investigation has direct implications for fire safety, both for space and Earth applications, and extends previous work with emphasis on the atmospheres and flow environments likely to be present in fires that might occur in microgravity. These atmospheres will contain radiatively active gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion products, and likely gaseous fuels such as carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion of solid fuel, as well as flows induced by ventilation currents. During tests in the 2.2-Second Drop Tower and KC-135 aircraft at Glenn, the principal investigator introduced the use of foam fuels for flame spread experiments over thermally thick fuels to obtain large spread rates in comparison to those of dense fuels such as PMMA. This enables meaningful results to be obtained even in the 2.2 s available in drop tower experiments.

  5. Effect of cholecystectomy on bowel function: a prospective, controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Hearing, S; Thomas, L.; HEATON, K; Hunt, L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Published estimates of the prevalence of postcholecystectomy diarrhoea derive from retrospective or uncontrolled data. They ignore functional bowel syndromes and possible changes in diet and drug use.
AIMS—To determine prospectively whether and how often cholecystectomy leads to changes in bowel function and bowel symptoms, especially to liquid stools, over and above any non-specific effect of laparoscopic surgery.
SUBJECTS—Patients: 106 adults undergoing laparoscopic cholecystecto...

  6. Thermoregulatory effects of swaddling in Mongolia: a randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsogt, Bazarragchaa; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Pollock, Jon; Blair, Peter S.; Fleming, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate thermal balance of infants in a Mongolian winter, and compare the effects of traditional swaddling with an infant sleeping-bag in apartments or traditional tents (Gers). Design A substudy within a randomised controlled trial. Setting Community in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Subjects A stratified randomly selected sample of 40 swaddled and 40 non-swaddled infants recruited within 48 h of birth. Intervention Sleeping-bags and baby outfits of total thermal resistance equivale...

  7. New Materials for Gas Sensitive Field-Effect Device Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Salomonsson, Anette

    2005-01-01

    Gas sensor control is potentially one of the most important techniques of tomorrow for the environment. All over the world cars are preferred for transportation, and accordingly the number of cars increases, unfortunately, together with pollutants. Boilers and powerplants are other sources of pollutants to the environment. Metal-Insulator-Silicon Carbide (MISiC) Field-effect sensors in car applications and boilers have the potential to reduce the amount of pollutants. These devices are sensit...

  8. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dogaru Gabriela; Crăciun Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flo...

  9. Current Studies into the Genotoxic Effects of Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Teng Ng; Li, Jasmine J.; Boon-Huat Bay; Lin-Yue Lanry Yung

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has created opportunities for engineers to manufacture superior and more efficient devices and products. Nanomaterials (NMs) are now widely used in consumer products as well as for research applications. However, while the lists of known toxic effects of nanomaterials and nanoparticles (NPs) continue to grow, there is still a vast gap in our knowledge about the genotoxicity of NMs. In this paper, we highlight some NMs of interest and discuss the current in vivo and in vitro stu...

  10. Studies on the radiation effects on rice starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizur Rahman, A.T.M.; Amin, M.R.

    1973-04-01

    Degradation of polysaccharide chains of starch and starch components; amylose and amylopectin were examined by observing any change in gelatinization temperature, increase in reducing power or a shift in the light absorption maxima of iodine complexes to shorter wavelengths. Changes in organoleptic properties were examined by cooking the irradiated and unirradiated grains. After cooking sensory and physical evaluations were carried out. To observe any effect of irradiation on digestibility, starch grains were subjected to degradation by crude preparations of human salivary amylase.

  11. Study of the Geometric Stiffening Effect: Comparison of Different Formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Juana M., E-mail: juana@us.es; Garcia-Vallejo, Daniel; Dominguez, Jaime [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y de los Materiales (Spain)

    2004-05-15

    This paper reviews different formulations to account for the stress stiffening or geometric stiffening effect arising from deflections large enough to cause significant changes in the configuration of the system The importance of such effect on many engineering applications, such as the dynamic behavior of helicopter blades, flexible rotor arms, turbine blades, etc., is well known. The analysis is carried out only for one-dimensional elements in 2D.Formulations based on the floating frame of reference approach are computationally very efficient, as the use of the component synthesis method allows for a reduced number of coordinates. However, something must be done for them to account for the geometric stiffening effect. The easiest method is the application of the substructuring technique, because the formulation is not modified. This, however, is not the most efficient approach. In problems where deformation is moderated, the simple inclusion of the geometric stiffness matrix is enough. On the other hand, if the deformation is large, higher-order terms must be included in the strain energy. In order to achieve an efficient and stable formulation, an explicit geometrically nonlinear beam element was developed. The formulations that use absolute coordinates are, generally, computationally more costly than the previous ones, as they must use a large number of degrees of freedom. However, the geometric stiffening effect can be automatically accounted for with these formulations. The aim of this work is to investigate the applicability of the different existing formulations in order to help the user select the right one for his particular application.

  12. A Study on the Effectiveness of In-Game Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    LENG Ho Keat

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, commercial organizations have shown an increasing interest in advertising their products in video games. While there is some research in this area, the complexities of product placement research, with in-game advertisement research in particular, suggest that more research is needed in this area. The aim of this paper is to add to the literature on the effectiveness of in-game advertisements through recognition and recall tests. By using the same survey instrument for three d...

  13. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  14. A Study on Antimicrobial Effects of Plantago Psyllium

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, A; M Naghmachi; S Jahedi; SAM Khosravani

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Due to emergence of resistance of antibiotics to microorganisms, investigations for novel antimicrobial agents have always been one of the major preoccupations of the medical societies. The present investigation aimed to study the antimicrobial properties of Plantago psyllium on some of pathogen microorganisms. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010. After collection and preparation of hy...

  15. A social work study to measure the effect of unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Allahyar Arabmomeni; Gholamreza Tajbakhsh; Faezeh Taghipour

    2012-01-01

    Unemployment is believed as one of most important issues in today's economy around the world. The recent economic turmoil in European countries, for instance, has created some troubles such as increase in rate of depression, divorce, etc. In this paper, we present a social study work in one of regions of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire among 80 experts who live in the region and tries to understand whether there is a correlation between unemploym...

  16. Study of ionizing radiation effect on human spermatozoa chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the radio-induced chromosomal aberrations in spermatozoa. After a brief recall on ionizing radiations, the author reviews the radio-induced chromosomal anomalies on somatic cells and on germinal line cells and spermatozoa. The author presents the technical aspects of human spermatozoa karyotype and finally studies the radio induced chromosomal anomalies of sperm to patients undergoing a radiotherapy. 13 tabs., 28 figs., 28 photos

  17. Detuning effect study of High-Q Mobile Phone Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    Number of frequency bands that have to be covered by smart phones, are ever increasing. This broadband coverage can be obtained either by using a low-Q antenna or a high-Q tunable antenna. This study investigates high-Q antennas performance when placed in proximity of the user. This study...... severe compared to high-Q antennas. However, the drop in efficiency is comparable for both antennas in proximity of the user....

  18. Effects of study design and trends for EVAR versus OSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hopkins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert Hopkins1, James Bowen1, Kaitryn Campbell1, Gord Blackhouse4, Guy De Rose2,3, Teresa Novick2, Daria O’Reilly1,4, Ron Goeree1,4, Jean-Eric Tarride1,41Programs for the Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH Research Institute, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics; 2Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; 3Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaPurpose: To investigate if study design factors such as randomization, multi-centre versus single centre evidence, institutional surgical volume, and patient selection affect the outcomes for endovascular repair (EVAR versus open surgical repair (OSR. Finally, we investigate trends over time in EVAR versus OSR outcomes.Methods: Search strategies for comparative studies were performed individually for: OVID’s MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HAPI, and Evidence Based Medicine (EBM Reviews (including Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE and CCTR, limited to 1990 and November 2006.Results: Identified literature: 84 comparative studies pertaining to 57,645 patients. These include 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, plus 2 RCTs with long-term follow-up. The other 78 comparative studies were nonrandomized with 75 reporting perioperative outcomes, of which 16 were multi-centre, and 59 single-centre studies. Of the single-centre studies 31 were low-volume and 28 were high-volume centres. In addition, 5 studies had all patients anatomically eligible for EVAR, and 8 studies included high-risk patients only. Finally, 25 long term observational studies reported outcomes up to 3 years.Outcomes: Lower perioperative mortality and rates of complications for EVAR versus OSR varied across study designs and patient

  19. [Epidemiological study on respiratory effects of smoking in college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Y

    1993-06-01

    To study the influence of smoking on the respiratory system in adolescents, we conducted a prospective study to look into the respiratory symptoms, changes in ventilatory function, and levels of expired CO of both smoking and nonsmoking college students. The subjects were 56 male students who entered Akita University in 1986. Thirty of the participants were smokers at entrance whereas the rest who were nonsmokers, served as controls. The smokers started smoking at an average age of 17.6 +/- 0.9 years. Physical examinations at 8 points during the study were performed periodically in May and November for four years, from 1986 to 1989. From these studies, the following conclusions were obtained. 1) The prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially phlegm, was higher among the smokers compared with the nonsmokers; the differences not being significant. Among both the smokers and nonsmokers, no prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm was observed during the study period. 2) There were no differences in the levels of %FVC and %V50 between the smokers and the nonsmokers at any point during the study period. The FEV1% levels for smokers were decreased progressively, and the differences became significant at the 7th and 8th tests (p significant at the 7th test (p statistically significant in any levels at the 7th and 8th tests. However, %V25 levels of the heavy smokers (15 significant at the 7th and 8th tests (p < 0.05). 4) Average expired CO concentrations of the smokers were 2.5-3.5 times higher than those of the nonsmokers during the study period, confirming exposure to tobacco smoke. These observations suggest that young smokers may develop obstructive changes, especially narrowed small airways during the first 5 years of exposure to tobacco smoke.

  20. Study on effects of environmental regulation on competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Man Ok; Lim, Hyun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    For Korea, the claim that the enhancement of environmental regulation is worsening the international competitiveness of the business is dominant. However, it is too early to reestablish a relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness with the above new aspect. In fact, the economic development, which is brought a quantitative growth, and the maintenance of environmental quality, which is brought a qualitative growth, are very important on decision making in economic and social policy. In this study, it represents the results of existing positive studies on the relationship between the enhancement of environmental regulation, trade and productivity. Moreover, the objective of this study is on applying it based on the data of Korea. 86 refs., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  1. Effect of spatial resolution on cluster detection: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Laura

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of spatial data is intended to protect privacy, but some effects of aggregation on spatial methods have not yet been quantified. Methods We generated 3,000 spatial data sets and evaluated power of detection at 12 different levels of aggregation using the spatial scan statistic implemented in SaTScan v6.0. Results Power to detect clusters decreased from nearly 100% when using exact locations to roughly 40% at the coarsest level of spatial resolution. Conclusion Aggregation has the potential for obfuscation.

  2. Studies of Copper Nanoparticles Effects on Micro-organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T

    2011-01-01

    We discuss about the antibacterial activities of copper nanoparticles on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in this investigation. First time, we increase its antibacterial activities by using electrical power while on electrolysis synthesis and it is confirmed from its more antibacterial activities (For Escherichia coli bacteria). We investigate the changes of surface area to volume ratio of copper nanoparticles prepared in two different methods and its effects on antibacterial activities. We note that slight change of surface area to volume ratio results in the enhancement of its antibacterial activities.

  3. Study on Disturbances and Its Effects on Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Linying; Zhou Yongzhang; Xu Songjun

    2006-01-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon,disturbances are considered a discrete event occurring in a natural ecosystem within various spatial and temporal scales. The present paper discusses the types of disturbances and their influence on the ecologic system in nature reserves. It is shown that nature reserves are facing a great challenge dealing with these disturbances.A rational control for disturbances should be improved in order to promote the healthy development of nature reserves this could be done by enhancing the publicity and training of environment protection, coupling management. with communities around and other nature reserves, effective management methods, rational planning, and supporting nature servers.

  4. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  5. A study on the effects of advertisement on brand equity: Evidence from mobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Samiei Nasr; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Ali Akbar; Elham Aghaalikhani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of advertisement on brand equity. The study has accomplished on two well-known brands in mobile providers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses Aaker’s model to examine the effects of advertisement on various factors such as brand awareness, quality perception, brand loyalty and brand associate. The study also investigates the effects of brand awareness, quality perception and brand associate on brand loyalty. The results o...

