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Sample records for canyon disposal site

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992)

  2. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango. Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains comments made by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission upon their review of the Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Responses to the comments are also included in the document

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references

  5. Atlantic 3800-meter radioactive waste disposal site survey (1978): sedimentary, micromorphologic and geophysical analyses. Final report. [Hudson Canyon channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanselman, D.H.; Ryan, W.B.F.

    1983-06-01

    During the period of 22-28 July, 1978, five dives were made in the manned submersible ALVIN into the Atlantic Ocean 3800 meter depth radioactive waste disposal site located in the Hudson Canyon channel approximately 320 kilometers from the Maryland-Delaware coast. A geological description of the site was made by direct examination of the bottom topography, bedrock exposures, sedimentary and erosional processes, and sediment cores collected from the dumpsite area. Observations within a depth range of 3985-3830 meters revealed angular blocks and piles of displaced channel wall rock, boulder and cobble olistoliths of Eocene-age chalks derived from higher elevations on the slope, and bedforms such as ripples and scour marks which imply the existence of periodic strong currents. Local benthic fauna were sparse. Three low-level radioactive waste drums were examined from the submersible, and one was subsequently recovered for corrosion, and concrete deterioration analyses. Photographic and visual evidence suggest that downslope transport of objects such as talus blocks, olistoliths, and radioactive waste drums has occurred in this area.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project's burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer

  8. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  9. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project's long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03

  11. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Before each disposal cell is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  13. Geochemical characterization of geologic materials beneath the proposed Burro Canyon uranium mill tailing disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic materials from beneath the proposed Burro Canyon uranium mill tailings disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado, were characterized to determine hydraulic and geochemical properties. These parameters are crucial to predict if uranium mill tailings leachate represents a potential threat to underlying groundwater resources. Batch tests were conducted to determine the reactivity of geologic materials with respect to molybdenum, selenium, and uranium. Distribution coefficients for Se, Mo, and U are less than 1, indicating low attenuation. Analysis of the -2 μ fraction of the Burro Canyon Formation mudstone indicates that illites and glauconite are the major phases with minor montmorillonite and kaolinite. Adsorption of Mo, Se, and U onto clay minerals as a mechanism of attenuation is discussed. (author)

  14. Remedial action at the Acid/Pueblo Canyon site, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Acid/Pueblo Canyon site (TA-45) was designated in 1976 for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). During the period 1943 to 1964 untreated and treated liquid wastes generated by nuclear weapons research activities at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were discharged into the two canyons. A survey of the site conducted by LASL in 1976 to 1977 identified two areas where radiological contamination exceeded criteria levels. The selected remedial action was based on extensive radiological characterization and comprehensive engineering assessments and comprised the excavation and disposal of 390 yd3 of contaminated soil and rock. This document describes the background to the remedial action, the parties involved in administering and executing it, the chronology of the work, verification of the adequacy of the remedial action, and the cost incurred. 14 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  15. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  16. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Hanford site grout disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) completed processing and disposal of an initial 3,800 m3 of radioactive waste from the Hanford site's double-shell tanks (DSTs) on July 11, 1989. For the first time in the Hanford site's 46-yr history, tank wastes resulting from weapons-grade plutonium production were moved out of liquid storage and converted into a solid for environmentally safe disposal. In addition to the 3,800 m3 of nonhazardous, low-level waste processed in 1988 and 1989, ∼ 163,000 m3 of mixed waste will be treated for disposal between 1992 and 2013. These low-level wastes are radioactive, concentrated salt solutions classified as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and dangerous by the Washington State Department of Ecology. As feed for the grouting process they contain ∼ 11% sodium nitrate, 6% sodium hydroxide, 5% sodium nitrite, 3% sodium aluminate, 1% sodium phosphate, 0.5% sodium chloride, and 73% water. Many radionuclides are present, although 137Cs contributes more than 99% of the 0.3 Ci/l activity. From a long-term performance assessment standpoint, nitrate, 99Tc, and 129I are the primary contaminants of concern

  18. Radioactive wastes, disposal sites wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two towns that were selected by the French government to home a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes, have withdrawn their bid. ANDRA (French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) attributes this withdrawal to the unbearable pressure made by the opponents on the city councils despite the public information meetings that were held in the 2 cities. The selection rules included the presence of clay layers with a thickness of at least 50 m, the absence of seismic activity and zones containing exploitable resources like petroleum or metal ores were barred in order to avoid future unexpected drilling. (A.C.)

