WorldWideScience

Sample records for capamis study effectiveness

  1. Rationale and design of the CAPAMIS study: Effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination against community-acquired pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsench Elisabet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV-23 is recommended for elderly and high-risk people, although its effectiveness is controversial. Some studies have reported an increasing risk of acute vascular events among patients with pneumonia, and a recent case-control study has reported a reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction among patients vaccinated with PPV-23. Given that animal experiments have shown that pneumococcal vaccination reduces the extent of atherosclerotic lesions, it has been hypothesized that PPV-23 could protect against acute vascular events by an indirect effect preventing pneumonia or by a direct effect on oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of PPV-23 in reducing the risk of pneumonia and acute vascular events (related or nonrelated with prior pneumonia in the general population over 60 years. Methods/Design Cohort study including 27,000 individuals 60 years or older assigned to nine Primary Care Centers in the region of Tarragona, Spain. According to the reception of PPV-23 before the start of the study, the study population will be divided into vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups, which will be followed during a consecutive 30-month period. Primary Care and Hospitals discharge databases will initially be used to identify study events (community-acquired pneumonia, hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction and stroke, but all cases will be further validated by checking clinical records. Multivariable Cox regression analyses estimating hazard ratios (adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities will be used to estimate vaccine effectiveness. Discussion The results of the study will contribute to clarify the controversial effect of the PPV-23 in preventing community-acquired pneumonia and they will be critical in determining the posible role of pneumococcal vaccination in cardiovascular prevention.

  2. Clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination against acute myocardial infarction and stroke in people over 60 years: the CAPAMIS study, one-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila-Corcoles Angel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results have been recently reported evaluating the relationship between pneumococcal vaccination and the risk of thrombotic vascular events. This study assessed the clinical effectiveness of the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23 against acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in older adults. Methods Population-based prospective cohort study conducted from December 1, 2008 until November 30, 2009, including all individuals ≥ 60 years-old assigned to nine Primary Care Centres in Tarragona, Spain (N = 27,204 individuals. Primary outcomes were hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction and/or ischaemic stroke. All cases were validated by checking clinical records. The association between pneumococcal vaccination and the risk of each outcome was evaluated by Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models (adjusted by age, sex, influenza vaccine status, presence of comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Results Cohort members were followed for a total of 26,444 person-years, of which 34% were for vaccinated subjects. Overall incidence rates (per 1000 person-years were 4.9 for myocardial infarction and 4.6 for ischaemic stroke. In the multivariable analysis, vaccination was associated with a marginally significant 35% lower risk of stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.99; p = 0.046. We found no evidence for an association between pneumococcal vaccination and reduced risk of myocardial infarction (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.56-1.22; p = 0.347. Conclusions Our data supports a benefit of PPV23 against ischaemic stroke among the general population over 60 years, suggesting a possible protective role of pneumococcal vaccination against some acute thrombotic events.

  3. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  4. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  5. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  6. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Sever, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A principal objective of this program is to determine if there are demonstrable effects of radiation exposure to the Hanford worker by analyzing mortality records of this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly i an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses and initiated new areas of analysis. Complete documentation was provided for our computer program for the mortality study, and a user's manual is under development. A case-control study of birth defects was started in FY 1982

  7. Moessbauer effect studies with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1966-01-01

    Moessbauer resonance studies in the actinide elements offer a new technique for measuring solid-state properties to a region of the periodic chart where such information is relatively sparse. It is well known that the actinides, the elements with atomic numbers from 90 to 103, form a transition series due to filling of the 5f electron shell, analogous to the rare-earth series in which the 4f shell is filled. Like the rare earths, the actinide metals and compounds are expected to exhibit a variety of interesting magnetic properties, but, unlike the rare earths, there have been few studies of the magnetic behaviour of actinides, and these properties are largely unknown. The chemical properties of the actinides have been studied somewhat more extensively, and, in contrast to the rare earths, form a multiplicity of stable valence states, especially in the lighter members of the series. It is just these properties, magnetic and chemical, for which the Moessbauer effect is a valuable probe, sensitive to the magnetic and electric environment of an atom. The rare-earth series has been a particularly fruitful region in terms of the number of elements which have been shown to exhibit the Moessbauer effect, and for this reason the exploitation of the Moessbauer effect to yield new solid-state and chemical information on the rare earths is a highly active field of research today. There is every reason to believe that the actinides can be similarly studied by the Moessbauer effect. 43 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The main purpose of this program is to analyze the mortality of Hanford workers and to determine the effects of radiation exposure in this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly in an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses, submitted papers for publication in the two areas of methodological research, and have interacted with Hanford Environmental Health Foundation staff to improve data collection procedures

  9. Controlled study of ISA effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Lisbeth; Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The present study is a part of the ISA PAYD project being conducted in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. The first part of the study compared background data and attitudes between young ISA-volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers and nonvolunteers differed only with respect to their judgeme...

  10. Cage effect in recoil studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berei, K.

    1983-09-01

    The role of cage effect is one of the most discussed questions of hot atom chemistry in condensed organic systems. So far no direct evidence is available for assessing the exact contribution of thermal recombinations occurring in the liquid cage to the stabilization processes of recoil atoms. However, some conclusions can be drawn from experimental observations concerning the influence on product yield of hot atom recoil spectra, the effects of density, phase and long range order of the medium as well as from comparisons with systems providing cage walls of different chemical reactivities towards the recoil atom. Recent developments in this field are reviewed based primarily on the investigations of recoil halogen reactions in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and their haloderivatives. (author)

  11. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  12. Fostering effective studying and study planning with study questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.; Pieters, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the

  13. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  14. Study of biological effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guisheng

    1992-01-01

    The some progress on the study of biological effect for protract exposure to low dose rate radiation is reported, and it is indicated that the potential risk of this exposure for the human health and the importance of the routine monitoring of radiation dose for various nuclear installations. The potential exposure to the low dose rate radiation would attract people's extra attention

  15. Study of irradiation effect on curcuma polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejeb, Imen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin (Curcuma Longa rhizome) component, particularly the polyphenolic fraction. Powdered rhizome was irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 15 KGy (dose rate of 6 KGy / H). Polyphenolics were extracted and total polyphenols conent (TPC) was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The irradiation effect was also evaluated by the HPLC technique. The chromatographic analysis showed that the irradiated and non-irradiated curcumin spectrum gave similar data. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the phenolic extracts were also assessed. the anti oxidative potential of the sample was evaluated using two radical scavenging methods with DPPH and ABTS. The antimicrobial analysis showed that the phenolic extracts of curcumin inhibited the growth of the studied microorganisms. Our results showed that irradiated samples were not affected in terms of polyphenols content and characteristics. (Author)

  16. Study of Cytotoxic Effects of Benzonitrile Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Lovecka, Petra; Thimova, Marketa; Grznarova, Petra; Lipov, Jan; Knejzlik, Zdenek; Stiborova, Hana; Nindhia, Tjokorda Gde Tirta; Demnerova, Katerina; Ruml, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The benzonitrile herbicides bromoxynil, chloroxynil, dichlobenil, and ioxynil have been used actively worldwide to control weeds in agriculture since 1970s. Even though dichlobenil is prohibited in EU since 2008, studies addressing the fate of benzonitrile herbicides in the environment show that some metabolites of these herbicides are very persistent. We tested the cytotoxic effects of benzonitrile herbicides and their microbial metabolites using two human cell lines, Hep G2 and HEK293T, rep...

  17. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  18. Studies of the subsurface effects of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the National Terminal Waste Storage Program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting a series of studies on the subsurface effects of earthquakes. This report summarizes three subcontracted studies. (1) Earthquake damage to underground facilities: the purpose of this study was to document damage and nondamage caused by earthquakes to tunnels and shallow underground openings; to mines and other deep openings; and to wells, shafts, and other vertical facilities. (2) Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities: the study included an analysis of block motion, an analysis of the dependence of displacement on the orientation and distance of joints from the earthquake source, and displacement related to distance and depth near a causative fault as a result of various shapes, depths, and senses of movement on the causative fault. (3) Numerical simulation of earthquake effects on tunnels for generic nuclear waste repositories: the objective of this study was to use numerical modeling to determine under what conditions seismic waves might cause instability of an underground opening or create fracturing that would increase the permeability of the rock mass

  19. Study of radioprotective effect of the resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Carolina dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5 trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin occurring naturally in a wide variety of plants, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is present at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. This high capacity to scavenge the free radicals generated by several biologic processes by resveratrol can provide a prevention of human cardiovascular diseases and several types of cancer. The main objective of this study was to determine the in vitro radioprotective effect of resveratrol in cell culture with the aid of the tests of cytotoxicity of resveratrol (IC50%) and lethal dose 50% of gamma radiation (LD50). Studies of the level of resveratrol toxicity, found by cytotoxicity test performed by neutral red uptake assay, and lethal dose 50% (LD50) of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) was performed in cell culture NCTC Clone 929 from ATCC. The IC50% of resveratrol was about 50 M/L. The DL50 of gamma radiation showed a value of about 354 Gy. On the basis of these biological results, it was performed studies of radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the same experimental conditions, verifying that the resveratrol in concentrations between 12.5 M/L and 25 M/L showed a more pronounced radioprotective effect. (author)

  20. Study on effects of vitamin E on radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Sumihiko

    1974-01-01

    The effect of Vitamin E on radiation effect was studied. The X-ray (190 kV, 25 mA, 0.7 mmCu + 0.5 mmAl filter, dose rate 78 R/min) was irradiated to the whole body one hour after the administration of 1.0 g/kg of Vitamin E. The LD 50 (30) was larger in the group receiving Vitamin E than in the group which did not receive it. The rate at which tumor cells were killed was smaller in Vitamin E-treated group than in untreated group. The anoxic cell proportion in the tumor was 13% in the untreated group, and 35% in the treated group. The LD 50 (30) was largest in the group receiving 1.0 g/kg of Vitamin E. (Serizawa, K.)

  1. Study of Cytotoxic Effects of Benzonitrile Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecka, Petra; Thimova, Marketa; Grznarova, Petra; Lipov, Jan; Knejzlik, Zdenek; Stiborova, Hana; Nindhia, Tjokorda Gde Tirta; Demnerova, Katerina; Ruml, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The benzonitrile herbicides bromoxynil, chloroxynil, dichlobenil, and ioxynil have been used actively worldwide to control weeds in agriculture since 1970s. Even though dichlobenil is prohibited in EU since 2008, studies addressing the fate of benzonitrile herbicides in the environment show that some metabolites of these herbicides are very persistent. We tested the cytotoxic effects of benzonitrile herbicides and their microbial metabolites using two human cell lines, Hep G2 and HEK293T, representing liver and kidneys as potential target organs in humans. The cell viability and proliferation were determined by MTT test and RTCA DP Analyzer system, respectively. The latter allows real-time monitoring of the effect of added substances. As the cytotoxic compounds could compromise cell membrane integrity, the lactate dehydrogenase test was performed as well. We observed high toxic effects of bromoxynil, chloroxynil, and ioxynil on both tested cell lines. In contrast, we determined only low inhibition of cell growth in presence of dichlobenil and microbial metabolites originating from the tested herbicides. PMID:26339609

  2. Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Hui; Li Maohe; Lin Suqin

    1994-09-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water is introduced in two parts. The first part is an in vitro study in which CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 6 Bq/ml) for 24 ∼ 96 h and the accumulated dose was from 0.055 to 0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to gamma rays of 137 Cs was tested. Based on the transformation rates, the RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6. The second part is an in vivo study. In the study, rats were fed with tritiated water (2.22 x 10 5 and 1.11 x 10 5 Bq/ml) for 1.5 a. Rats in control group were fed with tap water. Results showed that in the statistics, the differences in the total tumor incidence and malignant tumor incidence between high and low dose rate groups and control groups were remarkably significant

  3. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N 2 , and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10 15 /cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 μsec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 μF, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption

  4. Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins or polars and aromatic fractions show a negative correlation with the dispersant effectiveness. Viscosity is also a predictor of dispersant effectiveness and may have an effect because it is in turn determined by oil composition. Dispersant composition is significant and interacts with oil composition. Dispersants show high effectiveness at HLB values near 10. Sea turbulence strongly affects dispersant effectiveness.Effectiveness rises with increasing turbulence to a maximum value. Effectiveness for current commercial dispersants is gaussian around a peak salinity value. Peak effectiveness is achieved at very high dispersant quantities--at a ratio of 1:5, dispersant-to-oil volume. Dispersant effectiveness for those oils tested and under the conditions measured, is approximately logarithmic with dispersant quantity and will reach about 50% of its peak value at a dispersant to oil ratio of about 1:20 and near zero at a ratio of about 1:50

  5. Global study of quadrupole correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Bertsch, G.F.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the systematics of ground-state quadrupole correlations of binding energies and mean-square charge radii for all even-even nuclei, from 16 O up to the superheavies, for which data are available. To that aim we calculate their correlated J=0 ground state by means of the angular-momentum and particle-number projected generator coordinate method, using the axial mass quadrupole moment as the generator coordinate and self-consistent mean-field states restricted only by axial, parity, and time-reversal symmetries. The calculation is performed within the framework of a nonrelativistic self-consistent mean-field model by use of the same Skyrme interaction SLy4 and to a density-dependent pairing force to generate the mean-field configurations and to mix them. These are the main conclusions of our study: (i) The quadrupole correlation energy varies between a few 100 keV and about 5.5 MeV. It is affected by shell closures, but varies only slightly with mass and asymmetry. (ii) Projection on angular momentum J=0 provides the major part of the energy gain of up to about 4 MeV; all nuclei in the study, including doubly magic ones, gain energy by deformation. (iii) The mixing of projected states with different intrinsic axial deformations adds a few 100 keV up to 1.5 MeV to the correlation energy. (iv) Typically nuclei below mass A≤60 have a larger correlation energy than static deformation energy whereas the heavier deformed nuclei have larger static deformation energy than correlation energy. (v) Inclusion of the quadrupole correlation energy improves the description of mass systematics, particularly around shell closures, and of differential quantities, namely two-nucleon separation energies and two-nucleon gaps. The correlation energy provides an explanation of 'mutually enhanced magicity'. (vi) The correlation energy tends to decrease the shell effect on binding energies around magic numbers, but the magnitude of the suppression is not large enough to explain

  6. Studies on the memory effect in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.A.; Burillo, G.; Charlesby, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyethylene films of LDPE, a commercial product of PEMEX Mexico, with three different thicknesses were stretched from 1 cm to various lengths, and irradiated in air and in vacuum, at doses from 0 to 730 kGy. The effect of stretching on the ''memory effect'', % of gel formed, crystallinity, radio-chemical yield of crosslinking G c and scission G d was determined. Maximum shrinking effect is obtained at temperatures above the crystalline melting point, and is almost the same at any irradiation dose, from 0 to 525 kGy; in the case of doses from 713 kGy up, the recovery decreases slightly due to higher density of crosslinking. The increase of draw ratio from 5 to 6.5 has no significant effect on recovery. Preirradiation of 40 kGy in air before stretching has no significant effect on recovery but minimizes possible creep during the stretching and irradiation process. (author)

  7. LISTENING FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: A STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... In almost every human interaction, listening plays a vital role and so ... provided in order enhance effective communication. ... listening as “a deliberate process through which we seek to understand and retain aural (heard).

  8. Effect of study context on item recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2010-07-01

    We examined how visual context information provided during encoding, and unrelated to the target word, affected later recollection for words presented alone using a remember-know paradigm. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that participants had better overall memory-specifically, recollection-for words studied with pictures of intact faces than for words studied with pictures of scrambled or inverted faces. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that recollection was higher for words studied with pictures of faces than when no image accompanied the study word. In Experiment 3 participants showed equivalent memory for words studied with unique faces as for those studied with a repeatedly presented face. Results suggest that recollection benefits when visual context information high in meaningful content accompanies study words and that this benefit is not related to the uniqueness of the context. We suggest that participants use elaborative processes to integrate item and meaningful contexts into ensemble information, improving subsequent item recollection.

  9. Effects of curriculum organisation on study progress in engineering studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van der; Jansen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Procrastination and time investment are important issues in the study of student performance and progress. Previous research on these issues has mainly concentrated upon individual differences between students in personality and time management skills. However, study progress depends not only on

  10. Effects of curriculum organisation on study progress in engineering studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, M.; Jansen, E.P.W.A.

    Procrastination and time investment are important issues in the study of student performance and progress. Previous research on these issues has mainly concentrated upon individual differences between students in personality and time management skills. However, study progress depends not only on

  11. Study of ageing effects in aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Coluzza, C.; Longo, G.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Negri, P.; Perego, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ageing effects on aerogel due to irradiation and absorption of humidity have been investigated. Aerogel tiles have been exposed to γ radiation from a 60 Co source and to proton and neutron high intensity beams. The transmittance has been monitored in the wavelength range between 200 and 800 nm, determining the clarity factor C as a function of the increasing dose of irradiation. The index of refraction n was also measured

  12. Study of ageing effects in aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Bellunato, T F; Coluzza, C; Longo, G; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L

    2004-01-01

    Ageing effects on aerogel due to irradiation and absorption of humidity have been investigated. Aerogel tiles have been exposed to gamma radiation from a 60-Co source and to proton and neutron high intensity beams. The transmittance has been monitored in the wavelength range between 200 nm and 800 nm, determining the clarity factor C as a function of the increasing dose of irradiation. The index of refraction n was also measured.

  13. Breakdown Cause and Effect Analysis. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Witold; Ružbarský, Juraj

    2018-06-01

    Every company must ensure that the production process proceeds without interferences. Within this article, the author uses the term "interferences" in reference to unplanned stoppages caused by breakdowns. Unfortunately, usually due to machine operators' mistakes, machines break, which causes stoppages thus generating additional costs for the company. This article shows a cause and effect analysis of a breakdown in a production process. The FMEA as well as quality management tools: the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto chart were used for the analysis. Correction measures were presented which allowed for a significant reduction in the number of stoppages caused by breakdowns.

  14. Study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuboyama, Satoshi; Shindou, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Fine structure of the recent semiconductor devices has made them more sensitive to the space radiation environment with trapped high-energy protons and heavy ions. A new failure mode caused by bulk damage had been reported on such devices with small structure, and its effect on commercial synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAMs) was analyzed from the irradiation test results performed at Heavy ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Single event upset (SEU) data of static random access memory (SRAMs) were also collected to establish the method of estimating the proton-induced SEU rate from the results of heavy ion irradiation tests. (authors)

  15. Effective communication. A Platonic case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, Gerry C.; Wieling, Martijn; Kroon, Martin; Van Noord, Gertjan

    As a contribution to the valedictory volume for John Nerbonne I present a case study of two thematically similar passages in Plato where I will make use of an analysis based on discourse cohesion and above all on the rhetorical and manipulative use of particles to show how a single (leading)

  16. Studying Crystal Growth With the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David J., Jr.; Dressler, B.; Silberstein, R. P.; Poit, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Peltier interface demarcation (PID) shown useful as aid in studying heat and mass transfer during growth of crystals from molten material. In PID, two dissimilar "metals" solid and liquid phases of same material. Current pulse passed through unidirectionally solidifying sample to create rapid Peltier thermal disturbance at liquid/solid interface. Disturbance, measured by thermocouple stationed along path of solidification at or near interface, provides information about position and shape of interface.

  17. Effective Business Planning : Case Study: Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    A business planning process plays one of the most important roles in a company. A business plan can either provide stablility and prosperity to a company or drastically worsen its state. Thus, the recommendations for efficient business plans are very useful for companies that have some difficulties with their perfomance. The thesis has a deductive approach, and the qualitative research method was chosen as primary data was collected through desk study and interviews. The secondary data wa...

  18. Effects of radon in indoor air studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon is an odorless, tasteless and colourless radioactive noble gas that enters indoor air from the ground. Radon causes lung cancer. A committee set up to evaluate the health risks of chemical substances has been drafting a report on radon, which will compile the major research findings on the lung cancer risk posed by radon. Animal tests have shown that even small doses of radon can cause lung cancer. Smokers seem to contract radon-induced lung cancer more readily than non-smokers. Because research findings have been conflicting, however, it is not known exactly how high the risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon exposure really is. Several major research projects are under way to obtain increasingly accurate risk assessments. An on-going European joint project brings together several studies - some already finished, some still being worked on. In this way it will be possible to get more accurate risk assessments than from individual studies. In order to prevent lung cancer, it is important to continue the work of determining and reducing radon connects and to combat smoking. (orig.)

  19. Studies on chronic effect on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.K.; Kang, T.U.; Yun, Y.S.; Chung, I.Y.; Koh, J. W.; Kim, J.W.; Ryu, Y.W.

    1983-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic harzard of Co-60 low dose irradiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be a major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages as specified below were exposed to 60 m rads/week, 500 m rads/biweek of whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period and each period from the 1st week to the 3rd week to the 52nd week, from the 6th week to the 52nd week and from the 22nd week to the 52nd week after the birth. All the experimental mice were autopsied immediately after sacrificed at the 52nd week. And all of their major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells-W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  20. Study of Tungsten effect on CFETR performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengyu; Xiang Gao Collaboration; Guoqiang Li Collaboration; Nan Shi Collaboration; Vincent Chan Collaboration; Xiang Jian Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    An integrated modeling workflow using OMFIT/TGYRO is constructed to evaluate W impurity effects on China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) performance. Self-consistent modeling of tungsten(W) core density profile, accounting for turbulence and neoclassical transport, is performed based on the CFETR steady-state scenario developed by D.Zhao (ZhaoDeng, APS, 2016). It's found that the fusion performance degraded in a limited level with increasing W concentration. The main challenge arises in sustainment of H-mode with significant W radiation. Assuming the power threshold of H-L back transition is approximately the same as that of L-H transition, using the scaling law of Takizuka (Takizuka etc, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 2004), it is found that the fractional W concentration should not exceed 3e-5 to stay in H-mode for CFETR phase I. A future step is to connect this requirement to W wall erosion modeling. We are grateful to Dr. Emiliano Fable and Dr. Thomas Pütterich and Ms. Emily Belli for very helpful discussions and comments. We also would like to express our thanks to all the members of the CFETR Physics Group, and we appreciate the General Atomic Theory Group for permission to use the OMFIT framework and GA code suite, and for their valuable technical support. Numerical computations were performed on the ShenMa High Performance Computing Cluster in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This work was mainly supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014GB110001, 2014GB110002, 2014GB110003) and supported in part by the National ITER Plans Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013GB106001, 2013GB111002, 2015GB110001).

  1. Study of Wind Effects on Unique Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenkov, V.; Puzyrev, P.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with a numerical simulation of wind effects on the building of the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin in the village Bulzi of the Chelyabinsk region. We presented a calculation algorithm and obtained pressure fields, velocity fields and the fields of kinetic energy of a wind stream, as well as streamlines. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) evolved three decades ago at the interfaces of calculus mathematics and theoretical hydromechanics and has become a separate branch of science the subject of which is a numerical simulation of different fluid and gas flows as well as the solution of arising problems with the help of methods that involve computer systems. This scientific field which is of a great practical value is intensively developing. The increase in CFD-calculations is caused by the improvement of computer technologies, creation of multipurpose easy-to-use CFD-packagers that are available to a wide group of researchers and cope with various tasks. Such programs are not only competitive in comparison with physical experiments but sometimes they provide the only opportunity to answer the research questions. The following advantages of computer simulation can be pointed out: a) Reduction in time spent on design and development of a model in comparison with a real experiment (variation of boundary conditions). b) Numerical experiment allows for the simulation of conditions that are not reproducible with environmental tests (use of ideal gas as environment). c) Use of computational gas dynamics methods provides a researcher with a complete and ample information that is necessary to fully describe different processes of the experiment. d) Economic efficiency of computer calculations is more attractive than an experiment. e) Possibility to modify a computational model which ensures efficient timing (change of the sizes of wall layer cells in accordance with the chosen turbulence model).

  2. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sterilisation effect study on granular hydroxyapatite (HA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidu, M.F.; Mashita, M.; Khadijah, K.; Fazan, F.; Khalid, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a calcium phosphate bio ceramic that has been shown by many authors to be biocompatible with bioactive properties. It is widely accepted as the best synthetic material available for surgical use as a bone graft substitute. HA granules produced by Amerce-SIRIM from local materials underwent 5 types of sterilisation techniques with different ageing periods. Samples were tested for chemical and phase composition and microbial contamination before and after being sterilised. From the microbiological tests done, none of the unsterilised positive control yielded a positive culture. Results from X-Ray diffraction studies found that all the sterilisation techniques did not chemically degrade or structurally change the HA granules significantly. (Author)

  4. The Foucault Effect in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Mennicken, Andrea; Miller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    s. Here, an important body of international research investigating governmental technologies operating on subjects as free persons in sites such as education, accounting, medicine and psychiatry emerged. The fourth and last wave arose out of a critical engagement with earlier Foucauldian......Since the establishment of Organization Studies in 1980, Michel Foucault’s oeuvre has had a remarkable and continuing influence on its field. This article traces the different ways in which organizational scholars have engaged with Foucault’s writings over the past thirty years or so. We identify...... of the twentieth century, the second wave led to a focus on discourses as intermediaries that condition ways of viewing and acting. This wave drew mainly on Foucault’s early writings on language and discourse. The third wave was inspired by Foucault’s seminal lectures on governmentality towards the end of the 1970...

  5. Gas Gun Studies of Interface Wear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tyler; Kennedy, Greg; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of interface wear were studied by performing gas gun experiments at velocities up to 1 km/s. The approach involved developing coefficients of constitutive strength models for Al 6061 and OFHC-Cu, then using those to design die geometry for interface wear gas gun experiments. Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments were performed to obtain coefficients of the Johnson-Cook constitutive strength model by correlating experimentally obtained deformed states of impacted samples with those predicted using ANSYS AUTODYN hydrocode. Simulations were used with validated strength models to design geometry involving acceleration of Al rods through a copper concentric cylindrical angular extrusion die. Experiments were conducted using 7.62 mm and 80 mm diameter gas guns. Differences in the microstructure of the interface layer and microhardness values illustrate that stress-strain conditions produced during acceleration of Al through the hollow concentric copper die, at velocities less than 800 m/s, result in formation of a layer via solid state alloying due to severe plastic deformation, while higher velocities produce an interface layer consisting of melted and re-solidified aluminum.

  6. Study on Electrochromic Effect of Polyaniline Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienda Handojo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The light transmission factor of an electrochromic film changes reversibly with the application of an electrical voltage. Thereby the transparent film becomes reversibly opaque so that it may be used to control light transmission. In this paper the results of a study on polyaniline film as an electrochromic active material is reported. Polyaniline looks yellow transparent in the reduced state and turns to green-blue at its oxidized state. The electrochromic device considered in this paper was fabricated in planar configuration of ITO glass - polyaniline film - electrolyte - ITO glass which involved 1.0M H2SO4 solution. The measurement of the current density yields voltamograms for several values of the rate of voltage change, while the optical  characteristics were measured with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. To inspect the light control properties, the intensity of solar radiation propagating through the device was derived. It is found that in its reduced state, the device transmits 70% of the incoming radiation, while in the oxidized state only 11% of the radiation is left. The result of recycling test indicated that film is stable over 5,000 cycles.

  7. School leadership effects revisited: a review of empirical studies guided by indirect-effect models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Maria A.; Scheerens, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen leadership effect studies that used indirect-effect models were quantitatively analysed to explore the most promising mediating variables. The results indicate that total effect sizes based on indirect-effect studies appear to be low, quite comparable to the results of some meta-analyses of

  8. Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education: an overview of empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, Inge F.; Janssens, F.J.G.

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of

  9. Study of total ionization dose effects in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, T.S.; Bhattacharyya, Anindya; Gour, Aditya; Behera, R.P.; Jayanthi, T.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation effects in electronic devices are a major challenge in the dependable application developments of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems. The main radiation effects are total ionization dose (TID) effects, displacement damage dose (DDD) effects and single event effects (SEE). In this study, we are concentrating on TID effects in electronic devices. The focus of the study is mainly on SRAM based field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) along with that the devices of our interest are voltage regulators, flash memory and optocoupler. The experiments are conducted by exposing the devices to gamma radiation in power off condition and the degradation in the performances are analysed

  10. Team effectiveness in academic medical libraries: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elaine Russo

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams.

  11. Mixed-effects and fMRI studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friston, K.J; Stephan, K.E; Ellegaard Lund, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This note concerns mixed-effect (MFX) analyses in multisession functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. It clarifies the relationship between mixed-effect analyses and the two-stage 'summary statistics' procedure (Holmes, A.P., Friston, K.J., 1998. Generalisability, random effects...

  12. Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Total Saikosaponins. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the ...

  13. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  14. Study of memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinwoo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films. We found that optical responses, such as the memory effects, of the films depended strongly on the morphology. For example, memory effects were observed for films with polymer ball morphologies; however, only weak hysteresis effects were observed for films with droplet morphologies. In particular, a stronger memory effect was observed for films with more complicated polymer ball structures. Coincidentally, T TE , the temperature at which the memory state is thermally erased, was generally higher for the films exhibiting a stronger memory effect. In addition, studies of the temporal evolution of the films show that the memory effects become stronger after films have been kept on the shelf for a period of time. This change is likely to be associated with a modification of surface anchoring properties at the LC-polymer interface.

  15. Isotope effects: definitions and consequences for pharmacologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Langenhove, A.

    1986-01-01

    The use of stable isotope-labeled compounds for pharmacologic studies requires careful consideration of the nature of the stable isotope label (2H, 13C, 15N, 18O) and its position of incorporation in the molecule. When deuterium is used, improper positioning can lead to significant primary isotope effects. Primary isotope effects occur when the breaking of the bond to the heavy isotope is the rate-limiting step in a reaction (or metabolic transformation). A reaction will proceed slower for the molecule with the heavy isotope label because of the mass difference between the light and the heavy isotope. In addition to these primary isotope effects, smaller but nevertheless important secondary isotope effects, physicochemical isotope effects, active hydrogen/deuterium exchange, or isotope effects associated with either the enzyme-catalyzed biotransformation or the mass spectrometric ionization and fragmentation can be operative. In mechanistic studies, isotope effects are used to their advantage; however, in pharmacokinetic studies, the occurrence of isotope effects can lead to grossly misleading biologic and analytic results: the metabolism of the drug will differ when in vivo isotope effects are operative, and isotope effects occurring during the analysis procedure will obscure the true metabolic profile of the drug

  16. The Effect of Using Case Studies in Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariseau, Susan E.; Kezim, Boualem

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect on learning of using case studies in business statistics courses. The authors divided students into 3 groups: a control group, a group that completed 1 case study, and a group that completed 3 case studies. Results evidenced that, on average, students whom the authors required to complete a case analysis received…

  17. Study of the effects of radon in three biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Brena, M.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Villalobos P, R.

    2002-01-01

    The radon and its decay products are responsible of the 3/4 parts of the exposure of the persons to the environmental radiation. The discovery at the end of XIX Century of the illnesses, mainly of cancer, which appeared in the presence of radon, lead to an accelerated growing of the radon studies: monitoring, dosimetry, effects on the persons, etc. Several epidemiological studies of radon in miners and population in general have been realized; advancing in the knowledge about the concentration-lung cancer risk relationship, but with discrepancies in the results depending on the concentration levels. Therefor, studies which consuming time, efforts and money go on doing. The research of the radon effects in biological systems different to human, allows to realize studies in less time, in controlled conditions and generally at lower cost, generating information about the alpha radiation effects in the cellular field. Therefor it was decided to study the response of three biological systems exposed to radon: an unicellular bacteria Escherichia Coli which was exposed directly to alpha particles from an electrodeposited source for determining the sensitivity limit of the chose technique. A plant, Tradescantia, for studying the cytogenetic effect of the system exposed to controlled concentrations of radon. An insect, Drosophila Melanogaster, for studying the genetic effects and the accumulated effects in several generations exposed to radon. In this work the experimental settlements are presented for the expositions of the systems and the biological results commenting the importance of these. (Author)

  18. Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in Fenugreek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shagufta

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... improvement, the basic studies on effectiveness and efficiency of a mutagen in a crop are necessary to recover high frequency of desirable mutations (Kumar and Mani, 1997; Badere and Chaudhary, 2007). Mutagenic effectiveness is an index of the response of a genotype to the increasing doses of the ...

  19. Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noordt, Maaike; IJzelenberg, Helma; Droomers, Mariël; Proper, Karin I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of employment. A search for prospective studies investigating the effect of employment on health was executed in several electronic databases, and references of selected publications were checked.

  20. Listening for effective communication: A study of undergraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In almost every human interaction, listening plays a vital role and so determines the effectiveness of such communication events. Sadly the comportment of many university undergraduates during lectures leaves much to be desired. This to a large extent impedes their communication effectiveness. The purpose of this study ...

  1. A study on the effect of macroeconomic variables and firm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the effect of macroeconomic variables and firm characteristics on the quality of financial reporting of listed firms in Tehran Stock Exchange. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ...

  2. Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic Upper ... they are associated with a complex relationship between individual, work-related and ... in chronic upper quadrant musculoskeletal dysfunction and work productivity ...

  3. Genetic and histopathology studies on mice: effect of fenugreek oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2006-03-01

    Mar 1, 2006 ... There is a growing interest in understanding the biological effect of ..... induced breast cancer was shown in rats. ... four different organs studied (liver, kidney, stomach, ... underway to unravel the molecular mechanism that.

  4. Team effectiveness in academic medical libraries: a multiple case study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Martin, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. Methods: The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Findings: Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Conclusions: Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams. PMID:16888659

  5. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Case study of a framing effect in course evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynöe, Niels; Juth, Niklas; Helgesson, Gert

    2012-01-01

    When new elements are included in the medical curriculum and the total time frame remains unchanged, established disciplines have to shorten their courses. This might bring about frustration among the teachers and students concerned, which in turn might affect how other courses are perceived. Two course evaluations, one before and one after a major change in the curriculum were compared. Comments were also analysed. We found that the students' and teachers' frustration influenced the students' evaluations of a new course in the philosophy of medicine and accordingly brought about an unintended message effect referred to as a framing effect. The results of this observational study indicate that a negative framing effect might influence course-evaluations. We suggest that this study might be used as a point of departure for further empirical studies about negative framing effects.

  7. Effective Information Technology Governance Mechanisms: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of information technology (IT, as a strategic factor for organizations in achieving their objectives, have raised the concern of organizations in establishing and implementing effective IT governance. This study seeks to empirically examine the individual IT governance mechanisms that influence the overall effectiveness of IT governance. The data were obtained by using web based survey from 176 members of ISACA (Information Systems and Audit Control Association Australia. This study examines the influences of six proposed IT governance mechanisms on the overall effectiveness of IT governance. Using Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression techniques, the current study finds significant positive relationships between the overall level of effective IT governance and the following four IT governance mechanisms: the existence of ethics/ culture of compliance in IT, corporate communication systems, an IT strategy committee, and the involvement of senior management in IT.

  8. Three conjectures about school effectiveness: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelande H. Hofman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness. Our review of previous evidence prompted us to look at three sets of factors connected with classroom teachers, school policies and processes, and matters of governance. All three have featured prominently in the public arena. In particular, we look for the relative contributions of teacher-, school-, and governance indicators for educational effectiveness (measured by Math achievement. About 100 Dutch primary schools form the database together with findings of international school effectiveness research (studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. School-level variables are the most substantial in explaining educational effectiveness. The sector effect (public/private explains 16% of the between school variance, other school-level variables explain 51%, and the teacher- or classroom-level variables explain 32%. Some of the underlying variables are identified and we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness.

  9. Can We Teach Effective Listening? An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersz, Donella; Stasinska, Ania

    2015-01-01

    Listening is not the same as hearing. While hearing is a physiological process, listening is a conscious process that requires us to be mentally attentive (Low & Sonntag, 2013). The obvious place for scholarship about listening is in communication studies. While interested in listening, the focus of this study is on effective listening.…

  10. Realism and Romance: The Study of Media Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Gaye

    1993-01-01

    Compares and contrasts two studies representing diametrical approaches (Romanticism versus Realism) toward the issue of agency and media effects: P. Willis's "Common Culture" and W. A. Gamson's "Talking Politics." Argues that both studies find that people make their own uses of media. (SR)

  11. The Study of the Effects of Cognitive Restructuring Therapy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an extract from a larger study. The study investigated the relative effectiveness of Cognitive Restructuring (C.R) therapy in the reduction of cigarette smoking behaviour of undergraduate students from South West of Nigeria. The research followed a pre test post test control group design. sixty volunteer ...

  12. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by

  13. Learning about the effectiveness of teacher education: A Chilean study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reviews some of the problems faced by teacher education in general and in Chile specifically, and on this basis, presents the results of a study focused on the effects of six teacher education programmes on future primary level teachers' learning of mathematics and mathematics pedagogy. The study describes ...