  6. The Beneficial Effects of Applied Physiology Study Guides on Dentistry Students’ Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Keyhanmanesh; Fariba Mirzaei Bavil; Morteza Ghojazadeh; Hadi Ebrahimi; Hossein Mazouchian; Mohammad Ali Ebrahimi Saadatlou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have shown that study guides are effective tools that recognize students’ educational needs and help teachers to attain satisfactory results. Unfortunately, this effective learning tool has not been used in the coursework and teaching of basic sciences in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Therefore, this study was proposed to evaluate the effects of a study guide in an applied physiology course on the overall learning quality of dental students.Methods: In ...

  7. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor; nine additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 6 yr after exposure. Two of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 4 yr postexposure, due to bone and lung tumors, with body burdens at death of 10 μCi. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of equal to or greater than 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  8. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to visualise the morphological changes of Epidermophyton floccosum associated with exposure to perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid, the architecture of the dermatophyte was investigated by means of interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy. The mortphology of mycelia grown on substrate containing perdeuteriated n-hendecnoic acid, or the unlabelled analogue, was compared. The perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid produced a characteristic undulant effect of the hyphae. The characteristic wave-lake appearance of the mycelia looked similar to the curling effect occurring after treatment of dermatophytes with griseofulvin, but was not so pronounced. Perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid, unlike the unlabelled analogue, also seems to cause a reduction of the number of chlamydospores perforations of the macroconidia. The changes in the morphological structure of Epidermophyton floccosum exposed to perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid have been investigated. Morphological examination of mycelia exposed to this substance by interference contrast microscopy demonstrated a picture of defect hyphae and macroconidia. By the aid of scanning electron microscopy an attempt was made to obtain a better visualization of these changes at ultrastructural level

  9. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that dies of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Eleven additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 7 yr after exposure. Four of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 4 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 6 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  10. Finite-size effects in nanocomposites: experimental and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L. I.; Roman, M. P.; Skau, E. W.; Stevens, D. R.; Downen, L. N.; Hoffman, T. J.; Bochinski, J. R.

    2012-02-01

    Many proposed applications for electrically-conducting composite materials (smart textiles, e-m shielding coatings, tissue scaffolds) are nanostructured - that is, characteristic sample length scales may be similar to at least one dimension of the embedded particle. This is particularly true for long aspect-ratio particles such as nanotubes where the length of the particle can approach or exceed the thickness of a thin nanocomposite film or a nanofiber diameter. In these cases, the formation of a particle network and thus the electrical conductivity enhancement is affected by finite size effects, that is, percolation thresholds and the width of the transition to percolation differ with sample size [Stevens et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 021126 (2011)]. We present experimental electrical conductivity and 3-D continuum Monte-Carlo simulation results on such finite-sized percolation effects for particles with aspect ratios of 1 to 1000 and discuss proposed scaling laws and techniques to improve conductance in the finite-size regime.

  11. Study the effect of cryogenic cooling on orthogonal machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kaushal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario , all the manufacturing organization aims to maximize the productivity of organization in respect of all the aspect of manufacturing process, in case of machining process, it associated with various factors which affect the productivity directly in sense of tool life . Temperature, cutting forces, shear angle, work-piece surface finishing & accuracy, amount of power consumed in machining process and other thing also. All the factors might be optimized by applying effective and efficient amount of coolant throughout the process, to get desired efficiency of process. A coolant play a vital role in machining operation but which must have specific properties which have been reviewed in previous article of various student , research scholars , scientist and industrial candidates .in this research paper , we were focusing on the effect of cryogenic cooling on cutting temperature , cutting forces , chip behavior , shear angle , when alloy steel EN-8 and aluminum alloy 6061-T89 was machined by carbide cutting tool (coated & uncoated & applying liquid nitrogen as a coolant and observed that temperature was decreased during the machining process about 16% to 27% and cutting forces improved to 13%when the machining was performed , the same without cooling of EN-8 alloy, similarly on the other hand in case of aluminum alloy 6061-T89 , temperature was decreased to 25% to 37% and cutting force improved to 9% .

  12. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Seventeen additional dogs, with body burdens of 0.2 to 1.8 μCi, died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 8 yr after exposure. Ten of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 5 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 1.5 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of >80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  13. Correlation effects in ruthenates: LDA+DMFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, Evgeny; Pavarini, Eva [IAS-3, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The ruthenates of the Ruddlesden-Popper family A{sub n+1}Ru{sub n} O{sub 3n+1} where A=(Sr,Ca) are unique among transition-metal oxides, because the change of cation A and/or in the number n of RuO{sub 2} layers leads to a variety of collective phenomena, ranging from multi-band Mott transitions to ferro- and meta-magnetism. To understand these systems, it is necessary to disentangle the effects of Coulomb repulsion in the 4d{sup 4}Ru shell from those of lattice distortions and chemistry. By using the LDA+DMFT approach, we show how such disentanglement explains the nature of the metal-insulator transition in single-layered Ca ruthenates and the evolution of electronic structure in n-layered Sr ruthenates. We use LDA+DMFT scheme based on the N-th Order Muffin-Tin Orbital approach and the weak-coupling CT-quantum Monte Carlo method as impurity solver. This method allows us to take into account the full rotationally-invariant Coulomb interaction, as well as full on-site self-energy matrix in orbital space with spin-orbit coupling. We discuss changes in effective mass and orbital polarization as a result of spin-flip processes and spin-orbit interaction.

  14. Bioceramic Resonance Effect on Meridian Channels: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioceramic is a kind of material which emits nonionizing radiation and luminescence, induced by visible light. Bioceramic also facilitates the breakup of large clusters of water molecules by weakening hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bond weakening, which allows water molecules to act in diverse ways under different conditions, is one of the key mechanisms underlying the effects of Bioceramic on biophysical and physical-chemical processes. Herein, we used sound to amplify the effect of Bioceramic and further developed an experimental device for use in humans. Thirteen patients who suffered from various chronic and acute illnesses that severely affected their sleep patterns and life quality were enrolled in a trial of Bioceramic resonance (i.e., rhythmic 100-dB sound waves with frequency set at 10 Hz applied to the skin surface of the anterior chest. According to preliminary data, a “Propagated Sensation along Meridians” (PSM was experienced in all Bioceramic resonance-treated patients but not in any of the nine control patients. The device was believed to enhance microcirculation through a series of biomolecular and physiological processes and to subject the specific meridian channels of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to coherent vibration. This noninvasive technique may offer an alternative to needle acupuncture and other traditional medical practices with clinical benefits.

  15. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Study of tube diameter effect on the burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of a tube diameter d on boundary steam content Xsub(b) is experimentally investigated during unwashed liquid wall film drying in the disperse-ring flow regime. For this purpose systematical experimental investigations of the burnout of the second kind in tubes with diameters of 4, 6 and 12 mm have been carried out as well as the other data relating to burnout in tubes with diameter from 4 to 40 mm are used. The investigations have been carried out at water and steam pressures of 4.9-13.7 MPa and mass velocities from 750 to 5000 kg/m2xs. It is elucidated that increase in the tube diameter results in reducing the ranges of pressures and mass velocities at which Xsub(b) is independent of heat flux. Quantity dependence Xsub(b)=f(d) has been obtained as well. The best agreement with data from different experiments is observed when taking into account the effect of d on Xsub(b) by means of the following relation: Xsub(b) is proportional to dsup(-0.25). In this case divergence, as a rule, does not exceed 10%

  17. The Effects of Macroglossia on Speech: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Abebayehu Messele

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case study of speech production in a 14-year-old Amharic-speaking boy. The boy had developed secondary macroglossia, related to a disturbance of growth hormones, following a history of normal speech development. Perceptual analysis combined with acoustic analysis and static palatography is used to investigate the specific…

  18. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  19. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national regis...

  20. Case Studies of Effects of Artificial Food Colors on Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Carl; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A double blind, double crossover study with six hyperactive boys (8 to 13 years old) tested B. Feingold's hypothesis that synthetic food colors cause hyperactivity in some children. All Ss were on the Feingold diet, eliminating artificial colors and flavors. The authors conclude that evidence for Feingold's hypothesis is weak. (Author)

  1. Numerical study of 3-D constraint effects in ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation reviews the results of a numerical investigation, in which single-edge cracked bars in three point bend SE(B) specimens, with different relative crack lengths and thickness, were systematically studied via detailed three-dimensional finite element analyses

  2. Non-Returning Student Interview Study and RSC's Institutional Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Suzi; Slark, Julie

    In 1989, staff from Rancho Santiago College's (RSC's) research office conducted telephone interviews with a random sample of 255 out of the 17,359 former students who attended RSC in spring 1989 but did not return for the next semester. The study was conducted to determine why students did not return, whether they accomplished their educational…

  3. Promoting Effective Interviewing of Sexually Abused Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study is centered on interviewing techniques with alleged child sexual abuse victims who do and do not disclose sexual abuse. Method: Ninety randomly selected videotapes are reviewed, and the interviewing techniques are recorded on a 69-item Child Sexual Abuse Interviewing Skills Instrument. Results: The nondisclosure children are…

  4. A Pilot Study of Metabolic Effects of Omentectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-18

    Patients Who Consented to Undergo Laparoscopic Gastric Banding Surgery for Weight Loss and Consent to Participate in This studyBMI ≥35 kg/m2; Confirmed Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Oral Agents and/or Only Diet Therapy; Age 18-64 Years

  5. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  6. Experimental and Numerical Study of Spoiler Effect on Ship Stability: Effect of Spoiler Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mohammed Abou Rayan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Ship stability is studied experimentally and numerically. The injection of air or exhaust gas stabilizes cavities behind spoilers. The spoiler system is tested experimentally to understand the parameters affecting the flow field and bubble formation around the spoiler. These parameters are the spoiler inclination angle, rise of floor angle and injected air position. The spoiler inclination angle effect is studied in this paper. The images of flow field variation and bubble formation are recorded with scientific video camera and compared with the computed flow field at different conditions and time sequence. The two-phase flow field around a ship spoiler with the free surface simulation in Piecewise Linear Interface Construction method is modeled numerically using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The bubbles shape, the three-dimensional flow field around the spoiler body and the pressure variation on the wake of the spoiler body are computed. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results shows a good matching of bubble formation and the difference may be attributed to the laminar flow computation without including turbulence effects. The moment around the 90° inclined spoiler fixation line is 1.651 times that around the 30A longitudinal study on the stability over time of school and teacher effects on student outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudin

  7. A Survey Based Study on Factors Effecting Communication in GSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently, most of software development companies are trying to globalize their work throughout the world in order to get the various benefits. The phenomenon of this software globalization is called Global Software Development (GSD. However, GSD is not a simple job and the software companies face various challenges. In GSD Communication is a main issue and it became more complicated during Requirements Change Management (RCM. This research will result to explore different factors that can negatively affect communication during the RCM process by conducting a survey in GSD industry. A framework is proposed for the factors effecting communication and total nine hypotheses are developed. A quantitative research method has been used to collect and analyse the data. The results show that total seven out of nine hypotheses are supported and two hypotheses are rejected.

  8. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur

  9. Effect of coordination on bond properties: A first principles study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaita Paul; Shobhana Narasimhan

    2008-06-01

    We have used density functional theory to obtain the binding curves for a variety of hypothetical periodic structures of Al, Si, Pb, Sn and Au. Upon examining the resulting database of results for equilibrium bond lengths and radial force constants (within a nearest-neighbour model), we find that both decrease smoothly as coordination is reduced. The effect of dimensionality appears to be small. We find that the force constants at equilibrium vary as the inverse eighth power of the equilibrium bond length. We also find evidence that the force constants are sensitive only to the bond length, and not to the coordination number. We believe these results will be useful in formulating interatomic potentials, e.g., for nanosystems.

  10. Collective Effect Studies of a Beta Beam Decay Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The Beta Beam, the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring called the Decay Ring (DR), is the basis of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the DR's ion intensity and of its duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Different methods, including analytical calculations and multiparticle tracking simulations, were used to estimate the DR's potential to contain enough ions in as small a part of the ring as needed for the sensitivities. Studies of transverse blow up of the beams due to resonance wake fields show that a very challenging upper limit of the transverse broadband impedance is required to avoid instabilities and beam loss.

  11. A social work study to measure the effect of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is believed as one of most important issues in today's economy around the world. The recent economic turmoil in European countries, for instance, has created some troubles such as increase in rate of depression, divorce, etc. In this paper, we present a social study work in one of regions of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire among 80 experts who live in the region and tries to understand whether there is a correlation between unemployment and rubbery, immigration, drug addiction and non-value jobs. The survey uses Pearson correlation to test four hypotheses and the results indicate that although there is no strong correlation between unemployment and rubbery and immigration but there is a strong evidence to believe that unemployment can increase drug addiction and non-value added jobs.