  19. Environmenal analysis of the Bayo Canyon (TA-10) Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Hansen, W.R.

    1982-05-01

    The radiological survey of the old TA-10 site in Bayo Canyon found low levels of surface contamination in the vicinity of the firing sites and subsurface contamination in the old waste disposal area. The three alternatives proposed for the site are: (1) to take no action; (2) to restrict usage of the area of subsurface contamination to activities that cause no subsurface disturbance (minimal action); and (3) to remove the subsurface conamination to levels below the working criteria. Dose calculations indicate that doses from surface contamination for recreational users of the canyon, permanent residents, and construction workers and doses for workers involved in excavation of contaminated soil under the clean up alternative are only small percentages of applicable guidelines. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is small, especially considering that the area already has been affected by the original TA-10 decommissioning action, but nevertheless, the preferred alternative is the minimal action alternative, where 0.6 hectare of land is restricted to surface activities. This leaves the rest of the canyon available for development with up to 400 homes. The restricted area can be used for a park, tennis courts, etc., and the /sup 90/Sr activity will decay to levels permitting unrestricted usage in about 160 y.

  20. Environmenal analysis of the Bayo Canyon (TA-10) Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological survey of the old TA-10 site in Bayo Canyon found low levels of surface contamination in the vicinity of the firing sites and subsurface contamination in the old waste disposal area. The three alternatives proposed for the site are: (1) to take no action; (2) to restrict usage of the area of subsurface contamination to activities that cause no subsurface disturbance (minimal action); and (3) to remove the subsurface conamination to levels below the working criteria. Dose calculations indicate that doses from surface contamination for recreational users of the canyon, permanent residents, and construction workers and doses for workers involved in excavation of contaminated soil under the clean up alternative are only small percentages of applicable guidelines. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is small, especially considering that the area already has been affected by the original TA-10 decommissioning action, but nevertheless, the preferred alternative is the minimal action alternative, where 0.6 hectare of land is restricted to surface activities. This leaves the rest of the canyon available for development with up to 400 homes. The restricted area can be used for a park, tennis courts, etc., and the 90Sr activity will decay to levels permitting unrestricted usage in about 160 y

  1. Noise source emissions, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity, from site preparation through the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) and repository construction and operation, and decommissioning. Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided by Bechtel National, Inc. Use of the quietest equipment available within the proven state of the art was assumed, as was the use of acoustical enclosures to the extent practical. The programmatic assumptions are based on the noise-sensitive nature of the Canyonlands National Park. Another feature of the data is the use of 1/3-octave-band rather than 1/1-octave-band resolution of emission spectra. This was done to permit evaluation of audibility of sounds reaching the park

  2. HANFORD CANYON DISPOSITION INITIATIVE (CDI). A BETTER SOLUTION TO AN EXPENSIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental cleanup that is occurring at most U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is going to be long and expensive. How expensive can really only be answered when cleanup paths forward have been identified, agreed to, and planned. In addition, all the major issues must have been identified. This also means being able to answer the question ''What about the waste?'' Where the waste goes and how it will be handled greatly affects the cost. However, within the mandatory safety and legal envelope, ingenuity can play a huge role in keeping the cost down, getting necessary decisions made earlier in the process, and being protective of the worker, public, and the environment. This paper examines how ingenuity addressed a cleanup action that had no agreed to and identified path forward and resulted in a decision made early that has spurred thinking on what to do with the other similar waste cleanup situations. The Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI) is an example of finding a better way to address a specific problem, getting agreement on a path forward, opening the options for waste disposal, and reducing the time line for final disposition. For the CDI, the challenge was whether an old inactive building designed for reprocessing and used for multiple missions during its lifetime could be economically and sufficiently characterized to satisfy and bring consensus among groups with vastly different view points. The CDI has actively involved members of various DOE offices (i.e., Waste Management, Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Facility Transition), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), and the three affected Tribal Nations. The ability to partner between these diverse groups has allowed the CDI to go from a concept, to a funded priority project, to a complete review of various alternatives, and finally to a proposed plan to demonstrate the wisdom of finding a

  3. Strontium concentrations in chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal area in Bayo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal site Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003(c) in Bayo Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were collected and analyzed for strontium (90Sr) and total uranium. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of 90Sr than a control plant -- one plant, in particular, contained 90, 500 pCi 90Sr g-1 ash in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained 90Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels; this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving 90Sr to the soil interspace area. Although some soil surface migration of 90Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of 90Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the Bayo Canyon/State Road 5 intersection was still within regional (background) concentrations

  4. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  5. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation

  6. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation.