  14. Study of Effective Alternative Education Programs: Final Grant Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Poirier, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings of a study conducted to identify the components of systems that effectively meet the diverse, ever changing needs of children with disabilities for whom traditional school settings do not work. A secondary goal of this study was to develop a conceptually clear and empirically grounded definition of alternative…

  15. Comparative Study on the Effects of Crude Extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.

  16. Observational studies in systematic [corrected] reviews of comparative effectiveness: AHRQ and the Effective Health Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Susan L; Atkins, David; Bruening, Wendy; Fox, Steven; Johnson, Eric; Kane, Robert; Morton, Sally C; Oremus, Mark; Ospina, Maria; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Schoelles, Karen; Shekelle, Paul; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-11-01

    Systematic reviewers disagree about the ability of observational studies to answer questions about the benefits or intended effects of pharmacotherapeutic, device, or procedural interventions. This study provides a framework for decision making on the inclusion of observational studies to assess benefits and intended effects in comparative effectiveness reviews (CERs). The conceptual model and recommendations were developed using a consensus process by members of the methods workgroup of the Effective Health Care Program of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. In considering whether to use observational studies in CERs for addressing beneficial effects, reviewers should answer two questions: (1) Are there gaps in the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)? (2) Will observational studies provide valid and useful information? The latter question involves the following: (a) refocusing the study questions on gaps in the evidence from RCTs, (b) assessing the risk of bias of the body of evidence of observational studies, and (c) assessing whether available observational studies address the gap review questions. Because it is unusual to find sufficient evidence from RCTs to answer all key questions concerning benefit or the balance of benefits and harms, comparative effectiveness reviewers should routinely assess the appropriateness of inclusion of observational studies for questions of benefit. Furthermore, reviewers should explicitly state the rationale for inclusion or exclusion of observational studies when conducting CERs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of neutron irradiation effects at IPNS-REF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    Neutron irradiation effects studies at the Radiation Effects Facility (REF) at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are reviewed. A brief history of the development of this user facility is followed by an overview of the scientific program. Experiments unique to a spallation neutron source are covered in more detail. Future direction of research at this facility is suggested

  18. First study of hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Dourado, Fernanda Aparecida; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2017-10-05

    The use of fungicides is common in mushroom cultivation, but no study was carried out applying reduced doses of fungicides in order to increase yield, taking account the hormesis effect. The aim of this manuscript was to verify the effects of different concentrations of fungicides to stimulate the productivity of different strains of Agaricus bisporus. Two stages were developed, an in vitro study to define the best concentration to be applied in the second experiment an agronomic study, which consisted of the application of the selected fungicides, in their respective concentrations, in an experiment carried out in the mushroom chamber. Clearly, the result of the hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation can be verified. The results obtained in the 1st stage of the study (in vitro) were not always reproduced in the 2nd stage of the study (in vivo). The kresoxim methyl active ingredient may be an important chemical agent, while strain ABI 15/01 may be an extremely important biological agent to increase yield in the study of hormesis effects.

  19. A Review Study on the Beneficial Effects of Baduanjin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liye; Pan, Zhujun; Yeung, Albert; Talwar, Saira; Wang, Chaoyi; Liu, Yang; Shu, Yankai; Chen, Xiaoan; Thomas, Garrett Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Baduanjin, a Chinese traditional Qigong exercise that focuses on a mind-body integration, is considered to be an effective exercise in promoting health. Thus, we systematically and critically evaluated the emerging literature relating to the effects of Baduanjin on health outcomes. We used seven English-language electronic databases for the literature search. At least one health-related parameter was reported in retrievable full-text Baduanjin intervention studies. A total of 22 eligible studies were included. The inter-rater reliability between two review authors was 94.4% for selecting eligible studies. The results of individual studies support the notion that Baduanjin may be effective as an adjunctive rehabilitation method for improving cognitive functions in addition to psychological and physiological parameters among different age groups and various clinical populations (e.g., Parkinson's disease, chronic neck pain, chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness, psychological illness). Before we draw a definitive conclusion relating to Baduanjin for health benefits, more methodologically rigorous studies with a long-term follow-up assessment should be further conducted to examine the effects of Baduanjin on health-related parameters and disease-specific measures in different health conditions. This review lends insight for future studies on Baduanjin and its potential application in preventive medicine and rehabilitation science.

  20. Effects of environment temperature rise on marine life. Bibliographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Eustache, M.; Vilquin, A.

    1973-12-01

    The effects of a temperature rise in the marine environment resulting from thermal wastes have already been covered by many studies. A body of data acquired on this subject, in the biological field, experimentally and in situ are reviewed. To this are added data concerning the major effects associated with the use of cooling systems, drag effect exerted on organisms by the pumping system and consequences due to the use of anti-fouling substances, as well as some ideas concerning the potential use of thermal wastes in the field of aquaculture [fr

  1. Radioisotope studies of some effects and interactions of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The coordinated programme of ''isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture'', initiated in 1973, had involved the participation of 12 scientists from 10 countries. Pesticide residues, toxic metals, atmospheric sulphur dioxide were studied, and the use of radiotracer techniques as monitoring tools for existing contaminant levels or for their biological effects. The programme had been successful in the development and application of selected labelled substrate techniques. Specific aspects studied were the effects of environmental contaminants at the molecular level of the cell nucleus, the development and significance of radioimmunoassay procedure for trace contaminants, action and joint action of toxic elements, and the radiometric analysis of cholinesterase as an index of exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Ten papers were presented and 12 coordinated investigations discussed. A number of recommendations were made

  2. Effective factors in providing holistic care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Jasemi, Madineh; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Taleghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses' provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis) software. Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  3. Numerical study on aerodynamics of banked wing in ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional airplane, a WIG craft experiences righting moment and adverse yaw moment in banked turning in ground effect. Numerical simulations are carried out to study the aerodynamics of banked wing in ground effect. Configurations of rectangular wing and delta wing are considered, and performance of endplates and ailerons during banking are also studied. The study shows that righting moment increase nonlinearly with heeling angle, and endplates enhance the righting. The asymmetric aerodynamic distribution along span of wing with heeling angle introduces adverse yaw moment. Heeling in ground effect with small ground clearance increases the vertical aerodynamic force and makes WIG craft climb. Deflections of ailerons introduce lift decrease and a light pitching motion. Delta wing shows advantage in banked turning for smaller righting moment and adverse yaw moment during banking.

  4. STUDY OF THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mehmood Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the toxic effects of a commercially available pesticide, cypermethrin (CM, on animals. This pesticide was administered in the form of aerosol spray through a nebulizer. The study was performed in four different groups and a constant dose of the pesticide was administered once, twice, thrice and four times a day to the respective group for a period of 30 days. The animals were then dissected to study the pesticide effects on different organs. The organs were preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed by basic histopathological method and the slides were prepared for observation. The results were recorded on a performa and were quantified by a unique scoring system. It is concluded that the injurious effects to the mentioned organs were dose and frequency dependent.

  5. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  6. Studying medium effects with the optimized δ expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krein, G.; Menezes, D.P.; Nielsen, M.; Pinto, M.B.

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized δ expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The δ expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the δ expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the δ expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs

  7. Studying medium effects with the optimized {delta} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, D P [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nielsen, M [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pinto, M B [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized {delta} expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The {delta} expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the {delta} expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the {delta} expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs.

  8. Study the Postbuckling of Hexagonal Piezoelectric Nanowires with Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rahmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanobeams having circular, rectangular and hexagonal cross-sections are synthesized and used in various Nano structures; however, piezoelectric nanobeams with hexagonal cross-sections have not been studied in detail. In particular, the physical mechanisms of the surface effect and the role of surface stress, surface elasticity and surface piezoelectricity have not been discussed thoroughly. The present study investigated post-buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanobeams by examining surface effects. The energy method was applied to post-buckling of hexagonal nanobeams and the critical buckling voltage and amplitude are derived analytically from bulk and surface material properties and geometric factors.

  9. Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.

  10. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  11. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  12. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  13. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  14. Effect of object functions on tomographic reconstruction a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Rao, C.; Baldev Raj; Ravichandran, V.S.; Munshi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Convolution back projection is the most widely used algorithm of computed tomography (CT). Theoretical studies show that under ideal conditions, the error in the reconstruction can be correlated with the second fourier space derivative of filter function and with the Laplacian of the object function. This paper looks into the second aspect of the error function. In this paper a systematic numerical study is presented on the effect to object functions on global and local errors. (author)

  15. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...... studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation....

  16. Physician leadership styles and effectiveness: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Stoskopf, Carleen H

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the association between physician leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Executive directors of community health centers were surveyed (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9 percent) for their perceptions of the medical director's leadership behaviors and effectiveness, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items on a 0-4 point Likert-type scale), with additional questions on demographics and the center's clinical goals and achievements. The authors hypothesize that transformational leadership would be more positively associated with executive directors' ratings of effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, as well as the center's clinical goal achievement, than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Separate ordinary least squares regressions were used to model each of the effectiveness measures, and general linear model regression was used to model clinical goal achievement. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that physician leadership development using the transformational leadership model may result in improved health care quality and cost control.

  17. Study of the skin effect in superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeftel, Jacob, E-mail: jszeftel@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [ENS Cachan, LPQM, 61 avenue du Président Wilson, 94230 Cachan (France); Sandeau, Nicolas [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, F-13013 Marseille (France); Khater, Antoine [Université du Maine, UMR 6087 Laboratoire PEC, F-72000 Le Mans (France)

    2017-05-03

    Highlights: • Comprehensive theoretical study of the skin effect in superconductors. • Based on Newton and Maxwell's equations. • Usual and anomalous skin effects dealt with in the same framework. - Abstract: The skin effect is analyzed to provide the numerous measurements of the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in superconducting materials with a theoretical basis. Both the normal and anomalous skin effects are accounted for within a single framework, focusing on frequencies less than the superconducting gap. The emphasis is laid on the conditions required for the penetration depth to be equal to London's length, which enables us to validate an assumption widely used in the interpretation of all current experimental results.

  18. Theoretical Study of Irradiation Effects in Close Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of irradiation is studied in a close binary systemassuming that the secondary component is a point source, moving in a circularorbit. The irradiation effects are calculatedon the atmosphere of the primary component in a 3-dimensional Cartesiancoordinate geometry. In treating the reflection effect theoretically, the totalradiation $(S_mathrm{T}$ is obtained as the sum of the radiation of 1 the effect ofirradiation on the primary component which is calculated by using onedimensional rod model $(S_mathrm{r}$ and 2 the self radiation of the primarycomponent which is calculated by using the solution of radiative transferequation in spherical symmetry $(S_mathrm{s}$. The radiation field is estimated alongthe line of sight of the observer at infinity. It is shown how the radiationfield changes depending on the position of the secondary component.

  19. The effects of study task on prestimulus subsequent memory effects in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to examine the effects of a study task manipulation on pre-stimulus activity in the hippocampus predictive of later successful recollection. Eighteen young participants were scanned while making either animacy or syllable judgments on visually presented study words. Cues presented before each word denoted which judgment should be made. Following the study phase, a surprise recognition memory test was administered in which each test item had to be endorsed as "Remembered," "Known," or "New." As expected, "deep" animacy judgments led to better memory for study items than did "shallow" syllable judgments. In both study tasks, pre-stimulus subsequent recollection effects were evident in the interval between the cue and the study item in bilateral anterior hippocampus. However, the direction of the effects differed according to the study task: whereas pre-stimulus hippocampal activity on animacy trials was greater for later recollected items than items judged old on the basis of familiarity (replicating prior findings), these effects reversed for syllable trials. We propose that the direction of pre-stimulus hippocampal subsequent memory effects depends on whether an optimal pre-stimulus task set facilitates study processing that is conducive or unconducive to the formation of contextually rich episodic memories. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14 C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  1. Tritium biological effects and perspective of the biological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi

    1998-01-01

    Since tritium is an emitter of weak β-rays (5.7keV) and is able to bind to DNA, i.e., the most important genome component, the biological effects should be expected to be more profound than that of X-rays and γ-rays. When carcinogenesis, genetical effects and the detriments for fetus and embryo were used as a biological endpoint, most of tritium RBE (relative biological effectiveness) ranged from 1 to 2. The tritium risk in man could be calculated from these RBEs and γ-ray risk for human exposure, which are obtained mainly from the data on Atomic Bomb survivors. However, the exposure modality from environmental tritium should be a chronic irradiation with ultra low dose rate or a fractionated irradiation. We must estimate the tritium effect in man based on biological experiments alone, due to lack of such epidemiological data. Low dose rate experiment should be always accompanied by the statistical problem of data, since their biological effects are fairy low, and they should involve a possible repair system, such as adaptive response (or hormesis effect) and 'Kada effect' observed in bacteria. Here we discuss future works for the tritium assessment in man, such as (1) developing a high radiation sensitive assay system with rodent hybrid cells containing a single human chromosome and also (2) study on mammal DNA repair at molecular levels using a radiosensitive hereditary disease, Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. (author)

  2. Studies on Antibacterial Effect of The Leaves Of Phyllanthus Niruri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Statistical analysis revealed that the mean diameter zones of inhibition for gentamycin was significantly higher than those of the plant extracts at 0.05 level of probability though, 400mg/ml concentration exhibited high antibacterial activities in both extracts. This study has established the antibacterial effect of P. niruri leaves.

  3. Study of Effective Land Registration Usage in State-Subsidised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Project II is the third case study to be reported on land tenure administration in state-subsidised housing projects the Western Cape which indicate that registration is effective in administering ownership. Internationally, many land titling programmes have not produced the benefits envisaged. In a number of South African ...

  4. What effects do student jobs have on the study performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examines the effects student jobs have on the study performance, and the competency and career development of hospitality management students. A 13-item survey was administered to a sample of 82 hospitality management students to see how they think about their student job. Qualitative data was ...

  5. Comparative study on the pathogenic effects of Diminazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in goats to compare the pathogenic effects of .... membrane was examined, the rectal temperature of the goats was recorded ... the plasma layer, the content was expressed on the slide and covered with slip. ... measure analysis of variance in SPSS version 15.0 (2000). ..... Canadanian Journal of.

  6. Numerical study of effect of oxygen fraction on local entropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study considers numerical simulation of the combustion of methane with air, including oxygen and nitrogen, in a burner and the numerical solution of local entropy generation rate due to high temperature and velocity gradients in the combustion chamber. The effects of equivalence ratio () and oxygen percentage () ...

  7. Experimental study on the inhibitory effect of sodium cantharidinate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgroud: Cantharidin, and its derivatives can not only inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but can also induce tumor cell apoptosis. It shows cantharidin exhibits a wide range of reactivity in anticancer. The objective of this paper was to study the inhibitory effect of sodium cantharidinate on human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

  8. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  9. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential

  10. Effects of aquajogging in obese adults : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.J.M.; van Nunen, A.M.A.; Geenen, R.; Kolotkin, R.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat

  11. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of various deep drawing process parameters were determined by experimental study with the use of Taguchi fractional factorial design and analysis of variance for AA6111 Aluminum alloy. The optimum process parameters were determined based on their influence on the thickness variation at different regions ...

  12. HRD Interventions, Employee Competencies and Organizational Effectiveness: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Rama Krishna Gupta; Sahoo, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of human resource development (HRD) interventions on organizational effectiveness by means of employee competencies which are built by some of the selected HRD interventions. Design/methodology/approach: An integrated research model has been developed by combining the principal factors…

  13. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  14. Effects of cannabis on eyewitness memory : A field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, Annelies; Charman, Steve D.; den Blanken, Aukje; Hooydonk, Maren

    2018-01-01

    Eyewitnesses to crimes are regularly under the influence of drugs, such as cannabis. Yet there is very little research on how the use of cannabis affects eyewitness memory. In the present study, we assessed the effects of cannabis on eyewitness recall and lineup identification performance in a field

  15. Measuring Effects of Reflection on Learning – A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen; Verpoorten, Dominique; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects

  16. Measuring Effects of Reflectionon Learning: A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects of

  17. Dissipative nucleus-nucleus collisions: study of memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.C.; Yadav, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    Dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei are described in terms of a macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multi-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The reaction 86 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + 166 Er has been used as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes

  18. Study of effects of radiation on silicone prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedbalkar, A.R.; Devata, A.; Padanilam, T.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation effects on silicone gel and dose distribution of radiation through mammary prostheses were studied. Silicone gel behaves like tissue. Half value thickness for silicone gel and water are almost the same. Linear absorption coefficient for silicone gel and water are comparable

  19. A Study of the Effects of an Altered Workweek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood Educational Consultants, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of organizational change arising from alterations in the structuring of the workweek. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of management and nonmanagement personnel employed within the various branches of the Alberta Department of Education. The sample consisted of 132 standard…

  20. TPSS plasma engineering studies: profile effects and plasma power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Strickler, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computationally fast profile-averaged, steady-state plasma model has been developed to allow studies of radial effects in ignited and driven tokamak systems. This code was used to search for the smallest size tokamak consistent with power balance calculations

  1. Immunohistochemical studies on the effect of Aloe vera on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Address for Correspondence. Immunohistochemical studies on the effect of Aloe vera on the pancreatic β-cells in neonatal streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rats. Sema Bolkent 1, Nuriye Akev 2*, Ayşe Can 2, Sehnaz Bolkent 3, Refiye Yanardag 4 &. Alper Okyar 5. 1. Department of Medical Biology, Cerrahpasa Faculty ...

  2. Heavy quark effective theory and study of heavy hadron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yubing

    1995-01-01

    By employing the heavy quark effective theory, the spectra of heavy hadrons, such as heavy mesons (Q-barq), heavy baryons (QQq and Qqq) and heavy multiquark systems (Q-barQ-barqq) are studied systemically. The results are compared with the predictions for Q-barQ-barqq in potential model

  3. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation by A Bellifa (pp 669–677). Figure S1. Structural ... 4 × 1⋅9486; 2 × 1⋅9799. Octahedral packing. 2 × 2 shared edges. 8 free edges. 3 shared edges. 4 corners. 5 free edges. 2 parallel shared edges. 2 corners. 10 free edges. O. O. Coordination scheme.

  4. Effects of aquajogging in obese adults: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Ronette Kolotkin; MSc Annemieke van Nunen; PhD Rinie Geenen; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2009-01-01

    Aim and method: To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results: Total fat mass

  5. Integrating Professional Development across the Curriculum: An Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Dinella, Lisa M.; Hatchard, Christine J.; Valosin, Jayde

    2016-01-01

    The current study empirically tested the effectiveness of a modular approach to integrating professional development across an undergraduate psychology curriculum. Researchers conducted a two-group, between-subjects experiment on 269 undergraduate psychology students assessing perceptions of professional preparedness and learning. Analysis…

  6. randomised double blind study to compare effectiveness of honey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... EAsT AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. February 2014 .... based randomised double- blinded clinical trial evaluating effectiveness of ... study drugs was undertaken following a random ... included sodium citrate, citric acid monohydrate, ... post-hoc test to carry out pair-wise comparisons of .... self-care market.

  7. Detroit regional transit study : a study of factors that enable and inhibit effective regional transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    An interdisciplinary team of six faculty members and six students at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM) conducted a : comprehensive study of the factors enabling or inhibiting development of effective regional transit. Focusing on Metro Detroit an...

  8. Numerical study of aerodynamic effects on road vehicles lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Mihail Victor; Cernat Bobonea, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance analysis of road vehicles depends on the study of engine intake and cooling flow, internal ventilation, tire cooling, and overall external flow as the motion of air around a moving vehicle affects all of its components in one form or another. Due to the complex geometry of these, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flow and lifting surface shapes. The present study, however focuses on the effects of external aerodynamics only, and in particular on the flow over the lifting surfaces of a common compact car, designed especially for this study.

  9. Effect of uranium concentrations on plant growth - a control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Hegde, A.G.; Arey, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the details of pot culture experiments carried out to study the migration of uranium in soil to plant system. The effect of varying concentration and chemical forms of uranium on shoot and root length, shoot and root weight, leaf area, water potential, chlorophyll contents, soluble protein, total phenol etc. of two test crops were studied. In case of barley crop, the effect of uranium on seed yield and modulation were also studied. 100% germination could be achieved respectively after a period of 36 hours and 28 hours in uranyl acetate and uranyl nitrate in case of cowpea, whereas it is and 48 hours and 24 hours respectively for barley crop. Higher doses of uranium retarded both the speed as well as germination of seeds for tested crops

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of non-monotonous effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delforge, J.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, the study of the effects of low dose rates has expanded considerably, especially in connection with current problems concerning the environment and health physics. After having made a precise definition of the different types of non-monotonous effect which may be encountered, for each the main experimental results known are indicated, as well as the principal consequences which may be expected. One example is the case of radiotherapy, where there is a chance of finding irradiation conditions such that the ratio of destructive action on malignant cells to healthy cells is significantly improved. In the second part of the report, the appearance of these phenomena, especially at low dose rates are explained. For this purpose, the theory of transformation systems of P. Delattre is used as a theoretical framework. With the help of a specific example, it is shown that non-monotonous effects are frequently encountered, especially when the overall effect observed is actually the sum of several different elementary effects (e.g. in survival curves, where death may be due to several different causes), or when the objects studied possess inherent kinetics not limited to restoration phenomena alone (e.g. cellular cycle) [fr

  11. Role of emotional intelligence in managerial effectiveness: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sahidur Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is very critical to the managerial effectiveness. The present study intends to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence and the three roles such as, interpersonal, informational, and decision of managerial effectiveness. Emotional intelligence is measured by using the Emotional Quotient Index (Rahim et al., 2002 [Rahim, M., Psenicka, C., Polychroniou, P., Zhao, J., Yu, C., Chan, K., Susana, K., Alves, M., Lee, C., Rahman, M.S., Ferdausy, S., & Wyk, R. (2002. A model of emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies: a study in seven countries. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(4, 302-326.] while managerial effectiveness is assessed by using Tsui’s (1984 scale [Tsui, A.S. (1984. A role set analysis of managerial reputation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 64-96.]. Data were collected by distributing self-administered questionnaires among the working MBA students using a convenience sampling technique. Respondents are asked to rate their emotional intelligence and managerial effectiveness scales. Finally 127 usable responses are received and, then, analyzed by using the descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation, and regression analysis. Analysis shows that emotional intelligence was positively related with interpersonal role, informational role, and decision role. The main implication is that emotional intelligence could enhance managerial effectiveness guiding the managers, academics, and professionals. The limitations are the sample size and the sampling technique which might limit the generalizability of the findings. Future directions are also discussed.

  12. Contribution of the study of the Hall Effect. Hall Effect of powder products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherville, Jean

    1961-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of an apparatus aimed at measuring the Hall Effect and the magneto-resistance of powders at room temperature and at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The author also proposes a theoretical contribution to the Hall Effect and reports the calculation of conditions to be met to obtain a correct value for the Hall constant. Results are experimentally verified. The method is then applied to the study of a set of powdered pre-graphitic graphites. The author shows that their Hall coefficient confirms the model already proposed by Mrozowski. The study of the Hall Effect of any kind of powders can thus be performed, and the Hall Effect can therefore be a mean to study mineral and organic compounds, and notably powdered biological molecules [fr

  13. A study on the effects of personality traits on building effective relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shahab Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effects of five big personality traits on development of effective communication among middle level managers of the first private Iranian bank, Bank Eghtesade Novin, in city of Tehran, Iran. To measure the effects of five big personality traits, the study uses a questionnaire developed by Jackson (1974 [Jackson, D. N. (1974. Personality research form manual. Research Psychologists Press.]. In addition, to measure the impacts of effective communication we use another questionnaire. All questions are designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alphas for two mentioned questionnaires were calculated as 0.92 and 0.74, respectively. The implementation of Pearson test as well as regression analysis have revealed that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between four personality traits, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and effective communication. In addition, there was a negative and meaningful relationship between neuroticism and effective communication.

  14. The study of hormesis effection on mice by Zuibyougan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takeshi; Nishina, Kazunari.

    1997-01-01

    Although various biohazards of high-dose radiation have been known, Dr. Lucky (1980) paid an attention to low-dose radiation and reported that a low-dose exposure which allows normal functioning of cellular repairing mechanism caused some favorable effects such as growth stimulation, elongation of life-span etc. And these effects were named as Hormesis effects by him. In this study, the biological effects of Zuibyougan, a ionizing radioactive rock produced from a mine were investigated on the growth and locomotor activities in TRC mice. Drinking water containing Zuibyougan in 3 different forms (chip, sand and fine powder) at a concentration of 25 g/100 ml was administered from the time of weaning and tap water was given to the control group. Their body weights were measured once a week up to 12 weeks of age. Body weight of the group administered with either type of Zuibyougan was slightly higher than that of the control. The increasing effects were most marked for the group given in powder form. However, the effects were not statistically significant. Further, the locomotive activities determined by round running method were also slightly higher in the mice administered with Zuibyougan. (M.N.)

  15. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  16. Swedish studies on irradiation effect in structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M; Myers, H P

    1962-12-15

    A brief description of work in hand at AB Atomenergi concerning the effects of neutron irradiation on structural materials is given. Some recent data is listed for the following pressure vessel steels 2103/R3 as used in the Aagesta reactor, SIS 142103, NO345, Fortiweld and weld metal OK 54 P. Zircaloy-2 has been studied regarding the combined effects of neutron irradiation and hydrogen content on tensile properties. The difficulties associated with determination of neutron dose and the correlation of damage with dose and neutron energy spectrum are discussed.

  17. Effect of Diet on Gulf War Illness: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0636 TITLE: Effect of Diet on Gulf War Illness: A Pilot Study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H...CONTRACT NUMBER Effect of Diet on Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0636 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...headache) in Veterans with Gulf War Illness. We will also determine if the change in gut flora is a mechanism for improvement in symptoms of IBS and GW

  18. Study of space--charge effect by computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The space--charge effect in high density electron beams (beam current approx.2 μA) focused by a uniform magnetic field is studied computationally. On an approximation of averaged space-- charge force, a theory of trajectory displacements of beam electrons is developed. The theory shows that the effect of the averaged space--charge force appears as a focal length stretch. The theory is confirmed not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by simulations. Empirical formulas for the trajectory displacement and the energy spread are presented. A comparison between the empirical formulas and some theoretical formulas is made, leading to a severe criticism on the theories of energy spreads

  19. Background studies: earthquake effects on underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Results of the first stage of a programme of work leading to the development of a seismicity sub-model for the TIME2 simulation code and its successor(s) are presented. Potential future seismic activity levels in Britain are presented, within the context of historic seismicity (the last 800 years), tectonic activity and the effects of glacial advance and retreat. Methodological approaches to the estimation of seismic hazard due to faulting and ground shaking are presented. Seismic effects on rock and soil properties are also reviewed. Finally, recommendations for further studies are made. (author)

  20. Swedish studies on irradiation effect in structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grounes, M.; Myers, H.P.

    1962-12-01

    A brief description of work in hand at AB Atomenergi concerning the effects of neutron irradiation on structural materials is given. Some recent data is listed for the following pressure vessel steels 2103/R3 as used in the Aagesta reactor, SIS 142103, NO345, Fortiweld and weld metal OK 54 P. Zircaloy-2 has been studied regarding the combined effects of neutron irradiation and hydrogen content on tensile properties. The difficulties associated with determination of neutron dose and the correlation of damage with dose and neutron energy spectrum are discussed

  1. The Effects of Study Abroad on Teacher Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Altun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Promoting harmony within diversity has become a goal of both global education and multicultural education. Schools need to help students to become more culturally aware today. Teachers who study abroad can enable diverse groups to live in harmony. Individuals need to promote respect and mutual understanding to function in modern diverse societies. Unless people develop better inter-community relations, a cohesive and tolerant society cannot be created. Study abroad experience helps teachers develop increased cultural awareness as they acquire more cultural knowledge and cultural sensitivity while studying abroad. It has been assumed that teachers who study abroad can work more effectively in an intercultural context. This article attempts to explain whether study abroad experience allows teachers to encourage students to recognize the diversity of cultures and values.

  2. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, John M.; Howarth, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed seven particularly well known and/or studied oil spills that have occurred since the National Academy of Sciences 1975 report, “Petroleum in the Marine Environment” or that occurred prior to that report but about which significant new information has since been acquired. The spills studied were from the barge Florida, and tankers Arrow, Argo Merchant, Amoco Cadiz, and Tsesis and blowouts from the Bravo and Ixtoc I platforms. These “best” studies yield only limited insight into effects because they lack controls and have a high degree of natural variability. The Tsesis, Florida, and Amoco Cadiz cases are exceptional since they occurred in areas of ongoing research programs and had nearby areas suitable for controls. Oil spills have produced measurable effects on ecosystems that have not been readily predictable from laboratory studies on isolated organisms. However, ecosystemlevel interactions are poorly understood even without the complications resulting from effects of pollution. These generalizations emerge: oil regularly reaches sediments after a spill; oil in anoxic sediments is persistent; oil regularly contaminates Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates; fish are also contaminated, but to a lesser extent; oil contamination decreases the abundance and diversity of benthic communities.

  3. Evaluating health effects of transport interventions methodologic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    There is little evidence about the effects of environmental interventions on population levels of physical activity. Major transport projects may promote or discourage physical activity in the form of walking and cycling, but researching the health effects of such "natural experiments" in transport policy or infrastructure is challenging. Case study of attempts in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of two major transport projects in Scotland: an urban congestion charging scheme in Edinburgh, and a new urban motorway (freeway) in Glasgow. These interventions are typical of many major transport projects. They are unique to their context. They cannot easily be separated from the other components of the wider policies within which they occur. When, where, and how they are implemented are political decisions over which researchers have no control. Baseline data collection required for longitudinal studies may need to be planned before the intervention is certain to take place. There is no simple way of defining a population or area exposed to the intervention or of defining control groups. Changes in quantitative measures of health-related behavior may be difficult to detect. Major transport projects have clear potential to influence population health, but it is difficult to define the interventions, categorize exposure, or measure outcomes in ways that are likely to be seen as credible in the field of public health intervention research. A final study design is proposed in which multiple methods and spatial levels of analysis are combined in a longitudinal quasi-experimental study.

  4. Application of Metabolomics to Study Effects of Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Samczuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery was born in the 1950s at the University of Minnesota. From this time, it continues to evolve and, by the same token, gives new or better possibilities to treat not only obesity but also associated comorbidities. Metabolomics is also a relatively young science discipline, and similarly, it shows great potential for the comprehensive study of the dynamic alterations of the metabolome. It has been widely used in medicine, biology studies, biomarker discovery, and prognostic evaluations. Currently, several dozen metabolomics studies were performed to study the effects of bariatric surgery. LC-MS and NMR are the most frequently used techniques to study main effects of RYGB or SG. Research has yield many interesting results involving not only clinical parameters but also molecular modulations. Detected changes pertain to amino acid, lipids, carbohydrates, or gut microbiota alterations. It proves that including bariatric surgery to metabolic surgery is warranted. However, many molecular modulations after those procedures remain unexplained. Therefore, application of metabolomics to study this field seems to be a proper solution. New findings can suggest new directions of surgery technics modifications, contribute to broadening knowledge about obesity and diseases related to it, and perhaps develop nonsurgical methods of treatment in the future.

  5. Theoretical study of short pile effect in tunnel excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-yan; Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-mei; Li, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The Misaki Sato Go ideal elastoplastic model is adopted and the two stage analysis theory is used to study the effect of tunnel excavation on short pile effect in this paper. In the first stage, the free field vertical displacement of the soil at the corresponding pile location is obtained by using empirical formula. In the second stage, the displacement is applied to the corresponding pile location. The equilibrium condition of micro physical differential equation settlement of piles. Then through logical deduction and the boundary condition expressions of the settlement calculation, obtain the pile side friction resistance and axial force of the week. Finally, an engineering example is used to analyze the influence of the change of main parameters on their effects.

  6. Study of quantum confinement effects in ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movlarooy, Tayebeh

    2018-03-01

    Motivation to fact that zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes with successful synthesis and the mechanism of formation, stability and electronic properties have been investigated; in this study the structural, electronic properties and quantum confinement effects of zinc oxide nanotubes and nanowires with different diameters are discussed. The calculations within density functional theory and the pseudo potential approximation are done. The electronic structure and energy gap for Armchair and zigzag ZnO nanotubes with a diameter of about 4 to 55 Angstrom and ZnO nanowires with a diameter range of 4 to 23 Å is calculated. The results revealed that due to the quantum confinement effects, by reducing the diameter of nanowires and nanotubes, the energy gap increases. Zinc oxide semiconductor nanostructures since having direct band gap with size-dependent and quantum confinement effect are recommended as an appropriate candidate for making nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  7. Effect of Surface Blasting on Subway Tunnels- A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Entezari Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During wars and crises, the underground tunnels are used as a safe space. Therefore, the stability and safety of them under a blast is of particular importance. In this paper, the Finite Difference Method has been used to study the influence of the change in geotechnical parameters and depth on surface blasting on subway tunnels. Results showed that increasing the internal friction angle, modulus of elasticity and cohesion of the soil reduced the effects of blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment in the center of tunnel crown. Furthermore, the results showed that increasing the depth of the tunnel reduced the effects of blast loading. Comparing all parameters collectively showed that the increase in the modulus of elasticity of the soil and depth of the tunnel is the most effective in reducing the influence of the blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment of the tunnel crown, respectively.

  8. Topics on study of low dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Ohyama, Harumi

    1999-01-01

    It is not exceptional but usually observed that a dose-effect relationship in biosystem is not linear. Sometimes, the low dose-effect relationship appears entirely contrary to the expectation from high dose-effect. This is called a 'hormesis' phenomena. A high dose irradiation inflicts certainly an injury on biosystem. No matter how low the dose may be, an irradiation might inflict some injury on biosystem according to Linear Non-Threshold hypothesis(LNT). On the contrary to the expectation, a low dose irradiation stimulates immune system, and promotes cell proliferation. This is called 'radiation hormesis'. The studies of the radiation hormesis are made on from four points of view as follows: (1) radiation adaptive response, (2) revitalization caused by a low dose stimulation, (3) a low dose response unexpected from the LNT hypothesis, (4) negation of the LNT hypothesis. The various empirical proofs of radiation hormesis are introduced in the report. (M . Suetake)

  9. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  10. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  11. Effects of potash mining on river ecosystems: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Brucet, Sandra; Carrasco, Sergi; Flor-Arnau, Núria; Ordeix, Marc; Ponsá, Sergio; Coring, Eckhard

    2017-05-01

    In spite of being a widespread activity causing the salinization of rivers worldwide, the impact of potash mining on river ecosystems is poorly understood. Here we used a mesocosm approach to test the effects of a salt effluent coming from a potash mine on algal and aquatic invertebrate communities at different concentrations and release modes (i.e. press versus pulse releases). Algal biomass was higher in salt treatments than in control (i.e. river water), with an increase in salt-tolerant diatom species. Salt addition had an effect on invertebrate community composition that was mainly related with changes in the abundance of certain taxa. Short (i.e. 48 h long) salt pulses had no significant effect on the algal and invertebrate communities. The biotic indices showed a weak response to treatment, with only the treatment with the highest salt concentration causing a consistent (i.e. according to all indices) reduction in the ecological quality of the streams and only by the end of the study. Overall, the treatment's effects were time-dependent, being more clear by the end of the study. Our results suggest that potash mining has the potential to significantly alter biological communities of surrounding rivers and streams, and that specific biotic indices to detect salt pollution should be developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cavitation effects in LMFBR containment loading - a sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for and design of a sensitivity study into the effects of bulk cavitation of the coolant upon predicted roof loadings and vessel wall loadings and deformations are presented. The study is designed to cover simple and sophisticated models of cavitation in various geometries and with two types of energy source to represent both an explosion charge and the lower pressure expansion behavior expected in a real core disruptive accident. Effects of change of scale (from reactor to model), of coolant tensile strength, of reactor aspect ratio and design (presence or absence of an internal tank) and of reactor structural resistance (rigid or deforming outer tank) are all examined in order to provide a quantitative answer to the question 'how and to what extent does dynamic cavitation affect the containment loading process.'. (orig.)

  13. The Moessbauer effect used to study iron minerals in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunrath, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    The Moessbauer effect in Fe 57 was used to study iron minerals in Brazil. More than 50 samples were analyzed in this preliminary work. Although many minerals present complex spectra, it was possible to find a number of samples with relatively pure natural materials, which may be considered representative of the simple compounds that enter as constituents in the more complex cases. Important and, in some cases, drastic differences were found between spectra at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. These differences are reported and in some cases explained. Another feature was the difference in the Moessbauer effect spectra, observable when some crystallization water is present. This phenomenon is correlated to the previous one. The methodology of this study is also reported [pt

  14. Dextran's effects on stressed lenses: water, electrolyte, and radioisotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.R.; Bokosky, J.; Peyman, G.A.; Gray, D.