  12. Study on Space Debris and Impact Effect on Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Hai; Jia Guanghui; Dong Yunfeng [School of Astronautics, Beihang University (BUAA), Xueyuan Road No.37, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-04-15

    Space debris is increasingly concerned by aerospace engineers and scientists. The evolution of an orbital debris cloud, the collision probability between of debris and a spacecraft, and the damage evaluation of spacecraft when impacted by space debris are studied in this work. A hypervelocity impact model for honeycomb panel is proposed. Under considering secondary debris, the survivability of spacecraft impacted by space debris is finally investigated.

  13. Effect of Vitality on Translucent Dentine – A Study

    OpenAIRE

    M, Selvamani; G S, Madhushankari; S Basandi, Praveen; Donoghue, Mandana; Nayak, Vaidehi; Diwakar, Gajendra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sclerosis of dentinal tubules may be a response to pathological or physiological insult in the crown & root. The mechanism by which apical translucency is produced is still uncertain. The increase in size of the apical zone of sclerotic dentin in human teeth has been used often in forensic science as a method of age estimation. However, only few studies have been done to compare percentage of translucency between vital and non-vital teeth. Conflicting concepts exist regarding the...

  14. Software piracy: A study of causes, effects and preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Ishwor

    2015-01-01

    Software piracy is a serious issue that has been affecting software companies for decades. According to Business Software Alliance (BSA), the global software piracy rate in 2013 was 43 percent and the commercial value of unlicensed software installations was $62.7 billion, which resulted in millions of revenues and jobs lost in software companies. The goal of this study was to better understand the software piracy behaviours, how it happens, how it affects to individuals and software compani...

  15. Study on Synergy Effect in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志良; 刁杰; 王金福; 金涌

    2001-01-01

    Influence of reaction temperature, pressure and space velocity on the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas is studied in an isothermal fixed-bed reactor. The catalyst is a physical mixture of C30 copper-based methanol (MeOH) synthesis catalyst and ZSM-5 dehydration catalyst. The experimental results show that the chemical synergy between methanol synthesis reaction and methanol dehydration reaction is evident. The conversion of carbon monoxide is over 90%.

  16. In Vivo Study of Immunomodulatory Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh HQ; Dighe VV

    2015-01-01

    To study immunomodulatory activity of hydroalcoholic plant extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. The test animals chosen for the present experiment were Wistar albino rats. The tests carried out were haemagglutination inhibition, delayed type hypersensitivity test, complete blood counts and histopathology (Liver and Spleen). The dried plant powder extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. was evaluated for immunosuppressive activity using Cyclophosphamide as an immunosuppressive drug and for immunostimulan...

  17. Hydration effects of deoxyadenosine: A differential calorimetric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert; Lee, S. A.; Griffey, R. H.; Mohan, V.

    2000-03-01

    The water of hydration is an integral part of the double helical structure of DNA. In order to understand the interactions between water and DNA, we have studied the hydration of the nucleoside deoxyadenosine as a function of relative humidity. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the enthalpy and activation energy of dehydration. These data will be contrasted with the results obtained from guanosine and deoxyguanosine.

  18. Physiological techniques in the study of rapid aldosterone effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef, Yamil R; Thomas, Warren; Harvey, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging and electrophysiological techniques are powerful tools to analyze the responses stimulated by aldosterone and other hormones in target tissues. Studies with Ussing-type chambers can be used to measure and characterize changes in transepithelial currents resulting from hormone treatment. Confocal imaging techniques can be used in real time or in fixed preparations to evaluate the localization of receptors, signalling intermediates, and transporters.

  19. Study of the Soret Effect in Monosaccharide Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, P.; Wiegand, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the thermal diffusion behavior of aqueous solutions of monosaccharides with the infrared thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (IR-TDFRS) setup. As monosaccharides, we studied the three aldohexoses glucose, galactose, and mannose and the two ketohexoses sorbose and fructose. All sugars have the same molecular weight, but their structures differ as well as some physical properties such as viscosity, density, thermal expansion coefficient, and optical rotation. Additional...

  1. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  2. A study on effects of personal characteristics on organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Reza Afzalipoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an essential part of business development especially in educational system. In this paper, we study the relationship between six personal characteristics of employees of Azad University in province of Arak, Iran. The proposed study designs and distributes a questionnaire among experts who are involved in education systems. The population of this survey includes 900 employees who are enrolled in educational as well as administration levels and chooses a sample of 269 people for the survey. The questionnaire consists of different questions in Likert scale and there are six independent variables including age, gender, educational background, marital status, job experience and salary. We study the relationship of these six items with organization commitment. The results of our survey indicate that marital status is the most influential factor on organizational commitment followed by educational background and job experience. Based on the results of this survey, we can conclude that those employees who could get more experience and maintain a good educational background will more likely to stay with a firm than young employees.

  3. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY AND A BIOMARKER STUDY FOR ASSESSING HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology Studies: This work will be accomplished through: (a) building data bases; evaluating existing data, including published (mostly in Chinese) and unpublished data on arsenic exposure and health effects in Inner Mongolia and publishing this summary analysis in English l...

  4. The Power of Effective Design in e-Learning: A Study of the "Mayo Effect" Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiang Ping

    2014-01-01

    When the Mayo Effect video went live on the Mayo intranet in June 2010, it was very well received at Mayo Clinic. The message in the video was so effectively delivered that it became an instant sensation across the institution. The video contains about 461 words. In such a short video, every part of its architectural design, whether it is visual,…

  5. Effects of Using Case-Study Method in Social Studies on Students' Attitudes Towards Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza Akengin; Gökhan Aydemir

    2012-01-01

    his study has aimed to inquired whether there was a significant difference between academic achievement and attitudes of 6th grade students who learned “The Resources of Our Country” unit of social studies through case studies and students who learned this unit with teaching based on existing unit. Besides it was aimed to present thoughts and feelings of the students about the case study method aided learning- teaching process. Pretest-posttest control group design was used in this study and...

  6. Health effects of aircraft noise near three French airports: results from pilot epidemiological study of the DEBATS study.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Khati , Inès; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    While many surveys carried out both in France and abroad address aircraft noise annoyance or report adverse effects on sleep quality, much fewer consider at the same time the physiological effects of this noise exposure. The largest study to date, the HYENA study, has evidenced an association between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension. DEBATS is a research program (2011-2018) aiming to characterize the relations between aircraft noise exposure and the health status of the French populat...

  7. Effects of Daily Studying Schedule on The Instrument Studying Behavior, Guitar Deciphering and Performance of Students in Classic Guitar Education

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Ümit Kubilay; Kocaeli Üniversitesi, Güzel Sanatlar Fakültesi, Müzik Bölümü

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of daily studying schedule designed for guitar students of music departments using experimental method design on a pretest-posttest control group model. Guitar students studying at Kocaeli University Faculty of Fine Arts Music Department constitute the example of the paper. Data was collected using a guitar performance rating scale for performance, a deciphering performance scale for guitar deciphering, and attitude towards instrument studying scale for ...

  8. Taking the Time. Studying language effects in the translation class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brusasco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The current translation market places growing emphasis on technological tools that assist or even replace the translator in quickly producing adequate target texts. As a person involved in cultural processes that affect public discourse and society at large, both as a practising literary translator and as a teacher of translation, I feel that academia should not only pursue market-oriented translation skills, such as procedural knowledge of computer-assisted translation (CAT-tools and machine translation (MT, but also aim at strengthening would-be translators' processes of interpretation and making them autonomous language experts, aware of both the effects generated by language and their responsibility in using it. To support my position, I will draw on cognitive linguistics and critical discourse analysis (CDA. Adopting a constructivist approach, I will then refer to works by Kiraly (2000, Venuti (2013 and Laviosa (2014, and add some methodological proposals. Students will initially work individually and in groups, focusing on source texts, their translations and comparable texts in order to identify key language items and work toward meaning. By deploying CDA analytical tools, they will discuss the role played by individual items as well as the overall effect of both STs and TTs. New source texts will then be analysed in preparation for translation. The actual translation, effect analysis and final editing, carried out as team work, will complete a cycle aimed at 1 helping students to build knowledge through experience; 2 sensitising them to the complexity of the translation process and the paramount value of meaning-making within every single context.Riassunto – Il settore della traduzione attribuisce crescente importanza a strumenti tecnologici che aiutano o sostituiscono il traduttore nella rapida produzione di testi adeguati. In qualità di traduttrice letteraria e docente, coinvolta quindi in processi culturali che possono

  9. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE SELLA TURCICA; GENDER EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Elsayed Ali SAKRAN *1, Mohammad Afzal KHAN 2, Faris Mohammed Nour ALTAF 3, Hassan Elsiddig Hassan FARAGALLA 4, Amal Yousif Ahmed Elhaj MUSTAFA 5, Muhammad Mazhar HIJAZI 6, Rayan Abdulshakur NIYAZI 7, Abrar Jamal TAWAKUL 8, Abeer Zubair MALEBARI 9, Amal AbdulAziz SALEM 10.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Precise anatomical knowledge of the sella turcica is important for neurologists and surgeons operating in the region of cavernous sinus or the surrounding structures. The current study was undertaken to record normal morphometric parameters for future reference and to determine if there is any significance difference in the sella turcica morphometry regarding the gender. Methodology: A Morphometric analysis of the Sella Turcica and structures in vicinity were done in thirty six adults’ formalin fixed cadaver's skulls (22 male and 14 female. Results: The pituitary stalk positions were middle in majority of male cases (72.7%, the remaining 27.3% were posterior. Among female; 57.1% were middle and the remaining 42.9% were posterior, no anterior position was detected among both genders with no different between male and female (p = 0.494 Normal Optic chiasma position was detected in all female cases and in 63.6% of male cases with no significant differences regarding gender (p= 0.070. No significant different in diaphragma sella shape and opening regarding gender (p.value = 0.170 and 0.914 respectively No significant difference between males and females concerning linear dimensions of sella turcica (length, depth and Anteroposterior diameters. Concerning diaphragma sella opening; no significant different regarding gender in transverse diameter (p.value= 0.316 while significant different was detected in anteroposterior diameter (p.value= 0.046 For interclinoid (anterior, posterior diameters, which represented statistically significant different regarding gender in both right and left sides (p.value = 0.004 and 0.001 respectively. Conclusion: The current study will provide normal morphometric data for future reference and further studies.

  10. Study of fast neutron radiation effects in cold moderator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenon of spontaneous release of energy accumulated in some hydrogenous materials under fast neutron irradiation at low temperature was studied at a cryogenic irradiation facility of the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna for the purpose of cold neutron moderator development. Spontaneous release of energy occurred in water ice after 5 - 11 h of fast neutron irradiation at a temperature of less than 34 K and at an absorbed dose rate of 0.4 MGy/h. In contrast with previous data, no spontaneous burp was observed in solid methane

  11. Study of fast neutron radiation effects in cold moderator materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shabalin, E P; Kulagin, E N; Kulikov, S A; Melikhov, V V

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon of spontaneous release of energy accumulated in some hydrogenous materials under fast neutron irradiation at low temperature was studied at a cryogenic irradiation facility of the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna for the purpose of cold neutron moderator development. Spontaneous release of energy occurred in water ice after 5 - 11 h of fast neutron irradiation at a temperature of less than 34 K and at an absorbed dose rate of 0.4 MGy/h. In contrast with previous data, no spontaneous burp was observed in solid methane

  12. Laboratory studies on electrical effects during volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Büttner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study reports on electrical phenomena during the explosive eruption of a basaltoid silicate melt. Contact electricity is produced in the phase of thermo-hydraulic fracturing of magma during the explosive interaction with water. The electrical charge produced is directly proportional to the force of the explosion, as the force of explosion is linearly proportional to the surface generated by the thermo-hydraulic fracturing. Simulation of the ejection history using inerted gas as a driving medium under otherwise constant conditions did not result in significant electric charging. The results have the potential to explain in nature observed lightening in eruption clouds of explosive volcanic events.