  7. Atlantic ocean disposal sites: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts Development Incorporated (CDI) has reviewed the literature and summarized the environmental data base available for two possible waste disposal sites off the northeast coast of the United States. These sites include the 106-Mile Ocean Waste Disposal Site (DWD 106) located due east of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, and the Cape Hatteras Site (CHS). DWD 106 is now used for the disposal of industrial wastes. CHS was identified through a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) program to locate regions suitable for the marine disposal of large structures, within the exclusive economic zone of the United States (200 nautical miles or less from the coast), in deep (>4000m) water. DWD 106 has been the subject of EPA and NOAA environmental studies in conjunction with industrial waste disposal at the site, and CHS has been described by Hollister, Bruce and Chandler (1979) and considered in a study of dissolved contaminant dispersal by Kupferman and Moore (1981). The prime objective of this study was to identify and review published accounts of environmental studies pertaining to DWD 106 or CHS. A secondary objective was to identify studies conducted within the general region (taken to be the NW Atlantic) so that in cases where site-specific data are unavailable one could identify the nearest available data set of a given category. Additionally, some effort was directed toward assembling references which would aid in the characterization of waste contaminated with traces of natural radioactive material.This document presents literature search site characterization summary material; brief discussion of the result of the waste characterization review; and a listing of bibliographic references identified to date

  8. Sutton: Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California

    OpenAIRE

    Basgall, Mark E

    1987-01-01

    Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California Mark Q. Sutton. Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 9, 1986, 72 pp., 17 figures, 3 Appendices, $3.95 (paper).

  9. Nebraska files suit to block disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just when the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact thought things might be starting to go its way, the state of Nebraska, following instructions from Gov. Ben Nelson, has filed a new lawsuit to block development of an LLW disposal site within its borders. The suit maintains that the recently reconfigured proposed site (in which an area of wetlands was excluded) has not received open-quotes community consent,close quotes as required by state law; says that site developer, US Ecology, has not obtained county consent; and asks that the court permanently prevent development of any LLW site in Nebraska until community consent is demonstrated

  10. Neptunium Disposal to the Savannah River Site Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of an acidic neptunium solution from a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing canyon and the properties of the resulting slurry to determine the feasibility of disposal in the SRS tank farm. The acidic solution displayed no properties that precluded the proposed disposal route. Neutralization of the acidic neptunium forms a 4 wt per cent slurry of precipitated metal hydroxides. The insoluble solids consist largely of iron (92 per cent) and neptunium hydroxides (2 per cent). The concentration of soluble neptunium remaining after neutralization equaled much less than previous solubility measurements predicted. Researchers used an apparatus similar to an Ostwald-type viscometer to estimate the consistency of the neptunium slurry with the solids present. The yield stress and consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry will allow transfer through the tank farm, although concentration of the insoluble solids above 4 wt per cent may cause significant problems due to increased consistency and yield stress. The consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry is 7.6 centipoise (cP) with a yield stress less than 1 Pascal (Pa). The neptunium slurry, when combined with actual washed radioactive sludge, slightly reduces the yield stress and consistency of the sludge and produces a combined slurry with acceptable rheological properties for vitrification

  11. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanier, C.; Fabri, M.-C.; Buscail, R.; Biscara, L.; Koho, K.A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Cossa, D.; Galaup, S.; Chabaud, G.; Pigot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived minerals an

  12. HYDROGEOLOGY OF REFUSE DISPOSAL SITE JAKUŠEVAC (ZAGREB)

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Mayer; Zvonimir Markovac

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the aquifer and distribution of potentials in the area of refuse disposal site Jakuševac are described. Possible effects of disposal site on ground water quality are estimated (the paper is published in Croatian).

  13. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 105 m3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 1018 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90Sr, 99Tc, 137Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 104 m3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 1018Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  14. Lightning protection for the process canyons at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has performed Lightning Studies for the existing Process Canyons at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These studies were initiated to verify the lightning protection systems for the facilities and to compare the installations to the National Fire Protection (NFPA) Standard 780, Lighting Protection Code, 1992. The original study of the F-Canyon was initiated to develop answers to concerns raised by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB). Once this study was completed it was determined that a similar study for H-Canyon would be prudent; followed by an evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Vitrification Building (S-Canyon). This paper will provide an overview of the nature of lightning and the principals of lightning protection. This will provide the reader with a basic understanding of the phenomena of lighting and its potential for damaging structures, components, and injuring personnel in or near the structure

  15. Siting of near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The Safety Standards are supplemented by a number of Safety Guides and Safety Practices. This Safety Guide defines the site selection process and criteria for identifying suitable near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid wastes. Management of the siting process and data needed to apply the criteria are also specified. 4 refs