    1979-01-01

    To evaluate the beneficial effects of dextran 40 as an additive to infusion solutions, we studied an experimental model of lens stress with use of buffered, low calcium (Ca ++ )-containing solutions. Incubation in low Ca ++ solutions (pCa = 10.7) for ten hours (stress period) resulted in lens swelling and electrolyte imbalances that were irreversible even with reincubation in physiologic, normal Ca ++ -containing media (pCa = 2.7) (recovery period). The addition of 6% or more of dextran to the media inhibited lens water gain during the stress period. It also rendered the resultant electrolyte imbalances reversible during the recovery period, thus exerting a protective effect. Radioisotope-tracer studies showed that dextran improved the ability of the lens to accumulate rubidium chloride Rb 86 and reduced its efflux during both the stress and recovery periods. Dextran did not markedly decrease sodium chloride Na 22 uptake by lenses under stress

  15. Correlative study on anemia and radiotherapy effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinsheng; Jiang Yuanshi; Cao Xibiao; Zhan Yongzhong; Yang Liye; Chen Jianxiu; Chen Chengwu; Li Yang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of oxygen-carrying ability of blood efficacy of radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Altogether 161 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were classified according to severity of anemia, and Hb, RBC, MCH, HCT, MCV, MCHC and RDW were tested before, during and after radiotherapy. The patients were followed-up for up to 5 years, the relationship and mechanism among anemia, radiotherapy effects and survival rate was discussed. Results: The survival rate between anemia group and non-anemia group was different significantly (P<0.05). Anemia before radiotherapy, anemia appearance or anemia deterioration during radiotherapy were sensitive factors affecting radiotherapy results. The anemia more severe, the radiotherapy worse. Conclusion: Anemia-hypohemoglobinemia leads to decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, resulting in oxygen deficiency of tumor cells and their radiotherapy resistance. Therefore this method is worthy of further studies

  16. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fundamental radiation effects studies in the US Fusion Materials Program generally fall under the aegis of the Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Program. In a narrow sense, the problem addressed by the DAFS program is the prediction of radiation effects in fusion devices using data obtained in non-representative environments. From the onset, the program has had near-term and long-term components. The premise for the latter is that there will be large economic penalties for uncertainties in predictive capability. Fusion devices are expected to be large and complex and unanticipated maintenance will be costly. It is important that predictions are based on a maximum of understanding and a minimum of empiricism. Gaining this understanding is the thrust of the long-term component. (orig.)

  17. Study of Antiultraviolet Asphalt Modifiers and Their Antiageing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation causes serious ageing problems on pavement surface. In recent years, different UV blocking materials have been used as modifiers to prevent asphalt ageing during the service life of the pavement. In this study, three different materials have been used as modifiers in base asphalt to test their UV blocking effects: layered double hydroxides (LDHs, organomontmorillonite (OMMT, and carbon black (CB. UV ageing was applied to simulate the ageing process and softening point, penetration, ductility, DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer test, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR test were conducted to evaluate the anti-UV ageing effects of the three UV blocking modifiers. Physical property tests show that base asphalt was influenced more seriously by UV radiation compared to the modified asphalt. DSR test results indicate that the complex modulus of asphalt before UV ageing is increased because of modifiers, while the complex modulus of base asphalt after UV ageing is higher than that of the modified asphalt, which shows that the UV blocking modifiers promote the antiageing effects of asphalt. FTIR test reveals that the increment of carbonyl groups and sulfoxide groups of modified asphalt is less than that in base asphalt. Tests indicate the best UV blocking effect results for samples with LDHs and the worst UV blocking effect results for samples with CB.

  18. Internationalization's effect on marketing learning: a study of Syrian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeh, Kevin; Kasem, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to understand the effects of international expansion on firms’ acquisition of marketing learning. This study’s focus on marketing learning complements previous research on the impact of internationalization on the development of foreign-market and technological knowledge. The research finds that the scope of a firm’s international activities, perception of gaps in marketing knowledge, and external social capital positively influence firms’ acquisition of market...

  19. A Study of Program Manager Effectiveness and Risk Taking Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Kelly Sherwin, my section leader , has been a great source of leadership and inspiration . Next, I would like to thank Lieutenant Colonel Fred Westfall...managers peiZ.rm ten basic tasks which can be broken into three categories. The categories and tasks are: Interpersonal Roles 1. Figurehead 2. Leader 3...17:59). When-a program manager is successful, he is not necessarily effective (10:10). Luthans studied this phenomenon by examining the managerial

  20. Water Tunnel Studies of Dynamic Wing Flap Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited WATER TUNNEL...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE WATER TUNNEL STUDIES OF DYNAMIC WING FLAP EFFECTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Edgar E. González 7. PERFORMING...ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) The flow features developing over a two-element NACA 0012 airfoil, with the rear portion serving as a trailing edge flap

  1. An experimental study of the bandwagon effect in conspicuous consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Niesiobędzka

    2017-01-01

    Background The phenomenon of conspicuous consumption is not new. Veblen (1994, 1899) described conspicuous consumption as expensive, luxury consumption, which provides evidence of wealth and status. In post-modern society the primary objects of consumption have become images and experience used by the middle class and the masses to demonstrate uniqueness or similarity with significant others. This paper focuses on the bandwagon effect in conspicuous consumption. In the study the bandwago...

  2. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented for all dogs employed in current life-span dose effect studies with inhaled 239 PuO 2 , and 239 Pu nitrate. Information is presented on the estimated initial alveolar deposition, based on external thorax counts and on estimated lung weights at time of exposure. Information is also provided on the current interpretation of the most prominent clinical-pathological features associated with the death of animals

  3. Study of peak broadening effect in floor time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic design of secondary systems such components and piping is usually carried out by using the floor motions at their support points. These floor motions can be in the form of Floor Response Spectra (FRS) or the Floor Time Histories (FTH). In order to account for the various uncertainties in generating these floor motions, these motions should be peak broadened and smoothened as per the regulatory codes. Presented here in this paper is the methodology to account for such peak broadening effect in the FTH. Results of this study have been compared with the FRS approach and various important conclusions have been arrived at based on the study

  4. Immunoelectrophoretic study of the effect of radiation on protein mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, J.; Soszynski, M.; Bog-Hansen, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the suitability of immunoelectrophoretic methods in studies of radiation effects on protein mixtures. Single serum proteins (IgG, albumin, transferrin), albumin-transferrin mixtures and human serum were irradiated with doses of 3-52 kGy. The irradiated proteins were analysed using rocket-, crossed-, crossed-with-intermediate-gel, and fused-rocket immunoelectrophoretic methods. Using crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel, complex formation between albumin and transferrin was observed. Gel filtration monitored by fused-rocket immunoelectrophoresis was demonstrated to be a most promising method for studying protein degradation and hybrid formation. (author)

  5. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  6. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  7. Strong correlation effects in theoretical STM studies of magnetic adatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hung T.; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Liebsch, Ansgar; Lounis, Samir

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical study for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures, incorporating strong correlation effects. As concrete examples, we study Co and Mn adatoms on the Cu(111) surface, which are expected to represent the opposite limits of Kondo physics and local moment behavior, using a combination of density functional theory and both quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization impurity solvers. We examine in detail the effects of temperature T , correlation strength U , and impurity d electron occupancy Nd on the local density of states. We also study the effective coherence energy scale, i.e., the Kondo temperature TK, which can be extracted from the STM spectra. Theoretical STM spectra are computed as a function of STM tip position relative to each adatom. Because of the multiorbital nature of the adatoms, the STM spectra are shown to consist of a complicated superposition of orbital contributions, with different orbital symmetries, self-energies, and Kondo temperatures. For a Mn adatom, which is close to half-filling, the STM spectra are featureless near the Fermi level. On the other hand, the quasiparticle peak for a Co adatom gives rise to strongly position-dependent Fano line shapes.

  8. An experimental study of the bandwagon effect in conspicuous consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Niesiobędzka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The phenomenon of conspicuous consumption is not new. Veblen (1994, 1899 described conspicuous consumption as expensive, luxury consumption, which provides evidence of wealth and status. In post-modern society the primary objects of consumption have become images and experience used by the middle class and the masses to demonstrate uniqueness or similarity with significant others. This paper focuses on the bandwagon effect in conspicuous consumption. In the study the bandwagon effect is treated as increased demand for luxury goods due to their popularity, especially among famous people. Participants and procedure Three studies were carried out. The samples consisted of 60 teenagers, 76 female students and 73 students and postgraduate students. The concept of the aspirational group was induced through the advertisement of a luxury product with reference to famous people and by direct reference to the aspirational group. Three different methods to measure a propensity to conspicuous consumption were applied: the amount of money spent on the luxury product, the size of the luxury brand logo, and the doubling of the luxury brand logo. Results The results show that the activation of the idea of the aspirational group enhances willingness to pay more for a luxury product, to double the luxury brand logo and the preference for a visible luxury brand logo at a tendency level. Conclusions The results experimentally supported the bandwagon effect within luxury conspicuous consumption previously established in correlative studies.

  9. An empirical study of business effect and industry effect in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iglesias

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the analysis of the influence that industry and business factors have on the variability of the organizational performance. A linear hierarchical model with fixed effects is applied to a sample of Galician firms. The results show that the portion of such variability explained by the business factor is clearly greater than that explained by the industry factor. These results, in favour of the business effect, are similar to other obtained in previous empirical studies.

  10. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  11. Health effects of smoke from planned burns: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O’Keeffe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large populations are exposed to smoke from bushfires and planned burns. Studies investigating the association between bushfire smoke and health have typically used hospital or ambulance data and been done retrospectively on large populations. The present study is designed to prospectively assess the association between individual level health outcomes and exposure to smoke from planned burns. Methods/design A prospective cohort study will be conducted during a planned burn season in three locations in Victoria (Australia involving 50 adult participants who undergo three rounds of cardiorespiratory medical tests, including measurements for lung inflammation, endothelial function, heart rate variability and markers of inflammation. In addition daily symptoms and twice daily lung function are recorded. Outdoor particulate air pollution is continuously measured during the study period in these locations. The data will be analysed using mixed effect models adjusting for confounders. Discussion Planned burns depend on weather conditions and dryness of ‘fuels’ (i.e. forest. It is potentially possible that no favourable conditions occur during the study period. To reduce the risk of this occurring, three separate locations have been identified as having a high likelihood of planned burn smoke exposure during the study period, with the full study being rolled out in two of these three locations. A limitation of this study is exposure misclassification as outdoor measurements will be conducted as a measure for personal exposures. However this misclassification will be reduced as participants are only eligible if they live in close proximity to the monitors.

  12. Effectiveness of Using Online Discussion Forum for Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Seethamraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Business schools are exploring new pedagogical approaches to learning in order to deal with challenges such as increased class sizes, limited funding support, and difficulties in facilitating and encouraging active participation and learning among a diverse cohort of students. This paper reports on a study of the effectiveness of a pedagogical approach that blends online discussion board and case study. Analysing quantity and quality of online postings and comparing accounting students’ performance with previous cohort, this study observes a significant improvement in student learning. Appropriate design and delivery strategies and clear assessment criteria for assessment and use have provided an effective learning vehicle for students, helped them overcome their own language related barriers, and encouraged them to participate in a nonthreatening environment. This approach further complemented the benefits of peer-to-peer learning and case study pedagogy. Reported increase in workload for students and marking load for academics and measuring the value of learning, however, are some of the challenges that need further attention by researchers.

  13. Health effects study of the nuclear industry workers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiko Iwasaki

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the effects of low-dose and low-dose-rate exposure to the human body, study on the health effects of the nuclear industry workers in Japan was conducted since 1990 by the Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, the Radiation Effects Association, which had been entrusted by the Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese Government. In the first phase analysis between 1986 and 1992, the study population was selected from among persons who were engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants and associated facilities, and registered in the Radiation Dose Registration Center for Workers. The cohort consisted of 114,900 persons who satisfied the criteria of nationality, age, sex, etc. The average follow-up period was 4.6 years, and the average cumulative dose per person was 13.9 mSv. The total number of deaths among the study population was 1,758, including 661 deaths due to all malignant neoplasms. The Standardized Mortality Ratio of various death causes was compared. Furthermore, the cohort was grouped by five different dose levels, and the O/E was calculated to test whether there is a trend for the death rate to increase with dose. Among nuclear workers no significant increase in deaths nor any relationship with radiation dose was found, except the pancreatic cancer with 10-years lag. Since many previous studies of nuclear industry workers have demonstrated no significant association between exposure dose and pancreatic cancer, we cannot immediately conclude a causal relationship between with radiation. (author)

  14. A study on effective factors on employee motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is often considered as collaboration with others and this requires knowing about employers' behavior and the factors influencing their behaviors to motivate them for obtaining some predicted aims. This paper presents a study to detect important factors influencing motivation of some employees who work for a public offices in city of Kashan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 160 randomly selected participants. The questions are divided into two groups of management performance and motivational factors. To evaluate the effect of demographic factors on the quality of respondents' statements, a rating analysis based on Kruskal–Wallis test is used. To measure the effective vote, the motivation levels are divided into three groups of highly motivated, motivated and not motivated and they are analyzed based on rating mean variance with freedman scale. The results indicate that interesting job, job security, good salary and benefits and promotions, etc. are important factors to impact on the employers' motivation. For the newly – employed personal, job security is the most important motivation factor and for old – established employees, job attractive and sense of being considered is the most effective factor.

  15. Biological effective dose studies in carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Poonam; Ramasubramanian, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer of cervix is the second most common cancer worldwide among women. Several treatments related protocols of radiotherapy have been followed over few decades in its treatment for evaluating the response. These physical doses varying on the basics of fractionation size, dose rate and total dose needed to be indicated as biological effective dose (BED) to rationalize these treatments. The curative potential of radiation therapy in the management of carcinoma of the cervix is greatly enhanced by the use of intracavitary brachytherapy. Successful brachytherapy requires the high radiation dose to be delivered to the tumor where as minimum radiation dose reach to surrounding normal tissue. Present study is aimed to evaluate biologically effective dose in patients receiving high dose-rate brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy based on tumor cell proliferation values in cancer of the cervix patients. The study includes 30 patients' data as a retrospective analysis. In addition determine extent of a dose-response relationship existing between the biological effective dose at Point A and the bladder and rectum and the clinical outcomes

  16. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  17. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  18. Study of the radiation effect in breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno T, L. R.; Ramirez R, A., E-mail: lumor2000@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-01

    This breast cancer is one of the most important death causes in women. Among the more frequently medical treatment for advanced breast cancer is the mastectomy. This situation leads to silicone implants as an esthetic option. There have been cases in patients with implants where cancer was frequently detected, in which a conventional radiotherapy is required. In this work is presented a study of the probable adverse effects caused by the application of high power X-rays (6-10 MV) to the silicone implants and to the surrounding tissues. In the research carried out at the clinic, none Bolus effect was detected in patients with implants. Our results prescribe that in the case of patients with implants and frequent breast cancer, the removal of implants is not necessary due radiotherapy works directly in the damaged tissues. (Author)

  19. Study of the effects of uranium on kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, M.A.

    1989-03-01

    The chemical toxicity of inhaled or ingested soluble uranium, especially its nephrotoxicity surpasses its radiotoxicity. Because of the functional overcapacity of the kidney, it is probable that adverse effects on renal function due to occupational uranium exposure may be sustained long before this becomes evident. The advent of more sensitive and specific tests, particularly of proximal tubular dysfunction, suggests that it may now be possible to detect and monitor such sub-clinical effects on renal function. The Atomic Energy Control Board requires an updated review of uranium nephrotoxicity, and an evaluation of the various tests available which might be used to detect altered kidney function in uranium workers. Recommendations are also required regarding occupational studies which could be conducted in these workers to assess their current state of kidney function and possibly serve as monitoring tools in the future

  20. Radial electrical field effects in TJ-II. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the radial electric field upon the neoclassical transport coefficients of TJ-II helical axis Stellarator has been calculated as well on the microwave heating stage (ECRH) as on the neutral injection one (NBI). The influence of the solutions for the self-consistent ambipolar field on confinement times and temperatures has been studied by means of a zero-dimensional energy balance. The simultaneous presence of two roots, the electronic and the ionic one, is observed for the ECRH phase, while for NBI only the ionic root appears, although with a strong field intensity that could produce a favourable effect on confinement. The interest and need of the extension of these calculations to include radial profile effects by using spatial dependent transport codes in stressed

  1. Study of the radiation effect in breast implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno T, L. R.; Ramirez R, A.

    2013-01-01

    This breast cancer is one of the most important death causes in women. Among the more frequently medical treatment for advanced breast cancer is the mastectomy. This situation leads to silicone implants as an esthetic option. There have been cases in patients with implants where cancer was frequently detected, in which a conventional radiotherapy is required. In this work is presented a study of the probable adverse effects caused by the application of high power X-rays (6-10 MV) to the silicone implants and to the surrounding tissues. In the research carried out at the clinic, none Bolus effect was detected in patients with implants. Our results prescribe that in the case of patients with implants and frequent breast cancer, the removal of implants is not necessary due radiotherapy works directly in the damaged tissues. (Author)

  2. Study of CSR Effects in the Jefferson Laboratory FEL Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C. C. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. [Colorado State U.; Burleson, Theodore A. [Colorado State U.; Milton, Stephen V. [Colorado State U.; Morin, Auralee L. [Colorado State U.; Benson, Stephen V. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Evtushenko, Pavel E. [JLAB; Hannon, Fay E. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Zhang, Shukui [JLAB; Carlsten, Bruce E. [LANL; Lewellen, John W. [LANL

    2013-08-01

    In a recent experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL driver the effects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR chicane. This experiment also provides a valuable opportunity to benchmark existing CSR models in a system that may not be fully represented by a 1-D CSR model. Here we present results from this experiment and compare to initial simulations of CSR in the magnetic compression chicane of the machine. Finally, we touch upon the possibility for CSR induced microbunching gain in the magnetic compression chicane, and show that parameters in the machine are such that it should be thoroughly damped.

  3. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents.

  4. Statistical study of chemical additives effects in the waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola C.O. de; Diniz, Paula S.; Haucz, Maria J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the statistical study, that was carried out to analyse the chemical additives effect in the waste cementation process. Three different additives from two industries were tested: set accelerator, set retarder and super plasticizers, in cemented pates with and without bentonite. The experiments were planned in accordance with the 2 3 factorial design, so that the effect of each type of additive, its quantity and manufacturer in cemented paste and specimens could be evaluated. The results showed that the use of these can improve the cementation process and the product. The admixture quantity and the association with bentonite were the most important factors affecting the process and product characteristics. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Effects of radiation on photographic film. A study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, D.M.

    1971-01-01

    This study of the effects of radiation on photographic film is related to the Nevada Test Site's underground nuclear testing program, which has been active since implementation of the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Residual radioactivity, which has accidentally been released on several tests, adversely affects the photographic film used in test data acquisition. The report defines this problem in terms of radiation-caused image degradation, radiation/matter interactions, types of radiation released by accidental venting, and the photographic effects of gamma and x radiation. Techniques and experimental findings are documented that may be useful in recovering information from radiation-fogged film. Techniques discussed include processing methods, shielding, image enhancement techniques, and operational handling of potentially irradiated film. (U.S.)

  6. [Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobina, L V; Orlovskaia, L S; Sokov, S L; Sabaeva, G F; Kondé, L A; Iakovlev, A A

    1990-01-01

    Magnetotherapy effects on visual functions (vision acuity and field), on retinal bioelectric activity, on conductive vision system, and on intraocular circulation were studied in 88 patients (160 eyes) with optic nerve atrophy. A Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnetotherapy apparatus was employed with magnetic induction of about 10 mT, exposure 7-10 min, 10-15 sessions per course. Vision acuity of patients with its low (below 0.04 diopters) values improved in 50 percent of cases. The number of patients with vision acuity of 0.2 diopters has increased from 46 before treatment to 75. Magnetotherapy improved ocular hemodynamics in patients with optic nerve atrophy, it reduced the time of stimulation conduction along the vision routes and stimulated the retinal ganglia cells. The maximal effect was achieved after 10 magnetotherapy sessions. A repeated course carried out in 6-8 months promoted a stabilization of the process.

  7. Study of the coupling between real gas effects and rarefied effects on hypersonic aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Hu, Yuan; Sun, Quanhua

    2012-11-01

    Hypersonic vehicles travel across the atmosphere at very high speed, and the surrounding gas experiences complicated physical and chemical processes. These processes produce real gas effects at high temperature and rarefied gas effects at high altitude where the two effects are coupled through molecular collisions. In this study, we aim to identify the individual real gas and rarefied gas effects by simulating hypersonic flow over a 2D cylinder, a sphere and a blunted cone using a continuum-based CFD approach and the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. It is found that physical processes such as vibrational excitation and chemical reaction will reduce significantly the shock stand-off distance and flow temperature for flows having small Knudsen number. The calculated skin friction and surface heat flux will decrease when the real gas effects are considered in simulations. The trend, however, gets weakened as the Knudsen number increases. It is concluded that the rarefied gas effects weaken the real gas effects on hypersonic flows.

  8. Spillover effects in epidemiology: parameters, study designs and methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Arnold, Benjamin F; Berger, David; Luby, Stephen P; Miguel, Edward; Colford Jr, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many public health interventions provide benefits that extend beyond their direct recipients and impact people in close physical or social proximity who did not directly receive the intervention themselves. A classic example of this phenomenon is the herd protection provided by many vaccines. If these ‘spillover effects’ (i.e. ‘herd effects’) are present in the same direction as the effects on the intended recipients, studies that only estimate direct effects on recipients will likely underestimate the full public health benefits of the intervention. Causal inference assumptions for spillover parameters have been articulated in the vaccine literature, but many studies measuring spillovers of other types of public health interventions have not drawn upon that literature. In conjunction with a systematic review we conducted of spillovers of public health interventions delivered in low- and middle-income countries, we classified the most widely used spillover parameters reported in the empirical literature into a standard notation. General classes of spillover parameters include: cluster-level spillovers; spillovers conditional on treatment or outcome density, distance or the number of treated social network links; and vaccine efficacy parameters related to spillovers. We draw on high quality empirical examples to illustrate each of these parameters. We describe study designs to estimate spillovers and assumptions required to make causal inferences about spillovers. We aim to advance and encourage methods for spillover estimation and reporting by standardizing spillover parameter nomenclature and articulating the causal inference assumptions required to estimate spillovers. PMID:29106568

  9. Restoring effective sleep tranquility (REST): A feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M; Schmid, Arlene A; Henry, Kimberly L; Rolle, Natalie R; Schelly, Catherine; Pott, Christine E; Burns, Joshua E

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists. Feasibility and pilot indicators were process, resources, management, and scientific, including pre-post-assessments of sleep difficulties, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, participation, and pain interference. Indicators were supportive of feasibility, including reduced sleep difficulties (for example Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Measure [ t  = 3.29, p  = .02]), reduced nightmares: t  = 2.79, p  = .03; fewer dysfunctional sleep beliefs: t  = 3.63, p  = .01, and greater ability to participate in social roles: t  = -2.86, p  = .03, along with trends towards improved satisfaction with participation and reduced pain interference. The Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility program may reduce sleep difficulties and improve participation in US veterans with service-connected injuries, and evidence indicates a controlled trial would be feasible to deliver.

  10. Xyloside effects on in vitro hematopoiesis: Functional and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, S.L.; Bentley, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    Xyloside supplementation of long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs) has been reported to result in greatly enhanced proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. This was presumed to be the result of xyloside-mediated perturbation of proteoglycan synthesis by marrow-derived stromal cells. To investigate this phenomenon, we first studied the effects of xyloside supplementation on proteoglycan synthesis by D2XRadII bone marrow stromal cells, which support hematopoietic stem cell proliferation in vitro. D2XRadII cells were precursor labelled with 35S-sulfate, and proteoglycans separated by ion exchange chromatography, isopyknic CsCl gradient centrifugation, and gel filtration HPLC. Xyloside-supplemented cultures showed an approximately fourfold increase in total 35S incorporation, mainly as free chondroitin-dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) glycosaminoglycan chains in the culture media. Both xyloside supplemented and nonsupplemented cultures synthesized DS1, DS2, and DS3 CS/DS proteoglycans as previously described. In contrast to previous reports, xyloside was found to inhibit hematopoietic cell growth in LTBMC. Inhibitory effects were observed both in cocultures of IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cell lines with supportive stromal cell lines and in primary murine LTBMCs. Xyloside was found to have a marked inhibitory effect on the growth of murine hematopoietic stem cells and IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cell lines in clonal assay systems and in suspension cultures. In contrast, dialyzed concentrated conditioned media from LTBMCs had no such inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that xyloside-mediated inhibition of hematopoietic cell growth in LTBMC resulted from a direct effect of xyloside on proteoglycan synthesis by hematopoietic cells

  11. Effect of orthostasis on endothelial function: a gender comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Goswami

    Full Text Available As the vascular endothelium has multiple functions, including regulation of vascular tone, it may play a role in the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. We investigated the effect of orthostasis on endothelial function using EndoPAT®, a non-invasive and user-independent method, and across gender. As sex steroid hormones are known to affect endothelial function, this study examined the potential effect of these hormones on the endothelial response to orthostasis by including females at different phases of the menstrual cycle (follicular and luteal-where the hormone balance differs, and females taking an oral contraceptive. A total of 31 subjects took part in this study (11 males, 11 females having normal menstrual cycles and 9 females taking oral contraceptive. Each subject made two visits for testing; in the case of females having normal menstrual cycles the first session was conducted either 1-7 (follicular or 14-21 days (luteal after the start of menstruation, and the second session two weeks later, i.e., during the other phase, respectively. Endothelial function was assessed at baseline and following a 20-min orthostatic challenge (active standing. The EndoPAT® index increased from 1.71 ± 0.09 (mean ± SEM at baseline to 2.07 ± 0.09 following orthostasis in females (p<0.001. In males, the index increased from 1.60 ± 0.08 to 1.94 ± 0.13 following orthostasis (p<0.001. There were no significant differences, however, in the endothelial response to orthostasis between females and males, menstrual cycle phases and the usage of oral contraceptive. Our results suggest an increased vasodilatatory endothelial response following orthostasis in both females and males. The effect of gender and sex hormones on the endothelial response to orthostasis appears limited. Further studies are needed to determine the potential role of this post orthostasis endothelial response in the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Study on depressurization measurements and effect in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Duan; Cao Xuewu

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of new regulations on nuclear powered plant design and operation raise new design and management requirement for plants, and the operational plants also need accident management to enhance the reactor operation safety. Thus, for sake of reducing risk of high-pressure and mitigating the consequence, depressurization is a measure carried out to reduce primary pressure. With SCDAP/RELAP5 this paper studies the depressurization measurements and effect factors in pressurized water reactor under the important severe accident sequences induced by very small break lost of coolant accident (VSBLOCA), anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) and station blackout (SBO) plus auxiliary feedwater failure. (author)

  13. A Monte Carlo study of radiation trapping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.B.; Williams, J.F.; Carter, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in an atomic beam is carried out to investigate the effects of radiation trapping on electron-atom collision experiments. The collisionally excited atom is represented by a simple electric dipole, for which the emission intensity distribution is well known. The spatial distribution, frequency and free path of this and the sequential dipoles were determined by a computer random generator according to the probabilities given by quantum theory. By altering the atomic number density at the target site, the pressure dependence of the observed atomic lifetime, the angular intensity distribution and polarisation of the radiation field is studied. 7 refs., 5 figs

  14. A study on improving the regulatory effectiveness and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. S.; Choi, Y. G.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, H. W.

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this study is : review the theories about public participation in nuclear safety regulation, we develop an understanding of the concept and compare the effectiveness of different approaches to public participation. Reviews the cases of public participation in foreign countries and searches for important implications. To examine the current measures of public participation in nuclear safety regulatory process and to evaluate the present demand of the public including residents nearby nuclear facilities. Based upon the discussions on the above topics, examines prerequisites for success of public participation and presents alternatives of public participation in the concrete

  15. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  16. Study of Collective Effects in the FCC-ee Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Zobov, Mikhail; Belli, Eleonora; Castorina, Giovanni; Migliorati, Mauro; Persichelli, Serena; Rumolo, Giovanni; Spataro, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study aims at designing different options of a post-LHC collider. The high luminosity electron-positron collider FCC-ee based on the crab waist concept is considered as an intermediate step on the way towards FCC-hh, a 100 TeV hadron collider using the same tunnel of about 100 km. Due to a high intensity of circulating beams the impact of collective effects on FCC-ee performance has to be carefully analyzed. In this paper we evaluate beam coupling impedance ...

  17. Study of Beam-Beam Effects at PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narsky, I

    2004-01-01

    Using a self-consistent three-dimensional simulation running on parallel supercomputers, we have modeled the beam-beam interaction at the PEP-II asymmetric e + e - collider. To provide guidance for luminosity improvement, we scanned the tunes and currents in both rings and computed their impact on the luminosity and transverse beam sizes. We also studied the effects of colliding the beams with a small crossing angle. Where possible, the code was benchmarked against experimental measurements of luminosity and beam sizes, yielding an acceptable agreement

  18. Effects of Aquajogging in Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Eveline J. M.; Van Nunen, Annemieke M. A.; Geenen, Rinie; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat mass and waist circumference decreased 1.4 kg (P = .03) and 3.1 cm (P = .005), respectively. The distance in the Six-Minute Walk Test increased 41 meters (P = .001). Three scales of the Impact of Weig...

  19. Hydroxyurea revisited: a decade of clinical effects studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    Over a decade ago hydroxyurea was shown to selectively kill cells in the S phase in a proliferating cell population and to block cells at the G 1 -S border. Consequently, blocked cells became sensitized to irradiation and were further sensitized when the drug was present after exposure. In the ensuing decade, many in vivo studies on hydroxyurea have confirmed that the main properties of hydroxyurea identified in the dish are also evident in vivo. During a period of about ten years, a considerable number of clinical studies have been performed, the results of which have been mixed, ranging from indeterminate to encouraging, depending to some extent on the site treated and whether careful randomized studies were done. The question arises whether the clinical studies have represented adequate tests, by laboratory standards, of the likely effectiveness of the drug in clinical circumstances. The clinical studies with hydroxyurea have been examined in this light, since the results might also bear on the use of many other such agents in combination therapy. This examination revealed that no attempts have been made to determine the concentration of hydroxyurea in the tumor and other relevant tissues as a function of time or to assess the cell kinetic features of the tumor and thus estimate the appropriate dose regimen. It would seem that a wide gap still exists between laboratory research and clinical application

  20. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh-Nguyen, Nguyen; Vincent, J.

    1976-01-01

    The antifungal activity of some perdeuterated fatty acids with a normal chain of 11 to 18 carbon atoms was investigated on common dermatophytes Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum under in vitro conditions. A perdeuterated compound is one in which most of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by deuterium. These studies were performed by the dilution technique with respiratory measurements. Perdeuteration of of some fatty acids increases their inhibitory effect on the dermatophyte growth. Perdeuterated n-hendecanoic acid proved to be the most active of the substances tested. Possible mechanisms behind the enhanced antifungal activity due to the perdeuteration of fatty acids are discussed. The present study investigates the antifungal properties of some perdeuterated fatty acids on dermatophytes in vitro

  1. Environment noise reduction study. The effect of acoustical ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    Asbestos was used to improve acoustical and thermal conditions in the working environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate ceramics properties as the alternative material for asbestos. The acoustical properties of ceramics designed to absorb sound were investigated in this study. The properties of the concerned ceramics show the characteristics of an excellent sound absorber. Concrete is a good sound barrier but reflect more than 90% of the incident sound striking it. The thickness of conventional acoustical materials, like fibers, has a great impact on the material sound absorbing qualities. However, the acoustical effect of the thickness of the concerned ceramics was found to be reasonably small. A acoustical analysis of a working environment was done to determine the level of reverberation influenced by the different materials used to construct the space. It was found that the concerned ceramics has a potential to be good thermal shield material. (author)

  2. Effective permittivity of random composite media: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Ashutosh; Prasad, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, experimental data for effective permittivity of amorphous, polycrystalline thick films, and ceramic form of samples, taken from the literature, have been chosen for their comparison with those yielded by different mixture equations. In order to test the acceptability of dielectric mixture equations for high volume fractions of the inclusion material in the mixture, eleven such equations have been chosen. It is found that equations given by Cuming, Maxwell-Wagner, Webmann, Skipetrov and modified Cule-Torquato show their coherence and minimal deviation from the experimental results of permittivity for all the chosen test materials almost over the entire measurement range of volume fractions. It is further found that Maxwell-Wagner, Webmann, and Skipetrov equations yielded equivalent results and consequently they have been combined together and reckoned as a single equation named MWWS. The study revealed that the Cuming equation had the highest degree of acceptability (errors <±1-5%) in all the cases

  3. The effects of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    of the DCIA in BMI z-score, clustered risk z-score, systolic blood pressure, abdominal fat-%, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. In body fat-%, waist circumference and triglycerides, there is only a significant group difference at 6 weeks and not at 52 weeks......Aim: The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study on BMI development. Methods: The OOIS is a semi-blinded randomized controlled trial with three measurement occasions. Participants were allocated into two intervention arms; a day camp...... intervention arm (DCIA) and a standard intervention arm (SIA). For the DCIA the camp lasted for six weeks and consisted of fun-based physical activities, healthy eating, and health classes. The following 10 months a family based intervention was accomplished. The SIA was offered a weekly activity session...

  4. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  5. An Interlaboratory study of lipid effects on steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolelli, G.F.; Franceschetti, F.; Mimmi, P.; Malvano, R.; Pilo, A.; Zucchelli; Rota, G.

    1986-01-01

    The lipid effects on the performances of routine steroid radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been assessed using the scheme of the CNR interlaboratory quality control program. Cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assays have been considered. In the study, ca 80 laboratories were supplied with two sets of control plasma samples with different triglyceride contents (pool N, ca 120 mg/dl; pool L, ca 310 mg/dl), each corresponding to three steroid levels (level 0: charcoaldeprived samples; levels 1 and 2: the same added with increasing steroid amounts). A comparison of the neat results obtained by partecipants for both levels 1 and 2 of N and P panels - after subtraction of the concentrations estimated for level 0 - gave a direct information on lipid effects (triglycerides being assumed as an index of lipemia). In no case the abnormality high triglyceride content proved effective in practical terms, though significant differences were observed for testosterone and progesterone (ca 10% underestimation in pool L) and for estradiol (ca 10% overestimation in pool L)

  6. Effect of nephrotoxicants on renal membrane transport: In vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, R.A.; Berndt, W.O.

    1990-01-01

    It is possible to study the effects of nephrotoxicants on membrane function free of other cellular influences. By the use of Percoll gradient centrifugation, highly purified preparations of right-side-out basolateral (BL) and brush border (BB) membrane vesicles can be obtained from rat (male, Sprague-Dawley) renal cortex. Membrane function can be monitored by evaluation of sodium driven transport: 14 C-p-aminohippurate (PAH) for BL and 14 C-glucose for BB. Transport was measured by the rapid filtration technique. Each vesicle preparation was preincubated with the nephrotoxicant for five minutes before initiation of transport. Control vesicles showed a prominant overshoot 1 to 2 minutes after start of transport. Mercuric ion (Hg) had no effect on transport by BB at concentrations as high as 10μM. Transport by BL was reduced significantly at Hg concentrations as low as 100 nM. Chromate (Cr) also reduced BL transport at 100 nM and had no effect on BB transport. Citrinin significantly reduced both BB and BL transport, but the sensitivity of the membrane preparations differed. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that some nephrotoxicants may act on either side of the renal tubular cell membrane

  7. Topics on study of low dose-effect relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takeshi [Toho Univ., School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohyama, Harumi

    1999-09-01

    It is not exceptional but usually observed that a dose-effect relationship in biosystem is not linear. Sometimes, the low dose-effect relationship appears entirely contrary to the expectation from high dose-effect. This is called a 'hormesis' phenomena. A high dose irradiation inflicts certainly an injury on biosystem. No matter how low the dose may be, an irradiation might inflict some injury on biosystem according to Linear Non-Threshold hypothesis(LNT). On the contrary to the expectation, a low dose irradiation stimulates immune system, and promotes cell proliferation. This is called 'radiation hormesis'. The studies of the radiation hormesis are made on from four points of view as follows: (1) radiation adaptive response, (2) revitalization caused by a low dose stimulation, (3) a low dose response unexpected from the LNT hypothesis, (4) negation of the LNT hypothesis. The various empirical proofs of radiation hormesis are introduced in the report. (M . Suetake)

  8. Biochemical studies on the effect of radiation on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonies, R.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between gamma and microwave radiation and storage of radiated oil seeds (soybean and sesame) were investigated in this study to find out the best treatment which have the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at three doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 K.Gy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 mins, and the storage of seeds was at rome temperature, R.H.50-55% for 6 months. The results showed no significant changes in the chemical constituents (ash, moisture, protein, carbohydrate, lipid) in both investigated seeds under all treatments. On the other hand, the best treatments which had highly significant reduction effects on the anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor, tannins, phytic acis, phenols and lipoxygenase) were 8.0 K.Gy for 6 months, 4 mins M.W. for soybean, 2 mins M.W. for sesame and 8.0 K.Gy +4 mins M.W. at 6 months. 38 tabs., 39 figs., 279 refs

  9. A Study of Memory Effects in a Chess Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L; Perotti, Juan I; Billoni, Orlando V

    2016-01-01

    A series of recent works studying a database of chronologically sorted chess games-containing 1.4 million games played by humans between 1998 and 2007- have shown that the popularity distribution of chess game-lines follows a Zipf's law, and that time series inferred from the sequences of those game-lines exhibit long-range memory effects. The presence of Zipf's law together with long-range memory effects was observed in several systems, however, the simultaneous emergence of these two phenomena were always studied separately up to now. In this work, by making use of a variant of the Yule-Simon preferential growth model, introduced by Cattuto et al., we provide an explanation for the simultaneous emergence of Zipf's law and long-range correlations memory effects in a chess database. We find that Cattuto's Model (CM) is able to reproduce both, Zipf's law and the long-range correlations, including size-dependent scaling of the Hurst exponent for the corresponding time series. CM allows an explanation for the simultaneous emergence of these two phenomena via a preferential growth dynamics, including a memory kernel, in the popularity distribution of chess game-lines. This mechanism results in an aging process in the chess game-line choice as the database grows. Moreover, we find burstiness in the activity of subsets of the most active players, although the aggregated activity of the pool of players displays inter-event times without burstiness. We show that CM is not able to produce time series with bursty behavior providing evidence that burstiness is not required for the explanation of the long-range correlation effects in the chess database. Our results provide further evidence favoring the hypothesis that long-range correlations effects are a consequence of the aging of game-lines and not burstiness, and shed light on the mechanism that operates in the simultaneous emergence of Zipf's law and long-range correlations in a community of chess players.