  13. Studying fringe field effect of a field emitter array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field emitter arrays on heavy As-doped Si wafer are studied in vacuum nanoelectronics diode configuration. Different shapes of emitters are considered: cone-shaped point-emitters and cylinder-shaped sharp-edge-emitters are compared. Micro scale field enhancement factor on the edge of cylindrical emitter was calculated via home-developed Matlab application and the results are presented. Two types of anode geometry are proposed: plane anode and spherical anode. Experimental and modelling results of surface electric field distribution are presented. The spherical shape of anode allows higher voltage (and higher field emission current) without destructive arcs risk

  14. Study Abroad and the Boomerang Effect: The End Is Only the Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexeisen, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    As research on the effectiveness of study abroad programs continues to evolve, the author notes a gradual shift in focus from "Is study abroad effective?" to "What can be done to improve the quality of the study abroad experience?" (e.g., Pederson, 2010; Shaheen, 2004). The author writes that he believes this broadened…

  15. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. Study of high frequency field effect electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cavity was developed in order to investigate field emission in a radio frequency (RF) regime. Field emitted current from a removable sample is directly collected by a probe. A correlation was made between RF field emission and surface defects such as scratches and dust particles. Consequently, experiments on intentionally dust contaminated niobium samples were performed. Microscopic surface analysis revealed: 1/ important thermal effects, 2/ geometrical changes of the emitting sites (iron particles stand up and pile up) that led to revisit the protrusion model, 3/ RF field emission from alumina. On the other hand, measurements of the contact thermal resistance between particles and the substrate seem to point out ion bombardment (micro-plasma) as a possible cause of the global particle melting observed. An efficient surface treatment is highly required if one wishes to raise up threshold field at which field emission starts. RF pulse processing is a promising one, as it provides a damage free surface under certain conditions. Finally, first comparisons on continuous and RF field emission seem to show that the basic mechanism is unchanged for the two field emission regimes. (author)

  17. Study of the Gamma Radiation Effect on Tannins Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable tannins are polyphenolic substances of different chemical mixtures, in correspondence with the characteristics of groups of polyphenols. Taking into consideration its composition, we can find different types of flavonoids, mainly in the so-called condensed tannins. In general, many applications have been explored, including the medical ones, due to their proven biological activity as antiviral, antibacterial and others characteristics derived from their reactions with metal ions and amino acids of the protein components. Therefore it is promising to examine the effects of gamma radiation on the structure of tannin, looking for the possible modification of its biological activity. To this end, samples of tannins are irradiated at different doses (maximum dose 35 kGy) with the use of a Cobalt-60 irradiator. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) permitted to characterize the samples in morphology and composition. The changes were analyzed by using infrared spectroscopy Fourier transform (FT-IR) and High Resolution Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). At the end we discuss the implication of the results for a dosage range above 5 kGy. (Author)

  18. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driemeyer, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistent with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included.

  19. An experimental study on the self-reference effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Ying(朱滢); ZHANG; Li(张力)

    2002-01-01

    Self-reference at encoding increases the probability of recollective experience in recognition memory. Self-reference effect (SRE) in memory is observed when the degree of self-refer- ence of to-be-remembered materials is varied. Usually items encoded in terms of self-reference are associated with significantly higher recall performance relative to items encoded in other ways, including semantic encoding. In our three experiments, four orientating tasks formed four levels in a between-subjects design. The conditions were rating personality traits with reference to self, mother, Lu Xun (a famous Chinese writer) or rating the traits on a negative-positive dimension. In a recognition test, subjects first identified old items and then indicated which of these were accompanied by recollective experience ('remember' responses) and which were recognized on some other basis ('know' responses). Our results showed that both the self-reference condition and mother condition were associated with the same highest proportion of correct remember responses and the same lowest proportion of correct know responses. In contrast, for Western subjects, the self-reference condition, relative to the mother condition, was associated with a higher proportion of correct remember responses and a lower proportion of correct know responses. We discussed the results with reference to the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry).

  20. Effect of Sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: A clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Li Gao; Xiao-Hong Gu; Feng-Tao Cheng; Fo-Hu Jiang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To appraise the effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on cirrhotic patients.METHODS: Fifty cirrhotic patients of Child-Pugh grade A and B were randomly divided into two groups: Group A as the treated group (n=30), taking orally the sea buckthom extract, 15 g 3 times a day for 6 months. Group B as the control group (n=18), taking vitamin B complex one tablet,3 times a day for 6 months. The following tests were performed before and after the treatment in both groups to determine LN, HA, collagens types Ⅲ and IV, cytokines IL6 and TNFα, liver serum albumin, total bile acid, ALT, AST and prothrombin time.RESULTS: The serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, laminin and type IV collagen in group A were significantly higher than those in the control group. After a course of sea buckthorn treatment, the serum levels of LN, HA, collagen types Ⅲand IV, total bile acid (TBA) decreased significantly as compared with those before and after treatment in the control group. The sea buckthorn notably shortened the duration for normalization of aminotransferases.CONCLUSION: Sea buckthom may be a hopeful drug for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.

  1. An Eye Tracking Study into the Effects of Graph Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Weidong

    2008-01-01

    Graphs are typically visualized as node-link diagrams. Although there is a fair amount of research focusing on crossing minimization to improve readability, little attention has been paid on how to handle crossings when they are an essential part of the final visualizations. This requires us to understand how people read graphs and how crossings affect reading performance. As an initial step to this end, a preliminary eye tracking experiment was conducted. The specific purpose of this experiment was to test the effects of crossing angles and geometric-path tendency on eye movements and performance. Sixteen subjects performed both path search and node locating tasks with six drawings. The results showed that small angles can slow down and trigger extra eye movements, causing delays for path search tasks, whereas crossings have little impact on node locating tasks. Geometric-path tendency indicates that a path between two nodes can become harder to follow when many branches of the path go toward the target node...

  2. Differential effectiveness of cues in informational masking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Virginia M.; Huang, Rong; Kidd, Gerald

    2001-05-01

    For the detection of a tone added to random multitone maskers, playing a preview of the masker before detection trials can reduce thresholds compared to when there is no preview. In contrast, playing a preview of the signal-plus-masker does not provide a release from masking. This differential effectiveness of cues was examined in several conditions. Using the method of constant stimuli and a yes/no task, observers detected a 1000-Hz tone added to six-tone maskers. Prior to each trial, the frequencies of the masker components were randomly drawn. Two types of cues were tested, either a copy of the masker or a copy of the signal-plus-masker. The cues were presented either before or after the yes/no presentation interval. Finally, data were collected either blocked for each condition or the trials from the four conditions were interleaved. D-prime values were higher when the conditions were blocked than when they were interleaved. The pattern of results was the same in both situations; d was highest for pretrial masker cues, lowest for pretrial signal-plus-masker cues, and intermediate when either cue followed the trial interval. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  3. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistent with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included

  4. Multi-scale study of the isotope effect in ISTTOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Silva, C.; Figueiredo, H.; Pedrosa, M. A.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Pereira, T.; Losada, U.; Hidalgo, C.

    2016-05-01

    The isotope effect, namely the isotope dependence of plasma confinement, is still one of the principal scientific conundrums facing the magnetic fusion community. We have investigated the impact of isotope mass on multi-scale mechanisms, including the characterization of radial correlation lengths (\\boldsymbol{L}{r} ) and long-range correlations (LRC) of plasma fluctuations using multi-array Langmuir probe system, in hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) plasmas in the ISTTOK tokamak. We found that when changing plasma composition from the H dominated to D dominated, the LRC amplitude increased markedly (10–30%) and the \\boldsymbol{L}{r} increased slightly (~10%). The particle confinement also improved by about 50%. The changes of LRC and \\boldsymbol{L}{r} are congruent with previous findings in the TEXTOR tokamak (Xu et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 265005). In addition, using biorthogonal decomposition, both geodesic acoustic modes and very low frequency (<5 kHz) coherent modes were found to be contributing to LRC.

  5. Experiment Study of Effect of Perfiuorohexyloctane on Corneal Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Ding; Chunfang Li; Lin Lu; Guanguang Feng; Huling Zheng

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8)on corneal endothelial celIs(CEC) of rabbit eyes. Methods: Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were devided into two groups:experimental group(F6H8) and control group(BSS) . All rabbits underwent anterior chamber injection of 0. 15ml F6H8 or BSS. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and corneal endothelium photography were performed pre-operatively and postoperatively. Histopathological examination and Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were done after the rabbits were sacrificed. Results: All the corneas were clear. Since 4 weeks after operation, the endothelial cells were markedly irregular in size and shape and the number of endothelial cells was markedly decreased. Multilayered retrocorneal membranes (RCM)grew gradually 2 weeks after surgery. Vacuolar degeneration was seen in some endothelial cells. Nuclear degeneration and edema of plasma were seen in TEM. Conclusion: Corneal endothelial cell degenerated after contacting with F6H8 for 2 ~4weeks. As a silicone solvent, it should be removed completely after injection. We don't recommend it to be used as a new intraocular temponade. Eye Science 2001: 17:21 ~ 26.

  6. UVB radiation induced effects on cells studied by FTIR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giambattista, Lucia; Gaudenzi, S; Pozzi, D; Grandi, M; Morrone, S; Silvestri, I; Castellano, A Congiu; 10.1007/s00249-009-0446-9

    2010-01-01

    We have made a preliminary analysis of the results about the eVects on tumoral cell line (lymphoid T cell line Jurkat) induced by UVB radiation (dose of 310 mJ/cm^2) with and without a vegetable mixture. In the present study, we have used two techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow cytometry. FTIR spectroscopy has the potential to provide the identiWcation of the vibrational modes of some of the major compounds (lipid, proteins and nucleic acids) without being invasive in the biomaterials. The second technique has allowed us to perform measurements of cytotoxicity and to assess the percentage of apoptosis. We already studied the induction of apoptotic process in the same cell line by UVB radiation; in particular, we looked for correspondences and correlations between FTIR spetroscopy and flow cytometry data finding three highly probable spectroscopic markers of apoptosis (Pozzi et al. in Radiat Res 168:698-705, 2007). In the present work, the results have shown significant changes ...

  7. A Study of Developing a System Dynamics Model for the Learning Effectiveness Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Syung Lan; Yu-Hua Lan; Kai-Ling Chen; Pin-Chang Chen; Wen-Cheng Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study used the research method of system dynamics and applied the Vensim software to develop a learning effectiveness evaluation model. This study developed four cause-and-effect chains affecting learning effectiveness, including teachers’ teaching enthusiasm, family involvement, school’s implementation of scientific activities, and creative teaching method, as well as the system dynamics model based on the four cause-and-effect chains. Based on the developed system dynamic model, this s...

  8. Health effects of probiotics and prebiotics A literature review on human studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Asp, Nils-Georg; Bruce, Åke; Roos, Stefan; Wadström, Torkel; Wold, Agnes E

    2001-01-01

    Human studies on health effects of probiotics and prebiotics were reviewed and evaluated. The main results can be summaries as follows: Certain probiotic lactobacilli may improve lactose digestion and reduce symptoms of lactose intolerance. The effect of probiotics on serum cholesterol is still inconclusive. Animal studies showing triacylglycerol-lowering effects of prebiotics need confirmation in humans. Data on effects of probiotics on constipation are not convincing, whereas inulin has dos...

  9. A study on some psychological health effects of cell-phone usage amongst college going students

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti P Acharya, Indranil Acharya, Divya Waghrey

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have come to stay. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects esp. on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in...

  10. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Asci; Esin Kulac; Mekin Sezik; F Nihan Cankara; Ekrem Cicek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students′ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on ph...