  16. Licensing plan for UMTRA project disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office developed a plan to define UMTRA Project licensing program objectives and establish a process enabling the DOE to document completion of remedial actions in compliance with 40 CFR 1 92 and the requirements of the NRC general license. This document supersedes the January 1987 Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1987). The plan summarizes the legislative and regulatory basis for licensing, identifies participating agencies and their roles and responsibilities, defines key activities and milestones in the licensing process, and details the coordination of these activities. This plan provides an overview of the UMTRA Project from the end of remedial actions through the NRC's acceptance of a disposal site under the general license. The licensing process integrates large phases of the UMTRA Project. Other programmatic UMTRA Project documents listed in Section 6.0 provide supporting information

  17. Late Holocene earthquake history of the Brigham City segment of the Wasatch fault zone at the Hansen Canyon, Kotter Canyon, and Pearsons Canyon trench sites, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; McDonald, Greg N.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Of the five central segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) having evidence of recurrent Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes, the Brigham City segment (BCS) has the longest elapsed time since its most recent surface-faulting event (~2.1 kyr) compared to its mean recurrence time between events (~1.3 kyr). Thus, the BCS has the highest time-dependent earthquake probability of the central WFZ. We excavated trenches at three sites––the Kotter Canyon and Hansen Canyon sites on the north-central BCS and Pearsons Canyon site on the southern BCS––to determine whether a surface-faulting earthquake younger than 2.1 ka occurred on the BCS. Paleoseismic data for Hansen Canyon and Kotter Canyon confirm that the youngest earthquake on the north-central BCS occurred before 2 ka, consistent with previous north-central BCS investigations at Bowden Canyon and Box Elder Canyon. At Hansen Canyon, the most recent earthquake is constrained to 2.1–4.2 ka and had 0.6–2.5 m of vertical displacement. At Kotter Canyon, we found evidence for two events at 2.5 ± 0.3 ka and 3.5 ± 0.3 ka, with an average displacement per event of 1.9–2.3 m. Paleoseismic data from Pearsons Canyon, on the previously unstudied southern BCS, indicate that a post-2 ka earthquake ruptured this part of the segment. The Pearsons Canyon earthquake occurred at 1.2 ± 0.04 ka and had 0.1–0.8 m of vertical displacement, consistent with our observation of continuous, youthful scarps on the southern 9 km of the BCS having 1–2 m of late Holocene(?) surface offset. The 1.2-ka earthquake on the southern BCS likely represents rupture across the Weber–Brigham City segment boundary from the penultimate Weber-segment earthquake at about 1.1 ka. The Pearsons Canyon data result in a revised length of the BCS that has not ruptured since 2 ka (with time-dependent probability implications), and provide compelling evidence of at least one segment-boundary failure and multi-segment rupture on the central WFZ. Our

  18. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  19. Logs and completion data for water and mass balance wells in Mortandad and Ten Site Canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium

  20. 40 CFR 228.9 - Disposal site monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that changes in frequency or scope are necessary or desirable, trend assessment and baseline surveys... FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.9 Disposal site monitoring. (a) The... appropriate, may include baseline or trend assessment surveys by EPA, NOAA, other Federal agencies,...

  1. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  2. Deep Submarine Tailings Disposal (DSTP) the Proposed Use of Submarine Canyons and Artificial Turbidity Currents for the Disposal of Mine Waste: Current Practice, Future Plans, and Cumulative Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Moran, R.

    2015-12-01

    The wastes from mining operations ( tailings) have been disposed of in the fluvial environment (riverine disposal) and in nearshore marine environments for much of the last century. The scale of modern mining operations has led to increasing use of steep slopes and submarine canyons for deposition of these wastes at depths of 2000m - 4000m. Current mine disposal operations in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea which use Deep Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) release volumes between 5000 tpd and 160,000 tpd. Planning is underway by the"Consortium," an industry and government group in Chile which would deposit mine waste of 1M tpd into the Humbolt Current Large Marine Ecosystem (HCLME) which provides nearly 20% of the fish biomass harvested on a sustainable basis worldwide. Underwater pipelines discharge tailings as a slurry to create a continuous artificial turbidity current with particle size distribtions (PSD's) ranging from sand to clay sized fractions. Potential problems arise from benthic smothering, angular particulate uptake by benthic organisms, and from the bioaccumulation of a complex of heavy metals by both benthic and pelagic species. While much is known about the binding of copper and other toxic heavy metals in a reducing environment, little has been done to consider the implications of ocean dumping where 1% of tailings discharged may consist of unrecovered heavy metals. Synergistic cumulative impacts to just the HCLME from the dumping of the more than 3M tpy of reactive metals in these tailings sediments remains unknown and poses substantial risks. DSTP assumes a stable deep sea depositional environment but upwelling currents and plume shear may make this hard to accomplish.