  10. A Study of Memory Effects in a Chess Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Schaigorodsky

    Full Text Available A series of recent works studying a database of chronologically sorted chess games-containing 1.4 million games played by humans between 1998 and 2007- have shown that the popularity distribution of chess game-lines follows a Zipf's law, and that time series inferred from the sequences of those game-lines exhibit long-range memory effects. The presence of Zipf's law together with long-range memory effects was observed in several systems, however, the simultaneous emergence of these two phenomena were always studied separately up to now. In this work, by making use of a variant of the Yule-Simon preferential growth model, introduced by Cattuto et al., we provide an explanation for the simultaneous emergence of Zipf's law and long-range correlations memory effects in a chess database. We find that Cattuto's Model (CM is able to reproduce both, Zipf's law and the long-range correlations, including size-dependent scaling of the Hurst exponent for the corresponding time series. CM allows an explanation for the simultaneous emergence of these two phenomena via a preferential growth dynamics, including a memory kernel, in the popularity distribution of chess game-lines. This mechanism results in an aging process in the chess game-line choice as the database grows. Moreover, we find burstiness in the activity of subsets of the most active players, although the aggregated activity of the pool of players displays inter-event times without burstiness. We show that CM is not able to produce time series with bursty behavior providing evidence that burstiness is not required for the explanation of the long-range correlation effects in the chess database. Our results provide further evidence favoring the hypothesis that long-range correlations effects are a consequence of the aging of game-lines and not burstiness, and shed light on the mechanism that operates in the simultaneous emergence of Zipf's law and long-range correlations in a community of chess

  11. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun’ichi Noma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.Keywords: milnacipran, specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, binge eating, vomiting, eating disorder, pharmacotherapy

  12. Experimental study on embedment effect of foundation, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, Keizo; Toma, Junichi; Hashimoto, Koichi; Hanada, Kazutake; Ueshima, Teruyuki; Yajima, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    In order to make clear the dynamic behavior of a embeded foundation on the quarternary ground experimentally, a series of forced vibration tests and seismic observation on both the small foundation (4 x 4 x 3 m) and the embeded form larger scale foundation of the shaking table (16 x 16 x 7.7 m) were conducted at the same site. The purposes this study are evaluating the dynamic behavior and the characteristics of dynamic stiffness and damping of the larger foundation based on forced vibration tests, and applying them to the dynamic response analysis of variable embedded foundations. In this report, the authors first examine frequency dependent property and its theoretical tendency of dynamic stiffness and damping surrounding table foundation. And then, consider an applicability and point of discussion related with the some theories which influence the embedment effect, in contrast with the experimental datum of the model foundation are past studies on a embedment effect (JPDR, Large-Scale Foundation in Tadotsu). (author)

  13. Prospect Theory: A Study of the Endowment Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Sell Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a recent field of study which contradicts the presupposition supported by Modern Finance that decision makers act rationally. Prospect Theory, developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979, is presented as an alternative model to the Theory of Expected Utility in relation to the way people decide in face of possibilities of risk. According to Prospect Theory, people define gains and losses based on a given point of reference, which can be established on grounds of a given level of expected gain. This fact leads to the Endowment Effect - a behavioral trend investigated in this study – whereby investors are influenced by a portfolio which they have received as an inheritance or endowment. The reason this occurs is that individuals usually define their expectations of gain according to the future profitability of the portfolio received, and not according to the future profitability of the market. Using an investment simulation, the Endowment Effect was tested among 226 university students taking courses in the subject of capital markets. The results demonstrate that the students were influenced by the different initial portfolios, which were randomly assigned.

  14. The Effects of Electrocautery on Peripheral Nerve: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalezli, Nazim; Koktekir, Ender; Yildirim, Serhat; Toy, Hatice; Oz, Mehmet; Yuceturk, Aydin

    2016-05-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the usability of an electrocautery device as nerve stimulator and to investigate histopathologically the adverse effects of electrocautery at low power on rat sciatic nerves. METHODS A total of 36 female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into six groups according to the power applied to their sciatic nerves (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 W, respectively). Pathologic changes were studied by microscopic examination and scored (no change = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3). Multiple comparisons were provided for all groups by the Bonferroni test (one-way analysis of variance). A p value  0.05) Variable motor responses and foot deformities were observed at the different power levels. CONCLUSION Although electrocautery devices provoke motor responses if getting in contact with peripheral nerves as do nerve stimulators, their use induces histopathologically adverse effects even at the lowest power. Their use around peripheral nerves should be avoided. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The control of independent students’ work effectiveness during pathophysiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Melnikova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The course of Pathophysiology study includes both auditoria hours (lectures and practical classes and independent work of students. The latter makes up 38% of total hours given for Pathophysiology study. Independent work of students includes the following items: preparation for practical classes, writing reviews on different topics, preparation for current and final computer testing, study of the topics which are not discussed during lectures and practical classes. In order to assimilate the course of Pathophysiology completely students should effectively use their hours given for independent work. Unfortunately, the level of students’ independent individual work is low; it includes only learning of single facts, that is not enough for higher medical education. THE AIM OF STUDY: To propose the method of control of the effectiveness of students’ independent work. The most important part of student’s individual work is preparation for study in auditoria, because it determines the qualitative level of study during practical classes. The student should enter the class not only with the knowledge of basic sciences (Anatomy, Histology, Biochemistry, Normal Physiology etc. but also with the understanding of key items of the topic of the practical class. The problem consists in the following: the teacher can’t check the level of basic knowledge in each student – there is not enough time during practical class for this procedure. In order to increase the effectiveness of individual students’ work a special workbook for the practical classes was developed at the Pathophysiology department. While preparing for practical classes students write down basic items of the topic, refresh some questions from Normal Physiology, Biochemistry and other subjects. In the beginning of the practical class the teacher controls the level of student’s preparation to the topic by checking the fulfillment of tasks in the workbook. It takes a little time, but it

  16. Temperature effects studies in light water reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erradi, Lahoussine.

    1982-02-01

    The CREOLE experiments performed in the EOLE critical facility located in the Nuclear Center of CADARACHE - CEA (UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 lattice reactivity temperature coefficient continuous measurements between 20 0 C and 300 0 C; integral measurements by boron equivalent effect in the moderator; water density effects measurements with the use of over cladding aluminium tubes to remove moderator) allow to get an interesting and complete information on the temperature effects in the light water reactor lattices. A very elaborated calcurated scheme using the transport theory and the APOLLO cross sections library, has been developed. The analysed results of the whole lot of experiments show that the discrepancy between theory and experiment strongly depends on the temperature range and on the type of lattices considered. The error is mainly linked with the thermal spectrum effects. A study on the temperature coefficient sensitivity to the different cell neutron parameters has shown that only the shapes of the 235 U and 238 U thermal cross sections have enough weight and uncertainty margins to explain the observed experimental/calculation bias. Instead of arbitrarily fitting the identified wrong data on the calculation of the reactivity temperature coefficient we have defined a procedure of modification of the cross sections based on the consideration of the basic nuclear data: resonance parameters and associated statistic laws. The implementation of this procedure has led to propose new thermal cross sections sets for 235 U and 238 U consistent with the uncertainty margins associated with the previously accepted values and with some experimental data [fr

  17. ICU telemedicine and critical care mortality: a national effectiveness study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeremy M; Le, Tri Q.; Barnato, Amber E.; Hravnak, Marilyn; Kuza, Courtney C.; Pike, Francis; Angus, Derek C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive care unit (ICU) telemedicine is an increasingly common strategy for improving the outcome of critical care, but its overall impact is uncertain. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of ICU telemedicine in a national sample of hospitals and quantify variation in effectiveness across hospitals. Research design We performed a multi-center retrospective case-control study using 2001–2010 Medicare claims data linked to a national survey identifying United States hospitals adopting ICU telemedicine. We matched each adopting hospital (cases) to up to 3 non-adopting hospitals (controls) based on size, case-mix and geographic proximity during the year of adoption. Using ICU admissions from 2 years before and after the adoption date, we compared outcomes between case and control hospitals using a difference-in-differences approach. Results 132 adopting case hospitals were matched to 389 similar non-adopting control hospitals. The pre- and post-adoption unadjusted 90-day mortality was similar in both case hospitals (24.0% vs. 24.3%, p=0.07) and control hospitals (23.5% vs. 23.7%, ptelemedicine adoption was associated with a small relative reduction in 90-day mortality (ratio of odds ratios: 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98, ptelemedicine effect across individual hospitals (median ratio of odds ratios: 1.01; interquartile range 0.85–1.12; range 0.45–2.54). Only 16 case hospitals (12.2%) experienced statistically significant mortality reductions post-adoption. Hospitals with a significant mortality reduction were more likely to have large annual admission volumes (ptelemedicine adoption resulted in a small relative overall mortality reduction, there was heterogeneity in effect across adopting hospitals, with large-volume urban hospitals experiencing the greatest mortality reductions. PMID:26765148

  18. Study on calculation methods for the effective delayed neutron fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwanto, Dwi; Obara, Toru; Chiba, Go; Nagaya, Yasunobu

    2011-03-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction β eff is one of the important neutronic parameters from a view point of a reactor kinetics. Several Monte-Carlo-based methods to estimate β eff have been proposed to date. In order to quantify the accuracy of these methods, we study calculation methods for β eff by analyzing various fast neutron systems including the bare spherical systems (Godiva, Jezebel, Skidoo, Jezebel-240), the reflective spherical systems (Popsy, Topsy, Flattop-23), MASURCA-R2 and MASURCA-ZONA2, and FCA XIX-1, XIX-2 and XIX-3. These analyses are performed by using SLAROM-UF and CBG for the deterministic method and MVP-II for the Monte Carlo method. We calculate β eff with various definitions such as the fundamental value β 0 , the standard definition, Nauchi's definition and Meulekamp's definition, and compare these results with each other. Through the present study, we find the following: The largest difference among the standard definition of β eff , Nauchi's β eff and Meulekamp's β eff is approximately 10%. The fundamental value β 0 is quite larger than the others in several cases. For all the cases, Meulekamp's β eff is always higher than Nauchi's β eff . This is because Nauchi's β eff considers the average neutron multiplicity value per fission which is large in the high energy range (1MeV-10MeV), while the definition of Meulekamp's β eff does not include this parameter. Furthermore, we evaluate the multi-generation effect on β eff values and demonstrate that this effect should be considered to obtain the standard definition values of β eff . (author)

  19. Toxic effects of isoproturon on periphyton communities a microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf

    2005-02-01

    Coastal and estuarine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to herbicide contamination. To study the potential risks of these pollutants, the establishment of periphyton communities under exposure of a concentration series of isoproturon in a range of 0.0024-0.312 mg L -1 was investigated in a microcosm study. After two weeks of growth, chronic effects on biomass development, measured as Chl a fluorescence, taxonomic composition and photosynthetic capacity of PS II of attached microalgae were analysed using a pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence-based method. Algal classes were differentiated according to their pigment systems using four excitation wavelengths. Biomass remained constant up to pre-exposure concentrations of 0.02 mg L -1 isoproturon but decreased within one order of magnitude at the highest test concentration. Algal classes shifted from diatoms to chlorophytes at pre-exposure concentrations of 0.02-0.39 mg L -1. Community structure of diatoms representing the dominant group of attached algae at lower test concentrations was studied by microscopic analysis revealing that species numbers were highest at lowest test concentrations as compared to controls. At higher test concentrations Navicula halophila dominated with 89% of the diatom biomass but was abnormally shaped. Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of periphyton to isoproturon was determined by short-term inhibition tests of photosynthesis. Pre-exposed communities increased their effect concentrations (EC 50) up to threefold within the 0.039 mg L -1 pre-treatment. Our results suggest that attached microalgal communities have a high potential of tolerance development to isoproturon at lower levels of contamination due to the replacement of sensitive species by more tolerant algae, although these species seemed to be affected too. We conclude that herbicide concentrations in river basins, estuaries or coastal zones may change community structure and primary production of

  20. The late negative episodic memory effect: the effect of recapitulating study details at test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M; Bersick, Michael

    2005-05-01

    An hypothesis concerning mnemonic function suggests that perceptual details of previously experienced episodes are retrieved from the cortices that initially processed that information during the encoding phase. Cycowicz et al. [Cycowicz, Y.M., Friedman, D. and Snodgrass, J.G., Remembering the color of objects: an ERP investigation of source memory, Cereb Cortex, 11 (2001) 322-334.] have interpreted the presence of a late negative episodic memory (EM) effect, maximal over parieto-occipital scalp, as a brain signature of the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of the specific perceptual source-specifying attributes (i.e., color) of pictures in the visual cortical regions that were recruited during the encoding of that information. The present study assessed the validity of this hypothesis. Twelve participants studied pictures outlined in red or green and were subsequently tested with inclusion (i.e., item; old or new regardless of color) and exclusion (i.e., source; same color, different color/new judgments) tasks. In both, old pictures were presented either in the same color as at study or in the alternate color. A late negative, parieto-occipital EM effect was of much larger amplitude in the source compared to the item task. It was of similar magnitude to correctly recognized pictures whose colors were identical at study and test relative to those whose colors changed, and was not modulated by the success or failure of the source retrieval. These data run counter to the initial hypothesis that the late negative EM effect reflects the search for and/or retrieval of specific perceptual attributes such as color. Rather, the late negative EM effect may reflect the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of more general source-specifying information in the cortical regions that initially processed the stimuli.

  1. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  2. Spatial Temporal Modelling of Particulate Matter for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, N. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality) measurement system). These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter), aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m-3 and 1.8 μg m-3 respectively). Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  3. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  4. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-01

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  5. Matrix effect studies with empirical formulations in maize saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Meenakshi; Deep, Kanan; Mittal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    In X-ray fluorescence, the earlier derived matrix effects from fundamental relations of intensities of analyte/matrix elements with basic atomic and experimental setup parameters and tested on synthetic known samples were found empirically related to analyte/matrix elemental amounts. The present study involves the application of these relations on potassium and calcium macronutrients of maize saplings treated with different fertilizers. The novelty of work involves a determination of an element in the presence of its secondary excitation rather than avoiding the secondary fluorescence. Therefore, the possible utility of this process is in studying the absorption for some intermediate samples in a lot of a category of samples with close Z interfering constituents (just like Ca and K). Once the absorption and enhancement terms are fitted to elemental amounts and fitted coefficients are determined, with the absorption terms from the fit and an enhancer element amount known from its selective excitation, the next iterative elemental amount can be directly evaluated from the relations. - Highlights: ► Empirical formulation for matrix corrections in terms of amounts of analyte and matrix element. ► The study applied on K and Ca nutrients of maize, rice and potato organic materials. ► The formulation provides matrix terms from amounts of analyte/matrix elements and vice versa.

  6. Effects of Omeprazole on Iron Absorption: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing numbers of pediatric and adult patients are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. PPIs are known to inhibit gastric acid secretion. Nonheme iron requires gastric acid for conversion to the ferrous form for absorption. Ninety percent of dietary and 100% of oral iron therapy is in the nonheme form. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of PPIs on iron absorption has not been studied in humans. Our study assessed the relationship between omeprazole therapy and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: We recruited 9 healthy volunteers between June 2010 and March 2011. Subjects with chronic illness, anemia, or use of PPI therapy were excluded. Serum iron concentrations were measured 1, 2, and 3 h after the ingestion of iron (control group. The measurements were repeated on a subsequent visit after 4 daily oral administrations of omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg (treatment group. Results: One female and 8 male volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 33 years. There was no statistical difference detected between baseline, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h iron levels between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Administration of omeprazole for a short duration does not affect absorption of orally administered iron in healthy individuals.

  7. Study of Plume Impingement Effects in the Lunar Lander Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichalar, Jeremiah; Prisbell, A.; Lumpkin, F.; LeBeau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plume impingement effects from the descent and ascent engine firings of the Lunar Lander were analyzed in support of the Lunar Architecture Team under the Constellation Program. The descent stage analysis was performed to obtain shear and pressure forces on the lunar surface as well as velocity and density profiles in the flow field in an effort to understand lunar soil erosion and ejected soil impact damage which was analyzed as part of a separate study. A CFD/DSMC decoupled methodology was used with the Bird continuum breakdown parameter to distinguish the continuum flow from the rarefied flow. The ascent stage analysis was performed to ascertain the forces and moments acting on the Lunar Lander Ascent Module due to the firing of the main engine on take-off. The Reacting and Multiphase Program (RAMP) method of characteristics (MOC) code was used to model the continuum region of the nozzle plume, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Analysis Code (DAC) was used to model the impingement results in the rarefied region. The ascent module (AM) was analyzed for various pitch and yaw rotations and for various heights in relation to the descent module (DM). For the ascent stage analysis, the plume inflow boundary was located near the nozzle exit plane in a region where the flow number density was large enough to make the DSMC solution computationally expensive. Therefore, a scaling coefficient was used to make the DSMC solution more computationally manageable. An analysis of the effectiveness of this scaling technique was performed by investigating various scaling parameters for a single height and rotation of the AM. Because the inflow boundary was near the nozzle exit plane, another analysis was performed investigating three different inflow contours to determine the effects of the flow expansion around the nozzle lip on the final plume impingement results.

  8. Immunosuppressive effects of factor IX products: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, A B; McGregor, J R; Samlowski, W E; Rodgers, G M

    1999-11-01

    The effects of a recombinant factor IX product (BeneFix), and of five plasma-derived factor IX products, AlphaNine, Immunine, Konyne, Mononine and Replinine on in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) immune function were compared in a blinded study. We assessed the effects of these products on Con-A-induced lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 and interleukin-10 secretion, expression of lymphocyte activation markers, and nitric oxide secretion by stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. At 1 mL-1 for 48 h, Konyne reduced Con-A-induced mitogenesis by 50% (P < 0.05); AlphaNine, Mononine and BeneFix had no effect. At 10 IU mL-1, Con-A-induced mi- togenesis was at control levels with Mononine and BeneFix, but was reduced to <15% (P < 0.05) with each of the other products. IL-2 and IL-10 secretion by Con-A-stimulated lymphocytes was also markedly depressed by all the products tested except Mononine and BeneFix. Dialysis of these products did not substantially affect these results. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte activation markers following Con-A stimulation showed that Konyne also decreased IL-2 receptor alpha and beta chain (CD25 and CD122) induction on PBMC. Konyne also inhibited nitric oxide secretion to levels <18% of controls. These results indicate that certain factor IX products, including some of purported higher purity, substantially depress in vitro immune function. The importance of these findings to in vivo immune function in haemophilia B patients remains to be established.

  9. ESF collection effectiveness, a study in fine particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winegardner, W.K.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1985-04-01

    The characterization and dynamic behavior of fine particles are the main subjects of an ongoing investigation of the particle collection effectiveness of the engineered safety feature (ESF) systems in nuclear power plants. This investigation is part of a larger study of the release of radionuclides to the environment from such plants during postulated accidents that are severe but extremely unlikely. The ESF systems are installed to prevent the occurrence of severe accidents or mitigate their consequences. Several of these engineered systems can serve as particle collection devices. This report focuses on the analytical models that were developed to predict particle behavior in two systems that were not specifically designed for particle retention: the ice compartments of ice condenser containment systems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and the suppression pools of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). The following section summarizes the topics considered in the development of models and computer codes for estimating the particle retention effectiveness of these two ESF systems. After the summary this paper describes the two ESF systems in more detail and discusses the behavior of particles in both situations

  10. Effectively managing partnership evolution: a case study from Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishuk, Brian S

    Given the continued proliferation of public/ private partnerships as vehicles for sharing best practices, lessons learned and actionable information, the keys to their success become more important to identify. Effective partnerships enhance the resilience of their respective members, which, in turn, improves community resilience. Thus, identifying the attributes of a successful partnership should be a high priority for those looking to foster collaboration between the public and private sectors. This paper will illustrate with two case studies how successful partnerships creatively leverage opportunities and manage the evolution of public/private relationships, while always seeking to institutionalise these collaborative efforts. The first will discuss briefly the development of the most important national partnership within the financial sector. The other focuses on a public/private task force in Chicago, composed of public safety agencies and representatives of critical infrastructure, which owes its existence to an unexpected research project and that needed to be restructured in light of experience. The manner in which the task force formed and evolved yields many lessons for partnerships interested in remaining relevant and effective.

  11. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  12. Application of Moessbauer effect in the study of silicon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsky, B.; Wiglasz, V.; Prejsa, M.

    1975-11-01

    The results for 1975 are presented of the research task: Application of the Moessbauer effect in the study of silicon steels. Moessbauer spectra were measured on Czechoslovak made materials of Eo 10 quality and of foreign made material of M2H quality in dependence on tensile stress. Moessbauer spectra were measured on identical samples with electrotechnical insulation and after the removal thereof, with the aim of ascertaining the effect of this insulation. All measurements were evaluated on the basis of changes in the intensity ratios of the first and second lines of the spectrum which characterize the domain structure. These measurements have confirmed that electrotechnical insulation forms in the basic material small tensile stresses which improve the magnetic properties of the material. Moessbauer spectra were measured using the absorption method on identical materials in thin foils with the aim of investigating the configuration of Si atoms in the Fe3%Si alloy. It was found that both materials contain Si atoms in both the first and the second coordination spheres. (author)

  13. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzolan, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  14. Neurotrophic effects of perfluorocarbon emulsion gel: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive neurotrophic effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment may be more easily achieved by applying a Perflourocarbon (PFC emulsion gel to the repair site. PFCs are halogen substituted carbon oils with unique oxygen transport potentials that are capable of increasing oxygen availability in local tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of a PFC emulsion to a repaired nerve would improve recovery. Materials and methods The left tibial nerve of 21 immature female Sprague-Dawley rats was transected, immediately repaired, and then circumferentially coated with PFC gel (Group A, n = 7, PFC-less gel (Group B, n = 7, or nothing (suture only, Group C, n = 7. At eight weeks post surgery, electrophysiological testing and histological and morphological analysis was performed. Results No statistically significant differences between experimental groups were found for muscle size and weight, axon counts, or nerve conduction velocity. Group A had a significantly smaller G-ratio than Groups B and C (p Conclusion Overall results do not indicate a functional benefit associated with application of a PFC emulsion gel to rodent tibial nerve repairs. A positive effect on myelination was seen.

  15. Study of ageing side effects in the DELPHI HPC calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W

    1997-01-01

    The readout proportional chambers of the HPC electromagnetic calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment are affected by large ageing. In order to study the long-term behaviour fo the calorimeter, one HPC module was extracted from DELPHI in 1992 and was brought to a test area where it was artificially aged during a period of two years; an ageing level exceeding the one expected for the HPC at the end of the LEP era was reached. During this period the performance of the module was periodically tested by means of dedicated beam tests whose results are discussed in this paper. These show that ageing has no significant effects on the response linearity and on the energy resolution for electromagnetic showers, once the analog response loss is compensated for by increasing the chamber gain through the anode voltage.

  16. Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo; Yamada, Yuji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the toxicological mechanism of transuranic elements, such as plutonium, involved in the induction of pulmonary fibrosis, toxic effects of several inhaled dusts and mineral particles were examined in rats. Pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) was responsible for retention and behavior of inhaled asbestos fibers or silica particles and their transfer to the lymph nodes. PAM exhibited prominent phagocytosis of particles, followed by a significant release of lactic dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase. Multinucleated or Ia-positive PAM was frequently observed in rats presenting with pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis that was induced by inhaled asbestos or silica particles was associated with significant production and release of cytokines. This indicated a close correlation with inflammatory or proliferating responses of fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Such reactions observed in PAM depended on toxicity of particles involved in phagocytosis (i.e., the ability of particles to induce pulmonary fibrosis), suggesting heterogeneity in the population of PAM. (Namekawa, K)

  17. Alcohol effects on family relations: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaldo, Amanda Márcia Dos Santos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Problems related to alcohol abuse have been associated to different factors, regardless of the causes attributed to this phenomenon. Alcohol consumption and dependence is considered a public health problem and deserve attention because of the social, work, family, physical, legal and violence-related risks it represents. This study aimed to identify the effects of alcoholism on family relations and, by means of case management, to encourage the recovery of these relationships. The results show that the problems caused by alcohol abuse impose profound suffering to family members, which contributes to high levels of interpersonal conflict, domestic violence, parental inadequacy, child abuse and negligence, financial and legal difficulties, in addition to clinical problems associated to it.

  18. Experimental study on birefringence effect in high-tension bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No You; Lee, Sang Soon; Jang, Kyung Young

    2005-01-01

    Bolts widely used in machine parts and assemblies are pre-loaded to prevent the parts from separating and to maintain the strength of the assemblies. Conventional technique for measurement of this axial stress applied to bolts is torque meter, but it has two disadvantages. The first one is its inherent inaccuracy. The second is that the stress cannot be determined after assembly without twisting bolts. The most promising technique for measurement of the axial stress is the acousto-elasticity. In this study, a new acousto-elasticity technique based on birefringence principle is proposed and tested to measure the axial stress in bolts which uses two longitudinal and shear waves instead of two horizontally polarized shear waves. From experimental results, the difference between the longitudinal and shear wave velocity is shown to be linearly related to the applied stress and be able to be used effectively to monitor the axial stress in bolts.

  19. Experimental studies on the effect of perfluorochemicals in tumor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Jun; Iwai, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuaki; Kondo, Hiroaki; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation therapy with Fluosol-DA on rat mammary tumors were studied. The tissue oxygen tension values of tumors in breathing mixed gas (5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen) with Fluosol-DA (25 ml/kg, i.v.) were significantly higher than those in room air without Fluosol-DA. The rats were divided into three groups: Group I received Fluosol-DA but no irradiation, Group II was treated with 1000 rads of irradiation using 60 Co without Fluosol-DA in room air and Group III received the same irradiation and Fluosol-DA in breathig mixed gas. In the latter group we observed a prolongation of the survival time and suppression of the tumor growth. (author)

  20. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  1. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. The Challenge of Effective Teaching of Chemistry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham AVAA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry education has been identified to be one of the major bedrock for the transformation of our national economy, and hence must be accorded adequate attention. In this study, an attempt was made in ascertaining the remote causes for the poor performances reported in recent times in chemistry at the senior secondary level of education. About 80 persons were interviewed in the course of this work ranging from ex-students, students to teachers. Teacher variables, student variables and environment-related variables were investigated and the findings showed that these all contribute greatly to the poor performances of students in science subjects and chemistry in particular. The chemistry teacher, students, parents, senior secondary school administrators, curriculum planners, and the government are therefore faced with the daunting challenge of re-awaking interest and providing enabling environment for the effective teaching of chemistry in particular and the sciences in general.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on nylon 6 films : swelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.P.; Chaudhuri, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on swelling studies of γ-irradiated nylon 6 films undertaken to investigate the effects of γ-irradiation in finer details. Benzyl alcohol has been used as the swelling agent. The kinetics of weight swelling of γ-irradiated nylon 6 films in benzyl alcohol was studied at different irradiation doses in the range 0 - 28.8 Mrad. It is observed that with increasing irradiation dose upto 14.4 Mrad the swelling, and hence the diffusion process are retarded; moreover, the sigmoidal nature of the percentage weight swelling vs (time)sup(1/2) plot is augmented. Above this critical dose the swelling and diffusion processes are accelerated. Besides, the sigmoidal behaviour recedes and is converted into linear behaviour at 28.8 Mrad. This behaviour indicates that a relaxation-controlled non-Fickian diffusion process is at work below 28.8 Mrad while at 28.8 Mrad a Fickian process is established. A significant effect on the equilibrium swelling in benzyl alcohol is observed. The plot of equilibrium weight swelling vs irradiation dose at 23deg C shows an initial decrease of swelling upto 3.6 Mrad at which swelling starts decreasing at accelerated rate in the dose range 3.6 - 7.6 Mrad. The rate slows down appreciably between 7.00 and 14.4 Mrad, above which there is a rapid fall. The results are correlated with scission and crosslinking processes through relative viscosity determination of formic acid solutions of the irradiated samples. It is established by combining viscosity data with kinetics and equilibrium swelling data that, besides scission, crosslinking processes are also at work in nylon 6 in the irradiation dose range 0 - 3.6 Mrad. It has been possible to bring out this point because the swelling technique seems to be preferentially sensitive towards crosslinking. (author)

  4. Sensitivity analysis in multiple imputation in effectiveness studies of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Aureliano; von Wyl, Agnes; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The importance of preventing and treating incomplete data in effectiveness studies is nowadays emphasized. However, most of the publications focus on randomized clinical trials (RCT). One flexible technique for statistical inference with missing data is multiple imputation (MI). Since methods such as MI rely on the assumption of missing data being at random (MAR), a sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness against departures from this assumption is required. In this paper we present a sensitivity analysis technique based on posterior predictive checking, which takes into consideration the concept of clinical significance used in the evaluation of intra-individual changes. We demonstrate the possibilities this technique can offer with the example of irregular longitudinal data collected with the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ) in a sample of 260 outpatients. The sensitivity analysis can be used to (1) quantify the degree of bias introduced by missing not at random data (MNAR) in a worst reasonable case scenario, (2) compare the performance of different analysis methods for dealing with missing data, or (3) detect the influence of possible violations to the model assumptions (e.g., lack of normality). Moreover, our analysis showed that ratings from the patient's and therapist's version of the HAQ could significantly improve the predictive value of the routine outcome monitoring based on the OQ-45. Since analysis dropouts always occur, repeated measurements with the OQ-45 and the HAQ analyzed with MI are useful to improve the accuracy of outcome estimates in quality assurance assessments and non-randomized effectiveness studies in the field of outpatient psychotherapy.

  5. Effect of Piroxicam on ART Outcome: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Sohrabvand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important factors affecting success rates in assisted reproductive techniques (ART besides the number of oocytes retrieved and high quality embryos derived from them is the technical aspects of embryo transfer. It seems that pretreatement with uterine relaxants can be helpful in preventing unpleasant cramps which can have an adverse effect on ART outcome. In this respect, some drugs such as prostaglandin inhibitors or sedatives have been evaluated but not confirmed yet remain controversial. This study was performed in order to assess the effect of administrating Piroxicam prior to embryo transfer on pregnancy rates in ART cycles. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was performed from August 2010 through December 2011 on 50 infertile women in ART cycles. Recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH with a long gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue protocol were used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. The subjects were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 patients after obtaining written consent. Group A received a 10 mg Piroxicam capsule 30 minutes before embryo transfer and group B was the control group with no treatment. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Pregnancy rate was 34% (n=17 totally, with 32% (n=8 in group A and 36% (n=9 in group B (p=0.75. Uterine cramps were experienced by 4 women (16% in group B, while none were reported by women in group A (p=0.037. Conclusion: It seems that Piroxicam administration 30 minutes prior to embryo transfer cannot increase pregnancy rates, but can prevent or reduce uterine cramps after the procedure.

  6. Effective implementation of novel MET pharmacodynamic assays in translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Apurva K; Navas, Tony; Herrick, William G; Hollingshead, Melinda G; Bottaro, Donald P; Doroshow, James H; Parchment, Ralph E

    2017-01-01

    MET tyrosine kinase (TK) dysregulation is significantly implicated in many types of cancer. Despite over 20 years of drug development to target MET in cancers, a pure anti-MET therapeutic has not yet received market approval. The failure of two recently concluded phase III trials point to a major weakness in biomarker strategies to identify patients who will benefit most from MET therapies. The capability to interrogate oncogenic mutations in MET via circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides an important advancement in identification and stratification of patients for MET therapy. However, a wide range in type and frequency of these mutations suggest there is a need to carefully link these mutations to MET dysregulation, at least in proof-of-concept studies. In this review, we elaborate how we can utilize recently developed and validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers of MET not only to show target engagement, but more importantly to quantitatively measure MET dysregulation in tumor tissues. The MET assay endpoints provide evidence of both canonical and non-canonical MET signaling, can be used as "effect markers" to define biologically effective doses (BEDs) for molecularly targeted drugs, confirm mechanism-of-action in testing combination of drugs, and establish whether a diagnostic test is reporting MET dysregulation. We have established standard operating procedures for tumor biopsy collections to control pre-analytical variables that have produced valid results in proof-of-concept studies. The reagents and procedures are made available to the research community for potential implementation on multiple platforms such as ELISA, quantitative immunofluorescence assay (qIFA), and immuno-MRM assays.

  7. CEAMF study, volume 2 : cumulative effects indicators, thresholds, and case studies : final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The four types of cumulative effects on the environment are: alteration, loss, and fragmentation of habitat; disturbance; barriers to movement; and direct and indirect mortality. Defining where and how human activities can be continued without irreversible net harm to the environment is part of cumulative effects management. Various land-use and habitat indicators were tested in the Blueberry and Sukunka study areas of British Columbia, to address the environmental effects associated with oil and gas development. As recommended, a tiered threshold approach was used to allow for flexibility in different land management regimes and ecological settings. Success will depend on defining acceptable change, threshold values, standard public database, standard processes to calculate indicator values using the database, and project-specific and cooperative management actions. A pilot study was suggested to test the candidate thresholds and implementation process. The two areas proposed for consideration were the Jedney Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort St. John Forest District, and the Etsho Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort Nelson Forest District. Both are of interest to the petroleum and forest sectors, and support the woodland caribou, a species which is extremely sensitive to cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance. 117 refs., 11 tabs., 39 figs.

  8. Effects of swirl in turbulent pipe flows : computational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Frode

    2011-07-01

    The primary objective of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the effect of swirl in steady turbulent pipe flows. The work has been carried out by a numerical approach, with direct numerical simulations as the method of choice. A key target to pursue was the effects of the swirl on the wall friction in turbulent pipe flows. The motivation came from studies of rotating pipe flows in which drag reduction was achieved. Drag reduction was reported to be due to the swirl favourably influencing the coherent turbulent structures in the near-wall region. Based on this, it was decided to investigate if similar behaviour could be obtained by inducing a swirl in a pipe with a stationary wall. To do a thorough investigation of the general three-dimensional swirl flow and particularly of the swirl effects; chosen variations of mean and turbulent flow parameters were explored together with complementary flow visualizations. Two different approaches in order to induce the swirl in the turbulent pipe flow, have been carried out. However, the present thesis might be regarded to be comprised of three parts. The first part consists of the first approach to induce the swirl. Here a prescribed circumferential force was implemented in a serial open source Navier-Stokes solver. In the second approach, the swirl was intended induced by implementing structures at the wall. Simulations of flows through a pipe with one or more helical fin(s) at the pipe wall was decided to be performed. In order to pursue this approach, it was found necessary to do a parallelization of the existing serial numerical code. The key element of this parallelization has been included as a part of the present work. Additionally, the helical fin(s) were implemented into the code by use of an immersed boundary method. A validation of this work is also documented in the thesis. The work done by parallelizing the code and implementing an immersed boundary method constitutes the second part of the present thesis. The

  9. Light Scattering Studies of Organic Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Danish

    Organic semiconductors hold a great promise of enabling new technology based on low cost and flexible electronic devices. While much work has been done in the field of organic semiconductors, the field is still quite immature when compared to that of traditional inorganic based devices. More work is required before the full potential of organic field effect transistors (OFETs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is realized. Among such work, a further development of diagnostic tools that characterize charge transport and device robustness more efficiently is required. Charge transport in organic semiconductors is limited by the nature of the metal-semiconductor interfaces where charge is injected into the semiconductor film and the semiconductor-dielectric interface where the charge is accumulated and transported. This, combined with that fact that organic semiconductors are especially susceptible to having structural defects induced via oxidation, charge transport induced damage, and metallization results in a situation where a semiconductor film's ability to conduct charge can degrade over time. This degradation manifests itself in the electrical device characteristics of organic based electronic devices. OFETs, for example, may display changes in threshold voltage, lowering of charge carrier mobilities, or a decrease in the On/Off ratio. All these effects sum together to result in degradation in device performance. The work begins with a study where matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition (MAPLE), an alternative organic semiconductor thin film deposition method, is used to fabricate OFETs with improved semiconductor-dielectric interfaces. MAPLE allows for the controlled layer-by-layer growth of the semiconductor film. Devices fabricated using this technique are shown to exhibit desirable characteristics that are otherwise only achievable with additional surface treatments. MAPLE is shown to be viable alternative to other

  10. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an awareness campaign for colorectal cancer: a mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sophie; Harnan, Susan

    2014-06-01

    A campaign to increase the awareness of the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer (CRC) and encourage self-presentation to a GP was piloted in two regions of England in 2011. Short-term data from the pilot evaluation on campaign cost and changes in GP attendances/referrals, CRC incidence, and CRC screening uptake were available. The objective was to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a CRC awareness campaign by using a mathematical model which extrapolates short-term outcomes to predict long-term impacts on cancer mortality, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs. A mathematical model representing England (aged 30+) for a lifetime horizon was developed. Long-term changes to cancer incidence, cancer stage distribution, cancer mortality, and QALYs were estimated. Costs were estimated incorporating costs associated with delivering the campaign, additional GP attendances, and changes in CRC treatment. Data from the pilot campaign suggested that the awareness campaign caused a 1-month 10 % increase in presentation rates. Based on this, the model predicted the campaign to cost £5.5 million, prevent 66 CRC deaths and gain 404 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared to "no campaign" was £13,496 per QALY. Results were sensitive to the magnitude and duration of the increase in presentation rates and to disease stage. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a cancer awareness campaign can be estimated based on short-term data. Such predictions will aid policy makers in prioritizing between cancer control strategies. Future cost-effectiveness studies would benefit from campaign evaluations reporting as follows: data completeness, duration of impact, impact on emergency presentations, and comparison with non-intervention regions.