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN DISCECTOMY FOR IVDP – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low back pain (LBP results in loss in productivity than any other medical condition. Approximately 70 - 80% of all people will develop LBP in their life . There are various causes of LBP , out of which the lumber disc herniation is one of the most frequent reason for physical , functional restriction in patients. Patients who have u ndergone surgical treatment are found to possess increased short term outcome instead of conservative treated patients. Surgically treated patients experienced fast pain relief , improvement of function & satisfaction in comparison to conservative patients. The comparative results of patients treated with surgery and conservatively treated patients have revealed that surgical treatment is much better at short term follow up (upto 1 year however no variations have been shown among treatment at long term foll ow up. Some patients operated for spine diseases are still left with poor results. The present study aims to evaluate the efficiency of open discectomy for L 4 – L 5 IVDP prospectively. METHODS : 30 cases of lumbar disc prolapse , above 18 years of age admitte d at KIMS hospital , Bangalore with MRI showing conclusive disc prolapsed were taken for the study. They were pre operatively evaluated for their ODI score. Only those patients who have scored 40% and above in ODI were included in the study. They underwent dis c ectomy. Methods of surgery used were fenestration , extended fenestration , hemilaminectomy & total laminectomy as per operative requirement. Follow - ups were carried out at 6 , 12 and 24weeks on selected areas. Pre and post of ODI total and sub scale scor es were compared at the end of 24 weeks. RESULTS : There was a significant reduction of post operative ODI score indicating good success rate in open disectomy. The pre operative mean ODI score was 58.28 , SD was 5.06 and the post operative mean ODI score wa s 15.28 and SD was 2.40 with t value of 38.56 and p value of

  12. Study of the Protective Effects in PEPC Transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; JIAO De-mao; LING Li-li; ZHANG Yun-hua; HUANG Xue-qing

    2005-01-01

    The diurnal course of chlorophyll fluorescence parameter and active oxygen metabolism of flag leaves in PEPC transgenic and untransformed rice Kitaake were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate under high light intensity has been increased by 50% and photoinhibition of photosynthesis in PEPC transgenic was alleviated after the introduction of PEPC gene from maize into rice. It was demonstrated that the increment of photosynthesis in PEPC transgenic was related to the introduction of PEPC gene using specific inhibitor of PEPC. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in different genotypes exists at noon under natural condition. PEPC transgenic rice exhibited a less decrease in Fv/Fm, a less photoinhibition and a higher efficiency of light energy conversion to chemical energy and lower thermal energy dissipation.These results provided the physiological basis on the mechanism of tolerance to photoinhibition and rice breeding with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  13. Study the Factors Effecting on Welding Joint of Dissimilar Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam J. Ebraheam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the factors that affect the welding joint of dissimilar metals. Austenitic stainless steel-type AISI (316L with a thickness of (2mm was welded to carbon steel (1mm using an MIG spot welding. The filler metal is a welding wire of the type E80S-G (according to AWS is used with (1.2mm diameter and CO2 is used as shielding gas with flow rate (7L/min for all times was used in this work. The results indicate that the increase of the welding current tends to increase the size of spot weld, and also increases the sheer force. Whereas the sheer force increased inversely with the time of welding. Furthermore, the results indicate that increasing the current and time of welding increases the diameter of weld zone, and decreases the sheer force.

  14. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on flow parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ or structure. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risks for people. In this work, experimental investigations of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape were performed. Five models of different geometry were studied; all models were stenosis of 75 % area reduction. The flow conditions approximate physiological flow. The measuring range of Reynolds number was from 130 to 2730, measured values of pressure loss coefficient were from 12 to 20. The steady experimental results indicated that static pressure loss coefficient is affected by the shape of stenosis, but it was affected more significantly by the eccentricity. Visualization experiments have been performed in Polycarbonate models.

  15. In vitro study of immunosuppressive effect of apoptotic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-jin; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that apoptotic cells are actively involved in immunosuppression and anti-inflammation. After being phagocytosed by macrophages, apoptotic cells can actively regulate cytokines secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, in which the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) is increased while the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and leukin-8 (IL-8) are suppressed. In this paper, we first present evidence that phagocytosed apoptotic cells regulate cytokine secretion of LPS-stimulated macrophages, but also inhibit the activation of T lymphocytes stimulated by ConA. These data suggest that apoptotic cells can alter the biological behavior of macrophages which gain immunosuppressive property.

  16. Comparative study of interfacial effects in photovoltaic diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakolian, H.

    1988-01-01

    Several different type of photodiodes (NASA standard n-p, p-on-n single crystal silicon, GaAs homojunction, ITO/p-Si, Au/n-GaAs Schottky diode and CdS/CuInSe{sub 2}) have been examined. Measurements of current vs. voltage as a function of temperature and light intensity, plus capacitance vs. voltage and frequency were an attempt to identify the causes on non-ideal behavior. An automatic, computer controlled system greatly enhanced the precision of measurements and the ability to separate non-ideal effects. No dispersion in capacitance with frequency was observed in single crystal homojunction diodes and Au/n-GaAs Schottky barrier, indicating near zero interfacial states for these devices. CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} cells from ARCO Solar, Boeing and IEC all showed interfacial states with a wide range of time constants and zero bias densities at the Fermi level in the junction of 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} states/cm{sup 2}-eV. In reverse bias, however, the density of states, decreased by an order of magnitude. Under illumination, this number increased with increasing light intensity and saturated near 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. The CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell was modeled as a heterojunction diode with charge at the junction interface. The low open-circuit voltage and the shift to lower voltage (about 125 mV) observed in some photodiodes is explained by this model.

  17. Effect of temperature on the methotrexate BSA interaction: Spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek, M.; Równicka, J.; Bojko, B.; Pentak, D.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2007-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and chronic inflammatory illness which affects about one percent of the world's population. Methotrexate (4-amino-10-methylfolic acid) (MTX) also known as amethopterin is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is transported in the circulary system as a complex with serum albumin. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions of MTX with transporting protein with the use of spectroscopic methods. The binding of MTX to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by monitoring the changes in the emission fluorescence spectra of protein in the presence of MTX at excitation wavelength of 280 nm and 295 nm. The quenching of protein fluorescence at temperature range from 298 K to 316 K was observed. Energy transfer between methotrexate and fluorophores contained in the serum albumin structure was found at the molar ratio MTX:BSA 7.5:1. The relative fluorescence intensity of BSA decreases with increase of temperature. Similar results were observed for BSA excited with 280 nm and 295 nm at the same temperature range. The presence of MTX seems to prevent these changes. Temperature dependence of the binding constant has been presented. The binding and quenching constants for equilibrium complex were calculated using Scatchard and Stern-Volmer method, respectively. The results show that MTX forms π-π complex with aromatic amino acid residues of BSA. The binding site for MTX on BSA was found to be situated in the hydrophobic IIA or IB subdomain where the Trps were located. The spontaneity of MTX-BSA complex formation in the temperature range 298-316 K was ascertained.

  18. Surface effect vehicles and surface effect: General studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The bibliography contains 180 citations in which the design of surface effect vehicles, their utilization, and their aerodynamic characteristics are investigated. Vehicles or ships in marine environments are not included.

  19. SWOT--Study Without Tears: A Guide to Effective Study Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter; And Others

    This workbook helps students identify those study practices that are ineffective and suggests ways in which existing study habits may be modified and improved. At the beginning of each of the workbook's seven sections is a set of questions concerning the reader's usual study practices. The second part of each section contains advice about the…

  20. A PILOT STUDY FOR THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN EFFECT ON BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    BORAN, TUĞÇE

    2013-01-01

    The buying behaviour of consumers is one of the most commonly researched subjects in marketing. ‘Country of origin effect’ (COO) is one of the key concepts casting light on the purchasing process of consumers. Many studies have shown that COO effect is vital for the buying process, persuasion and product evaluation. Consumer ethnocentrism is another important factor in the domain of COO effect studies. In light of this information, this study intends to find out COO effect awareness in the bu...

  1. Potential antiproteolytic effects of L-leucine: observations of in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lancha Antonio H; Nicastro Humberto; Zanchi Nelo E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of present review is to describe the effect of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle proteolysis suppression in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Most studies, using in vitro methodology, incubated skeletal muscles with leucine with different doses and the results suggests that there is a dose-dependent effect. The same responses can be observed in in vivo studies. Importantly, the leucine effects on skeletal muscle protein synthesis are not always connected to the ...

  2. A Study on Teaching Effectiveness of Self-Financing Engineering College Teachers in Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    R. Renjith Kumar; Fezeena Khadir

    2013-01-01

    The process of evaluating the effectiveness of teachers has changed over time along with the definition of what effective teaching is due to the increasing attention by the management of self-financing institutes. This research examines to measure the various attributes of teaching effectiveness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the level of teaching effectiveness attributes and to find out the attribute that most contributes to teaching effectiveness. A sample of 96 teachers from a...

  3. Effect of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.

  4. Bystander effect studies using heavy-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have established a single cell irradiation system, which allows selected cells to be individually hit with defined number of heavy charged particles, using a collimated heavy-ion microbeam apparatus at JAEA-Takasaki. This system has been developed to study radiobiological processes in hit cells and bystander cells exposed to low dose and low dose-rate high-LET radiations, in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad-field exposures. Individual cultured cells grown in special dishes were irradiated in the atmosphere with a single or defined numbers of 18.3 MeV/amu 12C, 13.0 or 17.5 MeV/amu 20Ne, and 11.5 MeV/amu 40Ar ions. Targeting and irradiation of the cells were performed automatically according to the positional data of the target cells microscopically obtained before irradiation. The actual number of particle tracks that pass through target cells was detected with prompt etching of the bottom of the cell dish made of ion track detector TNF-1 (modified CR-39). (author)

  5. Biological and psychosocial effects of space travel: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Robert Edward Tien Ming

    This dissertation interviewed a single astronaut to explore psychosocial issues relevant to long-duration space travel and how these issues relate to the astronaut's training. It examined the psychological impact of isolation, crew interaction, and the experience of microgravity with the goal of increasing understanding of how to foster crew survivability and positive small group interactions in space (Santy, 1994). It also focused on how to develop possible treatments for crews when they transition back to Earth from the extreme environment of space missions. The astronaut's responses agreed with the literature and the predictions for long-duration space missions except the participant reported no temporary or permanent cognitive or memory deficits due to microgravity exposure. The dissertation identified five frequently endorsed themes including communication, environmental stressors, personal strengths, un-researched problems, and other. The agreement found between the literature and astronaut's responses offer a strong foundation of questions and data that needs to be further studied before conducting research in space or long-duration space missions.

  6. Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Shear on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Guensch, Greg R.

    2000-09-20

    The overall objective of our studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish's tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system, in other words, determining or assuming that those conditions known to injure fish will provide the descriptions of conditions that engineers must consider in the design of a turbine system. These biological specifications must be carefully and thoroughly documented throughout the design of a fish friendly turbine. To address the development of biological specifications, we designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response.

  7. A study into the effectiveness of unqualified GP assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Marilyn; Turnbull, Betty

    This article aims to address the potential shortfall in care provision offered by general practitioners (GPs) resulting from pending retirement and the retention and recruitment crisis. An educational module was developed that offered both theory and practise to unqualified general practice assistants. The module content was determined following discussion with local GPs. A small qualitative study of six students was carried out to review efficacy of participants in their new role. Using a grounded theory approach, participant and supervisor views of course content and delivery, role preparation diversity were analysed and compared. Tape-recorded interviews were conducted and analysis carried out employing the constant comparative method. Data were coded and emergent themes categorized. Overall, participants agreed that the module had strengthened their knowledge, added new skills, heightened their job satisfaction, added significant diversity to their role and enhanced their employability potential. Five participants communicated that they were more confident in performing clinical skills and advising health improvement techniques. Supervisors also reported that participants displayed a more competent and professional approach to health care, which was complementary to the role of the GP and practice nurse. Ultimately this allowed both GP and practice nurse to focus on dealing with chronic illness targets, as required in the new directive (Scottish Executive, 2004). PMID:16936620

  8. A study into the effectiveness of unqualified GP assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Marilyn; Turnbull, Betty

    This article aims to address the potential shortfall in care provision offered by general practitioners (GPs) resulting from pending retirement and the retention and recruitment crisis. An educational module was developed that offered both theory and practise to unqualified general practice assistants. The module content was determined following discussion with local GPs. A small qualitative study of six students was carried out to review efficacy of participants in their new role. Using a grounded theory approach, participant and supervisor views of course content and delivery, role preparation diversity were analysed and compared. Tape-recorded interviews were conducted and analysis carried out employing the constant comparative method. Data were coded and emergent themes categorized. Overall, participants agreed that the module had strengthened their knowledge, added new skills, heightened their job satisfaction, added significant diversity to their role and enhanced their employability potential. Five participants communicated that they were more confident in performing clinical skills and advising health improvement techniques. Supervisors also reported that participants displayed a more competent and professional approach to health care, which was complementary to the role of the GP and practice nurse. Ultimately this allowed both GP and practice nurse to focus on dealing with chronic illness targets, as required in the new directive (Scottish Executive, 2004).

  9. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-07-12

    The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

  10. A Study of Developing a System Dynamics Model for the Learning Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used the research method of system dynamics and applied the Vensim software to develop a learning effectiveness evaluation model. This study developed four cause-and-effect chains affecting learning effectiveness, including teachers’ teaching enthusiasm, family involvement, school’s implementation of scientific activities, and creative teaching method, as well as the system dynamics model based on the four cause-and-effect chains. Based on the developed system dynamic model, this study performed simulation to investigate the relationship among family involvement, learning effectiveness, teaching achievement, creative teaching method, and students’ learning interest. The results of this study verified that there are positive correlations between family involvement and students’ learning effectiveness, as well as students’ learning effectiveness and teachers’ teaching achievements. The results also indicated that the use of creative teaching method is able to increase students’ learning interest and learning achievement.