  3. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, C; Fabri, M-C; Buscail, R; Biscara, L; Koho, K; Reichart, G J; Cossa, D; Galaup, S; Chabaud, G; Pigot, L

    2012-09-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived minerals and various amorphous phases. At the shallowest station located very close to the pipe outlet, the benthic living foraminiferal community is characterised by a very low diversity and by an unusual dominance of Gyroidina umbonata and Bulimina marginata. The mechanical stress related to downslope transport of red mud is a likely source of hydro-sedimentary pollution precluding the settlement of diverse fauna. The living and dead foraminiferal faunas from the deepest site are typical of oligo-mesotrophic conditions prevailing in natural environments. There, bauxite residues have obviously no environmental impact on foraminiferal faunas. The bioavailability of trace metals is likely low as elemental enrichments were not observed in foraminiferal test chemistry. PMID:22795490

  4. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived minerals and various amorphous phases. At the shallowest station located very close to the pipe outlet, the benthic living foraminiferal community is characterised by a very low diversity and by an unusual dominance of Gyroidina umbonata and Bulimina marginata. The mechanical stress related to downslope transport of red mud is a likely source of hydro-sedimentary pollution precluding the settlement of diverse fauna. The living and dead foraminiferal faunas from the deepest site are typical of oligo-mesotrophic conditions prevailing in natural environments. There, bauxite residues have obviously no environmental impact on foraminiferal faunas. The bioavailability of trace metals is likely low as elemental enrichments were not observed in foraminiferal test chemistry.

  5. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  6. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  7. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  8. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  9. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites Remedial Action Program: radiological survey of the Bayo Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portion of Bayo Canyon, located in Los Alamos County in north-central New Mexico, was used between 1944 and 1961 as a site for experiments employing conventional high explosives in conjunction with research on nuclear weapons development. Radiochemistry operations conducted at the site resulted in the generation of liquid and solid radioactive wastes, which were disposed into subsurface pits and leaching fields. The site was decommissioned by 1963. The resurvey utilized information from a number of routine and special environmental surveillance studies as well as extensive new instrumental measurements, soil sampling, and radiochemical analyses. Results showed that residual surface contamination due to 90Sr averaged about 1.4 pCi/g or approximately 3 times the level attributable to worldwide fallout. Surface uranium averaged about 4.9 μg/g or about 1.5 times the amount naturally present in the volcanic-derived soils of the area. Subsurface contamination associated with the former waste disposal locations is largely confined within a total area of about 10,000 m2 and down to depths of about 5 m. Of 378 subsurface samples, fewer than 12% exceeded 13 pCi/g of gross beta activity, which is comparable to the upper range of activities for uncontaminated local soils. Health physics interpretation of the data indicates that the present population of Los Alamos living on mesas adjacent to Bayo Canyon is not receiving any incremental radiation doses due to the residual contamination. Potential future land uses of Bayo Canyon include development of a residential area

  10. Environmental radiohygienic surveillance of the Hungarian central radwaste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioactive waste disposal facility needs to be controlled by a regulatory authority monitoring program beyond the operator's one. In Hungary, at the central disposal facility the environmental monitoring program has been carried out by both the operator and the authority from the beginning of operations at the disposal site. In the last few years, an environmental surveillance program was developed by the Radiohygienic Network in order to detect any abnormal situation at the disposal facility related to the release of radionuclide with high probability and to get more input data for the assessment of the population dose. According to the data obtained in the monitoring program, it can be stated that radionuclides have not been significantly released from the disposal site. However, a potential problem was detected because tritium has been measured at above background concentrations in rainwater collectors

  11. Site evaluation for disposal facilities in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the various geoscientific investigations are not finished yet, the results so far show that the Konrad mine has some outstanding geological features as required for a safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The iron ore formation is extremely dry. Seepage water is no threat to the waste disposal operation and the repository itself. The construction of stable underground storage rooms which are sufficiently seized in volume is possible. Galleries containing wastes in drums or contaminated components can be refilled and sealed efficiently as well as the rest of the mine including the two shafts. Thereafter the geological containment with its favourable structure and ideal petrology will be an effective barrier against the contamination of the biosphere. As investigated this applies in particular to the low-active wastes with their specific nuclide inventory and the short decay time. (orig.)