  11. Effective orbital volume and eyeball position: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni; Papadaki, Efrosini; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have examined factors affecting the position of the eyeball to the orbit. This study examined the role of effective orbital volume (EOV), defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume, as a determinant of eyeball position, using MRI scans. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete Greece. Patients with a history of orbital disease were excluded. Distances between eyeball poles and orbital landmarks were measured in T1 weighted transverse, sagittal and coronal orbital images. The protrusion of the eyeball in the sagittal and transverse planes was recorded. The volume of the eyeball and bony orbit, the EOV, the volume of the extraocular muscles as well as clinical information (age, gender, Hertel exophthalmometry) were also recorded. EOV was significantly associated with orbital volume but not with eyeball volume. EOV was also significantly associated with transverse and sagittal globe protrusions. Females displayed significantly lower orbital and eyeball volumes as well as EOV than males but higher transverse globe protrusion than males. Variations in EOV are associated with orbital volume rather than with eyeball volume. EOV is associated with globe protrusion and may be taken into account in the planning of various procedures, including orbital decompression, treatment of enophthalmos or the size of orbital implants following enucleation.

  12. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a 60 Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D 50 ) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author)

  14. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  15. Experimental study of fuel sootiness effects on flashover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Kuang-Chung, E-mail: tsaikc@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw [Dept. of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 2 Juoyue Road, Nantzu, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Hsiang [Dept. of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 2 Juoyue Road, Nantzu, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    Previous fire safety studies have demonstrated that flashover can result in severe injure and death and heat radiating back to a fuel is an important mechanism. Fuel sootiness dominates in radiative heat transfer. However, empirical correlations from previous investigations did not consider the fuel sootiness but nevertheless generated reasonably good predictions of flashover. In this study, a series of experiments was employed to examine fuel sootiness effects on flashover. The fuels used, in the order of their sootiness, were gasoline, n-hexane, iso-propanol and methanol. These fuels were filled in circular pans 100-320 mm in diameter to generate fires with different heat release rates and levels of sootiness. The pans were in 1/3 the size of the ISO 9705 test chamber. After ignition, the heat release rate (HRR), temperature inside the chamber, as well as heat flux on the floor and time to flashover (t{sub fo}) were determined. Experimental data show that HRR at flashover and t{sub fo} were strongly corrected and their relationship was independent of the fuel burned. Although heat feedback to the floor increased as fuel sootiness increased, consequently enhancing the burning of sooty fuels, flashover occurs only when the HRR at flashover criterion is reached.

  16. Effects of Glossopharyngeal Insufflation in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Brodin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, thoracic range of motion is often greatly limited. The objective of the study was to describe the effects of 12 weeks of Glossopharyngeal Insufflation (GI training in patients with AS. Dynamic spirometry included vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, and peak expiratory flow. Thoracic and lumbar range of motion was assessed by tragus-to-wall distance, modified Schober test, and tape measure. Disease activity, activity limitation, and health perception were assessed using the BAS-Indices, and tension in the thoracic region during GI was assessed using the Borg CR-10 scale. Adherence to training was recorded in an activity log, along with any remarks on the training. Ten patients were recruited and six male patients fulfilled the study protocol. Three patients were able to learn GI by exceeding their maximal vital capacity with 5% using GI. A significant increase in thoracic range of motion both on costae IV (P=0.04 and at the level of the xiphoid process (P=0.04 was seen. Thus, patients with AS can practice GI, it is safe if maximal exertion is avoided, and patients with some mobility in the chest can increase their lung function substantially by performing GI during 12 weeks.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia

    1999-11-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60} Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D{sub 50}) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  19. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  20. Voltabsorptometric study of 'structural memory' effects in polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, A.A.; Ivanov, V.F.; Gribkova, O.L.; Vannikov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at clarifying the role of the counter anions used in the electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline (PAn) on the spectroelectrochemical properties of the resulting film (so-called ''structural memory'' effect). Polyaniline films were synthesized in aqueous solutions of different acids: HCl, HClO 4 and H 2 SO 4 ('parent' acids). Further spectroelectrochemical studies were performed in aqueous solutions of the above-mentioned acids for each of the films synthesized in the above 'parent' acids. Differential voltabsorptometric curves (dA/dt versus potential (DCVA)) were measured at certain characteristic wavelengths corresponding to the individual absorption bands separated from the spectra using Alentsev-Fock method. These are the bands of the radical cations (435 nm), quinoid fragments (570 nm), dimers of radical cations (presumably 665 nm) and 'localized polarons' (755 nm). Particular attention has been paid to the formation of the dimers of radical cations and their role in the redox transitions in the film. Comparing our results with the literature data, we suppose that such dimers may facilitate electron exchange between adjacent polymer chains contributing to the conductivity increase. Complex nature of the first voltammetric peak was discovered, which is probably due to the heterogeneous structure of PAn. Results of molecular modeling of the interchain dimers of the radical cations using semi-empirical PM3 calculations are reported and their electronic spectrum was simulated

  1. Effectiveness of Vildagliptin in Clinical Practice: Pooled Analysis of Three Korean Observational Studies (the VICTORY Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghwan Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present observational study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of vildagliptin with metformin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Data were pooled from the vildagliptin postmarketing survey (PMS, the vildagliptin/metformin fixed drug combination (DC PMS, and a retrospective observational study of vildagliptin/metformin (fixed DC or free DC. The effectiveness endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a glycemic target (HbA1c of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. In total, 4303 patients were included in the analysis; of these, 2087 patients were eligible. The mean patient age was 56.99 ± 11.25 years. Overall, 58.94% patients achieved an HbA1c target of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. The glycemic target achievement rate was significantly greater in patients with baseline HbA1c < 7.5% versus ≥7.5% (84.64% versus 43.97%, receiving care at the hospital versus clinic (67.95% versus 52.33%, and receiving vildagliptin/metformin fixed DC versus free DC (70.69% versus 55.42%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that disease duration (P<0.0001, baseline HbA1c (P<0.0001, and DC type (P=0.0103 had significant effects on drug effectiveness. Vildagliptin plus metformin appeared as an effective treatment option for patients with T2DM in clinical practice settings in Korea.

  2. Studies of effects of radiation exposure on children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the title subject from the aspect of age difference in humans and experimental animals. Epidemiological studies on A-bomb survivors have revealed that the effects are dependent on the dose, sex, age at exposure and attained age after the exposure. Analysis of the survivor cohort shows that the younger is the age at exposure, the higher the risk of cancer death at an attained age. However, the risk is suggested small and insignificant regardless to the age of exposure at the low dose 0.005-0.5 Gy. The risk of carcinogenesis at the attained age 50 y of exposed children is 1.7 while that of exposed fetuses, 0.42. There are no confounding factors in animal experiments. Risks of carcinogenesis and life-span reduction have been found the highest in the exposed mouse neonate (0-7 days old). In authors' studies with gamma-ray, it is shown that females are more susceptible, the risk is the highest in 1 week old infants and is the lowest in fetuses at 17 days after gestation at <1 Gy dose. That the susceptible age to cancer formation differs on the organ is also shown, where at exposure to the late phase fetuses/neonates/infants, increased incidence of cancers thereafter is seen in the brain, kidney, liver, mammary gland, lung, gut and T-lymphocytes in contrast to adults in which the lung cancer and marrow leukemia are major. Carcinogenic radiation response of infant seems different from that of adult: after exposure, adult gut cells die due to the apoptosis through p53-Noxa-caspase pathway but at the developing age, p53-p21 pathway is activated leading to the arrest of cell cycle, resulting in survival of DNA-injured cells. Studies on the age difference of cancer formation is conceivably important for elucidation of radiation carcinogenesis for radiation protection and risk reduction. (T.T.)

  3. Experimental study on the radiation effects to the bone growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiko

    1980-01-01

    The radiation effects on growing bone were studied using immature rabbits. The irradiation was done with telecobalt to the right knee joint. The rabbits were divided into six groups according to the dose, such as 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 6,000 and 8,000 rad respectively. The effects of irradiation were investigated by RI-scintigraphy, X-ray photography and pathohistological examination. The following results were obtained. 1. In RI-scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, the change of accumulation ratio of the irradiated side was investigated. In terms of chronological observation, the accumulation ratio decreased most 5 weeks after irradiation and subsequently increased in the group irradiated with less than 4,000 rad. In the 6,000 rad group, the accumulation ratio decreased rapidly until 5 weeks after irradiation, and subsequently increased slightly. In the 8,000 rad group, the accumulation ratio progressively decreased unabated during the time observed. 2. X-ray findings of irradiated bones were as follows: In the group irradiated with more than 3,000 rad, sclerosis of the metaphysis and unclearness of the trabecula, thickening of the compact bone, bending, fissure and fracture of the bone appeared early with increased frequency with an increased in radiation doses. Also, according to an increase in radiation doses, growth inhibition in the length of the tibia was conspicuous. 3. In the histopathological findings, disturbances of the epiphyseal cartilage, the blood vessel system, trabecula, and medullary tissue becomes intense with increasing radiation doses. (author)

  4. A new study on the effects of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.; Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    A study conducted by prof. Rose has investigated mortality among 39540 employees of the UKAEA, from 1946 to 1978. The three main points are: 1. General mortality and mortality from malignant diseases are lower than in the population of England and Wales (74 and 79 per cent respectively), thus showing no major difference between workers monitored for exposure to radiation and other workers. 2. For monitored workers, the only death cause for which there is a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure is prostate cancer; there are many cases especially in workers with doses exceeding 0.05 Sv (5 rem) and monitored for tritium. Such a correlation has never been found in any other epidemiologic survey of workers exposed to low-level doses, Hanford (USA) workers especially; conversely, mortality from either multiple myeloma or pancreas cancer is not found here. These facts plead for a cautious interpretation of the results as a whole. 3. A linear representation of the variations of leukemia and cancer mortality vs exposure results in lines, the slopes of which are 3 times higher than those of the lines adopted by ICRP; however, the 95% confidence intervals (-2.7 + 12.4 and -22 + 52.5) are such that the results are compatible with a null effect (slope 0) and even with a benefic effect (negative slope). They are therefore compatible with ICRP estimations. A recent attempt to evaluate the two main investigations on low-dose occupational exposures (UKAEA and Hanford) suggests a dose-response relationship very near that of ICRP [fr

  5. Appraisal of electromagnetic induction effects on magnetic pulsation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Arora

    Full Text Available The quantification of wave polarization characteristics of ULF waves from the geomagnetic field variations is done under ‘a priori’ assumption that fields of internal induced currents are in-phase with the external inducing fields. Such approximation is invalidated in the regions marked by large lateral conductivity variations that perturb the flow pattern of induced currents. The amplitude and phase changes that these perturbations produce, in the resultant fields at the Earth’s surface, make determination of polarization and phase of the oscillating external signals problematic. In this paper, with the help of a classical Pc5 magnetic pulsation event of 24 March 1991, recorded by dense network of magnetometers in the equatorial belt of Brazil, we document the nature and extent of the possible influence of anomalous induction effects in the wave polarization of ULF waves. The presence of anomalous induction effects at selected sites lead to an over estimation of the equatorial enhancement at pulsation period and also suggest changes in the azimuth of ULF waves as they propagate through the equatorial electrojet. Through numerical calculations, it is shown that anomalous horizontal fields, that result from induction in the lateral conductivity distribution in the study region, vary in magnitude and phase with the polarization of external source field. Essentially, the induction response is also a function of the period of external inducing source field. It is further shown that when anomalous induction fields corresponding to the magnitude and polarization of the 24 March 1991 pulsation event are eliminated from observed fields, corrected amplitude in the X and Y horizontal components allows for true characterisation of ULF wave parameters.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geomagnetic induction – Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  6. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H 2 O 2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H 2 O 2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  7. Effects of caffeine on the preterm brain: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Laura M L; van Bel, Frank; Baerts, Willem; Lemmers, Petra M A

    2018-05-01

    Caffeine improves neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants. This study analyses the effects of caffeine on the neonatal brain. We hypothesized that caffeine has a neuroprotective effect through an increase in oxygen metabolism; reflected by increased cerebral oxygen extraction, electrical function, and perfusion. Preterm infants <32 weeks gestation (GA) receiving their primary dose caffeine-base (10 mg/kg) were included. Ten minutes of stable monitoring were selected before, during, and every hour up to 6 h after caffeine. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitored regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO 2 ) and extraction (FTOE). Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) monitored minimum, mean and maximum amplitudes. Spontaneous activity transients (SAT) rate and the interval between SATs (ISI) were calculated. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) were monitored. Arterial pCO 2 's were collected before and 4 h after caffeine. Brain perfusion was assessed 1 h before and 3 h after caffeine by Doppler-measured resistance-index (RI), peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV), in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Results were presented in mean ± SD. 34 infants, mean GA 28.8 ± 2.1 wk, were included. rScO 2 significantly decreased from 69 ± 11 to 63 ± 12 1 h after caffeine, and recovered at 6 h (66 ± 10). FTOE increased correspondingly. MABP and HR increased significantly. PSV in the ACA decreased slightly. Other Doppler variables, aEEG parameters, and SaO 2 were unaffected. Caffeine increases oxygen extraction, suggesting a (transient) stimulating effect on brain metabolism. However, no substantial changes were found in brain perfusion and in electrical brain activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on effects of organizational learning on organizational innovation: A case study of insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Marvasti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organization learning and organization innovation in one of Iranian insurance firm. The proposed study selects a sample of 300 employees who work for different positions for the case study of this paper and using Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests determines the relationship and ranks different components of the survey. The results of this implementation have indicated that organization innovation influences on organizational learning, data distribution, interpretation and memory significantly but the effect of organizational innovation on data collection cannot be confirmed when the level of significance is five or even ten percent. The implementation of Freedman test has also indicated that Information interpretation is number priority followed by information learning, organizational distribution and organizational memory.

  9. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  10. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Olea Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators.

  11. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS EFFECTIVENESS IN SLOVENIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Jerman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the value or more specifically, the contribution of marketing communications strategy to effectiveness of marketing communications and hypothesizes that marketing communications strategy correlate with the effectiveness of marketing communications. The paper consists of two parts: the theoretical framework for the role of marketing communications strategy for the effectiveness of the marketing communications and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected. The concept of the marketing communication effectiveness assumes that there are variables that can have a positive influence on the effectiveness of marketing communications, which incorporates facets of the marketing communication strategy and bidirectional communications. The results suggest that Slovenian organisations which design and implement marketing communication strategy, also have more effective marketing communications. The development of marketing communications strategy was correlated with increased effectiveness of marketing communications in their organisation. Managerial implications are discussed along with directions for further research.

  12. An experimental study on soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Akira; Kumagai, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    The soil-structure interaction effects play an important role in the earthquake response of large scale structures such as nuclear power plants. Recent decades, many experimental and analytical studies have been conducted. Even though sophisticated analytical tools are ready to use, complicated soil-structure interaction problems such as those with a complex geometry can not be solved yet. For such problems a laboratory experiment is a powerful alternative. In the laboratory experiment, a device to absorb the reflected waves is always necessary to be attached on the boundaries of the soil model to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. But unfortunately absorbing devices currently available are far from satisfactory. In this paper, a new experimental method is employed for soil-structure interaction problems to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. The present method utilizes the characteristics of transient response to an impulse load so that no special treatment on the boundaries of the soil model is required. This technique is applicable to a linear elastic system whose impulse response decreases to a small enough value before observing the reflected waves. (author)

  13. Study of thermal, radiation and environmental effects on serpentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Kalekar, Bhupesh B.; Dubey, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of a material, such as particle size surface area, magnetic properties, water content, radiation and thermal stability, viscosity, porosity, are responsible for their specific applications. Serpentine is a greenish, layer structured phyllosilicate, known as magnesium hydroxy silicate. The availability of large number of hydroxyl group makes serpentine a potential candidate for nuclear shielding material. Hence present studies have been carried out to understand the stability of serpentine with the variation in thermal, radiation and environmental parameters. Serpentine samples were received from Reactor Projects Division, BARC. An accurately weighed sample was subjected to simultaneous TG - DTA - EGA measurements in air as well as inert atmosphere at the heating rate of 10 °C/min. The sample was heated from room temperature to 1000 °C with a gas flow rate of 100 mL/min in Netzsch thermal analyzer (Model STA409 PC LUXX) connected to Bruker FTIR system (Model - Tensor27) via a 1m long capillary. The sample was subjected to gamma radiation in the range of 10 - 100 kGy using 60 Co gamma source in gamma chamber and was subjected to TG measurements to understand the effect of radiation on the thermal stability of serpentine and the results are being discussed here

  14. Study of the radiomodifier effect of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Joao V.T.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Pereira, Dewson R.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been applied in several areas of knowledge, among them the study of the radiomodifier activity of natural substances. These substances can modify the cellular response to the damage induced by the radiation. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the radiomodifier action of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos exposed to "6"0Co gamma radiation. Initially, toxicity tests were performed on the extract against the B. glabrata embryos for the choice of concentration that did not cause death and embryonic malformation. Then, the antioxidant activity of the P. moniliformis extract with flavonoids and phenolic compounds was evaluated by means of the ABTS method. To evaluate the radiomodifier activity of the extract, embryos were selected in the blastula stage and irradiated with 7.5 Gy in a "6"0Co source (Gammacell-Co"6"0). Then, the embryos were exposed for 24 h to the extract of P. moniliformis at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. The results showed that the extract of P. moniliformis presents flavonoids and enzymatic inhibition by ABTS, which demonstrates the presence of antioxidant compounds. However, the tests of the radiomodifier activity did not present radioprotective effect for embryos exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  16. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  17. Study on the nonlocality effects for generalized optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbanovich, I.S.; Zelenskaya, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    In previous studies the authors have ihown that the generalized optic potential (GOP) of particles interaction is a superposition of local and non local potentials (LP, NLP). On the example of α- particles scattering on the 8 Be nucleus at about 10-15 MeV the GOP nonlocal part is considered. For obtaining NLP the spectral decomposition of the Green function taking into account only contribution of relative motion of two α-particles in S-state is used. The locally-equivalent addition to central potential of α-particles scattering at 8 Be previously calculated is obtained. In a graphical form a total locally-equivalent potential and local GOP part are presented. It is shown that taking into account the nonlocallity effect in a locally energy approximation for precise wave function in S-state widen a potential hole without changing its depth. Such widening corresponds to the general character of behaviour of non local potentials calculated in the microscopic approach [ru

  18. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the cornea - experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golu, Andreea; Gheorghişor, Irina; Bălăşoiu, A T; Baltă, Fl; Osiac, E; Mogoantă, L; Bold, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in high doses may have harmful effects on the eye. The sources of UV radiation are the sun, as well as some artificial sources such as UV lamps or voltaic arcs. Chronic exposure to UV can cause damage to the anterior pole of the eye, ranging from minor (pterygium) to serious photokeratitis. In our study, we applied a UV dose of 6.5 J/cm(2) in the wavelength range of 290-400 nm, for five consecutive days per rat anterior pole of the eye. Seven days after the last dose of radiation, the animals were sacrificed, harvesting both the irradiated and the non-irradiated eye. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the lesions revealed that the greatest damage to the epithelium was recorded prior to and 2/3 of the remaining corneal stroma. The epithelial lesions we found varied from pseudokeratosis and detachment of the Bowman epithelium membrane to deep epithelial necrosis. Within the corneal stroma, we observed the formation of interstitial edema with disruption of the collagen structure. We also noticed the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of lymphocytes and CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages, as well as the occurrence of vascular devices. These consisted of angiogenesis capillaries with structured wall composed mainly of endothelial CD34+ precursor cells and a basal membrane rich in collagen IV fibers.

  19. The study of teratogenic effect of Cyclosporine in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostad SN

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of immunosuppressive medication such as Azathioprine, methoterxate and mercaptopurine in treatment of rheumatic disease in women at childbearing age has some risks of teratogeniesis. Cyclosporine is one of the newer medicines, which has been introduced for this disease but little is known about its teratogenicity. This study was designed to investigate the possible teratogenicity of this drug by using cultured rat limb bud cells, which were obtained from rat embryos 13 days after conception. Cells were incubated in trypsin-EDTA solution for 30 min at 37°C and then filtered through 50 µm nylon filters. The resultant cell suspension was cultivated in 1 ml Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 445 µg/L L-glutamine at 37°C with 5% CO2. After 8 days of culture the differentiated foci extract were measured by staining with 1% alcian blue. To assess the teratogenic effects of cyclosporine, it was placed in the culture well together with the cells. Results showed that the decrease in the expression of the extracellular matrix at dose of 0.01 molar of cyclosporine is due to limb bud cell toxicity rather than inhibition of cell differentiation.

  20. Study of the radiomodifier effect of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Joao V.T.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Pereira, Dewson R.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: joaotorres16@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: dewson.rocha@gmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation has been applied in several areas of knowledge, among them the study of the radiomodifier activity of natural substances. These substances can modify the cellular response to the damage induced by the radiation. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the radiomodifier action of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. Initially, toxicity tests were performed on the extract against the B. glabrata embryos for the choice of concentration that did not cause death and embryonic malformation. Then, the antioxidant activity of the P. moniliformis extract with flavonoids and phenolic compounds was evaluated by means of the ABTS method. To evaluate the radiomodifier activity of the extract, embryos were selected in the blastula stage and irradiated with 7.5 Gy in a {sup 60}Co source (Gammacell-Co{sup 60}). Then, the embryos were exposed for 24 h to the extract of P. moniliformis at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. The results showed that the extract of P. moniliformis presents flavonoids and enzymatic inhibition by ABTS, which demonstrates the presence of antioxidant compounds. However, the tests of the radiomodifier activity did not present radioprotective effect for embryos exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. Theoretical study of impurity effects in iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Gastiasoro, Maria; Hirschfeld, Peter; Andersen, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Several open questions remain unanswered for the iron-based superconductors (FeSC), including the importance of electronic correlations and the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Motivated by recent STM experiments which show a fascinating variety of resonant defect states in FeSC, we adopt a realistic five-band model including electronic Coulomb correlations to study local effects of disorder in the FeSC. In order to minimize the number of free parameters, we use the pairing interactions obtained from spin-fluctuation exchange to determine the homogeneous superconducting state. The ability of local impurity potentials to induce resonant states depends on their scattering strength Vimp; in addition, for appropriate Vimp, such states are associated with local orbital- and magnetic order. We investigate the density of states near such impurities and show how tunneling experiments may be used to probe local induced order. In the SDW phase, we show how C2 symmetry-breaking dimers are naturally formed around impurities which also form cigar-like (pi,pi) structures embedded in the (pi,0) magnetic bulk phase. Such electronic dimers have been shown to be candidates for explaining the so-called nematogens observed previously by QPI in Co-doped CaFe2As2.

  2. Effects of Aquajogging in Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline J. M. Wouters

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat mass and waist circumference decreased 1.4 kg (P=.03 and 3.1 cm (P=.005, respectively. The distance in the Six-Minute Walk Test increased 41 meters (P=.001. Three scales of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire improved: physical function (P=.008, self-esteem (P=.004, and public distress (P=.04. Increased perceived exercise benefits (P=.02 and decreased embarrassment (P=.03 were observed. Conclusions. Aquajogging was associated with reduced body fat and waist circumference and improved aerobic fitness and quality of life. These findings suggest the usefulness of conducting a randomized controlled trial with long-term outcome assessments.

  3. Performance Study of optical Modulator based on electrooptic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palodiya, V; Raghuwanshi, S K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied and derive performance parameter of highly integrated Lithium Niobate optical modulator. This is a chirp free modulator having low switching voltage and large bandwidth. For an external modulator in which travelling-wave electrodes length L imposed the modulating switching voltage, the product of V_π and L is fixed for a given electro optic material Lithium Niobate. We investigate to achieve a low V_π by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient for a wide variety of electro-optic materials. A Sellmeier equation for the extraordinary index of congruent lithium niobate is derived. For phase-matching, predictions are accmate for temperature between room temperature 250°C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5µm. The Sellmeier equations predict more accmately refractive indices at long wavelengths. Theoretical result is confirmed by simulated results. We have analysed the various parameters such as switching voltage, device performance index, time constant, transmittance, cut-off frequency, 3-dB bandwidth, power absorption coefficient and transmission bit rate of Lithium Niobate optical Modulator based on electro -optic effect. (paper)

  4. Study of Irradiation Effect onto Uranium silicide Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparjo

    1998-01-01

    The irradiation effect onto the U 3 Si-Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion type of fuel element has been studied. The fuel material performs swelling during irradiation due to boehmite (Al 2 O 3 (H 2 O)) formation in which might occurs inside the meat and on the cladding surface, the interaction between the fuel and aluminium matrix that produce U(Al,Si) 3 phase, and the formation of fission gas bubble inside the fuel. At a constant fission density, the U 3 Si-Al fuel swelling is higher than that of U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel. The swellings of both fuels increase with the increasing of fission density. The difference of swelling behavior was caused by formation of large bubble gases generated from fission product of U 3 Si fuel and distributed non-uniformly over all of fuel zone. On the other hand, the U 3 Si 2 fission produced small bubble gases, and those were uniformly distributed. The growth rate of fission gas bubble in the U 3 Si fuel has shown high diffusivity, transformation into amorph material and thus decrease its mechanical strength

  5. Is there a 'Scottish effect' for mortality? Prospective observational study of census linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Frank; Boyle, Paul J

    2011-09-01

    Scotland's mortality rate is higher than England and Wales' and this difference cannot be explained by differences in area-level socio-economic deprivation. However, studies of this 'Scottish effect' have not adjusted for individual-level measures of socio-economic position nor accounted for country of birth; important as Scottish born living in England and Wales also have high mortality risk. Data sets (1991-2001 and 2001-2007) were obtained from the Scottish Longitudinal Study and the Office for National Statistics England and Wales Longitudinal Study that both link census records to subsequent mortality. Analysis was limited to those aged 35-74 at baseline with people followed to emigration, death or end of follow-up. Those born in Scotland living in either England and Wales or Scotland had a higher mortality rate than the English born living in England and Wales that was not fully attenuated by adjustment for car access and housing tenure. Adjusting for household-level differences in socio-economic deprivation does not fully explain the Scottish excess mortality that is seen for those born in Scotland whether living in England and Wales or Scotland. Taking a life course approach may reveal the cause of the 'Scottish effect'.

  6. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  7. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga, A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Matematica de Cordoba, Oficina 318 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: aiquiroga@famaf.unc.edu [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  8. Functional renormalization group study of fluctuation effects in fermionic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Andreas

    2013-03-22

    This thesis is concerned with ground state properties of two-dimensional fermionic superfluids. In such systems, fluctuation effects are particularly strong and lead for example to a renormalization of the order parameter and to infrared singularities. In the first part of this thesis, the fermionic two-particle vertex is analysed and the fermionic renormalization group is used to derive flow equations for a decomposition of the vertex in charge, magnetic and pairing channels. In the second part, the channel-decomposition scheme is applied to various model systems. In the superfluid state, the fermionic two-particle vertex develops rich and singular dependences on momentum and frequency. After simplifying its structure by exploiting symmetries, a parametrization of the vertex in terms of boson-exchange interactions in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels is formulated, which provides an efficient description of the singular momentum and frequency dependences. Based on this decomposition of the vertex, flow equations for the effective interactions are derived on one- and two-loop level, extending existing channel-decomposition schemes to (i) the description of symmetry breaking in the Cooper channel and (ii) the inclusion of those two-loop renormalization contributions to the vertex that are neglected in the Katanin scheme. In the second part, the superfluid ground state of various model systems is studied using the channel-decomposition scheme for the vertex and the flow equations. A reduced model with interactions in the pairing and forward scattering channels is solved exactly, yielding insights into the singularity structure of the vertex. For the attractive Hubbard model at weak coupling, the momentum and frequency dependence of the two-particle vertex and the frequency dependence of the self-energy are determined on one- and two-loop level. Results for the suppression of the superfluid gap by fluctuations are in good agreement with the literature

  9. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, A.; Vedelago, J.; Valente, M.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  10. An empirical study of marketing communications effectiveness in Slovenian market

    OpenAIRE

    Jerman, Damjana; Završnik, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the value or more specifically, the contribution of marketing communications strategy to effectiveness of marketing communications and hypothesizes that marketing communications strategy correlate with the effectiveness of marketing communications. The paper consists of two parts: the theoretical framework for the role of marketing communications strategy for the effectiveness of the marketing communications and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected...

  11. Systematic study of shell effect near drip-lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.; Samanta, C.

    2004-01-01

    The variation of nuclear shell effects with nucleon numbers is evaluated using the modified Bethe–Weizsaecker mass formula (BWM) and the measured atomic masses. The shell effects at magic neutron numbers N=8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 and magic proton numbers Z=8, 20, 28, 50 and 82 are found to vary rapidly approaching the drip-lines. The shell effect due to one magic number increases on approaching another magic number. Thus, shell effects are not always negligible near the drip-lines. (author)

  12. Study of quality effects on radiobiological actions, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Keiji; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shozo.

    1979-01-01

    In order to interpret the quality effects of high LET radiation on the radiobiological actions, the target theory formulated by Oda on basis of the microdose concept introduced by Rossi has been developed to express intertrack effect (cumulative effect) and intratrack effect (non-cumulative effect) separately. Analysis for the dose-survival relation by this theory have been discussed with comparison of those of Rossi or Bender. If the target for the intertrack effect was the same one for the intratrack effect, it was found in this theory that the contribution of the intertrack effect for the cell lethality was larger than that of the intratrack effect in the case of high LET radiation as well as in that of low LET ones. The survival rates of Escherichia coli B/r and B sub(s-1) irradiated with heavy ions such as He, C, N and O at 4 MeV/a.m.u. and neutrons at 1, 2 and 5 MeV were calculated with this theory. The results were in reasonable agreement with experimental ones. (author)

  13. Study on index system of GPS interference effect evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zeng, Fangling; Zhao, Yuan; Zeng, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation interference effect evaluation is the key technology to break through the research of Navigation countermeasure. To evaluate accurately the interference degree and Anti-jamming ability of GPS receiver, this text based on the existing research results of Navigation interference effect evaluation, build the index system of GPS receiver effectiveness evaluation from four levels of signal acquisition, tracking, demodulation and positioning/timing and establish the model for each index. These indexes can accurately and quantitatively describe the interference effect at all levels.

  14. Neighbourhood effects as indirect effects: evidence from a Dutch case study on the significance of neighbourhood for employment trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in the study of neighbourhood effects on work is to understand the pathways through which disadvantaged neighbourhoods impact the employment opportunities of residents. Endogenous explanations for neighbourhood effects focus on social life in these neighbourhoods,

  15. Study of the effect of water radiolysis on zirconolite dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribet, M.

    2007-09-01

    Zirconolite is one of the matrices foreseen for the confinement of minor actinides in case of deep geological disposal. Indeed, zirconolite (general formula: CaZr x Ti 3-x O 7 (0.8 ≤ x ≤ 1.37)) is able to incorporate rare earth elements and actinides by substitution in calcium and zirconium sites and, moreover, its chemical durability into water is well known. However, in case of deep geological disposal, after a long period, water can reach the confinement matrix and can be radiolysed at the moment of the radionuclide alpha decays. In this work we have thus studied the effects of water radiolysis induced by charged particles (alphas or protons) on the dissolution of a synthetic sintered zirconolite. The formula of this zirconolite is Ca 0,8 Nd 0,2 ZrTi 1,8 Al 0,2 O 7 where Nd simulates the presence of trivalent and tetravalent actinides. We performed the irradiations with external ion beams in two distinct geometries where the fluences ranged from 10 15 to 10 16 ions.cm -2 . In the first geometry the beam stops into water before the surface/water interface. In the second one the beam gets through the sample before stopping at the surface/water interface. The use of these different configurations allows to study the respective influence of parameters such as sample irradiation, Linear Energy Transfer at the surface/water interface or total deposited energy. The irradiations were performed on both crystalline and amorphous zirconolites in pure water or with complexing species such as F - . The sample dissolution has been monitored through the release of cations. The radiolytic production of H 2 O 2 has also been measured. Our results show that the water radiolysis has an effect on the preferential release of Zr, Ti and Nd: for these elements, releases are one or two order of magnitude higher than releases out of radiolysis. Such preferential releases occur whatever the temperature (20 or 50 C), the surface state (crystalline or amorphous) and the experimental

  16. Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo; Yamada, Yuji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone metabolism of normal beagle dogs, from 3 months to 17 years of age, were examined by morphometric and serum biochemical values. From 3 months to 2 years of age, bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Th. Tb.) in the iliac trabecular bone, labeled with tetracycline and calcein, increased rapidly with an increase of body weight. Mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR, equivalent to bone turnover rate) decreased. The BFR at 3 months was approximately 11 times in males and 15 times in females higher than that at 2 years when bone metabolism was of adult type. From 2 to 10 years of age, BV/TV or Th. Tb. did not remarkably change, whereas both MAR and BFR had a tendency to decrease gradually with age. Parathyroid hormone level increased from 3 months to 17 years. Testosterone level increased up to 2 years and remained almost constant thereafter. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and phosphorus decreased rapidly up to 2 years, although calcium did not change with age. Effects of swimming (exercise) and lactate calcium on osteoporotic bones in rats were examined. The BV/TV and Th. Tb. increased, but the MAR and BFR were improved to be sustained. These changes were promoted by the administration of calcium and vitamin D 3 . Toxicological study on DTPA revealed the following results: (1) Both hypocalcemia, following an increase of blood pressure, and heart failure were observed by iv injection of Zn-DTPA, but not observed by iv injection of Ca-DTPA. When DTPA was given orally, Ca-DTPA was more toxic than Zn-DTPA. DTPA toxicity induced dysfunction of the kidney and liver, hemorrhage and congestion in the lamina propria, and vascular expansion of the small intestine. Vascular permeability was also enhanced by either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA. DTPA toxicity was found to be manifested by disturbed cardiovascular system. (Namekawa, K)

  17. Study of collective effects for the APIARY collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1989-09-01

    The design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider to study B-physics is a challenging task from many points of view. In this paper we consider the influence of collective effects on the machine performance; most of our findings are ''generic,'' in the sense that they depend rather weakly on the details of the machine design. Based upon an example machine design (APIARY-II), we investigate single-bunch thresholds for the longitudinal microwave and transverse mode-coupling instabilities, examine the possibility of emittance growth from intrabeam scattering, calculate the beam lifetime from Touschek scattering and gas scattering, and estimate the growth rates for both longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities. We find that the single-bunch instabilities should not lead to difficulty, and that the emittance growth is essentially negligible. At a background gas pressure of 10 nTorr, beam lifetimes of only a few hours are expected, which will place a burden on the injection system if a high average luminosity is to be maintained. Even this lifetime is likely to require an innovative design for the vacuum system to maintain a pressure of 10 nTorr in the presence of a circulating electron or positron beam of approximately 1 A. With a standard PEP-like multicell rf system, multibunch growth rates are very severe, especially in the longitudinal plane. There appear to be significant benefits to a radically different rf system design, either utilizing superconducting single-cell rf cavities, or cavities with equivalent geometrical shapes but operated at room temperature. Even then, a powerful feedback system will likely be required. Nonetheless, it does not appear that there are any fundamental problems that stand in the way of successfully designing and building such a high-luminosity B-Factory. 13 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  18. The Experimental Study Of Effects Of Irradiation On Osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Co-60 gamma irradiation on the osseointegration. 2.0 mm titanium alloy screw implants were placed in the tibial metaphysics of the rabbits, bilaterally. The mean length of the implants was 6.0 mm. The right tibia was irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy from 6{sup 0C}o teletherapic machine at 5th postoperative day. The experimental group was irradiated tibia. The control group was non-irradiated tibia. To observe the phase of bone formation, the bone labeling by intramuscular injection of 20 mg/Kg of Tetracycline, Calcein, Alizarin red S, was performed. The rabbits were sacrificed on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th week and the tibia including implants were taken, and then the specimens were examined by the microradiography, light microscopy, and fluorescent microscopy.The obtained results were as follows; 1. There were connective tissue between bone and titanium at 1st week, in both group. Especially, the many empty lacunae without nucleus and obscure cytoplasm in experimental group, were observed. 2. The osteons were observed at 4th week in control group, and at 6th week in experimental group. The bone formation in experimental group was retarded as compared to the control group. 3. In fluorescent microscopy, bone labelling band was observed as linear, arc or concentric shape. Occasionary interrupted labelling band was observed, which is demonstrated bone remodeling. 4. In microradiographic examination, the radiolucent image was found between bone and implant with widening of bone marrow spaces as compared to the control group.