  11. The effect of comorbidities on COPD assessment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinreich UM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulla Møller Weinreich,1–3 Lars Pilegaard Thomsen,2 Barbara Bielaska,4 Vania Helbo Jensen,5,6 Morten Vuust,4 Stephen Edward Rees2 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Respiratory and Critical Care Group (RCARE, Centre for Model-Based Medical Decision Support Systems, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 3The Clinical Institute, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 4Department of Radiology, Vendsyssel Hospital, Hjørring, Denmark; 5Department of Radiology, Horsens Regional Hospital, Horsens, Denmark; 6Department of Radiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Introduction: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD frequently suffer from comorbidities. COPD severity may be evaluated by the Global initiative for chronic ­Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD combined risk assessment score (GOLD score. Spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO, and high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT measure lung function and elucidate pulmonary pathology. This study assesses associations between GOLD score and measurements of lung function in COPD patients with and without (≤1 comorbidities. It evaluates whether the presence of comorbidities influences evaluation by GOLD score of COPD severity, and questions whether GOLD score describes morbidity rather than COPD severity.Methods: In this prospective study, 106 patients with stable COPD were included. Patients treated for lung cancer were excluded. Demographics, oxygen saturation (SpO2, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidities were recorded. Body plethysmography and DLCO were measured, and HR-CT performed and evaluated for emphysema and airways disease. COPD severity was stratified by the GOLD score. Correlation analyses: 1 GOLD score, 2 emphysema grade, and 3 airways disease and lung

  12. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Gontiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL® as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm. Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week. At 4 th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6 th and 12 th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant.

  13. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  14. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  15. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.38{+-}1.0, 1.47{+-}1.1, 1.50{+-}1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11{+-}0.9, 1.29{+-}1.1, 1.15{+-}1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.17{+-}1.1, 1.13{+-}1.3, 1.38{+-}1.2, 1.32{+-}1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  16. A correlated study between effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energies for neutron beams with continuous spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    Two practically useful quantities have been introduced to characterize a continuous-energy-spectrum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in the field of quantitative neutron radiography. These quantities are the effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section as defined for a monochromatic energy. Four neutron beams have been used to measure ETM cross sections at effective energies of 29.8, 17.2, 9.8 meV, and at the In resonance energy of 1.46 eV. Results are studied as a function of estimated effective energy, where the effective energy was estimated by a beam quality indicator (BQI) which has been proposed recently. Validity of ETM cross sections as a function of the effective energy is discussed and correlated with recent nuclear data.

  17. Effects of Self-Study on Achievement in a Medical-Surgical Nursing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, Mary Elizabeth; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Independent study is at least as effective as traditional teaching methods, according to this report of a three-year project to evaluate self-study modules, called "minicourses," in a new nursing curriculum. (MF)

  18. A study on the effects of human resource management on making change within organization: A case study of banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Eyvazi; Amin Reza Kamalian; Abolfazl Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study to find the effects of human resource management on empowering employees in banking industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 243 randomly selected employees of the first Iranian private banks called Saman. There are four hypotheses in this survey. The first hypothesis investigates whether employment type influences customer satisfaction or not. The second hypothesis of the survey studies whether training as well as empowering em...

  19. Effects of Studying to Music and Post-Study Relaxation on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)

  20. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Claudio; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Lennon, Lucy; Ford, Ian; Morris, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a tr...

  1. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, C.; Barry, S.J.E.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Whincup, P H; Lennon, L; Ford, I; Morris, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. / Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a trial of pra...

  2. Study of VTOL in ground-effect flow field including temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. G.; Jenkins, R. C.; Kalemaris, S. G.; Siclari, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed pressure, temperature, and velocity data were obtained for twin-fan configurations in-ground-effect and flow models to aid in predicting pressures and upwash forces on aircraft surfaces were developed. For the basic experiments, 49.5 mm-diameter jets were used, oriented normal to a simulated round plane, with pressurized, heated air providing a jet. The experimental data consisted of: (1) the effect of jet height and temperature on the ground, model, and upwash pressures, and temperatures, (2) the effect of simulated aircraft surfaces on the isolated flow field, (3) the jet-induced forces on a three-dimensional body with various strakes, (4) the effects of non-uniform coannular jets. For the uniform circular jets, temperature was varied from room temperature (24 C) to 232 C. Jet total pressure was varied between 9,300 Pascals and 31,500 Pascals. For the coannular jets, intended to represent turbofan engines, fan temperature was maintained at room temperature while core temperature was varied from room temperature to 437 C. Results are presented.

  3. A Study of Organizational Effectiveness and Its Predictors. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kim

    Research results concerning determinants of organizational effectiveness of colleges are presented, and concerns pertaining to this type of research are addressed. A major research question is whether the study of institutional effectiveness can identify indicators of long-term organizational viability. In 1980, organizational effectiveness was…

  4. The Effects of a Midbrain Glioma on Memory and Other Functions: A Longitudinal Single Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddell, Rodger A.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the effects of midbrain damage on cognition is largely based on animal studies, though there have been occasional investigations of the effects of human midbrain lesions on cognition. This investigation of a rare case of a glioma initially confined to the dorsal midbrain explores the effects of disease progression on IQ,…

  5. Stability studies of plasma modification effects of polylactide and polycaprolactone surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof; Stepczyńska, Magdalena; Malinowski, Rafał; Rytlewski, Piotr; Jagodziński, Bartłomiej; Żenkiewicz, Marian

    2016-07-01

    The article presents results of research on the stability of oxygen plasma modification effects of polylactide and polycaprolactone surface layers. The modified samples were aged for three, six or nine weeks. The studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, goniometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Studies have shown that the plasma modification has significant impact on the geometric structure and chemical composition of the surface, wettability and surface energy of tested polymers. The modification effects are not permanent. It has been observed that over time the effects of plasma modification fade. Studies have shown that modifying effect lasts longer in the case of polycaprolactone.

  6. Teaching cause-effect text structure through social studies content to at-risk second graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P; Nubla-Kung, Abigail M; Pollini, Simonne; Stafford, K Brooke; Garcia, Amaya; Snyder, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehension program integrated with social studies instruction designed for at-risk second graders. The program included instruction in cause-effect text structure, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and the close analysis of specially constructed cause-effect target paragraphs. This program was compared (a) to a content-only program that focused only on social studies and did not include text structure instruction and (b) to a no-instruction control. Fifteen classroom teachers, randomly assigned to treatment, provided the instruction. The program improved the comprehension of instructional cause-effect texts, and there were transfer effects on some comprehension measures. The performance of the 2 instructed groups did not differ on any of the content measures, indicating that such integrated instruction can be accomplished without a loss in the amount of content acquired. This study supports our previous findings on the effectiveness of explicit instruction at the primary-grade level.

  7. Effects of Distance Coaching on Teachers' Use of Pyramid Model Practices: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artman-Meeker, Kathleen; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effects of 2 professional development approaches on teachers' implementation of the "Pyramid" model, a classroom-wide approach for fostering social-emotional development and addressing challenging behavior. The study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the differential effects of workshop…

  8. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Community-Based Dementia Care Networks: The Dementia Care Networks' Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux-Charles, Louis; Chambers, Larry W.; Cockerill, Rhonda; Jaglal, Susan; Brazil, Kevin; Cohen, Carole; LeClair, Ken; Dalziel, Bill; Schulman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Dementia Care Networks' Study examined the effectiveness of four community-based, not-for-profit dementia networks. The study involved assessing the relationship between the types of administrative and service-delivery exchanges that occurred among the networked agencies and the network members' perception of the effectiveness of…

  10. Effect of smoking and periodontal treatment on the subgingival microflora : A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U; Varoufaki, A; Hutter, JW; Xu, L; Timmerman, MF; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Loos, BG

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effect of smoking on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens after periodontal treatment is still not clear. Some studies found no effect of the smoking status on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens after therapy, whereas others did. The aim of this retrospective study was to inv

  11. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  12. Effects of Cooperative versus Individual Study on Learning and Motivation after Reward-Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, David A.; Pai, Hui-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Rewards are frequently used in classrooms and recommended as a key component of well-researched methods of cooperative learning (e.g., Slavin, 1995). While many studies of cooperative learning find beneficial effects of rewards, many studies of individuals find negative effects (e.g., Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999; Lepper, 1988). This may be…

  13. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  14. The Effectiveness of Educational Technology: Issues and Recommendations for the National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Agodini; Mark Dynarski; Margaret Honey; Douglas Levin

    2003-01-01

    Recommends that an upcoming study of the effectiveness of educational technology in improving academic achievement focus on four goals: (1) defining what is meant by "educational technology," (2) deciding how to measure effectiveness, (3) clarifying what kinds of students will be studied, and (4) pinpointing how academic achievement will be defined and measured.

  15. Effect of Case Studies on Primary School Teaching Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of case studies on Primary School Teaching students' attitudes toward chemistry lesson. The study was conducted on 63 freshmen from Department of Primary School Teaching at a university in Turkey. The students were taught using case studies about the subjects of Properties and States of…

  16. The Picture Superiority Effect in Recognition Memory: A Developmental Study Using the Response Signal Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Russo, Riccardo; McPartlin, Pamela Louise

    2009-01-01

    Items studied as pictures are better remembered than items studied as words even when test items are presented as words. The present study examined the development of this picture superiority effect in recognition memory. Four groups ranging in age from 7 to 20 years participated. They studied words and pictures, with test stimuli always presented…

  17. The evaluator effect in usability studies: Problem detection and severity judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability studies are commonly used in industry and applied in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. Though usability studies have been studied extensively, one potential threat to their reliability has been left virtually untouched: the evaluator effect. In this study...

  18. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F. Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students’ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha–Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Results: Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Conclusions: Preclinical medical students’ study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success. PMID:26997716

  19. Study of the ionizing radiation effects on the swedish telecommunications network. Studie av telekommunikationernas talighet mot joniserande stralning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeransson, G.; Liljegren, T.

    1992-11-01

    The aim of the study is to form a basis for decisions on possible protective measures concerning the ionizing radiation effects on the Swedish telecommunications from nuclear weapon explosions outside Sweden. The report contains a brief survey of analysis and the experimental investigations of the ionizing radiation effects on optical fibers, repeaters and microwave radio-link equipments. It also deals with the Swedish Telecommunication Network buildings and their ionizing radiation protection as well as with some specially selected telecommunication objects.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CLAIMS AND ADVERTISEMENT EFFECTIVENESS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Umit Alnıacık; Cengiz Yilmaz; Esra Alnıacık

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the effects of environmental claims and claim specificity on advertisement effectiveness. An experimental study is conducted using hypothetical print advertisements for three product categories, namely laundry machines, wrist watches, and DVD players. Findings indicate that the existence of environmental claims significantly improves respondent evaluations in the wrist watches and DVD players categories, whereas in the laundry machines category no such effects are obser...

  1. Relative price effects of monetary policy shock in Malaysia: a svar study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim, Zulkefly; Zaidi, Mohd Azlan Shah; W.N.W, Azman-Saini

    2011-01-01

    Studies on Malaysia monetary policy mostly examine the effect of monetary policy change on output and inflation in aggregate terms. While sectoral output effects of monetary policy have also been investigated, there is however a lack in the study on the effect of policy change on disaggregated inflation. This paper attempts to examine the later issue by employing structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model. By estimating the model separately for each sub-group of Malaysian consumer price i...

  2. Variation in effect of intervention studies in research on sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegaard H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hans Joergen SoegaardResearch Unit West, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital, RisskovBackground: Intervention studies in sickness absence research demonstrate a low effect and ambiguous results in reducing sickness absence and improving work status. The aim of this study was to determine if the effect of interventions is related to type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria used, and impact of the scientific quality of the studies.Methods: Based on a structured review of 57 studies, short-term, medium-term, and long-term effects were analyzed with regard to the type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria, and scientific quality of the studies.Results: The overall result was that the effect rate was low, ie, about 20% for short-term effect (up to 6 months and medium-term effect (6–12 months, and 40% for long-term effect (≥12 months. Interventions using stress reduction were most effective with regard to short-term and medium-term effects, whereas collaborative care was most effective for long-term effects. The effects were related to the inclusion criteria and, to a minor degree, to the scientific quality of the studies.Conclusion: In the field of sickness absence research, more attention should be paid to the interrelationship between the types of interventions, target populations, and inclusion criteria for the studies. Larger studies of high methodological quality are needed. Steps should be taken to standardize outcome measures.Keywords: nonparticipation, sickness absence, return to work, controlled trial, review

  3. An experimental study on the effect of TV commercials on the attitudes towards nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is about the effect TV commercials have on the subjects' attitudes towards nuclear power generation. A number of 191 female students participated in the experiment. It was hypothesized that TV commercials would have a positive effect on the viewer's attitude towards nuclear power generation. The main results of the study supported this hypothesis, demonstrating that TV commercials constitute an effective means for changing people's perception of nuclear power generation. (author)

  4. Effect of heavy metal cations on the activity of cathepsin D (in vitro study) Effect of heavy metal cations on the activity of cathepsin D (in vitro study)

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Karwowska; Radosław Łapiński; Marek Gacko; Ewa Grzegorczyk; Joanna Żurawska; Jan K. Karczewski

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of heavy metal cations: Fe 2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ on the activity of
    cathepsin D in human aorta homogenate and blood serum. The concentration of cations was 1 mmol/l. Hemoglobin
    was the cathepsin D substrate. The activity of cathepsin D was determined at pH 3.5. Only Hg2+ cations
    inhibit the activity of cathepsin D. Cations Hg2+ damage lysosomes and release cathepsin D from these organelles.We studied the effect of heavy metal c...