  12. Sediment characteristics of the 2800 meter Atlantic nuclear waste disposal site: Radionuclide retention potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    coast funnel sediment into the Hudson Canyon and turbidity currents transport sediment down the submarine canyon; some of this sediment is advected in a southwesterly direction from the submarine canyon by contour currents for deposition along the continental rise. The net deposition at the waste site thus consists of the 'rain' of biogenous microorganisms, the transport of sediment from the coastal and continental shelf area by turbidity currents via submarine canyons, and transport of sediment along the continental rise by prevailing contour currents. The effectiveness of the sediment barrier relates to timely burial of the waste drum prior to leachate release from ruptured or corroded drums as well as freedom from 'short circuiting' effects such as bioturbation or other mechanisms capable of providing migration pathways for the radionuclides. (author)

  13. United Kingdom: Development of the Drigg LLW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site, which is the UK's principal facility for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. This section describes the development of the Drigg site to date, in particular the upgrading of the site in the late 1980s and early 1990s, which centred around the phasing out of disposal into trenches and the introduction of a revised waste form and disposal into engineered vaults. The Drigg site is located on the West Cumbrian coast about 0.5 km inland and some 6 km to the southeast of the Sellafield site. The site was originally developed in 1939 as a Royal ordnance factory and some of the surface features date from this period. Ownership of the site subsequently passed to the Atomic Energy Authority, which was granted planning consent in 1957 for the disposal of LLW in the northern 40 ha of the site, referred to as the 'consented area'. In 1987 a major upgrade of disposal operations at the Drigg site commenced with the principal aims of improving waste management practices and the efficiency of space utilization, and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. This article first describes the interim cap and cut-off wall associated with the trenches and the upgrade to the leachate management system. The basis for the revised disposal strategy and associated waste form of high force compacted, containerized and grouted waste is then discussed, followed by a description of vault 8. The upgrading to the new waste form of some of the wastes initially placed in vault 8 and the retrieval of the PCM wastes currently stored at the Drigg site are then briefly discussed. Development has taken place from tipping of wastes into trenches to the orderly emplacement of compacted, containerized and grouted wastes in engineered vaults. Future operational facilities will consist of a series of vaults within the consented area. In the longer term, engineering measures associated with the eventual closure of the

  14. Hydrogeological characteristics of the LILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) conducted site investigations for a low and intermediate-level nuclear waste repository in the Gyeong Ju site. The site characterization work constitutes a description of the site, its regional setting and the current state of the geosphere and biosphere. The main objectives of hydrogeological investigation aimed to understand the hydrogeological setting and conditions of the site, and to provide the input parameters for safety evaluation. The hydrogeological characterization of the site was performed from the results of surface based investigations, i.e geological mapping and analysis, drilling works and hydraulic testing, and geophysical survey and interpretation. The hydro-structural model based on the hydrogeological characterization consists of one-Hydraulic Soil Domain, three-Hydraulic Rock Domains and five-Hydraulic Conductor Domains. The hydrogeological framework and the hydraulic values provided for each hydraulic unit over a relevant scale were used as the baseline for the conceptualization and interpretation of flow modeling. The current hydrogeological characteristics based on the surface based investigation include some uncertainties resulted from the basic assumption of investigation methods and field data. Therefore, the reassessment of hydrostructure model and hydraulic properties based on the field data obtained during the construction is necessitated for a final hydrogeological characterization.

  15. Preparations for Mixed Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is preparing for the receipt and disposal of low-level mixed waste (MV) generated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The NTS maintains and develops disposal locations to accommodate various waste forms, and is engaged in developing verification and handling processes to ensure proper acceptance and disposal. Operations at the RWMC are focused on ensuring future disposal needs can be accommodated with a maximum benefit to risk ratio. This paper addresses the programmatic developments implemented at the NTS to accommodate the receipt, verification, and disposal of MW. The Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP) has incorporated aspects of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) into the Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The verification program includes statistical sampling components that take into account waste form, program reliability, and other factors. The WAP allows for a conglomerate of verification techniques including visual examination, non-destructive examination, and chemical screening ensuring compliance with the NTSWAC. The WAP also provides for the acceptance of MW with most U.S. Environmental Protection Agency waste codes. The MW sent to the NTS for disposal must meet Land-Disposal Restriction standards. To support the verification processes outlined in the WAP, a Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) facility was constructed. Using a 450 keV, 5-mA tube-head system with a bridge and manipulator assembly, MW packages can undergo non-destructive examination (x-ray) at the RWMC. Prior to the NTS accepting the waste shipment, standard waste boxes, drums, and nominally sized bulk items can be manipulated on a cart and examined directly or skewed in real-time to ensure compliance with NTSWAC requirement s An existing MW disposal cell at the RWMC has been tailored to meet the requirements of a Category 2 non-reactor Nuclear Facility. In retrofitting an existing