  19. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF ACID ETCHING ON AFFECTED ENAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Stoleriu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to establish and compare the effects of ortophosphoric and hydrochloric acids on the enamel affected by incipient carious lesions with different evolution. Materials and method. 20 teeth with acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions were considered for the study. The teeth were sectioned in two halves through the middle of the non-cavitary lesions. The halves of 5 white spot-type lesions and of 5 brown spot-type ones were analyzed as to their surface roughness, on an atomic force microscope (AFM. 5 halves with white spot-type lesions and 5 halves with brown spot-type ones were subjected to acid etching with 37% ortophosphoric acid (Scotchbond etchant gel, 3M ESPE, and an equal number of samples was subjected to the action of 15% hydrochloric acid (ICON-etch, DMG Dental Products Ltd for 2 min, then washed with water and analyzed by AFM. Results. The initial surface roughness of the enamel was higher in the white spot–type carious lesions, comparatively with the brown spot-type ones. For both types of carious non-cavitary lesions, acid etching with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid significantly increased the surface roughness of the enamel, comparatively with the status of the enamel surface prior to etching. The hydrochloric acid led to a surface roughness significantly higher than in the case of ortophosphoric acid, in both acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions. The roughness values obtained through etching with ortophosphoric and hydrochloric acid were higher in the white spot-type carious lesions, comparatively with the brown spot-type ones. Conclusions. Both the 37% ortophosphoric acid and the 15% hydrochloric acid determined a significantly higher surface roughness of the enamel affected by acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions. The surface condition of the brown spot-type carious lesions was less significantly modified, comparatively with that of the white spot-type lesions, by the

  20. Psychological effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers - Phenomenological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomarol-Clotet, E.; Honey, G. D.; Murray, G. K.; Corlett, P. R.; Absalom, A. R.; Lee, M.; McKenna, P. J.; Bullmore, E. T.; Fletcher, P. C.

    Background: The psychosis-inducing effect of ketamine is important evidence supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the symptoms the drug produces have not been described systematically. Aim: To examine the effects of ketamine in healthy people using a structured psychiatric

  1. Genetic and histopathology studies on mice: Effect of fenugreek oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing interest in understanding the biological effect of medicinal plants. In the present investigation, the effects of fenugreek oil administration on the liver and ovarian activity genetically (i.e., meiotic progression in collected oocytes as well as changes in DNA and RNA content in the liver and ovarian tissues) ...

  2. Effects of Inconsistent Behaviors on Person Impressions: A Multidimensional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Roos

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects of unexpected behavioral information on person impressions. Inconsistency was manipulated with respect to Implicit Personality Theory. Found that behaviors with inconsistent evaluation implications did not affect impressions and that effects of inconsistent information depended on dimension of contrast, valence of initial…

  3. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  4. Size effects in nanoindentation: an experimental and analytical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voyiadjis, G.Z.; Peters, Rick

    2009-01-01

    This work addresses the size effect encountered in nanoindentation experiments. It is generally referred to as the indentation size effect (ISE). Classical descriptions of the ISE show a decrease in hardness for increasing indentation depth. Recently new experiments have shown that after the initial

  5. Histological Studies Of The Effects Of Oral Administration Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB) of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore ... Key words: Artesunate, lateral geniculate body (LGB), decreased cellular population,

  6. Commuter Effects on Local Labour Markets: A German Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, G.; Tedeschi, F.; Reggiani, A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an exploratory investigation of the effects of inbound commuter flows on employment in regional labour markets in Germany. For this purpose, the paper distinguishes three main channels that may transmit the effects concerned: a crowding-out mechanism and two labour demand

  7. Studying of ion implantation effect on the biology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zengliang

    1993-04-01

    Since low energy ion effect on the biology was observed, the ion implantation as a new mutagenic source has been widely used in improving crops and modifying microbes in China. The basic phenomenon of ion implantation effect on the biology and analytical results are reported, and the examples of its application and its further development are shown

  8. Exploring Genetic and Environmental Effects in Dysphonia: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Soveri, Anna; Varjonen, Markus; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the existence of genetic effects as well as the interaction between potential genetic effects and a voice-demanding occupation on dysphonia. Method: One thousand seven hundred and twenty-eight Finnish twins (555 male; 1,173 female) born between 1961 and 1989 completed a questionnaire concerning vocal symptoms and occupation.…

  9. Pharmacodynamic drug interaction study: effect of sertraline on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sertraline on glibenclamide control of blood sugar level was determined in normoglycemic and alloxanised rats. Sertraline enhance the hypoglycaemic action in a non-dose dependent fashion in the normoglycaemic and alloxanised rats. Sertraline (40mg/Kg body weight) was more effective in the enhancement ...

  10. Studies on anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Ikuhito; Wakabayashi, Toshio; Ogoshi, Kyoji; Kamijo, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    Hyperthermia have treated cancer with thermal effect of electromagnetic waves for biological systems, but the expected effect is not shown. Also non-thermal effect of electromagnetic waves is out of consideration. If irradiation conditions of electromagnetic waves with non-thermal anti-tumor effect are obtained, we can expect newly spread in cancer therapy. We had in vivo experiments that electromagnetic waves were irradiated to mice. In some irradiation conditions, the non-thermal anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves showed. In order to specify the irradiation conditions, we had in vitro experiments. We found that activity ratio of tumor cells which was measured by MTT method depended on irradiation time and power of electromagnetic waves. These results are useful for the cancer therapy. (author)

  11. Analisis Fenomena Day of the Week Effect: Pengujian Monday Effect, Week-Four Effect and Rogalski Effect (Studi Empiris Pada Perusahaan LQ 45 Di BEI)

    OpenAIRE

    Satoto, Shinta Heru

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to provide an empirical evidence of the day of the week phenomenon in Indonesian Capital Market. This research used 39 sample firms that list on LQ 45 Indonesian Capital Market on January 1, 2009 until December 31, 2010. The results indicate that Monday returns are positive and significant on average, and significantly different from returns of the rest of the week. Thus, no evidence was uncovered to support Monday effect and week four effect in Indonesian capit...

  12. Uranium isotopic effect studies on cation and anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarpal, S.K.; Gupta, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium isotope effects in exchange reactions involving hexavalent and tetravalent uranium, on ion exchange resins, have been re-examined. The earlier work on uranium isotope effects in electron exchange reactions involving hexavalent and tetravalent uranium, has been critically reviewed. New experimental data on these systems in hydrochloric acid medium, has been obtained, using break-through technique on anion-exchange columns. The isotope effects in these break-through experiments have been reinterpreted in a way which is consistent with the anion exchange behaviour of the various uranium species in these systems. (author)

  13. Using Education and Time Maximization for Effective Study Habits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... academic performance and work effectiveness. Eventually, it will have .... transform from mundane living to advanced one by keen obedience and ... somebody to do something; like carrying out a task either for the production.

  14. Cytology is advanced by studying effects of deuterium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Crespi, H. L.; Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Research of deuterium effects on biological systems shows deuteriation is not incompatible with life. With the successful cultivation of deuteriated bacteria, work is now being done on extraction of deuterio-compounds from bacteria.

  15. Histochemical Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Key words: Monosodium glutamate; histochemical effect; liver enzymes; hepatocytes; atrophic and degenerative changes;. Wistar rats. ... disease, Huntington‟s disease, and amyotrophic ... ascending grade of alcohol (ethanol), cleared in.

  16. Study of abscopal radiation effects on multicellular organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, F.

    1958-01-01

    Amongst the lesions brought about by total body irradiation, two basically different types can be distinguished: those appearing in the area which has absorbed radiant energy and those emerging in areas remote from the irradiated tissues (abscopal effects). The abscopal effects are produced by toxic tissue breakdown products, which are removed by the bloodstream and interfere with particularly sensitive structures (radiotoxins). The radiotoxins mobilize other biologically active substances, interfering with the same tissues which may display abscopal effects. This is well established for the hormones of the adrenal cortex. Furthermore, important fractions of the radiotoxins are neutralized by the reticuloendothelial system. Temporary blockade of this system enhances the efficiency of radiotoxins and greatly increases mortality of the irradiated animals. One can therefore conclude that the reticuloendothelial system affords a natural defense against an essential reaction of total body irradiation: the effect of the radiotoxins. (author) [fr

  17. Study of oxygen inhibition effect on radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bin; Yang Xuemei; Zhao Pengji; Zeng Shuqing; Jiang Bo; Zhou Yong; Huang Wei; Zhou Youyi

    1995-01-01

    Michacl addition reaction product was used in the research of oxygen inhibition effect of radiation curing. The experimental results was measured by the content of gel and percentage of double bonds. It was proved that 9% of Michacl addition product could speed up 1.2 times of the radiation curing rate at 30 kGy of EB irradiation. This kind of formulation can withstand oxygen inhibition effect obviously, so it was the foundation of application for radiation curing in atmospheric condition

  18. Final state effects in photoemission studies of Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Richard L; Browne, Dana A; Mankey, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most important methods for extracting information about the Fermi surface (FS) of materials. An electron photoexcited from the FS is emitted from the crystal conserving the parallel momentum, k parallel , while the perpendicular momentum k perpendicular is reduced due to the surface potential barrier. A simple interpretation of the process assumes the final state is free-electron-like allowing one to 'map' the detected photoelectron back to its initial k momentum. There are multiple final state effects that can complicate the interpretation of photoelectron data and these effects are reviewed here. These can involve both energy and k broadening, which can give rise to shadow or ghost FS contours, scattering and final state diffraction effects that modify intensities, and matrix element effects which reflect the symmetries of the states involved and can be highly dependent on photon polarization. These matrix elements result in contours of photoelectron intensity that follow the dispersion in k-space of the initial state, the FS, and the final state. Locations where intensities go to zero due to matrix element and symmetry effects can result in gaps where FS contours 'disappear'. Recognition that these effects can play a significant role in determining the measured angular distributions is crucial in developing an informed model of where the FS contours actually lie in relation to measured intensity contours

  19. A study on effects of leadership style on innovation: A case study from automaker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdolmaleki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is one of the most important components of management in any business unit. An organization with good leadership tends to have a better chance to survive in todays’ competitive environment. This paper considers the effects of leadership style on innovation in one of the biggest automakers in Iran named Iran Khodro. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among a sample of 278 regular employees and 61 middle level managers of this firm. The results of the survey indicate that there is a meaningful difference between leadership style and standard leadership style among middle level managers when the level of significance is five percent. In addition, there is a meaningful difference between innovation and its components with standards among regular employees. Finally, leadership has positive and meaningful impact on employees’ innovation.

  20. The Effect of Student Participation in International Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDee, Lynda S.; Stewart, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Responses were received from 38 of 100 nursing graduates who completed a 2-week international study tour. International study had a significant impact on personal development, the nurse's role, international perspective, and intellectual development. (SK)

  1. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  2. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  3. Study on effective MOSFET channel length extracted from gate capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Katsuhiro; Terada, Kazuo; Fujisaka, Hisato

    2018-01-01

    The effective channel length (L GCM) of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is extracted from the gate capacitances of actual-size MOSFETs, which are measured by charge-injection-induced-error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF CBCM). To accurately evaluate the capacitances between the gate and the channel of test MOSFETs, the parasitic capacitances are removed by using test MOSFETs having various channel sizes and a source/drain reference device. A strong linear relationship between the gate-channel capacitance and the design channel length is obtained, from which L GCM is extracted. It is found that L GCM is slightly less than the effective channel length (L CRM) extracted from the measured MOSFET drain current. The reason for this is discussed, and it is found that the capacitance between the gate electrode and the source and drain regions affects this extraction.

  4. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe 2 TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe 2 TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current

  5. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.

  6. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Assistant Tool Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Melissa; Malin, Jane T.

    2013-01-01

    An effort to determine the feasibility of a software tool to assist in Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been completed. This new and unique approach to FMEA uses model based systems engineering concepts to recommend failure modes, causes, and effects to the user after they have made several selections from pick lists about a component s functions and inputs/outputs. Recommendations are made based on a library using common failure modes identified over the course of several major human spaceflight programs. However, the tool could be adapted for use in a wide range of applications from NASA to the energy industry.

  7. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Assistant Tool Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Melissa D.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land D.

    2013-09-01

    An effort to determine the feasibility of a software tool to assist in Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been completed. This new and unique approach to FMEA uses model based systems engineering concepts to recommend failure modes, causes, and effects to the user after they have made several selections from pick lists about a component's functions and inputs/outputs. Recommendations are made based on a library using common failure modes identified over the course of several major human spaceflight programs. However, the tool could be adapted for use in a wide range of applications from NASA to the energy industry.

  8. A Study of the Creep Effect in Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Thorborg, Knud; Tinggaard, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the creep effect, the visco elastic behaviour of loudspeaker suspension parts, which can be observed as an increase in displacement far below the resonance frequency. The creep effect means that the suspension cannot be modelled as a simple spring. The need for an accurate...... creep model is even larger as the validity of loudspeaker models are now sought extended far into the nonlinear domain of the loudspeaker. Different creep models are investigated and implemented both in simple lumped parameter models as well as time domain non-linear models, the simulation results...

  9. Comparative study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Mitsunobu, F.; Hanamoto, K.; Tanizaki, Y.; Sugita, K.; Kohima, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radon therapy is used radon ( 222 Rn) gas, which mainly emits alpha-rays, and induces a small amount of active oxygen in the body. Because most of the diseases to which the radon therapy as well as the thermal therapy is applied are related to activated oxygen, in this study the effects of the radioactivity of radon and thermal effects were compared under the room or the hot spring condition with the similar chemical component, using as the parameters which are closely involved in the clinical for radon therapy. In the results, the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation function, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produce in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response, and increased the level of CD4, which is the marker of helper T cell, and decreased the level of CD8, which is the common marker of killer T cell and supresser T cell, in the white cell differentiation antigen (CD4/CD8) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that the radon therapy more contributes to the prevention of life style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune depression than thermal therapy. Moreover these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain) and diabetes mellitus brought about more radon therapy than thermal therapy

  10. Radiotherapy for cancer patients aged 80 and older: a study of effectiveness and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, Babu; Balducci, Lodovico; Venkattaramanabalaji, G.V.; Casey, Linda; Greenberg, Harvey M.; Del Regato, Juan A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To profile cancer patients aged 80 and older undergoing radiotherapy and to study the tumor response and side effects of therapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients aged 80 and older who received radiation therapy at James A. Haley Veterans Hospital and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center between 1988 and 1995. A total of 203 patients aged 80-94 received radiotherapy during this period. Treatment sites included head and neck [50], breast [16], chest [37], pelvis [53], and miscellaneous [39]. Age, treatment site, field size, total dose, response to treatment, treatment interruptions, incidence and severity of weight loss, myelosuppression, diarrhea, mucositis, dermatitis, and follow-up status are assessed using our departmental records and hospital tumor registry. Results: Of 191 patients evaluated, 179 (94%) completed the treatment without serious complications. A total of 195 sites were irradiated. Twelve patients (6%) required interruption of the treatment. Therapeutic responses were seen in 86 out of 112 patients (77%) treated with curative intent (with 67% complete response) and in 67 out of 83 patients (81%) treated with palliative intent. The causes of treatment interruptions included weight loss from diarrhea, dysphagia, and progressive disease. Treatment interruptions were more likely in patients treated with large treatment fields. In patients treated for upper aero-digestive tract cancer, Grade 3 and 4 mucositis was noted in 20 and 2% of patients, respectively. Grade 1 and 2 enteritis was noted in 43% of patients treated for pelvic malignancies. Grade 3 dermatitis was noted only in 2% of patients. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated by the oldest old. Age is not a contraindication to aggressive radiotherapy

  11. Effects of three types of retirement preparation program : A qualitative study of civil servants in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leandro-Franca, Cristineide; Van Solinge, Hanna; Henkens, Kene; Murta, Sheila Giardini

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of retirement planning programs are relatively scarce. Retirement preparation and planning programs may assist individuals to smooth the transition to retirement and subsequent adjustment. This qualitative study examines the effects of three retirement preparation

  12. Lack of effect of intravenous immunoglobulins on tics : A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Minderaa, RB; Kallenberg, CGM

    Background: Case studies and a placebo-controlled study previously suggested the effectiveness of immunomodulatory therapy in patients with tic or related disorders whose symptoms show a relationship with streptococcal infections. No data are available on the effectiveness of intravenous

  13. Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar ... observed and current–voltage characteristics of the cell studied, and a mechanism has been proposed for the generation ... dye work effectively in the strong alkaline range.

  14. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  15. Mossbauer effect studies at pressures to 300 kbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    In a recent experiment carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with Prof. Moshe Paz Pasternak of Tel Aviv University, we have used the diamond anvil cell for a Mossbauer effect absorber experiment. A high-atomic-weight gasket material was developed; it served both to contain the pressure and to collimate the 27.8-keV Mossbauer effect gamma rays and nearby K x-rays emitted from the source. Elemental iodine is known to transform with pressure becoming metallic near 160 kbar. Furthermore, it has been reported that I 2 becomes monatomic at about 215 kbar. The Mossbauer effect of iodine-129 was employed to check this latter supposition. The Mossbauer effect ''fingerprint'' of I 2 was found to change slowly with pressure up to about 160 kbar whereupon a new high pressure phase or site began to appear. At 300 kbar the Mossbauer spectrum shows about half of the low temperature phase (I 2 ) is still present. This contradiction with x-ray results and or their interpretation is still under investigation

  16. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Test results showed that the drugs had a lowering effect on plasma urea levels, in a concentration and ... (0.15mg levonorgestrel and 0.03mg ethinylestradiol) and. Primolut- N a mini ... release of gonadotropin-releasingHormne (GnRH) from.

  17. Preliminary study on the inducement effect of colchicine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were detected in meiotic products (less than 10%). These observations suggest that 2n pollen can be induced by colchicine but treatment conditions and slowing development of colchicine-treated microsporocyte may affect the inducement effect of colchicines. Key words: Ginkgo biloba L., microsporogenesis, colchicine, ...

  18. Effects of mental fatigue on attention : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, MAS; Meijman, TF; Lorist, MM

    The effects of mental fatigue on attention were assessed. Subjects performed a visual attention task for 3 h without rest. Subjective levels of fatigue, performance measures and EEG were recorded. Subjective fatigue ratings, as well as theta and lower-alpha EEG band power increased, suggesting that

  19. A study of inter linkage effects on Candu feeder piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Meysner, A.

    2005-01-01

    A CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactor core consists of a large number of fuel channels where heat is generated. Two feeder pipes are connected to each fuel channel to transport D 2 O coolant into and out of the reactor core. The feeder piping is designed to the requirements of Class 1 piping of Section III NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and CSA Codes. Feeder piping stress analysis is being performed to demonstrate the code compliance check and the fitness for service of feeders. In the past, stress analyses were conducted for each individual feeder without including interaction effects among connected feeders. Interaction effects occur as a result of linkages that exist between feeders to prevent fretting and impacting damage during normal, abnormal and accident conditions. In this paper, a 'combined' approach is adopted to include all feeders connected by inter linkages into one feeder piping model. MSC/NASTRAN finite element software was used in the stress simulation, which contains up to 127 feeder pipes. The ASME Class 1 piping analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of the linkages between feeders. Both seismic time history and broadened response spectra methods were used in the seismic stress calculation. The results show that the effect of linkages is significant in dynamic stresses for all feeder configurations, as well as in static stresses for certain feeder configurations. The single feeder analysis could either underestimate or overestimate feeder stresses depending on the pipe geometry and bend wall thickness. (authors)

  20. Study of the effect of the gamma radiation in polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.J.; Araujo, E.S. de; Silveira, S.V. da

    1990-01-01

    To estimate the radiation effects in the DUROLON polycarbonate, samples were irradiated with 60 Co gamma beam with doses between 0,2KGy and 50KGy. The results obtained shown variations in the yellowed index above 1KGy dose. Their mechanical proprieties are not changed at interval of this doses. (author) [pt

  1. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    the other hand, the effect of solution pH in phase stability .... pore size of anatase phase decreases with increase of ... range of 0–200 °C, corresponding to desorption of water .... The correlation revealed a straight line with a slope equal to 1 for ...

  2. Comparative Clinical Study on the Effectiveness of Homeopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of homeopathic combination remedy compared with standard maintenance therapy for the treatment of dengue fever. Method: A total of 50 patients with dengue fever were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 was treated with homeopathic combination remedy for consecutive 6 ...

  3. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  4. Study of thermal effects in superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousson, S.; Caruette, A.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Junquera, T.; Lesrel, J.; Yaniche, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A high speed thermometric system equipped with 64 fixed surface thermometers is used to investigate thermal effects in several 3 GHz cavities. An evaluation of the time response of our thermometers is presented. A method based on RF signal analysis is proposed to evaluate the normal zone propagation rate during thermal breakdown. (authors)

  5. A Study of the Effects of Air Pollution on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Irene B.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation of the possible effects of air pollution on the absenteeism of elementary school children showed that a greater percent of absences occurred in the test group than in a comparable group. There is little question as to the importance that such information should have for educators, informed parents, and other adults in community…

  6. The Asch Conformity Effect: A Study in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Taha

    1984-01-01

    Investigated whether conformity in the experimental setting suggested by Asch was related to American culture and less likely to be replicable elsewhere. Kuwaiti subjects (N=200) were used in replicating the original experiment. Obtained an 'Asch effect' of a comparable magnitude to that of Asch. Individual differences in conformity were evident.…

  7. Preliminary study on the antioxidant effect of Kigelia africana fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... systemic challenges can lead to an antioxidant/pro-oxidant disequilibrium. .... dithiobisnitro benzoic acid (DTNB) in 100 ml of 0.1% sodium nitrate) and 3.0 ml ..... mice: Effects of some medicinal plants on the oxidative defence.

  8. Studies on the Effects of Media on Growth and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different solutions and media on growth and nutrient composition of Pleurotus tuber-regium were investigated. The different solutions used are glucose, fructose, sucrose and Knop\\'s solutions. The media used are cassava agar, cocoyam agar, corn agar, potato agar and yam agar. Glucose solution produced ...

  9. Studying effects of non-equilibrium radiative transfer via HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    This report presents slides on Ph.D. Research Goals; Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) Implications; Calculating an Opacity; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Collisional Radiative Modeling; Radiative and Collisional Excitation; Photo and Electron Impact Ionization; Autoionization; The Rate Matrix; Example: Total Photoionization rate; The Rate Coefficients; inlinlte version 1.1; inlinlte: Verification; New capabilities: Rate Matrix – Flexibility; Memory Option Comparison; Improvements over previous DCA solver; Inter- and intra-node load balancing; Load Balance – Full Picture; Load Balance – Full Picture; Load Balance – Internode; Load Balance – Scaling; Description; Performance; xRAGE Simulation; Post-process @ 2hr; Post-process @ 4hr; Post-process @ 8hr; Takeaways; Performance for 1 realization; Motivation for QOI; Multigroup Er; Transport and NLTE large effects (1mm, 1keV); Transport large effect, NLTE lesser (1mm, 750eV); Blastwave Diagnostici – Description & Performance; Temperature Comparison; NLTE has effect on dynamics at wall; NLTE has lesser effect in the foam; Global Takeaways; The end.

  10. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  11. Using a Case-Study Article to Effectively Introduce Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Community college students in a nonmajors biology class are introduced to mitosis by reading a case-study article that allows them to gauge how many times various parts of their bodies have been regenerated. The case-study article allows students to develop a conceptual framework of the cell cycle prior to a lecture on mitosis. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. Investigating the Effectiveness of a Study Skills Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikhwari, T. D.; Pillay, J.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the school system in South Africa is continually producing learners who are inadequately prepared for higher education studies, particularly schools in disadvantaged environments. The University of Venda (UNIVEN) is situated in an educationally disadvantaged environment. Most of the students who enroll at this…

  13. Detuning effect study of High-Q Mobile Phone Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    Number of frequency bands that have to be covered by smart phones, are ever increasing. This broadband coverage can be obtained either by using a low-Q antenna or a high-Q tunable antenna. This study investigates high-Q antennas performance when placed in proximity of the user. This study...

  14. Arts-Based Self-Study: Documenting the Ripple Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Like all forms of inquiry, arts-based self-study research can have unexpected consequences. Although we may start out with a fairly clear objective, the data we generate through arts-based methods might address other questions that are even more important than the ones we thought to ask initially, and our study might have an impact that extends…

  15. Non-auditory effects of noise in industry. VI. A final field study in industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. J.; Souman, A. M.; de Vries, F. F.

    1987-01-01

    Non-auditory effects of noise were studied among 539 male workers from seven industries. The LAeq, assessed by personal noise dosimetry, has been used to study acute effects. Various indices of total noise exposure, involving level and duration, were developed for long-term effect studies. In the

  16. Effects of Workflow Optimization in Endovascularly Treated Stroke Patients - A Pre-Post Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schregel, Katharina; Behme, Daniel; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Knauth, Michael; Maier, Ilko; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Hinz, José; Liman, Jan; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke has become standard of care for patients with large artery occlusion. Early restoration of blood flow is crucial for a good clinical outcome. We introduced an interdisciplinary standard operating procedure (SOP) between neuroradiologists, neurologists and anesthesiologists in order to streamline patient management. This study analyzes the effect of optimized workflow on periprocedural timings and its potential influence on clinical outcome. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained university hospital stroke database. The standard operating procedure was established in February 2014. Of the 368 acute stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment between 2008 and 2015, 278 patients were treated prior to and 90 after process optimization. Outcome measures were periprocedural time intervals and residual functional impairment. After implementation of the SOP, time from symptom onset to reperfusion was significantly reduced (median 264 min prior and 211 min after SOP-introduction (IQR 228-32 min and 161-278 min, respectively); Pworkflow optimization as measured with the modified Rankin Scale (common odds ratio (OR) 0.56; 95% CI 0.32-0.98; P = 0.038). Optimization of workflow and interdisciplinary teamwork significantly improved the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a significant reduction of in-hospital examination, transportation, imaging and treatment times.

  17. A study on the couplant effects in contact ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, Young H.

    1997-01-01

    The amplitude of the back-wall echoes depend on the reflection coefficient on the interface between transducer and test material in the contact pulse-echo ultrasonic testing. The couplant is used to transmit the ultrasonic energy through the interface, and has an influence on the amplitude of the pulse-echo signal. To investigate the couplant effect on the pulse-echo ultrasonic testing, the back-wall echoes are measured by using various couplants made of water and glycerine in a carbon and an austenitic stainless steel specimens. The amplitude of the first back-wall echo and the apparent attenuation coefficient increase with the acoustic impedance of couplant. The couplant having higher value of transmission coefficient is more effective for flaws detection, and the reflection coefficient should be known to measure the attenuation coefficient of test material.

  18. A study of molecular effects in beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1979-01-01

    Relative populations of ns + nd levels in hydrogen as functions of the principal quantum number n have been measured with beams of H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + impinging on thin carbon foils at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu. Enhancements of 20% and 45% for dimer and trimer clusters are observed uniformly for all levels. A possible explanation in terms of screening of the Coulomb repulsion between the protons inside the foil, thus reducing the effective thickness of the foil, is given. All relative populations closely follow an nsup(P) power law with p = -4.0 and -3.7 at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu, respectively, in perfect analogy with atomic collision experiments. O + /O 2 + -foil excitations at 100 keV and 155 keV show a simular molecular effect, but in reverse with a larger mean charge produced by the dimer. (Auth.)

  19. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  20. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  1. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  2. Effect of branding management on technology performance : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. This dissertation aims to identify the effects contributed by branding on organisational performance, as branding may contribute positively or negatively to the company sales performance. Many customers align quality products with certain brands only. Some organisations over price their products because they have guaranteed space in the market and had built solid relationships with their customers. Due to many different good products which do not do well in the market because of poo...

  3. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  4. Internets effect on tax planning : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Erik; Olsson, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    We have seen a revolution in the area of communication on a worldwide scale. We begin talking about terms as globalisation, integration and deregulation of the financial market. Companies have been tax planning for decades, the questions is if Internet has made an increase of companies than uses tax planning and which roll Internet plays. It is hard to really pinpoint all the effects of the Internet because of the relatively new area of research. This thesis will take various factors under st...

  5. Thermoelectric and Hall-effect studies in hydrogenerated nickel foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, R.; Nigam, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Thermo e.m.f. and Hall constant of hydrogenerated nickel foils have been measured. Termo e.m.f. shows a sign reversal which is not due to the change in sign of the charge carriers, as indicated by the Hall-effect measurements. To account for the sign reversal of thermo e.m.f., it is found necessary to take into account the surface states of chemisorbed hydrogen on nickel

  6. New Materials for Gas Sensitive Field-Effect Device Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Salomonsson, Anette

    2005-01-01

    Gas sensor control is potentially one of the most important techniques of tomorrow for the environment. All over the world cars are preferred for transportation, and accordingly the number of cars increases, unfortunately, together with pollutants. Boilers and powerplants are other sources of pollutants to the environment. Metal-Insulator-Silicon Carbide (MISiC) Field-effect sensors in car applications and boilers have the potential to reduce the amount of pollutants. These devices are sensit...

  7. Studies on effect of Microbial Iron Chelators on Candida Albican

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmani, Fouzia S.; Milicent, S.; Zaheer-Uddin

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential for the life of all microbe cells. It generally exists in the oxidized form Fe(III). Even under anaerobic reducing condition the metal appear to be taken up as Fe(III). Thus free-living microorganisms require specific and effective ferric ion transport system to cope with low availability of the metal. In iron deficient environment they produce a low molecular weight specific chelators called siderphores or microbial iron chelators. Siderphores compete for limited supplied of iron. These compounds came out of the cell but can not re-enter without iron due to high affinity of these siderphores often have more than one catechol/hydroxamate functions and are multidentate (usually hexadentate ligands). The aim of the present research is to check the effect of iron chelators, namely gallic acid and salisyl hydroxamate on the growth of Candida albican in vitro. C. albican is the opportunistic paltogen present as the normal flora inside human body. In vivo the growth of C. albican is distributed by the use of antibiotics and immuno suppressers. In cases of iron over-dosage in human being, the patients are treated with certain a-iron chelators. Hence an attempt is made to notice the effect that might be inhibition or enhancement of the organism in vitro. (author)

  8. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, E [Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1974-06-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by /sup 60/Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air.

  9. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  10. What effects do student jobs have on the study performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospitality management students when they have a student job in the .... and strategies which stimulate professional and academic ... professional concepts, liberal studies and general business ..... A review of case analysis and simulation for.

  11. Study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Egyptian autistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-baz

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... autistic children has been correlated with repetitive, self-stimulatory and ... Sessions were done at pressure 1.5 ATA (atmosphere absolute) with 100% oxygen concen- ..... Other studies reported that parents are often aware of.

  12. Study of ionizing radiation effect on human spermatozoa chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseaux, S.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the radio-induced chromosomal aberrations in spermatozoa. After a brief recall on ionizing radiations, the author reviews the radio-induced chromosomal anomalies on somatic cells and on germinal line cells and spermatozoa. The author presents the technical aspects of human spermatozoa karyotype and finally studies the radio induced chromosomal anomalies of sperm to patients undergoing a radiotherapy. 13 tabs., 28 figs., 28 photos

  13. Are thiazides effective on hypertensive vertigo? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryaman, Esra; Gökcan, Gökçen; Parmaksız, Ergün; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir; Ozlüoğlu, Levent Naci

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the symptoms of vertigo related to hypertension resulted from endolymphatic hydrops and the efficacy of the thiazides in the treatment. A total of 24 vertigo patients without peripheric or central vestibular pathologies or hyperlipidemia were included. The study group comprised 15 patients with hypertension, including nine with regulated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). The control group comprised nine patients without hypertension or DM. The patients in the study group received hydrochlorothiazide treatment. The European Evaluation of Vertigo Scale (EEVS) and Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ), puretone audiometry, tympanometry, electronystagmography (ENG) for nystagmus tests, oculomotor tests, and caloric test were carried out initially and at three weeks for both groups. The results of the study group were compared to those of the control group. There was a statistically significant decrease in the scores of EEVS and VHQ at three weeks in the study group, compared to the baseline scores (for both groups p≤0.01). Our study results showed that thiazides alleviated vertigo symptoms in hypertensive patients, as measured by qualitative methods (i.e. EEVS, VHQ), but not with quantitative measurements (i.e. ENG).

  14. Effects of study design and trends for EVAR versus OSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hopkins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert Hopkins1, James Bowen1, Kaitryn Campbell1, Gord Blackhouse4, Guy De Rose2,3, Teresa Novick2, Daria O’Reilly1,4, Ron Goeree1,4, Jean-Eric Tarride1,41Programs for the Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH Research Institute, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics; 2Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; 3Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaPurpose: To investigate if study design factors such as randomization, multi-centre versus single centre evidence, institutional surgical volume, and patient selection affect the outcomes for endovascular repair (EVAR versus open surgical repair (OSR. Finally, we investigate trends over time in EVAR versus OSR outcomes.Methods: Search strategies for comparative studies were performed individually for: OVID’s MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HAPI, and Evidence Based Medicine (EBM Reviews (including Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE and CCTR, limited to 1990 and November 2006.Results: Identified literature: 84 comparative studies pertaining to 57,645 patients. These include 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, plus 2 RCTs with long-term follow-up. The other 78 comparative studies were nonrandomized with 75 reporting perioperative outcomes, of which 16 were multi-centre, and 59 single-centre studies. Of the single-centre studies 31 were low-volume and 28 were high-volume centres. In addition, 5 studies had all patients anatomically eligible for EVAR, and 8 studies included high-risk patients only. Finally, 25 long term observational studies reported outcomes up to 3 years.Outcomes: Lower perioperative mortality and rates of complications for EVAR versus OSR varied across study designs and patient

  15. Effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization in hepatoblastoma: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hark Hoon; Han, Young Min; Kang, Sung Soo; Kim, Jae Chun; Lee, Dong Geun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kim, Chong Soo; Lee, Jeong Min

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and useful as well as the ness, systemic effect and effectiveness, of preoperative TACE when used in patients with unresectable or high risk hepatoblastoma. We retrospectively evaluated four patients with pathologically proven hepatoblastoma. One was male and three were female, and they were aged between 8 and 27 (mean, 15) months. All underwent selective hepatic angiography and chemoembolization after superselection of tumor feeding vessels. Cisplatin 90mg/m 2 (50-80mg), adriamycine 40mg/m 2 (20mg) and lipiodol suspension 4cc ere used as chemotherapeutic agents. Embolization was then performed, gelfoam particles. TACE was repeated at intervals of 3 weeks, and after the second episode, all patients underwent hepatic resection. To evaluate changes in the size, volume, internal texture and margin of the mass, as well as the systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs, we performed con-trast-enhanced CT and checked AFP,CBC and GOT/GPT before and after TACE. In all patients, TACE was successfully performed and major problems related to the procedure and toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents used were not noted. The largest diameter and volume of tumors were reduced by 33% (from 8.3 to 5.6 cm) and 69% respectively. Tumor necrosis was evident in all patients. Lipiodol uptake by tumors was homogenous and tumors were well distingulished from normal parenchyma. Compared to pre-TACE, serum alpha-feto-protein was reduced from 994(range:615--1690 ng/ml) to 46 ng/ml(42-- 47ng/ml) after the second TACE, and six months after surgery was in the normal range(13ng/ml;3--23ng/ml). SGOT/SGPT levels were temporally elevated after TACE but normalized within a few weeks. TACE can be a useful technique for preoperative treatment of hepatoblestomas. In tomors which are high-risk or inoperable, the therapeutio agents involved were not shown to be toxic.=20

  16. A study of frequency effects on conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Mahmood Dollah; Mohd Khidir Kamaron; Suaib Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    In eddy current testing (ET), different measurement can be carry out through the selection of the test frequency. In conductivity measurement, the selection of eddy current test frequencies permits to select the specific material properties to be measured. The test frequency selected should be sufficient high that eddy current penetration is limited only to fraction of the test material thickness. This paper describes the effects of test frequency on the conductivity measurement. This experiment done by applying different values of test frequency which is 20 kHz, 100 kHz and 1 MHz. (author)

  17. Studies on the effects of copper purpurin 18 on erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xang Yingsong; Yang Rujun; Meng Xiangshun; Gao Jianguo; Li Bailong

    1999-01-01

    Attempts were afforded to search for new antiaplastic anemia draws from tetrapyrroles. Observation of the effects of copper purpurin 18, a representative one of the metal tetrapyrroles was synthesized by ours, on erythropoiesis in Kungming mice lethally irradiated. It was shown that copper purpurin 18 preferably increased stem cells (CFU-S) into erythroidprogenitor cells (CFU-E), and increase WBC and nucleated cells of bone marrow significantly in the phase of recover. It suggested that there may be good prospect in developing new drugs for treatment of aplastic anemia with copper purpurin 18, and it was worth to further investigations

  18. Electronic effects and fundamental physics studied in molecular interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thomas; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun; Hofer, Werner A

    2018-05-29

    Scanning probe instruments in conjunction with a very low temperature environment have revolutionized the ability of building, functionalizing, and analysing two dimensional interfaces in the last twenty years. In addition, the availability of fast, reliable, and increasingly sophisticated methods to simulate the structure and dynamics of these interfaces allow us to capture even very small effects at the atomic and molecular level. In this review we shall focus largely on metal surfaces and organic molecular compounds and show that building systems from the bottom up and controlling the physical properties of such systems is no longer within the realm of the desirable, but has become day to day reality in our best laboratories.