  5. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction.

  6. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction. PMID:11140256

  7. Daily temperature and mortality: a study of distributed lag non-linear effect and effect modification in Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have documented health effects of ambient temperature, little evidence is available in subtropical or tropical regions, and effect modifiers remain uncertain. We examined the effects of daily mean temperature on mortality and effect modification in the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China. Methods A Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to assess the non-linear and lag patterns of the association between daily mean temperature and mortality from 2003 to 2007 in Guangzhou. The case-only approach was used to determine whether the effect of temperature was modified by individual characteristics, including sex, age, educational attainment and occupation class. Results Hot effect was immediate and limited to the first 5 days, with an overall increase of 15.46% (95% confidence interval: 10.05% to 20.87% in mortality risk comparing the 99th and the 90th percentile temperature. Cold effect persisted for approximately 12 days, with a 20.39% (11.78% to 29.01% increase in risk comparing the first and the 10th percentile temperature. The effects were especially remarkable for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of both hot and cold temperatures were greater among the elderly. Females suffered more from hot-associated mortality than males. We also found significant effect modification by educational attainment and occupation class. Conclusions There are significant mortality effects of hot and cold temperatures in Guangzhou. The elderly, females and subjects with low socioeconomic status have been identified as especially vulnerable to the effect of ambient temperatures.

  8. The Effects of Studying Abroad and Studying Sustainability on Students' Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Michael A.; Rubin, Donald L.; Stoner, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Study abroad has shifted from a marginal opportunity for higher education students to a core strategy of U.S. colleges and universities, considered integral in the mission to globalize the academic environment (Sutton, Miller & Rubin, 2007). The assumption is that a broad set of efforts to expose students to alternate ways of viewing the world…

  9. Sleep disturbance effects of traffic noise—A laboratory study on after effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrström, E.; Rylander, R.

    1982-09-01

    Body movements during sleep and subjective sleep quality, as well as mood and performance were investigated after exposure to intermittent and continuous traffic noise during the night. In a first experiment, six young subjects slept in the laboratory for five nights; in a second experiment 12 subjects slept six consecutive nights in the laboratory. A good dose-response relationship was obtained between intermittent noise and subjective sleep quality: i.e., the higher the noise level, the poorer the sleep quality. A similar dose-response relationship was found for body movements immediately following noise peaks during nights with intermittent noise. Performance and mood tended to be worse after intermittent noise. However, these effects did not increase with an increase in noise levels. Compared with intermittent noise, continuous noise had a significantly smaller effect on sleep quality. Mood and performance were not worse after continuous noise. The results suggest that increased attention should be paid to peak noise levels when standards for nocturnal noise are set.

  10. A Study on the Effectiveness of XMOOC Teaching in Improving Practical Nursing Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongwei; Qiu, Wan; Zhu, Jiyin; Feng, Jing; Gong, Wenjing; Le, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the effectiveness of xMOOC teaching in the area of nursing education, by making a comparison between two study groups. Though observation, academic tests and interview, this study finds out that the application of xMOOC to teaching scheme practice could effectively increase teaching ability of teachers, learning ability of students and their test scores which had positive significance in improving clinical nursing teaching quality. PMID:27332192

  11. Effects and mechanisms of gastrointestinal electrical stimulation on slow waves: a systematic canine study

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Song, Geng-Qing; Yin, Jieyun; Lei, Yong; Chen, Jiande D.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine optimal pacing parameters of electrical stimulation on different gut segments and to investigate effects and possible mechanisms of gastrointestinal electrical stimulation on gut slow waves. Twelve female hound-mix dogs were used in this study. A total of six pairs of electrodes were implanted on the stomach, duodenum, and ascending colon. Bilateral truncal vagotomy was performed in six of the dogs. One experiment was designed to study the effects of t...

  12. A study on the effect of organizational justice on organizational citizenship and organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Ghafourian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of organizational justice on organizational citizenship and organizational commitment in Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some employees of Islamic Azad University and, using structural equation modeling, we investigate the effect of organizational justice on organizational citizenship as well as organizational commitment. The study selects 142 people from 255 regular employees who work for the university and d...

  13. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL TENS VERSUS SPINAL MOBILIZATION IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Mistry; Vishnu Vardhan; Tushar Palekar; Rasika Panse

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disabilitating factor in most of the adolescent girls. It is a major cause of inability to concentrate on their work or studies, class or school absenteeism, inability to perform in their academic activities. This study conducted to assess the effect of non-invasive treatments for pain relief during dysmenorrhea. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Conventional TENS and Spinal mobilization on pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea in adolescent gi...

  14. Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhoda, Isabelle; Faska, Najat; Robert, Caroline; Cauwenbergh, Geert; Pierard, Gérald

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Beyond subjective assessments, the effect of skin tensors is difficult to assess. The present 2-phase randomized double-blind split face study was designed to compare the effect of a gel containing 3% 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol, DMAE) with the same formulation without DMAE. METHODS: In a first pilot study, sensorial assessments and measures of the skin distension under suction were performed in eight volunteers. In a second study conducted in 30 volunteers, shear wave pro...

  15. Study of Magnetic Hysteresis Effects in a Storage Ring Using Precision Tune Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Mikhailov, Stepan F; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying K

    2016-01-01

    With advances in accelerator science and technology in the recent decades, the accelerator community has focused on the development of next-generation light sources, for example the diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), which requires precision control of the electron beam energy and betatron tunes. This work is aimed at understanding magnet hysteresis effects on the electron beam energy and lattice focusing in the circular accelerators, and developing new methods to gain better control of these effects. In this paper, we will report our recent experimental study of the magnetic hysteresis effects and their impacts on the Duke storage ring lattice using the transverse feedback based precision tune measurement system. The major magnet hysteresis effects associated with magnet normalization and lattice ramping are carefully studied to determine an effective procedure for lattice preparation while maintaining a high degree of reproducibility of lattice focusing. The local hysteresis effects are also studied...

  16. The study of the effects of strategic orientations and marketing capabilities on marketing unit performance (Case study: Petrochemical Industry)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Dalvi; Fariddeddin Allameh Haery; Jalal Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation, titled as “A Study of the Effects of Strategic Orientations and Marketing Capabilities on the Performance of the Marketing Division”tries to examine a model which links the strategic orientations with the organization’s marketing performance through the mediating role of the marketing capabilities. This is a field survey-descriptive study which has used the library resources to collect the required theoretical data. The population includes all the managers and senio...

  17. A study on effects of knowledge management on organizational entrepreneurship: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management plays an important role in business development specially in educational system. The proposed study designs and distributes a questionnaire among experts who are involved in education systems in province of Tehran, Iran. The population of this survey includes 1680 people who are enrolled in administration levels of this province and using a simple sapling technique is calculated as 313. The questionnaire consists of 30 questions in Likert scale and there are six categories for the proposed study of this paper including the concept of knowledge, management, knowledge tools, knowledge measurement, change management, knowledge content. We have used LISREL software package to find the relationship between entrepreneurship and knowledge management components. Based on the results of this survey, knowledge content is number one priority followed by knowledge tools and concept of knowledge. The other factors including management, knowledge measurement and change management are in lower levels of importance.

  18. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  19. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  20. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... of these changes in risk factors on accident occurrence cannot be predicted. On the whole, the research that has been reported so far regarding road safety effects of porous asphalt is inconclusive. The studies are not of high quality and the findings are inconsistent....

  1. The effect of somatic disorders on brain aging and dementia : Findings from population studies

    OpenAIRE

    Atti, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    This doctoral thesis investigates the effect of somatic disorders on dementia, Alzheimer s disease (AD) and brain aging in late-life. The data for the studies are provided by the Kungsholmen Project (Studies I and II) and the Faenza Project (Studies III and IV). The Kungsholmen Project is a population-based longitudinal study on aging and dementia carried out on 75+ years old people, living in Stockholm, Sweden. The Faenza Project is a cross-sectional population-based study ...

  2. A Study on Establishing the Plan and Strategy for the Effective Participation in GNEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the this study was to maximize the national interests by the strategic participation of GNEP meeting and to establish the effective foundation of the international cooperation for GNEP system. For that purpose, this study focused on the following three subjects; (1) to analyze the international trends relate to GNEP, (2) to establish and operate the domestic GNEP system, (3) to participate of GNEP meeting and to support of relative work. To carry the study effectively, we analyze variety information about GNEP by attending international GNEP meeting and draw the strategies by using domestic task force team consist of expert in each part. Also, we focused on practical contribution rather than theory study. The result of this study may be used for contribution to establishing the effective foundation and broadening the cooperation activities and contribution effective management of GNEP international collaboration

  3. Alcohol email assessment and feedback study dismantling effectiveness for university students (AMADEUS-1: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCambridge Jim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol causes huge problems for population health and for society, which require interventions with individuals as well as populations to prevent and reduce harms. Brief interventions can be effective and increasingly take advantage of the internet to reach high-risk groups such as students. The research literature on the effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly and is confronted by methodological challenges common to other areas of e-health including attrition and assessment reactivity and in the design of control conditions. Methods/design The study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief online intervention, employing a randomized controlled trial (RCT design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity, and other possible effects of the research process. Outcomes will be evaluated after 3 months both among student populations as a whole including for a randomized no contact control group and among those who are risky drinkers randomized to brief assessment and feedback (routine practice or to brief assessment only. A three-arm parallel groups trial will also allow exploration of the magnitude of the feedback and assessment component effects. The trial will be undertaken simultaneously in 2 universities randomizing approximately 15,300 students who will all be blinded to trial participation. All participants will be offered routine practice intervention at the end of the study. Discussion This trial informs the development of routine service delivery in Swedish universities and more broadly contributes a new approach to the study of the effectiveness of online interventions in student populations, with relevance to behaviors other than alcohol consumption. The use of blinding and deception in this study raise ethical issues that warrant further attention. Trial registration ISRCTN28328154

  4. Patients with cluster A personality disorders in psychotherapy: an effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak; H. Andrea; M.D. Spreeuwenberg; M. Thunnissen; U.M. Ziegler; J. Dekker; F. Bouvy; E.F.M. Hamers; A.M.M.A. Meerman; J.J.V. Busschbach; R. Verheul; T. Stijnen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2011-01-01

    Background: While psychopharmacological studies are common in patients with cluster A personality disorders, the effects of psychotherapy have received little attention. The aim of this study is to explore whether psychotherapeutic treatment yields health gains for these patients. Methods: The study

  5. Outdoor studies on the effects of solar UV-B on bryophytes : Overview and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.; de Boer, M.K.; de Bakker, N.; Rozema, Jelte

    2006-01-01

    In this review all recent field studies on the effects of UV-B radiation on bryophytes are discussed. In most of the studies fluorescent UV-B tubes are used to expose the vegetation to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation to simulate stratospheric ozone depletion. Other studies use screens to filter th

  6. Estimating the effectiveness of screening for scoliosis : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; Juttmann, Rikard E.; van Biezen, Frans C.; Creemers, Huub; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A. J. M.; Luttmer, Bert C. F.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that screening for scoliosis is effective in reducing the need for surgical treatment. METHODS. The study was a case-control study. A total of 125 consecutive patients who were treated surgically for idiopathic scoliosis between January 200

  7. Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Wallace J.; Peterson, Lance T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We review all available controlled outcome studies of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) to evaluate evidence of its effectiveness. Method: Forty-three studies were located and key data abstracted on problem, setting, SFBT intervention, design characteristics, and outcomes. Results: Thirty-two (74%) of the studies reported…

  8. Exploring the Effects of Intercultural Learning on Cross-Cultural Adaptation in a Study Abroad Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yau

    2011-01-01

    This study targets Asian students studying abroad and explores the effects of intercultural learning on their cross-cultural adaptation by drawing upon a questionnaire survey. On the one hand, the results of this study find that under the influence of intercultural learning, students respond differently in their cross-cultural adaptation and no…

  9. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  10. 21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.91 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a biological product for which safety has... and ethical. Such postmarketing studies would not be feasible until an exigency arises. When...