  16. Determination of optimum alternative low-level radioactive waste disposal site/disposal technology combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is developed and demonstrated to determine a numerical figure of merit (FOM) by which alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal sites and disposal technologies can be evaluated. The FOM is an arbitrarily selected nominal value, representative of the societal value of products associated with the LLRW, modified by the positive and negative impacts of waste disposal. Impacts considered include radiological health effects, transportation accidents, disposal and transportation economics, and user-specified socioeconomic factors. All impacts are converted to an economic basis via a user-specified value of life to allow a common basis of comparison. A demonstration of the methodology evaluates the 1984 Pennsylvania LLRW source team in 24 cases, 2 general locations, 3 soil types, and 4 disposal technologies (Part 61 trench, above-ground vault, below-ground vault, and grouted trench or engineered container). Costs derived for each case in 1984 dollars range from $1990 to 1090/m/sup 3/ ($28 to 31/ft/sup 3/). Uniform criteria applied to each case assume a linear loss of containment and structural stability for LLRW in a waste cell. Radiological pathways are primarily a function of the site and generally show little or no dependence on the disposal technology

  17. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above-grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater, and or waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders

  18. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater) and on waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders. (author)

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  20. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as (1) a tool for disseminating information about LLW management, (2) a vehicle that can foster communication, and (3) a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  1. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  2. Impact of a waste disposal site on children physical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of health problems among population living close to landfills. We evaluated the impact of a municipal solid waste disposal site on children’s growth between 0-3 years of age. Methods: Children were selected in sites likely to receive dispersion of air compounds from the waste disposal site and also in a control area, in Cali, Colombia, in 2005. Anthropometric measures were obtained at enrollment and in two follow-up visits at 3 months intervals to obtain standardized z scores of weight for height (WHZ and height for age (HAZ. In addition, questionnaires including information of socio-economical conditions and morbidity were applied at enrolment and during follow-up visits. Results: Children exposed had on average 0.16 less standard deviations (SD in WHZ scores when compared to control group (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -0.34, 0.01. Among those who have lived >50% of their life in the study area, a significantly lower HAZ score was observed (-0.12 associated with exposure. Our data also suggest a larger effect of exposure to the waste disposal site in WHZ among children with symptoms of respiratory disease than among asymptomatic children (p=0.08. Conclusions: Exposure to this waste disposal site was found associated with lower children’s growth indexes.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Disposal Sites¦ Empirical Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Ishimura; Kenji Takeuchi

    2015-01-01

    This study is an empirical investigation of the location of industrial waste disposal sites in Japan. We found some evidence of spatial concentration of industrial waste disposal sites in area with other waste-related facilities. In addition, we found a higher number of industrial waste disposal sites per capita in municipalities that had not experienced conflict relating to the construction of disposal sites. Our results suggest that companies may decide to locate disposal sites in areas in ...

  4. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is to dispose of the waste in an underground vault, nominally at 500 m to 1000 m depth, at a suitable site in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The feasibility of this concept and assessments of its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented by AECL in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. It describes the approach and methods that would be used during the siting stage of the disposal project to identify a preferred candidate disposal site and to confirm its suitability for constructing a disposal facility. The siting stage is divided into two distinct but closely related substages, site screening and site evaluation. Site screening would mainly involve reconnaissance investigations of siting regions of the Shield to identify potential candidate areas where suitable vault locations are likely to exist. Site screening would identify a small number of candidate areas where further detailed investigations were warranted. Site evaluation would involve progressively more detailed surface and subsurface investigations of the candidate areas to first identify potentially suitable vault locations within the candidate areas, and then characterize these potential disposal sites to identify the preferred candidate location for constructing the disposal vault. Site evaluation would conclude with the construction of exploratory shafts and tunnels at the preferred vault location, and underground characterization would be done to confirm the suitability of the preferred candidate site. An integrated program of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical investigations would be implemented to obtain the geoscience information needed to assess the suitability of the candidate siting areas and candidate sites for locating a disposal vault. The candidate siting areas and candidate disposal vault sites would be

  5. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - basis for site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International organizations, e.g. IAEA, have published several recommendations and guides for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. There are three major groups of issues affecting the site selection process, i.e. geological, environmental and socioeconomic. The first step of the site selection process is an inventory of potential host rock formations. After that, potential study areas are screened to identify sites for detailed investigations, prior to geological conditions and overall suitability for the safe disposal. This kind of stepwise site selection procedure has been used in Finland and in Sweden. A similar approach has been proposed in Canada, too. In accordance with the amendment to the Nuclear Energy Act, that entered into force in the beginning of 1995, Imatran Voima Oy has to make preparations for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Relating to the possible site selection, the following geological factors, as internationally recommended and used in the Nordic countries, should be taken into account: topography, stability of bedrock, brokenness and fracturing of bedrock, size of bedrock block, rock type, predictability and natural resources. The bedrock of the Loviisa NPP site is a part of the Vyborg rapakivi massif. As a whole the rapakivi granite area forms a potential target area, although other rock types or areas cannot be excluded from possible site selection studies. (25 refs., 7 figs.)