  19. Moessbauer effect and electron paramagnetic resonance studies on yeast aconitase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Maeda, Yutaka; Sakai, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shigeru; Morita, Yuhei.

    1975-01-01

    The Moessbauer effect and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of yeast aconitase [EC 4.2.1.3] purified from the cells of Candida lipolytica (ATCC 20114) were measured. Moessbauer spectra suggested that yeast acontitase mostly contained two high-spin Fe(III) ions in an antiferromagnetically coupled binuclear complex that resembled oxidized 2 Fe ferredoxins, together with a small amount of high-spin Fe(II). EPR spectra recorded no signal at 77 0 K, but showed a slightly asymmetric signal centered at g=2.0 at 4.2 0 K, presumably due to the small amount of Fe(II) Fe(III) pairs. (auth.)

  20. Computer Study of Cluster Mechanism of Anti-greenhouse Effect

    OpenAIRE

    A. Galashev

    2009-01-01

    Absorption spectra of infra-red (IR) radiation of the disperse water medium absorbing the most important greenhouse gases: CO2 , N2O , CH4 , C2H2 , C2H6 have been calculated by the molecular dynamics method. Loss of the absorbing ability at the formation of clusters due to a reduction of the number of centers interacting with IR radiation, results in an anti-greenhouse effect. Absorption of O3 molecules by the (H2O)50 cluster is investigated at its interaction with Cl- io...

  1. Experimental study on microwave vulnerability effect of integrated circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinyong; Shen Juai; Yang Zhiqiang; Qiao Dengjiang

    2003-01-01

    The microwave vulnerability effect of IC was presented in this paper. The damage power threshold of IC will decrease with the decrease of microwave frequency or the increase of pulse repetitive frequency, and if the microwave pulse width become larger, the damage power threshold will decrease too. However, there is an inflexion range and the damage power threshold varies little when the pulse width is larger than the inflexion range. The experiment results show that the damage power threshold of IC fit normal distribution, and the variance is very small, so the damage probability fits 0-1 distribution

  2. NASA FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF SPACE RADIATION EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David R.

    1963-04-15

    Information on the energies andd fluxes of trapped electrons and protons in space is summarized, and the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory being constructed to simulate most of the space particulate-energy spectrum is described. A 600-Mev proton synchrocyclotron of variable energy and electron accelerators of 1 to 10 Mev will be included. The accelerator characteristics and the arrangement of the experimental and support buildings, particularly the beam facilities, are discussed; and the planned activities of the laboratory are given. (D.C.W.)

  3. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  4. Study on Physical Mechanism of the Magnus Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yuichi

    Two kinds of methods of explaining the physical mechanism of the Magnus effect are compared with each other and fully discussed. The first method uses Bernoulli's theorem and the fluid velocity difference between both sides of the body. The second one is based on the momentum theorem which relates the lift force with the fluid acceleration perpendicular to the uniform flow direction, which is caused by the asymmetry of separation points. It is shown that the latter method is preferable because it can be strictly applied to the real flow field containing both the rotational and the irrotational flow regions.

  5. Effects of radiation exposure from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcofski, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the United States about 90 percent of man-made radiation exposure to the general population is from the use of radiation in diagnostic medicine. Although the doses of radiation from these procedures to individuals are generally quite small, large numbers of people are exposed. Estimates of the radiation doses associated with such use in the healing arts are approximately 15 million person-rem to the general population from diagnostic x ray and 3.3 million person-rem from the diagnostic use of radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose of this paper is to present what is known about the possible effects of radiation from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  6. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Study of tube diameter effect on the burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, L.L.; Lantsman, F.P.; Dedneva, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of a tube diameter d on boundary steam content Xsub(b) is experimentally investigated during unwashed liquid wall film drying in the disperse-ring flow regime. For this purpose systematical experimental investigations of the burnout of the second kind in tubes with diameters of 4, 6 and 12 mm have been carried out as well as the other data relating to burnout in tubes with diameter from 4 to 40 mm are used. The investigations have been carried out at water and steam pressures of 4.9-13.7 MPa and mass velocities from 750 to 5000 kg/m 2 xs. It is elucidated that increase in the tube diameter results in reducing the ranges of pressures and mass velocities at which Xsub(b) is independent of heat flux. Quantity dependence Xsub(b)=f(d) has been obtained as well. The best agreement with data from different experiments is observed when taking into account the effect of d on Xsub(b) by means of the following relation: Xsub(b) is proportional to dsup(-0.25). In this case divergence, as a rule, does not exceed 10% [ru

  8. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Theoretical and experimental studies of the orbit expansion effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, A.A.; Denisov, Yu.N.; Dmitrievskij, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    Calculation and experiment results of investigations on the orbit expansion effect in the periodic magnetic structures are considered. Experiments, conducted with the use of ring cyclotron electron model, have shown, that the orbit expansion effect leads to the beam cross section radial size increase. This phenomenon was eliminated through the introduction of correction coils, which provide for the required low harmonic phase and value change in the whole acceleration area. Energy spread leads to the spreading of beam in the expansion area. Numeric calculations show, that for the electron model used the relative energy spread must be less than 10 -3 . The conclusion is drawn, that the only real possibility to obtain an accelerated beam with such an energy spread is to perform the ''flat-top'' regime. Equipment for cyclotron electron model RF supply is developed and produced to realise this regime. Particle dinamics calculation in the ''flat-top'' regime and the first experiments have shown, that acceleration asymmetry leads to the rapid coherent oscillation swing in the centre up to the amplitude of 6-7 sm

  10. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor; nine additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 6 yr after exposure. Two of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 yr postexposure, due to bone and lung tumors, with body burdens at death of 10 μCi. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of equal to or greater than 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  11. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellgren, L.; Liljemark, A.; Vincent, J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to visualise the morphological changes of Epidermophyton floccosum associated with exposure to perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid, the architecture of the dermatophyte was investigated by means of interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy. The mortphology of mycelia grown on substrate containing perdeuteriated n-hendecnoic acid, or the unlabelled analogue, was compared. The perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid produced a characteristic undulant effect of the hyphae. The characteristic wave-lake appearance of the mycelia looked similar to the curling effect occurring after treatment of dermatophytes with griseofulvin, but was not so pronounced. Perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid, unlike the unlabelled analogue, also seems to cause a reduction of the number of chlamydospores perforations of the macroconidia. The changes in the morphological structure of Epidermophyton floccosum exposed to perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid have been investigated. Morphological examination of mycelia exposed to this substance by interference contrast microscopy demonstrated a picture of defect hyphae and macroconidia. By the aid of scanning electron microscopy an attempt was made to obtain a better visualization of these changes at ultrastructural level

  12. Health effects of laser printer emissions: a controlled exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrasch, S; Simon, M; Herbig, B; Langner, J; Seeger, S; Kronseder, A; Peters, S; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Schierl, R; Nowak, D; Jörres, R A

    2017-07-01

    Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low-level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3000 cm -3 ) and high-level exposures (HLE) at 100 000 cm -3 . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE. Across all participants, no statistically significant changes occurred for lung mechanics and NO. There was a decrease in volume-related TLNO that was more pronounced in HLE, but the difference to LLE was not significant. ECP and IgE increased in the same way after exposures. Nasal IL-6 showed a higher increase after LLE. There was no coherent pattern regarding the responses in the participant subgroups or single sets of variables. In conclusion, the experimental acute responses to short but very high-level LPD exposures were small and did not indicate clinically relevant effects compared to low particle number concentrations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Bioceramic Resonance Effect on Meridian Channels: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioceramic is a kind of material which emits nonionizing radiation and luminescence, induced by visible light. Bioceramic also facilitates the breakup of large clusters of water molecules by weakening hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bond weakening, which allows water molecules to act in diverse ways under different conditions, is one of the key mechanisms underlying the effects of Bioceramic on biophysical and physical-chemical processes. Herein, we used sound to amplify the effect of Bioceramic and further developed an experimental device for use in humans. Thirteen patients who suffered from various chronic and acute illnesses that severely affected their sleep patterns and life quality were enrolled in a trial of Bioceramic resonance (i.e., rhythmic 100-dB sound waves with frequency set at 10 Hz applied to the skin surface of the anterior chest. According to preliminary data, a “Propagated Sensation along Meridians” (PSM was experienced in all Bioceramic resonance-treated patients but not in any of the nine control patients. The device was believed to enhance microcirculation through a series of biomolecular and physiological processes and to subject the specific meridian channels of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to coherent vibration. This noninvasive technique may offer an alternative to needle acupuncture and other traditional medical practices with clinical benefits.

  14. Model study of radiation effects on the gastrointestinal cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicherer, G.

    1983-03-01

    Since it is now possible to calculate the radiation fields used for medicinal purposes by means of radiation transport programs it was started to determine with mathematical models of radioeffects not only the physical effects or irradiation, but also the resulting biological radioresponses. This supplementary biologic information is not only of large general importance, but particularly valuable for the medicinal application of the biologically highly effective neutron radiation. With support by the Institute for Medicinal Radiophysics and Radiobiology of Essen University Hospital, and of two biomathematical working groups of Ulm University and Cologne University Hospital, who are experienced in the field of establishing mathematical models of the hematogenic cellular system, we developed out of experimental fundamental findings a cellkinetic, kybernetic model of the intestinal mucosa, which is highly sensitive to radiation. With this newly established model we succeeded for the first time in simulating comprehensively and quantitatively the time-dependent acute radioresponse of such a radiosensitive cellular system. For the first time we successfully used the computer simulation languages DARE-P and GASP, which are principally employed for solving problems in automatic control technology, and set up a radioresponse model. (orig.) [de

  15. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Seventeen additional dogs, with body burdens of 0.2 to 1.8 μCi, died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 8 yr after exposure. Ten of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 5 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 1.5 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of >80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  16. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Busch, R.H.; Case, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that dies of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Eleven additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 7 yr after exposure. Four of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 6 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  17. Study on effects of environmental regulation on competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Man Ok; Lim, Hyun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    For Korea, the claim that the enhancement of environmental regulation is worsening the international competitiveness of the business is dominant. However, it is too early to reestablish a relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness with the above new aspect. In fact, the economic development, which is brought a quantitative growth, and the maintenance of environmental quality, which is brought a qualitative growth, are very important on decision making in economic and social policy. In this study, it represents the results of existing positive studies on the relationship between the enhancement of environmental regulation, trade and productivity. Moreover, the objective of this study is on applying it based on the data of Korea. 86 refs., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  19. Studies of radiation effects on allopathic formulations for cancer management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, L; Choughule, S V; Dodke, P B; Jothish, P K [International Standard Orthopedic Measurements Education and Development (ISOMED), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, two anticancer drugs, Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubucin Hydrochloride have been investigated. The results of various physico-chemical tests on unirradiated and irradiated drugs indicate possibility of use of lower radiation doses and cryo-irradiation in case of sterilization of Cyclophosphamide. Doxorubcin Hydrochloride could be sterilized at 25 kGy without any significant changes in its physico-chemical properties. HPLC studies reveal formation of several trace level degradation products in irradiated cyclophosphamide. HPLC/MS studies revealed that higher and lower molecular weight products of the original molecules are formed on irradiation. Although, no significant changes are observed in absolute purity values, a little discolouration and formation of degradation products in Cyclophosphamide are the main impediments in acceptability of radiation sterilization. On the other hand, orange-red coloured Doxorubicin Hydrochloride did not show any such changes and could be radiation sterilized at normal sterilization dose of 25 kGy. (author)

  20. Studies of radiation effects on allopathic formulations for cancer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, L.; Choughule, S.V.; Dodke, P.B.; Jothish, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, two anticancer drugs, Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubucin Hydrochloride have been investigated. The results of various physico-chemical tests on unirradiated and irradiated drugs indicate possibility of use of lower radiation doses and cryo-irradiation in case of sterilization of Cyclophosphamide. Doxorubcin Hydrochloride could be sterilized at 25 kGy without any significant changes in its physico-chemical properties. HPLC studies reveal formation of several trace level degradation products in irradiated cyclophosphamide. HPLC/MS studies revealed that higher and lower molecular weight products of the original molecules are formed on irradiation. Although, no significant changes are observed in absolute purity values, a little discolouration and formation of degradation products in Cyclophosphamide are the main impediments in acceptability of radiation sterilization. On the other hand, orange-red coloured Doxorubicin Hydrochloride did not show any such changes and could be radiation sterilized at normal sterilization dose of 25 kGy. (author)

  1. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp......A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...

  2. Study of Swept Angle Effects on Grid Fins Aerodynamics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, G. A.; Fadillah, H.; Silitonga, F. Y.; Agoes Moelyadi, Mochamad

    2018-04-01

    Grid fin is an aerodynamic control surface that usually used on missiles and rockets. In the recent several years many researches have conducted to develop a more efficient grid fins. There are many possibilities of geometric combination could be done to improve aerodynamics characteristic of a grid fin. This paper will only discuss about the aerodynamics characteristics of grid fins compared by another grid fins with different swept angle. The methodology that used to compare the aerodynamics is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The result of this paper might be used for future studies to answer our former question or as a reference for related studies.

  3. Study of neutron radiation effects on MOS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Sangeeta J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied charge trapping in the oxide and generation of interface states due to neutrons. It is observed that neutrons, though uncharged, are capable of causing ionization and interface damage and it is significant under biased irradiation conditions. One of the important features of this work is that neutron irradiation was carried out in a nuclear reactor (swimming pool type) itself in contrast to the earlier reported work which used separate neutron sources for similar studies. To simulate real life situations, all our devices were biased during irradiation. In our belief, both of these facts gave credence to our observed experimental results. (author)

  4. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Aerobic and Resisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AWEPTO H

    disturbed sleep patterns and impaired daytime attention, .... gymnasium at normal speed. Therapeutic exercise duration: The subjects exercised for ..... asthma in adolescents for 6 weeks and reported that there were no .... with aerobic exercise performance when they studied the ... Anaerobic fitness in children with asthma;.

  5. Studies on the comparative effect of sodium fluoride on collagen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride is an essential element for the normal development and growth of human beings. The main source of fluoride for humans is the intake of groundwater. At high levels, fluoride causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, control and sodium fluoride (NaF) treated groups of rats had significant (p < 0.05) higher ...

  6. The Effects of Macroglossia on Speech: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Abebayehu Messele

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case study of speech production in a 14-year-old Amharic-speaking boy. The boy had developed secondary macroglossia, related to a disturbance of growth hormones, following a history of normal speech development. Perceptual analysis combined with acoustic analysis and static palatography is used to investigate the specific…

  7. Effect of isochronal annealing on phase transformation studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mixed phase sample shows higher value of magnetization because of the presence of ferromagnetic γ-Fe2O3 ... 1. Introduction. The study of particle size, phase transformation and micros- ..... The results are in qualitative agreement with ...

  8. A comparative study of therestorative effects of Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the curative potential of the methanol extract of two different ... O. canum and O. gratissimum on alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. ... Thus from the result obtained we conclude that MEOG and MEOC could ...

  9. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  10. Histological study on the effect of transplanted human umbilical cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ways to manage heart failure by replacing damaged cardiac muscle with healthy tissue. This study aimed at examining .... sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 at room temperature. Specimens were dehydrated in ascending grades of cold ethanol and ..... been shown to express angiogenic growth factors in a paracrine way to ...

  11. Studying Strategy Effects on Memory, Attitudes, and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Frank W.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, 175 participants generated node-link maps or summaries using multiple, massed, or ad lib schedules while reading text on stress-related information. They rated personal relevance immediately following studying and completed tests on the information and measures of attitudes and intentions 48 hours later. Low-verbal-ability…

  12. Preliminary study on sterilization effect of irradiation on dry vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jianqing; Bao Jianzhong; Cao Hong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2004-01-01

    The number of surviving germs relationship to irradiation dose for several species dry vegetable was studied, and the original value D 10 of the dry vegetable was given. The value will provide a theoretical reference to ascertain the appropriate irradiation dose in the irradiation process of the dry vegetable

  13. Bayesian evaluation of effect size after replicating an original study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aert, Robbie C M; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of published results in the literature is statistically significant, which raises concerns about their reliability. The Reproducibility Project Psychology (RPP) and Experimental Economics Replication Project (EE-RP) both replicated a large number of published studies in psychology

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of nonionic surfactant: Effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    celle above a concentration called critical micelle concentration (CMC) where their properties are different from those of the ... It is well-known that SANS is an ideal technique to study the micellar structure of surfactants [8,9] and this has also ... ment at the Dhruva reactor, Mumbai [11]. The mean wavelength of the incident.

  15. A study on the effect of macroeconomic variables and firm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to conducted studies, financial structure of organization was so important in its value and validity. For this purpose, managers should be aware about the variables affect the financial structure or organization and achieve an optimized financial structure using a proper attitude and scientific theories. The factors ...

  16. Learning word meanings: Overnight integration and study modality effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, F. van der; Takashima, A.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    According to the complementary learning systems (CLS) account of word learning, novel words are rapidly acquired (learning system 1), but slowly integrated into the mental lexicon (learning system 2). This two-step learning process has been shown to apply to novel word forms. In this study, we

  17. A study on the antioxidant effect of Coriolus versicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOD, MDA and GSH-Px levels in rat brain tissues were determined with SD rats as the animal model. The results showed that Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide can reduce the lipid peroxidation level in brain tissues during exhaustive exercise in rats, and can accelerate the removal of free radicals. The study concluded ...

  18. Peace Education's Effects on Aggression: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkal, Ali Serdar; Turnuklu, Abbas; Totan, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Literature reviews clearly document that students still show a tendency to use violence in resolving interpersonal conflicts in school. Results from various research conducted in Turkey suggest that violence, aggression, and bullying behaviors are still rampant in the primary and high schools. Studies conducted in primary and…

  19. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  20. Hyperglycemic effect and hypertotoxicity studies of stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, bilirubin (total and direct) showed significant increase (P<0.05) in groups B and C rats but were lower than those of group A. The results indicate that the extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark and highland (green) tea leaves caused increased activity of the liver enzymes studied which is ...

  1. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national regis...

  2. Studies on the Effects of Ammonium Phosphates on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2012), 20(2): 173-176. ISSN 0794-5698. Studies ... 2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. 3Department of ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Poly(vinyl .... Organic Chemistry, 4th ... and Engineering, 2nd edn, Reed Elsevier India.

  3. A triazolam/amphetamine dose-effect interaction study: dissociation of effects on memory versus arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, Miriam Z; Griffiths, Roland R

    2007-06-01

    In addition to producing robust memory impairment, benzodiazepines also induce marked sedation. Thus, it is possible that the observed amnestic effects are secondary to more global sedative effects and do not reflect a specific primary benzodiazepine effect on memory mechanisms. The objective was to use the nonspecific stimulant d-amphetamine to dissociate the sedative and memory-impairing effects of the benzodiazepine triazolam. Single oral doses of placebo, triazolam alone (0.25, 0.50 mg/70 kg), d-amphetamine sulfate alone (20, 30 mg/70 kg), and triazolam (0.25, 0.50 mg/70 kg) and d-amphetamine sulfate (20, 30 mg/70 kg) conjointly (at all dose combinations) were administered to 18 healthy adult participants across nine sessions in a double-blind, staggered-dosing, crossover design. In addition to standard data analyses, analyses were also conducted on z-score standardized data, enabling effects to be directly compared across measures. Relative to the sedative measures, the memory measures generally exhibited a pattern of less reversal of triazolam's effects by d-amphetamine. The memory measures ranged in degree of reversal such that the most reversal was observed for reaction time on the n-back working memory task, and the least reversal was observed for accuracy on the Sternberg working memory task, with most measures showing an overall pattern of partial reversal. Benzodiazepines have specific effects on memory that are not merely a by-product of the drugs' sedative effects, and the degree to which sedative effects contribute to the amnestic effects varies as a function of the particular memory process being assessed.

  4. Study on modification of radiation effects in mammalian fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kiyoto; Kawamata, Akitoshi; Goto, Toshifumi (Asahi Univ., Hozumi, Gifu (Japan). School of Dentistry) (and others)

    1990-10-01

    In searches for the potential application of mouse whole-embryo culture, combined effects of x radiation and cadmium or hyperthermia were examined with cultures of 8-day and 11-day mouse embryos. Combination of x radiation and cadmium had synergistic action on both in vitro and in vivo teratogenesis of mouse embryos. When irradiation was given 30 minutes before and after the administration of cadmium in 11-day mouse embryos, interaction factor values for cleft palate were 8.53 and 9.09, respectively. This revealed that the order of giving radiation and cadmium was independent of synergistic action. When low doses of radiation was combined with non-teratogenic hyperthermia, synergistic action occurred in vitro. This was more noticeable when combined with lower doses of x radiation. Low doses of x radiation are of great concern to human embryos or fetuses who may sustain potential exposures to them. (N.K.) 96 refs.

  5. Study of Cluster-size Effect on Damage Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Seki, Toshio; Nakai, Atsuko; Matsuo, Jiro; Takaoka, Gikan

    2003-01-01

    Computer simulation and experiments were performed in order to understand the effect of cluster size on damage formation. Results of molecular dynamics simulations of cluster impact on solid targets derived the model function, which explains the relationship among cluster size, incident energy and number of displacements. On the other hand, time of flight mass measurement system was installed a cluster irradiation system, so that cluster ion beam which cluster size distribution is well known can be irradiated on the target. The damage properties under various cluster irradiation conditions were examined using RBS. The results from computer simulations and experiments showed good agreements with each other, which suggests that irradiation damage by cluster ion beam can be controlled by selecting cluster size distribution and incident energy

  6. Study on shadowing effect caused by transient rods at NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Yachi, S.; Ishijima, K.

    1992-01-01

    Irregularly inserted three control rods created so called shadowing effects on some of the neutronic instruments at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). During operations at the reactor power of up to 10 MW, the three control rods called transient rods, could be fully or partly inserted into the NSRR core. Reactor power monitors located outside of the core at the direction of deeply inserted transient rods indicated lower power in such operations. Power profiles of the reactor and neutron fluxes at power monitor locations were calculated with a three dimensional neutron diffusion code, CITATION. The calculation indicated that the real reactor power could be smaller than the measured maximum power by as mush as 30 % in such operations. The calculated neutron fluxes well described the changes in the apparent power monitor indications as a function of the transient rod position. (author)

  7. A Study on the Maintenance Effectiveness Assessment for Active Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woo Sang; Oh, Seung Jong

    2006-01-01

    One of the key tasks in the periodic safety review (PSR) of nuclear power plant is to assess the aging management of structures, systems and components (SSC). The evaluation can be categorized by two parts, passive and active components. Unlike the passive components, active components are periodically maintained and replaced with new components, so the evaluation of aging mechanism of the passive components such as erosion, corrosion is not applicable to the evaluation of active components of nuclear power plant. For active components, they will maintain capability to fulfill its design function if preventive maintenance effectiveness is proper. In this paper, the assessment based on the reliability and availability of the active components of the domestic nuclear power plants is examined

  8. Gamma radiation effect study in polycarbonate optical and mechanics properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S. de.

    1991-02-01

    Polycarbonates (PC) are used in different industrial applications due to their excellent dielectric characteristics, impact resistance, and high temperature resistance. In some of these applications, the polycarbonates are exposed to gamma radiation which produces molecular scissions, causing changes in the polycarbonate properties. To estimate the radiation effects in the Durolon polycarbonate, samples were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays with doses between 0,2 kGy and 300 kGy. The results obtained showed that the PC mechanical properties are not changed due to the gamma radiation. However the results showed an expressive variation in the yellowness index for doses above 1 kGy. The results showed that it is possible to use the gamma sterilization of PC in applications where the coloration of PC is not critical. (author). 21 refs, 25 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Study on modification of radiation effects in mammalian fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kiyoto; Kawamata, Akitoshi; Goto, Toshifumi

    1990-01-01

    In searches for the potential application of mouse whole-embryo culture, combined effects of x radiation and cadmium or hyperthermia were examined with cultures of 8-day and 11-day mouse embryos. Combination of x radiation and cadmium had synergistic action on both in vitro and in vivo teratogenesis of mouse embryos. When irradiation was given 30 minutes before and after the administration of cadmium in 11-day mouse embryos, interaction factor values for cleft palate were 8.53 and 9.09, respectively. This revealed that the order of giving radiation and cadmium was independent of synergistic action. When low doses of radiation was combined with non-teratogenic hyperthermia, synergistic action occurred in vitro. This was more noticeable when combined with lower doses of x radiation. Low doses of x radiation are of great concern to human embryos or fetuses who may sustain potential exposures to them. (N.K.) 96 refs

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur

  11. Strong crystal field effect in ? - optical absorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Krupa, J. C.

    1998-12-01

    =-1 Results of optical absorption measurements in polarized light on tetravalent neptunium diluted in a 0953-8984/10/50/021/img6 single crystal are reported. The recorded spectra are complex, pointing to the presence of an 0953-8984/10/50/021/img7 impurity. The electronic transitions assigned to the 0953-8984/10/50/021/img8 ion are interpreted in terms of the usual model, following the actual understanding of the neptunium electronic structure and independent theoretical predictions. R.m.s. deviations of the order of 0953-8984/10/50/021/img9 have been obtained for 42 levels fitted with 11 free parameters. The crystal field effect resulting from the fitting is considerably larger than that observed for the uranium ion in the same host.

  12. Priority for sustainability. Study of the effects on investment climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Dutch cabinet has been asked to make sure that sustainable electricity plants can be connected to the grid with high priority. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the effects on the investment climate have been examined (both for sustainable and conventional) if priority (with regard to connection and transport) is given to sustainable generated electricity. Five models for priority for sustainable have been defined, i.e. (1) Sustainable is only given priority on the waiting list for connection; (2) Connect sustainable immediately, but no priority for transport; (3) Connect sustainable immediately and priority granted in transport; (4) Connect sustainable and conventional immediately, no priority for transport; (5) Connect sustainable and conventional immediately and give priority in transport to sustainable. [mk] [nl

  13. Effect of colchicine on polycystic ovary syndrome: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozukara, Ilay Ozturk; Pınar, Neslihan; Ozcan, Oğuzhan; Ozgur, Tumay; Dokuyucu, Recep; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Kucur, Suna Kabil; Aksoy, Ayşe Nur

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether there is any therapeutic effect of colchicine on a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-two Wistar-Albino rats were randomly assigned into four with 8 rats in each group: control group; PCOS only group; PCOS-metformin group and PCOS-colchicine group. PCOS was induced by gavage with letrozole once daily at the concentration of 1 mg/kg orally with 21 consecutive days. After PCOS model assessment, PCOS-metformin group was received metformin orally with 500 mg/kg and PCOS-colchicine group was received colchicine orally with 1 mg/kg for the 35 day. Histopathology of ovaries, circulating estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), total testosterone, androstenedione and c-reactive protein (CRP) levels were evaluated. cystic and atretic follicle number was significantly decreased, but CRP and hormone parameters were not significantly changed with colchicine treatment. Colchicine has provided histopathological improvement compared with metformin in PCOS rat model.

  14. Effect of shift work on hypertension: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jeong Han; Sim, Chang Sun; Lee, Jiho; Yun, Seok Hyeon; Park, Sang Jin; Yoo, Cheol-In; Sung, Joo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The need of efficient resource management and full-time accessibility to resources has increased with the development of industry, resulting in the increase of shift workers. Previous researches of past decades show that there are various health effects on shift workers. However, the definition and the form of shift work have varied from each research and occupational harmful factors except for shift work have not been excluded completely in previous researches. Therefore, in this research, we tried to find out the effect of shift work focusing on the hypertension. To complement previously mentioned weakness of other researches, we performed our research on participants to whom we could minimize other risk factors excluding shift work. This research examined 1,953 petrochemical plant male workers (shift work 1,075, day worker 878) who did medical checkup from 1st Jan. 2014 to 31th Dec. 2014 in a general hospital located in Ulsan, based on their medical records and questionnaires. With the questionnaire, we found out their basic information including age, social status, occupational history, and we took their physical measurements. Compared to day workers, shift workers' odds ratio of developing hypertension was 1.31 (95% CI 0.98-1.75). After adjusting confounding variables, adjusted odds ratio for entire subjects was 1.51 (95% CI 1.11-2.06). Also, for subjects who were in continuous service for over 20 years, odds ratio was 1.51 (95% CI 1.08-2.11). Shift workers had a higher chance of hypertension than day workers do. Particularly, the longer the workers work continuously, the risk of hypertension getting higher.

  15. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE SELLA TURCICA; GENDER EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohamed Elsayed Ali SAKRAN *1, Mohammad Afzal KHAN 2, Faris Mohammed Nour ALTAF 3, Hassan Elsiddig Hassan FARAGALLA 4, Amal Yousif Ahmed Elhaj MUSTAFA 5, Muhammad Mazhar HIJAZI 6, Rayan Abdulshakur NIYAZI 7, Abrar Jamal TAWAKUL 8, Abeer Zubair MALEBARI 9, Amal AbdulAziz SALEM 10.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Precise anatomical knowledge of the sella turcica is important for neurologists and surgeons operating in the region of cavernous sinus or the surrounding structures. The current study was undertaken to record normal morphometric parameters for future reference and to determine if there is any significance difference in the sella turcica morphometry regarding the gender. Methodology: A Morphometric analysis of the Sella Turcica and structures in vicinity were done...

  16. Software piracy: A study of causes, effects and preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Ishwor

    2015-01-01

    Software piracy is a serious issue that has been affecting software companies for decades. According to Business Software Alliance (BSA), the global software piracy rate in 2013 was 43 percent and the commercial value of unlicensed software installations was $62.7 billion, which resulted in millions of revenues and jobs lost in software companies. The goal of this study was to better understand the software piracy behaviours, how it happens, how it affects to individuals and software compani...

  17. Effect of Cervical Lessions on the Tooth FEM Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Bereşescu; Ligia Brezeanu; Claudia Şoaita

    2010-01-01

    The approach used until recently concerning the phenomena of dental abfraction points to the conclusion that the cervical area of the tooth, were this type of lesion usually occur, concentrates the stress resulted from the action of the forces applied on various areas on the crown. Moreover, any lesion in the cervical area facilitates the possibility of its advance into the tooth, ultimately fracturing it. Our paper presents a FEM (finite element method) study on the results of a mechanical a...

  18. Effects of omalizumab therapy on allergic rhinitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, S; Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Rosati, D; Minni, A

    2016-12-01

    The use of omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody able to binding Ig-E, is currently authorized only for treatment of severe bronchial asthma. The use of omalizumab in other Ig-E related diseases is off-label, although some studies have provided promising results about it. The aim of this study was to evaluate if therapy with omalizumab in patients affected by asthma and allergic rhinitis has an impact also on allergic rhinitis-related symptoms. A longitudinal study was conducted on 11 patients affected by severe asthma and a periodic allergic rhinitis. Patients were treated with omalizumab for 24 weeks with a monthly subcutaneous administration at the dosage recommended by the current guidelines. We observed at the start and at the end of treatment: rhinitis symptoms using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the state of nasal mucosa with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy; airways inflammation by measuring the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO); asthmatic symptomatology by means of the Asthma Control Test; the amount of total Ig-E in a blood sample; and the use of symptomatic drugs before and after treatment. VAS scores to measure general symptomatology and symptoms including nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itching and sneezing were significantly reduced. Turbinate hypertrophy was resolved in six of nine patients. Furthermore, eight patients (73%) reduced or eliminated the use of symptomatic drugs. Our data confirm the efficacy of omalizumab in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Controlled studies will now have to be carried out to confirm these preliminary data and will specify indications for a very efficacious but still significantly expensive therapy.

  19. Study of three-dimensional effects on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuruvila, G.

    1988-01-01

    The incompressible axisymmetric steady Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are used to simulate vortex breakdown. The equations, discretized using a second-order, central-difference scheme, are linearized and then solved using an exact LU decomposition, Gaussian elimination, and Newton iteration. Solutions are presented for Reynolds numbers, based on vortex-core radius, as high as 1500. An attempt to study the stability of the axisymmetric solutions against three-dimensional perturbations is discussed.

  20. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  1. Comprehensive Study of Acute Effects and Recovery After Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    MCW IRB regarding personality questionnaire changes and head impact sensor company changes • Amendment under review as of Sept 29, 2015 regarding...a large (3Tb) memory system, and four general purpose graphical processing unit (GPU) systems, each with four Nvidia K40 GPUs. Each of these... company changed prior to study implementation and MCW IRB provided oversight for Banyan Biomarkers’ research activities. Approved by MCW IRB Aug 24

  2. Size and liquidity effects in Nigeria: an industrial sector study

    OpenAIRE

    Hearn, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates liquidity premiums using the recently developed Liu (2006) measure within a multifactor capital asset pricing model (CAPM) including size premiums and a time varying parameter model for the West African emerging market of Nigeria. The evidence suggests that liquidity factors are relevant only for financial and basic materials sector stocks while size factor is more generally relevant in explaining the cross section of stock returns in the Nigerian domestic equity market....

  3. STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanad H. Hussein.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluated antimicrobial activity of Tribulus terrestris aqueous extract against some pathogenic microorganisms. So that, the aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris was screened for its anti-microbial activity using the plate agar diffusion method. It was tested against four bacteria species; two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The susceptibility of the...

  4. Studies of runaway electrons via Cherenkov effect in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, L.; Rabinski, M.; Sadowski, M. J.; Jakubowski, M. J.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R.; Mlynar, J.; Ficker, O.; Weinzettl, V.; Causa, F.; COMPASS; FTU Teams

    2018-01-01

    The paper concerns measurements of runaway electrons (REs) which are generated during discharges in tokamaks. The control of REs is an important task in experimental studies within the ITER-physics program. The NCBJ team proposed to study REs by means of Cherenkov-type detectors several years ago. The Cherenkov radiation, induced by REs in appropriate radiators, makes it possible to identify fast electron beams and to determine their spatial- and temporal-characteristics. The results of recent experimental studies of REs, performed in two tokamaks - COMPASS in Prague and FTU in Frascati, are summarized and discussed in this paper. Examples of the electron-induced signals, as recorded at different experimental conditions and scenarios, are presented. Measurements performed with a three-channel Cherenkov-probe in COMPASS showed that the first fast electron peaks can be observed already during the current ramp-up phase. A strong dependence of RE-signals on the radial position of the Cherenkov probe was observed. The most distinct electron peaks were recorded during the plasma disruption. The Cherenkov signals confirmed the appearance of post-disruptive RE beams in circular-plasma discharges with massive Ar-puffing. During experiments at FTU a clear correlation between the Cherenkov detector signals and the rotation of magnetic islands was identified.

  5. The effects of caffeine abstinence on sleep: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shuk Ching; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether caffeine abstinence in the evening could improve the sleep quality of those who habitually consume coffee. A double-blind control group design (caffeine and caffeine-free groups). A university. A convenience sampling of 10 students (mean age 21.4 years). It was a 14-day experiment. For the first 7 days, all participants consumed caffeinated coffee. In the following 7 days, subjects consumed caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee according to their assigned group. Sleep-wake parameters, self-reported sleep quality and level of refreshment. There were no significant differences (p>.05) among the data of the two groups identified. No significant changes (p>.05) were found in the sleep quality of either group during the study. This study confirms that caffeine abstinence in the evening might not be helpful in sleep promotion. It highlights the need to implement evidence-based practice in health promotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Taking the Time. Studying language effects in the translation class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brusasco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The current translation market places growing emphasis on technological tools that assist or even replace the translator in quickly producing adequate target texts. As a person involved in cultural processes that affect public discourse and society at large, both as a practising literary translator and as a teacher of translation, I feel that academia should not only pursue market-oriented translation skills, such as procedural knowledge of computer-assisted translation (CAT-tools and machine translation (MT, but also aim at strengthening would-be translators' processes of interpretation and making them autonomous language experts, aware of both the effects generated by language and their responsibility in using it. To support my position, I will draw on cognitive linguistics and critical discourse analysis (CDA. Adopting a constructivist approach, I will then refer to works by Kiraly (2000, Venuti (2013 and Laviosa (2014, and add some methodological proposals. Students will initially work individually and in groups, focusing on source texts, their translations and comparable texts in order to identify key language items and work toward meaning. By deploying CDA analytical tools, they will discuss the role played by individual items as well as the overall effect of both STs and TTs. New source texts will then be analysed in preparation for translation. The actual translation, effect analysis and final editing, carried out as team work, will complete a cycle aimed at 1 helping students to build knowledge through experience; 2 sensitising them to the complexity of the translation process and the paramount value of meaning-making within every single context.Riassunto – Il settore della traduzione attribuisce crescente importanza a strumenti tecnologici che aiutano o sostituiscono il traduttore nella rapida produzione di testi adeguati. In qualità di traduttrice letteraria e docente, coinvolta quindi in processi culturali che possono

  7. A study on the effects of advertisement on brand equity: Evidence from mobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Samiei Nasr; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Ali Akbar; Elham Aghaalikhani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of advertisement on brand equity. The study has accomplished on two well-known brands in mobile providers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses Aaker’s model to examine the effects of advertisement on various factors such as brand awareness, quality perception, brand loyalty and brand associate. The study also investigates the effects of brand awareness, quality perception and brand associate on brand loyalty. The results o...