  11. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.610 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a... feasible and ethical. Such postmarketing studies would not be feasible until an exigency arises. When...

  12. 40 CFR 158.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the criteria of 40 CFR 158.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse effects to the results of the... exceeds criteria. I have applied the criteria of 40 CFR 158.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flagging of studies for...

  13. Effects of Lesson Study on Science Teacher Candidates' Teaching Efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the lesson study process on science teacher candidates' teaching in terms of lesson plan content, pedagogy and classroom management based on expert, peer and self-evaluations. The participants of this case study consisted of 16 teacher candidates in elementary science education in their…

  14. Metacognition as a Mediator of the Effect of Test Anxiety on a Surface Approach to Studying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M.; Nikcevic, Ana V.; Moneta, Giovanni B.; Ireson, Judy

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of metacognition as a mediator of the effect of test anxiety on a surface approach to studying. The following scales were completed by 109 undergraduate social sciences students: Approaches and Study Skills Inventories for Students (ASSIST), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ), and Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Positive…

  15. Effect of uniaxial strain on electrical properties of CNT-based junctionless field-effect transistor: Numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourian, Parisa; Yousefi, Reza; Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Numerical studies on junctionless carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (JL-CNTFETs) have indicated that these devices produce more ON current than silicon junctionless transistors in comparable dimensions. Nevertheless, due to the smaller bandgap and quantum confinement effects, they provide weaker results in the OFF state. Since the change of energy bandgap is one of the effects of applying uniaxial strain on CNTs, in this paper, using non-equilibrium Green's function method (NEGF), the effects of applying strain on electrical characteristics of JL-CNTFETs, such as ION and IOFF, intrinsic delay, ION/IOFF ratio, power-delay product, unity-gain frequency, gate transconductance, and output resistance are investigated. The simulation results show that uniaxial stain, significantly alters the OFF state behavior and as a result the electrical properties of the device.

  16. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  17. Effects of three Commercial Mouth Rinses on the Cultured Fibroblasts: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabanchi J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: An ideal antimicrobial agent should have minimal cytotoxic effect to host cells.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effect of three commercial mouthwashes (Chlorhexidine, Persica and Irsha on the cultured fibroblasts.Material and Methods: For determining the cytotoxic effect of Irsha, Chlorhexidine and Persica, uninfected cells were grown in the absence and presence of various concentration (2,4,8,16,32,64,128 of these mouth washes for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days.Results: In this study, three mouth washes show cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells, at commercially available concentration and even diluted and Irsha was found to be the most toxic one. Cytotoxicity of three mouthwashes was reduced with decreasing concentration.Conclusion: Our results showed that all three solutions were toxic to the cultured fibroblast. Other studies which investigate their clinical effect are recommended.

  18. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    , but the neurophysiological tests showed adverse effects at this level. Fourth, neurophysiological methods may be more sensitive than histopathological, neurobehavioural and neurochemical methods. Overall, white spirit with a high and a low content of aromatics showed no overt difference in long-term effects in animals......Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content...

  19. A social work study on the effect of different factors on leadership style: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Jannesari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style plays an important role on job satisfaction in educational systems. In this paper, we present a study among 180 school principals in city of Khomeinishahr, located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The study selects a sample of 123 principals and examines ten hypotheses including the effects of personality trait neuroticism, extroversion, resilience, participative, conscientiousness on job satisfaction. The study also investigates the impacts of transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style and Laissez – fair leadership style on job satisfaction. Finally, the study considers the relationship between personality trait neuroticism and transformational leadership style as well as personality trait extraversion and transformational leadership style. The study uses Pearson correlation test and verify that nine out of ten hypotheses have been confirmed and the relationship between Laissez – fair leadership style and job satisfaction is not confirmed.

  20. Effects of Study Design and Allocation on participant behaviour - ESDA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeran Paschal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What study participants think about the nature of a study has been hypothesised to affect subsequent behaviour and to potentially bias study findings. In this trial we examine the impact of awareness of study design and allocation on participant drinking behaviour. Methods/Design A three-arm parallel group randomised controlled trial design will be used. All recruitment, screening, randomisation, and follow-up will be conducted on-line among university students. Participants who indicate a hazardous level of alcohol consumption will be randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group A will be informed their drinking will be assessed at baseline and again in one month (as in a cohort study design. Group B will be told the study is an intervention trial and they are in the control group. Group C will be told the study is an intervention trial and they are in the intervention group. All will receive exactly the same brief educational material to read. After one month, alcohol intake for the past 4 weeks will be assessed. Discussion The experimental manipulations address subtle and previously unexplored ways in which participant behaviour may be unwittingly influenced by standard practice in trials. Given the necessity of relying on self-reported outcome, it will not be possible to distinguish true behaviour change from reporting artefact. This does not matter in the present study, as any effects of awareness of study design or allocation involve bias that is not well understood. There has been little research on awareness effects, and our outcomes will provide an indication of the possible value of further studies of this type and inform hypothesis generation. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000846022

  1. Effects of Erythropoietin on Electrocardiogram Changes in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: an Experimental Study in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asgharian Rezaee, Mitra; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the electrocardiogram (ECG) changes following the moderate to severe CO intoxication in rats, and also evaluating the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on observed cardiac disturbances. The growing literature on erythropoietin effect on cardiac ischemia led us to question its effect on cardiotoxicity due to the carbon monoxide poisoning. Wistar rats were exposed to three different concentrations of CO (250 PPM, 1000 PPM or 3000 PPM). EPO was administrated (500...

  2. The ordinal effects of ostracism: A meta-analysis of 120 cyberball studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartgerink, Chris H.J.; Ilja van Beest; Jelte M Wicherts; Williams, Kipling D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 120 Cyberball studies (N = 11,869) to determine the effect size of ostracism and conditions under which the effect may be reversed, eliminated, or small. Our analyses showed that (1) the average ostracism effect is large (d > |1.4|) and (2) generalizes across structural aspects (number of players, ostracism duration, number of tosses, type of needs scale), sampling aspects (gender, age, country), and types of dependent measure (interpersonal, intrapersonal, fundamental needs). Fur...

  3. Methods for studying and criteria for evaluating the biological effects of electric fields of industrial frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, B.M.; Shandala, M.G.; Nikonova, K.V.; Morozov, Yu.A.

    1978-10-01

    Data are reviewed from a number of USSR research studies on the biological effects of electric power transmission lines of 1150 Kv and above. Effects on man, plants, animals, and terrestrial ecosystems are reported. Existing health standards in the USSR for the exposure of personnel working in electric fields are included. It is concluded that high-voltage electric fields have a harmful effect on man and his environment.

  4. No effect of hydroxyapatite particles in phagocytosable sizes on implant fixation: an experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, O; Kold, S; Bendix, K;

    2005-01-01

    The influence of wear debris on bone healing around orthopedic implants is debated. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and polyethylene (PE) particles have been shown to have a negative effect on osteoblast cultures in vitro. The present study investigated the in vivo effects of HA and PE particles on....... HA particles were also integrated in newly formed bone. We found no negative effect of the particulate material on mechanical fixation of the implants or on bone formation around the implants....

  5. STUDY OF PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES FROM PLANT FOODS AND THEIR POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Giangrieco, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Foods can affect human health beyond basic nutritional effects. In fact, foods are a source of different molecules, including nutraceuticals, i.e. health-promoting molecules, and proteins that can cause allergic reactions. The objectives of this thesis are in the framework of a research program focused on the study of allergens and nutraceuticals from plant foods and their possible effects on human health. Kiwifruit has been chosen as a model of food endowed with beneficial effects on human h...

  6. Study of the effects of cyclodextrins on the fluorescence detection of zearalenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful applications of inclusion complexes to improve isolation and detection of small molecules have made cyclodextrins increasingly popular components in methods of detection. Studies of the effects of cyclodextrins on aflatoxins have advanced mycotoxin detection research. Recently, a capill...

  7. The effect of practical experience on perceptions of assessment authenticity, study appraoch, and learning outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, Judith; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; Bastiaens, Theo

    2008-01-01

    Gulikers, J. T. M., Kester, L., Kirschner, P. A., & Bastiaens, Th. J. (2008). The effect of practical experience on perceptions of assessment authenticity, study appraoch, and learning outcome. Learning and Instruction, 18, 172-186.

  8. Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study Survivors of ... 2011 at a nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan, after an earthquake triggered a massive tsunami shows ...

  9. Study on Dispersion Properties of Photonic Crystal Fiber by Effective-Index Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The group-velocity-dispersion properties of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) were investigated by effective-index model. The relationship between waveguide dispersion and structure parameters: the pitch A and the relative hole size/was studied.

  10. Selection Fairness and Outcomes: A Field Study of Interactive Effects on Applicant Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Schinkel; A. van Vianen; D. van Dierendonck

    2013-01-01

    Despite the vast amount of applicant reactions studies, few have examined combined effects of selection outcomes with perceived procedural and distributive fairness on both personal and organizational reactions. Further, most have been conducted in laboratory settings, limiting external validity. Th

  11. Experimental studies of the energetically effective conditions of grinding of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Ved', V. E.; Aleksina, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The energy effective conditions of milling of solids in a ball mill are experimentally studied. These data support the usefulness of developed techniques to determine the rational parameters of milling and to analyze the energy efficiency of milling equipment.

  12. A study of effect of Nigella sativa oil in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik S. Ghadlinge

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NS oil has hepatoprotective effect. NS oil administration can prevent or reverse the hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 539-546

  13. A Case-Control Study of Effect of Opium Addiction on Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Azimzade-Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI are one of the most important disease which cause mortality and morbidity. Opioid peptides and exogenous opioid such as morphine are known to exert an important cardiovascular effect. To study effect of opium addiction to incidence of MI. A Case-Control study was designed in Kerman university. 150 patients with MI was admitted to CCU and 150 matched patients admitted in surgical wards evaluate from cardiovascular risk factor and opium addiction. Analysis of data suggested no difference between two groups (P>0.05. But smoking OR = 2.45, hypertension OR = 2.65, Diabetes mellitus OR = 1.82 and Hypercholesterolemia OR = 3.16 were a risk factor for MI. Effect of opium in IHD has controversial. But recent of study defined that opioid peptides have a cardioprotective effect. Many exact and longitudinal studies should design for this purpose.

  14. The effect of skeletal pattern on determining articulator settings for prosthodontic rehabilitation: an in vivo study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canning, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During extensive prosthodontic treatment, the use of an accurately adjusted articulator is recommended to simulate mandibular movements. This clinical study was undertaken to assess any possible effect of the underlying skeletal pattern on programming articulator settings.

  15. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...

  16. Study on Destructuring effect of trehalose on water by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Branca, C; Migliardo, F; Magazù, V; Soper, A K

    2002-01-01

    In this work results on trehalose/water solutions by neutron diffraction are reported. The study of the partial structure factors and spatial distribution functions gives evidence of a decreasing tetrahedrality degree of water and justifies its cryoprotectant effectiveness. (orig.)

  17. The effect of normal infant maturation on nuclear medicine studies: editorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brief editorial, the effect of normal infant maturation on nuclear studies is examined with particular reference to renal scintigraphy, regional cerebral blood flow radiopharmaceuticals, ventilation lung scanning, bone scintigraphy and 99Tcm-pertechnetate scans. (author)

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Effective Teaching: A Theory-Based Exploratory Study of Teachers from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingqi; Muñoz, Marco A.; Wu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    There is general agreement that teachers matter the most when it comes to student learning. However, there is an unquestionable need for educators to understand what constitutes effective teaching in K-12 classrooms. This research studied Chinese high school (N = 359) teachers' perceptions of effective teaching using an international theoretical…

  19. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

  20. The Effectiveness of Coursework Assessment in Mathematics Service Courses--Studies at Two Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Susan; Goldfinch, Judy; Searl, John

    2001-01-01

    Describes the introduction and evaluation of the effectiveness of a single group project given at a new university, and 10 individual tasks at an ancient university, to devise appropriate and relevant assessments for first-year service mathematics courses for science and engineering. Studies the effects of these tasks on attitudes toward…