  8. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and the…

  9. 42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occurred, and any possible health effects resulting from such exposure. (b) Should ATSDR decide, in its... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7... ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES ADMINISTRATIVE...

  10. Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-14

    A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration.

  11. Studies on chronic effects of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, Y.S.; Yun, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment is being carried out to elucidate the chronic effects of Co 60 (γ-ray) - low doses irradiation on JCR mice at 3rd week, 6th week, and 5th month after their birth. Experimental mice at 3rd week of age have been irradiated with Co 60 - 60mR weekly, Co 60 - 500mR weekly and Co 60 - 61R biweekly at the dose rate of 60mR per second for 23 weeks until now. Co 60 - 61R irradiated mice were subdivided into Co 60 - alone group and Co 60 combined with red ginseng extracts group. In their survivor's rate and their body weight etc., no significant differences between control groups and test groups in these experimental mice. Experimented mice at 6 weeks and 5 months of age are also being irradiated with Co 60 in the same doses as the above for 14 weeks and 8 weeks until present. In these experimental groups, there are also no significant differences between control groups and experimental groups in their survivor's rate and their body weight

  12. Study of the fumigation effect on pollutants over Inshas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, Abou Bakr. A.; Abdel El-Aal, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the effect of morning fumigation event on the ground level pollutants concentration at inshas area. Monitoring stations for mesuring the hourly continues concetration of some pollutants such sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone were placed near the hot lab in nuclear research center for one complete year, At the same time the hourly averages meteorological parameters were measured continuously at different levels. A fortran computer program was developed to determine the relative relative concentration Assuming accident case in two cases, nonfumigation and morning fumigation. The processing and interpretation of the meteorological data and pollutants concentration revealed that these high pollution events occur almost on daily bassis, usually several hours between sunrise and before afternoon. The maximum fumigation peaks occur earlier in the summer than other seasons owing to theearlier sunrise in addition, ozone concentrations appear to reach their maximum a few hours after intense fumigation events. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone don't exceed threshold values that are considered to be phytotoxic. As sunset pollutant concentration is decrease due to lofting condition

  13. Numerical study of effects of accommodation coefficients on slip phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.

  14. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Case, A.C.; Madison, R.M.; McShane, J.F.; Stevens, D.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (four of five at the highest dosage level, in 14 to 25 mo postexposure; 1 of 20 at the medium-high dosage level, at 34 mo postexposure). There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. One dog, at 39 mo postexposure, has radiographic evidence of an osteosarcoma. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported (Annual Report, 1978). Twelve dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 showed a more rapid translocation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to bone and liver than was observed for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , but at 1 yr postexposure the percentage of the final body burden in bone and liver were similar for the two isotopes

  15. A study of DNA protective effect of orange juice supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; To, Tai Lun; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2013-05-01

    The potential acute genoprotective effect of orange juice supplementation was investigated. Six healthy subjects (aged 33 to 60 years; 3 women and 3 men) were asked to drink 400 mL of commercial orange juice, which contained 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g sugar. Venous blood (2 mL) was taken before and 2 h after ingestion (test trial). A week later, the subjects were asked to repeat the trial by drinking 400 mL water with 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g glucose (control trial). Lymphocytes isolated from blood samples underwent comet assay on the day of collection. Pre- and postingestion DNA damage scores were measured in both the test and control trials. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide after 2 h of supplementation with orange juice, and no change in baseline DNA damage. There was no significant decrease in the DNA damage in lymphocytes in the control trial.

  16. Study on radioprotective effects of GANRA-like medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Zhu; Hailong, Pei; Wenling, Ye [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); others, and

    2012-03-15

    After three days of medicine administrated, Kunming mice were exposed to 8 Gy of 100 kVp X-rays. Hemogram, viscere, survival, MDA yields and SOD activity were examined. Results showed that, (1) Survival of medicine-administrated mice were similar to the control group. After irradiation, survival dropped significantly. It took 20 days for the control group to reach to 50% survival, while 9 days for DMSO group 29 days for drug group 1, and 24 days for drug group 5. (2) The medicine per se had no obvious impacts on visceral indexes. Liver index and spleen index of the control group and DMSO group were elevated after irradiated, while those of medicine-administrated group did not change much. (3) The groups treated by DMSO and drug group 1 had high yield of MDA, but low activity of SOD. Compared with DMSO group, drug group 5 had high SOD activity while low MDA level. Irradiation increased MDA level but decreased SOD activity of every group, However, group drug 5 still showed higher SOD activity and lower MDA level than DMSO group. (4) The medicine did not show distinctive contributions to variation of hemogram. In summary, our results demonstrated that GANRA-like group drug 1 and group drug 5 medicine had radioprotective effects and their mechanisms might be related to the scavenging ability of free radicals. (authors)

  17. An experimental study on the self-reference effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Ying(朱滢); ZHANG; Li(张力)

    2002-01-01

    Self-reference at encoding increases the probability of recollective experience in recognition memory. Self-reference effect (SRE) in memory is observed when the degree of self-refer- ence of to-be-remembered materials is varied. Usually items encoded in terms of self-reference are associated with significantly higher recall performance relative to items encoded in other ways, including semantic encoding. In our three experiments, four orientating tasks formed four levels in a between-subjects design. The conditions were rating personality traits with reference to self, mother, Lu Xun (a famous Chinese writer) or rating the traits on a negative-positive dimension. In a recognition test, subjects first identified old items and then indicated which of these were accompanied by recollective experience ('remember' responses) and which were recognized on some other basis ('know' responses). Our results showed that both the self-reference condition and mother condition were associated with the same highest proportion of correct remember responses and the same lowest proportion of correct know responses. In contrast, for Western subjects, the self-reference condition, relative to the mother condition, was associated with a higher proportion of correct remember responses and a lower proportion of correct know responses. We discussed the results with reference to the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry).

  18. Study of the Gamma Radiation Effect on Tannins Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coto Hernandez, I.; Barroso Solares, S.; Martinez Luzardo, F.; Guzman Martinez, F.; Diaz Rizo, O.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Santana Romero, J.L.; Baeza Fonte, A.; Rapado Paneque, M.; Garcia, F.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable tannins are polyphenolic substances of different chemical mixtures, in correspondence with the characteristics of groups of polyphenols. Taking into consideration its composition, we can find different types of flavonoids, mainly in the so-called condensed tannins. In general, many applications have been explored, including the medical ones, due to their proven biological activity as antiviral, antibacterial and others characteristics derived from their reactions with metal ions and amino acids of the protein components. Therefore it is promising to examine the effects of gamma radiation on the structure of tannin, looking for the possible modification of its biological activity. To this end, samples of tannins are irradiated at different doses (maximum dose 35 kGy) with the use of a Cobalt-60 irradiator. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) permitted to characterize the samples in morphology and composition. The changes were analyzed by using infrared spectroscopy Fourier transform (FT-IR) and High Resolution Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). At the end we discuss the implication of the results for a dosage range above 5 kGy. (Author)

  19. Health effects from indoor air pollution: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L E; Clarkson, J R; Chang, S N

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the health effects associated with the presence of contaminants in indoor air. Numerous agents can accumulate in public buildings, homes and automobiles as a result of ongoing activities that normally occur in these closed spaces. Ventilation is a major factor in the control of indoor air pollutants since proper movement of air can prevent or minimize the build up of compounds in buildings. The recent emphasis on energy conservation has lead to measures which economize on energy for heating and air conditioning, but which also trap pollutants within a building. Three cases of indoor air pollution were investigated. A typical investigation of indoor air pollutant problems includes the following: interviews with building occupants; history of the building with regard to maintenance, pesticide treatment, etc.; a survey of the building and ventilation; and when warranted, sampling and analysis of air. Each case presented is unique in that atypical situations caused agents to accumulate in a building or section of a building. The indoor air problems in these cases were solved by identifying and removing the source of the offending agent and/or improving the ventilation in the building.

  20. Study of relativistic effects in magnetoemission from white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markes, C.T.H.

    1978-01-01

    Some white dwarfs have been observed to emit circularly polarized light, which is believed to be due to magnetoemission because of the existence of high magnetic fields. To explain this, an approximate relativistic Hamiltonian is developed describing the motion of a spinning charged oscillator in a uniform magnetic field. The exact solutions and energy eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian are determined. The fractional circular polarization is calculated using this model in time-dependent peturbation theory. Calculations taking into account low-lying states (low temperatures) as well as higher excited levels (all temperatures). Spin and relativity effects become increasingly important as more and more excited levels are included in the possible transitions. In fact, there appears to be a tendency for one of the polarization components to be quenched in the limit of very large excitations. Thus, the reason for the discrepancy in the infrared and other regions has to be sought elsewhere than in the assembly of charged oscillators in interaction with a high magnetic field, as this model, with relativization, is reasonably complete

  1. Study of a model for gamma radiation effects on chlorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delforge, Jacques; Fabre, Henri; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1977-01-01

    The experimental data obtained by 60 Co γ irradiation of chlorella are especially interesting because they show a dose rate effect (change in the survival curve plotted versus dose as the dose rate varies) and a change in the survival fraction as a function of the time separating the end of irradiation and the starting of culture. The radiobiological models published until now are not able to illustrate all these experimental phenomena. An attempt is made here to find a model within the scope of P. DELATTRE's transformation system theory. The use of this precise theoretical framework enables to propose an experimental procedure which offers no special practical difficulty but leads to much more abundant information than the standard procedures. The model obtained reveals the existence of at least three different states amongst chlorella still able to multiply, and only one state amongst those temporarily deprived of their multiplying capacity. It shows the possibility of internal restorations in the elements still capable of multiplying, but also confirms the existence of non-lethal but irreparable lesions [fr

  2. Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2008-01-01

    A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration

  3. Study of irradiation effects in austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etienne, A. [GPM UMR CNRS 6634, Universite et INSA de Rouen (France); Material Department, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Pareige, P.; Radiguet, B. [GPM UMR CNRS 6634, Universite et INSA de Rouen (France); Cunningham, N.J.; Odette, G.O. [Material Department, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Pokor, C. [EDF RD, departement MMC, site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2011-07-01

    Chemical analyses using Atom Probe Tomography were performed on a bolt made of cold worked 316 austenitic stainless steel, extracted from the internal structures of a pressurized water reactor after seventeen years of reactor service. The irradiation temperature of these samples was 633 K and the irradiation dose was estimated to 12 dpa. These analyses have shown that neutron irradiation has a strong effect on the intragranular distribution of solute atoms. A very high number density (6.10{sup 23} m{sup -3}) of Ni-Si enriched and Cr-Fe depleted clusters was detected after irradiation. In order to bring complementary experimental results and to determine the mechanism of formation of these Ni-Si nano-clusters, Fe{sup 5+} ion irradiations have been performed on a 316 austenitic stainless steel. As after neutron irradiation, the formation of solute enriched features is observed. Linear features and two kinds of clusters, rounded and torus shaped, are present. Considering that solute enriched features are probably formed by radiation induced segregation on point defect sinks, these different shapes are due to the nature of the sinks where segregation occurs. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  5. Gamma irradiation effect on thermo shrink polyethylene tube: Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naurah Mat Isa; Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Mohd Yusof Hamzah; Zulkafli Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The production technology of heat shrinkable tubes is based on the industrial usage of so-called memory effect in some polymers. Many polymers can be rendered heat shrinkable, particularly polyolefins by introducing crosslinking in the polymer backbone. Heat shrinkable tubes and moulded parts provide mechanical and/or chemical and/or electrical protection. . In this work, irradiation from Co-60 was used to impart crosslinking in polymer and thus modify their mechanical and thermal properties. Heat shrinkable or thermo shrink polyethylene (PE) tube with diameter 6.4 mm was selected to evaluate crosslinking behaviour from the gamma irradiation exposure at 5 different doses (120, 140, 160, 200 and 220 kGy). The gel content (%), tensile properties and thermal behavior and stability of the tubes were measured using DSC and TGA. Tubes irradiated at 140 kGy and 160 kGy showed better tensile properties than those at 120, 200 and 220 kGy doses. Maximum percent of crystallization was observed at 160 kGy and temperature required to crystallize is lower than melting temperature due to changes in molecular orientation. Thermal decomposition of the irradiated tubes occurred at 430-450 degree Celsius which is lower than the unirradiated sample. Gel content analysis for samples irradiated at 180-220 kGy yield up to 30 to 40 % gel fraction. Although the gel fractions are higher than other dose, the samples are expected to experience chain scission presumably due to localized gel formation. (author)

  6. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemeyer, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistent with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included

  7. Study on radioprotective effects of GANRA-like medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingyue; Pei Hailong; Ye Wenling

    2012-01-01

    After three days of medicine administrated, Kunming mice were exposed to 8 Gy of 100 kVp X-rays. Hemogram, viscere, survival, MDA yields and SOD activity were examined. Results showed that, (1) Survival of medicine-administrated mice were similar to the control group. After irradiation, survival dropped significantly. It took 20 days for the control group to reach to 50% survival, while 9 days for DMSO group 29 days for drug group 1, and 24 days for drug group 5. (2) The medicine per se had no obvious impacts on visceral indexes. Liver index and spleen index of the control group and DMSO group were elevated after irradiated, while those of medicine-administrated group did not change much. (3) The groups treated by DMSO and drug group 1 had high yield of MDA, but low activity of SOD. Compared with DMSO group, drug group 5 had high SOD activity while low MDA level. Irradiation increased MDA level but decreased SOD activity of every group, However, group drug 5 still showed higher SOD activity and lower MDA level than DMSO group. (4) The medicine did not show distinctive contributions to variation of hemogram. In summary, our results demonstrated that GANRA-like group drug 1 and group drug 5 medicine had radioprotective effects and their mechanisms might be related to the scavenging ability of free radicals. (authors)

  8. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion-materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1981-10-01

    Some examples of progress being made in DAFS studies are given. The primary parameters in which most damage models are expressed are total displacements per atom (dpa), total helium concentration (appm), and the helium-to-dpa ratio. The concentrations of other transmutation products than helium have assumed significance in certain cases as will be seen below. The number of dpa is generally taken proportional to the damage energy, the total energy deposited in a material, corrected for the fraction dissipated in electronic excitation and ionization

  9. Effect of Cervical Lessions on the Tooth FEM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bereşescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach used until recently concerning the phenomena of dental abfraction points to the conclusion that the cervical area of the tooth, were this type of lesion usually occur, concentrates the stress resulted from the action of the forces applied on various areas on the crown. Moreover, any lesion in the cervical area facilitates the possibility of its advance into the tooth, ultimately fracturing it. Our paper presents a FEM (finite element method study on the results of a mechanical analysis of the phenomena involving the tooth damaged by cervical lesions.

  10. Study of the effects of D2O circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, N.S.; Poon, A.W.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has been collecting data since November 1999. The study of whether or not the D 2 O circulation affects the data is an important part of understanding how the SNO detector behaves. This report looks at several characteristics of the data to determine to what extent the D 2 O circulation affects the data. We found that there is no evidence for any dependence of event rates in the cleaned data sets on the state of D 2 O circulation

  11. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored

  12. Gender effect on clinical features of achalasia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdavinia Mahboobeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achalasia is a well-characterized esophageal motor disorder but the rarity of the disease limits performing large studies on its demographic and clinical features. Methods Prospectively, 213 achalasia patients (110 men and 103 women were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis established by clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic as well as manometry criteria. All patients underwent a pre-designed clinical evaluation before and within 6 months after the treatment. Results Solid dysphagia was the most common clinical symptom in men and women. Chest pain was the only symptom which was significantly different between two groups and was more complained by women than men (70.9% vs. 54.5% P value= 0.03. Although the occurrence of chest pain significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (P Conclusion It seems that chest pain is the distinct symptom of achalasia which is affected by sex as well as age and does not relate to the duration of illness, LESP and the type of treatment achalasia patients receive.

  13. A study of expertise effects for products with contradictory semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ching-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design studies, researchers often use the semantic differential method with bipolar adjectives, such as “modern vs. classical” or “simple vs. complex” when investigating the semantics projected by product forms. However, in design practice, some design examples clearly exhibit the simultaneous use of contradictory meanings in product semantics. For example, retro car evokes nostalgia by borrowing characteristics from classical cars. At the same time it exhibits a modern style. However, most studies measure the product semantics mostly by using subjective measurement. There is lack objective measurement for that. In this research, we examined the results of applying the semantic differential method to measure contradiction in product semantics. The results showed that the distributions of semantic differential ratings for the stimuli with contradictory meanings have higher standard deviations. The sensitivity of semantic recognition may depend on participant expertise. The design experts are trained to be good at visual thinking that could easily identify the contradiction semantics between products. In general, successful embedding of contradictory meanings into product forms are based on simple, typical, and rational forms that can display complex, novel, and perceptual images by adding supplementary elements.

  14. Studies on the chronic effect of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, E.S.; Chung, I.Y.; Yun, M.S.; Chae, H.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic hazard of Co-60 low dose radiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages such as below were exposed to 60m rads/week, 500m rads/week and 60 rads/biweek whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period, from 1st week to 3rd week, from 3rd week to 52nd week, from 6th week to 52nd week, and from 22nd week to 52nd week after the birth. All experimental mice were autopsied immediately after being sacrificed at 52nd week. All major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  15. Environmental effect studies on a forest ecosystem in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Bunzl, K.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term acid deposition on a forest ecosystem can have serious impacts on many physicochemical processes in the soil. Since 1984 extensive studies have been carried out in the 'Hoglwald', an old Norway spruce stand near Munich, Germany. In 1986 a variety of radionuclides were deposited in the canopy and on the forest floor of the Hoglwald following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The amount of 137 Cs from Chernobyl was about 10 times larger than that present in the soil before Chernobyl. Six experimental plots were established in order to study the potential disturbances caused by artificial acid irrigation and compensative liming. Using these fields, investigations on the interception and retention of radionuclides by a coniferous woodland have been done together with the deposition and vertical migration of the radionuclides in the forest. One of the most important results obtained was that 134 Cs deposition velocity in the spruce stand was as high as 5.5 mm/s, and thus higher by a factor of 10 than the corresponding value for the grassland. By evaluating the depth profiles of the Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs in the soil with a compartment model. The fixation of radiocesium in the forest soil was found to be a rather slow process. (author)

  16. Faculty and student perceptions of effective study strategies and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Katie J; Bell, Gillian C; Franks, Andrea S

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate faculty members' and students' perceptions of study strategies and materials. Focus groups were conducted with course directors and first- and second-year students to generate ideas relating to use of course materials, technology, class attendance, and study strategies for mastering class concepts. Students and faculty members differed in their opinions about the utility of textbooks and supplemental resources. The main learning method recommended by students and faculty members was repeated review of course material. Students recommended viewing classroom lectures again online, if possible. Course directors reported believing that class attendance is important, but students based their opinions regarding the importance of attendance on their perceptions of lecture and handout quality. Results did not differ by campus or by student group (first-year vs. second-year students). Students and faculty members have differing opinions on the process that could influence learning and course design. Faculty members should understand the strategies students are using to learn course material and consider additional or alternative course design and delivery techniques based on student feedback.

  17. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  18. A Study of Mutual Effects of Human Rights and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Poursaeed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how human rights and peace affect each other. The historical experiences of human societies have indicated that peace and human rights have had close connections to each other. These experiences have developed in the modern times so that nations and states are in the view that human rights and peace are complementary. Accordingly, achieving real and sustainable peace is impossible without respecting human rights and it cannot expect that human rights are fully respected if there is no peace. This interrelation has developed nowadays in a way that today the right to peace has become one of the examples of the third generation of human rights and a fundamental human right. This means that it is not possible to realise other human rights without realising such a right. In other words, the right to peace constitutes the basis of other human rights. This is because the first generation of human rights (that is civil and political rights and the second generation of human rights (that is economic, social and cultural rights and even the third generation of human rights (such as the right to development and the right to a healthy environment cannot be realised if the right to peace is not respected. It is in this context that this paper examines such documents as the Charter of the United Nations (UN, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN Covenants on Human Rights, related resolutions of the UN general Assembly (in particular Declaration on the Rights ofPeople to Peace – Resolution 39/11, 12 November 1984, and Resolution on Promotion of Peace as a Vital Requirement for the Full Enjoyment of All Human Rights by All –Resolution 62/163, 18 December 2007 and resolutions of the UN Human Rights Commission and of the UN Human Rights Council in order to demonstrate how human rights and peace have been considered as dependent on each other so that the existence of one depends on the existence of the other. Finally, this paper

  19. PROM and Labour Effects on Urinary Metabolome: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Meloni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since pathologies and complications occurring during pregnancy and/or during labour may cause adverse outcomes for both newborns and mothers, there is a growing interest in metabolomic applications on pregnancy investigation. In fact, metabolomics has proved to be an efficient strategy for the description of several perinatal conditions. In particular, this study focuses on premature rupture of membranes (PROM in pregnancy at term. For this project, urine samples were collected at three different clinical conditions: out of labour before PROM occurrence (Ph1, out of labour with PROM (Ph2, and during labour with PROM (Ph3. GC-MS analysis, followed by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, was able to discriminate among the different classes, highlighting the metabolites most involved in the discrimination.

  20. PROM and Labour Effects on Urinary Metabolome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Alessandra; Palmas, Francesco; Mereu, Rossella; Deiana, Sara Francesca; Fais, Maria Francesca; Mussap, Michele; Ragusa, Antonio; Pintus, Roberta; Fanos, Vassilios; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2018-01-01

    Since pathologies and complications occurring during pregnancy and/or during labour may cause adverse outcomes for both newborns and mothers, there is a growing interest in metabolomic applications on pregnancy investigation. In fact, metabolomics has proved to be an efficient strategy for the description of several perinatal conditions. In particular, this study focuses on premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in pregnancy at term. For this project, urine samples were collected at three different clinical conditions: out of labour before PROM occurrence (Ph1), out of labour with PROM (Ph2), and during labour with PROM (Ph3). GC-MS analysis, followed by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, was able to discriminate among the different classes, highlighting the metabolites most involved in the discrimination. PMID:29511388

  1. Study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Fukuoka, Noboru; Honda, Makoto; Kondo, Tadashi; Morishima, Kouichi; Okada, Moritami; Nakagawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    The production of point defects induced by reactor and the thermal behavior of defects in sintered AlN and c-BN have been investigated using the optical absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods. The absorption band at 370 nm (AlN) and the structureless absorption over the visible region are observed. These specimens also show ESR signals with g-value 2.007 (AlN), 2.006 (BN), which are probably caused by N vacancies with a trapped electron. In addition to these experiments, the difference of the photoluminescence(PL) lines on neutron irradiated CZ-Si and FZ-Si has been also studied. The models of the defect associated with neutron irradiation are discussed. (author)

  2. The Effectiveness of Hypnosis Intervention for Labor: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis has been shown to help pregnant women experience improved labor and postpartum periods. The present study compares the differences between experimental (n = 23) and control groups (n = 22) on specific variables measured both during labor and 24 hr postpartum. The participants in the experimental group received the hypnosis intervention at weeks 16, 20, 28, and 36 of pregnancy, while those in the control group received only routine antenatal care. The data collected at the labor stage describe the length of the labor stage, pain relief used during labor, the method of delivery, and the type of assisted vaginal delivery. Within 24 hr of delivery, data on neonatal birth weight, neonatal Apgar scores, and self-reported pain were obtained. The labor stage results showed no significant differences in the length of the second and third stages of labor. Although the participants in the experimental group reported higher pain levels immediately prior to, during, and immediately after delivery, their use of pethidine during labor was significantly lower than the control group participants. None of the experimental group participants opted for an epidural, and they had a greater number of assisted vaginal deliveries than the control group participants. The 24 hr postpartum results showed that the neonates of the experimental group participants had nonsignificantly higher Apgar scores than those of the women in the control group. Group differences in neonatal weight were not significant. The results of the present study indicate that hypnosis is useful for assisting pregnant women during labor and the postpartum period.

  3. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  4. Biological and psychosocial effects of space travel: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Robert Edward Tien Ming

    This dissertation interviewed a single astronaut to explore psychosocial issues relevant to long-duration space travel and how these issues relate to the astronaut's training. It examined the psychological impact of isolation, crew interaction, and the experience of microgravity with the goal of increasing understanding of how to foster crew survivability and positive small group interactions in space (Santy, 1994). It also focused on how to develop possible treatments for crews when they transition back to Earth from the extreme environment of space missions. The astronaut's responses agreed with the literature and the predictions for long-duration space missions except the participant reported no temporary or permanent cognitive or memory deficits due to microgravity exposure. The dissertation identified five frequently endorsed themes including communication, environmental stressors, personal strengths, un-researched problems, and other. The agreement found between the literature and astronaut's responses offer a strong foundation of questions and data that needs to be further studied before conducting research in space or long-duration space missions.

  5. A study into the effectiveness of unqualified GP assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Marilyn; Turnbull, Betty

    This article aims to address the potential shortfall in care provision offered by general practitioners (GPs) resulting from pending retirement and the retention and recruitment crisis. An educational module was developed that offered both theory and practise to unqualified general practice assistants. The module content was determined following discussion with local GPs. A small qualitative study of six students was carried out to review efficacy of participants in their new role. Using a grounded theory approach, participant and supervisor views of course content and delivery, role preparation diversity were analysed and compared. Tape-recorded interviews were conducted and analysis carried out employing the constant comparative method. Data were coded and emergent themes categorized. Overall, participants agreed that the module had strengthened their knowledge, added new skills, heightened their job satisfaction, added significant diversity to their role and enhanced their employability potential. Five participants communicated that they were more confident in performing clinical skills and advising health improvement techniques. Supervisors also reported that participants displayed a more competent and professional approach to health care, which was complementary to the role of the GP and practice nurse. Ultimately this allowed both GP and practice nurse to focus on dealing with chronic illness targets, as required in the new directive (Scottish Executive, 2004).

  6. Bystander effect studies using heavy-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Wada, Seiichi; Yokota, Yuichiro; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Hara, Takamitsu; Fukamoto, Kana; Suzuki, Michiyo; Ni, M.; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    We have established a single cell irradiation system, which allows selected cells to be individually hit with defined number of heavy charged particles, using a collimated heavy-ion microbeam apparatus at JAEA-Takasaki. This system has been developed to study radiobiological processes in hit cells and bystander cells exposed to low dose and low dose-rate high-LET radiations, in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad-field exposures. Individual cultured cells grown in special dishes were irradiated in the atmosphere with a single or defined numbers of 18.3 MeV/amu 12 C, 13.0 or 17.5 MeV/amu 20 Ne, and 11.5 MeV/amu 40 Ar ions. Targeting and irradiation of the cells were performed automatically according to the positional data of the target cells microscopically obtained before irradiation. The actual number of particle tracks that pass through target cells was detected with prompt etching of the bottom of the cell dish made of ion track detector TNF-1 (modified CR-39). (author)

  7. Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Shear on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Guensch, Greg R.

    2000-09-20

    The overall objective of our studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish's tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system, in other words, determining or assuming that those conditions known to injure fish will provide the descriptions of conditions that engineers must consider in the design of a turbine system. These biological specifications must be carefully and thoroughly documented throughout the design of a fish friendly turbine. To address the development of biological specifications, we designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response.

  8. Molecular dynamics studies of radiation effects in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Caturla, M.J.; Tobin, M.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss results of molecular dynamics computer simulation studies of 3 keV and 5 keV displacement cascades in β-SIC, and compare them to results of 5 keV cascades in pure silicon. The SiC simulations are performed with the Tersoff potential. For silicon we use the Stillinger-Weber potential. Simulations were carried out for Si recoils in 3 dimensional cubic computational cells With periodic boundary conditions and up to 175,616 atoms. The cascade lifetime in SiC is found to be extremely short. This, combined with the high melting temperature of SiC, precludes direct lattice amorphization during the cascade. Although large disordered regions result, these retain their basic crystalline structure. These results are in contrast with observations in pure silicon where direct-impact amorphization from the cascade is seen to take place. The SiC results also show anisotropy in the number of Si and C recoils as well as in the number of replacements in each sublattice. Details of the damage configurations obtained will be discussed

  9. Modality effects in implicit artificial grammar learning: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Folia, Vasiliki; Inácio, Filomena; Castro, São Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2018-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed that sequence learning engages a combination of modality-specific operating networks and modality-independent computational principles. In the present study, we compared the behavioural and EEG outcomes of implicit artificial grammar learning in the visual vs. auditory modality. We controlled for the influence of surface characteristics of sequences (Associative Chunk Strength), thus focusing on the strictly structural aspects of sequence learning, and we adapted the paradigms to compensate for known frailties of the visual modality compared to audition (temporal presentation, fast presentation rate). The behavioural outcomes were similar across modalities. Favouring the idea of modality-specificity, ERPs in response to grammar violations differed in topography and latency (earlier and more anterior component in the visual modality), and ERPs in response to surface features emerged only in the auditory modality. In favour of modality-independence, we observed three common functional properties in the late ERPs of the two grammars: both were free of interactions between structural and surface influences, both were more extended in a grammaticality classification test than in a preference classification test, and both correlated positively and strongly with theta event-related-synchronization during baseline testing. Our findings support the idea of modality-specificity combined with modality-independence, and suggest that memory for visual vs. auditory sequences may largely contribute to cross-modal differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of stream flow effects on bubble motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of air bubbles at constant-pressure by submerged orifices was investigated in both quiescent and moving streams inside a vertical tube. Parameters affecting the bubble rise velocity, such as bubble generating frequency and diameter, were studied and analyzed for bubbles rising in a chain and homogeneous mixture. A special technique for measuring bubble motion parameters has been developed, tested, and employed throughout the experimental investigation. The method is based on a water-air impedance variation. Results obtained in stagnant liquid show that increasing the bubble diameter serves to increase bubble rise velocity, while an opposite trend has been observed for stream liquid where the bubble diameter increase reduces the bubble rise velocity. The increase of bubble generation frequency generally increases the bubble rise velocity. Experimental data covered with bubble radial distribution showed symmetrical profiles of bubble velocity and frequency, and the radial distribution of the velocity profiles sometimes has two maxima and one minimum depending on the liquid velocity. Finally, in stagnant liquid, a normalized correlation has been developed to predict the terminal rise velocity in terms of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, single bubble rise velocity, and conduit dimensions. Another correlation is presented for forced bubbly flow, where the bubble rise velocity is expressed as a function of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, and water superficial velocity

  11. Water hammer and its effect on ageing: an analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedia, Suruchi

    2006-01-01

    Water hammer can be disastrous from the point of view of ageing of the pipe(s)/Piping system. Design of restraints and protection devices for the various piping systems must consider severe stresses that may generate because of fluid transients. These fluid transients are termed as water hammer when it is restricted to water. But to have limited margins on the stress loads of piping system it is very important to predict the actual dimensions of the stresses. This paper covers various causes and analyses of the situations under which water hammer waves get generated and also way(s) to have control on occurrences of such situations. Few case studies are also covered showing the results and graphs of the stress waves generated because of water hammer. Effort has also been made in the paper in the direction to find out the methodology to compute the ageing of the system because of water hammer waves. Further in this paper an attempt is made to show the systematic methodology towards the diagnosis of water hammer that can be treated as a foundation stone for the creation of water hammer diagnosis system. Active measures to minimize the water hammer intensity by influencing fluid dynamic conditions of the system will also be suggested. Finally the paper will present the ageing aspects because of the stresses that generate due to water hammer. (author)

  12. [Study on relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on pain treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jianfeng; Li, Tao; Du, Zhi; Song, Jichang

    2011-12-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of Alginate-Polylysine-Alginate (APA) microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on the treatment of pain model rats. Using a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy, the antinociceptive effects of APA microencapsulated bovine cells transplanted into the subarachnoid space was evaluated by cold allodynia test and hot hyperalgesia test. Compared with control group, the withdrawal difference with cell number 50 thousands groups, 100 thousands groups and 200 thousands groups was reduced (P APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells which were transplanted to treat pain model rats, and the effective antinociception remained longer than 12 weeks.

  13. Multiple peer effects in the diffusion of innovations on social networks: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Hang; Wang, Puqing; Bobashev, Georgiy

    2018-01-01

    Peer effects in innovation adoption decisions have been extensively studied. However, the underlying mechanisms of peer effects are generally not explicitly accounted for. Gaps in this knowledge could lead to misestimation of peer effects and inefficient interventions. This study examined the role of two mechanisms—sharing experiences (namely, experience effect) and externalities—in the adoption of an agricultural innovation. By referring to the diffusion process of a new crop in Chinese vill...

  14. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Gontiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL® as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm. Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week. At 4 th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6 th and 12 th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant.

  15. Study Abroad and the Boomerang Effect: The End Is Only the Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexeisen, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    As research on the effectiveness of study abroad programs continues to evolve, the author notes a gradual shift in focus from "Is study abroad effective?" to "What can be done to improve the quality of the study abroad experience?" (e.g., Pederson, 2010; Shaheen, 2004). The author writes that he believes this broadened…

  16. How long do news framing effects last? A systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of experimental studies investigate the duration of news framing effects. This article presents a systematic review of the theoretical premises, experimental designs, and individual-level moderators in these studies. Our results suggest that most studies report effects that persist

  17. Effects of Study and Self-reward Skills Counselling on Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reward skills counselling on students' study behaviour. It was also intended to ascertain the influence of gender on the study behaviour of participants in the experimental and control groups. Two null hypotheses were formulated.

  18. What You Measure Is What You Get. The Effects of Accounting Standards Effects Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.; Gross, C.

    2012-01-01

    The UK's Accounting Standards Board and the European Financial Reporting Advisory Group have published a discussion paper entitled 'Considering the Effects of Accounting Standards'. While the effort to think through potential consequences of proposed regulatory acts in advance is welcome, we argue

  19. Studies of relativistic effects with radioastron space mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review we discuss possible studies of GR phenomena such as gravitational microlensing and shadow analysis with the forthcoming RadioAstron space mission. It is well-known that gravitational lensing is a powerful tool in the investigation of the distribution of matter, including that of dark matter (DM. Typical angular distances between images and typical time scales depend on the gravitational lens masses. For the microlensing, angular distances between images or typical astrometric shifts are about 10-5 – 10-6 as1. Such an angular resolution will be reached with the space-ground VLBI interferometer, Radioastron. The basic targets for microlensing searches should be bright point-like radio sources at cosmological distances. In this case, an analysis of their variability and a reliable determination of microlensing could lead to an estimation of their cosmological mass density. Moreover, one could not exclude the possibility that non-baryonic dark matter could also form microlenses if the corresponding optical depth were high enough. It is known that in gravitationally lensed systems, the probability (the optical depth to observe microlensing is relatively high; therefore, for example, such gravitationally lensed objects, like CLASS gravitational lens B1600+434, appear the most suitable to detect astrometric microlensing, since features of photometric microlensing have been detected in these objects. However, to directly resolve these images and to directly detect the apparent motion of the knots, the Radioastron sensitivity would have to be improved, since the estimated flux density is below the sensitivity threshold, alternatively, they may be observed by increasing the integration time, assuming that a radio source has a typical core - jet structure and microlensing phenomena are caused by the superluminal apparent motions of knots. In the case of a confirmation (or a disproval of claims about microlensing in grav­itational lens

  20. Effective Drinking Water Pricing, A Case Study of Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedhosein Sajjadifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water pricing is a major challenge facing the water and wastewater industry in Iran where decisions of water pricing are essentially based on social, legal, administrative, and financial criteria with only a slight heed, if any, paid to economic considerations. Generally speaking, the price of water in Iran reflects a percentage fraction of the costs of water production and distribution while an economterically efficient model of water pricing is absent. This failure to account for economic considerations in water pricing has turned water into a commodity supplied either at a very low price or free of charge in cases. The current situation of water scarcity which is complicated by a multitude of environmental problems can only be ascribed to the present water pricing policies. It is, therefore, essential for the water sector to employ economic tools, adopt relevant approaches, and execute optimized strategic policies in an attempt to reduce the negative impacts of the imminent water crisis. Based on the above considerations, the present study was designed to investigate and review optimal water pricing policies at Arak Water and Wastewater Authority which functions as a business offering both domestic and non-domestic water services. The cost function considered is a translog one and the seemingly unrelated regressions are used for estimation. Results show that the domestic water price levied from customers covers only 33% of the total production and delivery costs such that Arak Water & Wastewater Authority practices the economy of scale in producing both domestic and non-domestic water. Considering the fact that pricing based on the marginal cost under the conditions of economy of scale leads to financial losses for Arak W&W Authority, it seems appropriate to calculate the second best price as suggested by Frank Ramsey. Thus, the marginal cost was combined with the price elasticity for the domestic water demand in the different