  6. Considerations for alternative low-level radioactive disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the immediate future, there is a need for low-level radioactive disposal sites to accommodate wastes that would otherwise be placed at a later date in permanent, government sanctioned ''compact'' sites. Until these ''compact'' sites become operational, a potential, relatively low-cost alternative exists in the numerous inactive uranium processing sites that are likewise proposed for remedial action removal or stabilization operations. This paper addressed disposal from the aspects of engineering design, economics and liability of participating parties. Many uranium (and by-product) processing facilities in the western states now stand idle due to current economic conditions within the industry. Many more were previously deactivated for various reasons. All must be dealt with under the UMTRA Program Guidelines with regard to removal, reclamation or other remedial action activities. With cooperative efforts, some of these sites would appear to be suitable for disposal of small volume, low-level radioactive wastes that presently render urban properties valueless in terms of real estate and aesthetic values. Likely sites would appear to be those slated for in-place stabilization and reclamation, particularly where the urban property material has a lower level of radioactivity than the disposal site material. The resultant impacts for site stabilization and reclamation would be solely in the areas of increased material volumes (generally requiring a minimal increase in engineering design complexity) and liability. Clearly, liability will be the overriding factor in such an approach. With the complex hierarchy of regulatory agencies involved and the private sector, what appears to be a relative simple and economic approach may have extreme difficulty in achieving reality

  7. Atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the study of generation and dispersion of airborne radionuclide species from an hypothetical tailings disposal site. The radionuclides are followed along atmospheric dispersion pathways. Estimates of public radiation dose impact were made based on: 1) the behaviour of the hypothetical site and tailings; 2) atmospheric dispersion from such a site located in Northern Ontario. This, the 'Atmospheric Technical Appendix' describes important aspects of the atmospheric modelling process, and findings resulting from that process. It does not attempt to predict real radiation doses, or real atmospheric radionuclide dispersion patterns for any specific site whether existing or projected

  8. Chemical pretreatment of Savannah River Site nuclear waste for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes two processes, Extended Sludge Processing and In-Tank Precipitation, which have been developed and demonstrated at full-scale to pretreat the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste for permanent disposal. These processes will be carried out in waste storage tanks which have been modified for chemical processing. These processes will concentrate the radioactivity into a small volume for vitrification. The bulk of the waste will be sufficiently decontaminated such that it can be disposed of as a low-level waste. The decontaminated waste will be incorporated into a cement wasteform in the Saltstone Facility

  9. Techniques for site investigations for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides a more detailed description of the capabilities and applications of the various earth science investigation techniques outlined in the IAEA Technical Reports Series Nos. 177, 215 and 216. These methods are generally appropriate during at least one of the stages of the assessment or selection of a site for any type of waste disposal facility, in shallow ground or in deep geological formations. This report is addressed to technical authorities responsible for or involved in planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste disposal programmes. It may also help administrative authorities in this field to select appropriate techniques for obtaining the majority of the required information at minimum cost

  10. SeepC: Preliminary Characterization of Atlantic Margin Seep Ecosystems from Norfolk Canyon to New England Seep Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P. J.; Ball, B.; Cole, E.; LaBella, A.; Wagner, J.; Van Dover, C. L.; Skarke, A. D.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2013, more than 500 seep sites have been located along the continental margin of the eastern US using acoustic signals of gas plumes in the water column. During a July 2015 R/V Atlantis expedition, scientists used the submersible Alvin to explore seep sites at depths of 300 to 1500 m. Study sites ranged from Norfolk Canyon north to New England Seep 2 and included Baltimore, Veatch, and Shallop Canyon sites, as well as new unnamed sites between Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons. Mussels dominated the seep sites (cf ''Bathymodiolus'' childressi) but only small populations (invertebrate species at the newly explored seeps was the red crab, Chaceon sp. and the rock crab, Cancer sp. These crabs are not seep endemic but they were especially abundant at the seeps and were observed to feed and mate on the seep grounds. Molecular tools will be used to explore the genetic structure of mussel populations from Norfolk to New England seeps, and stable isotope methods will be used to test for differences among sites in the source of carbon used by mussels. Alvin video transects and photo-mosaics will be used to collect data on macrofauna associated with seeps and to test the hypothesis that shallow seeps (300-500m) support more diverse assemblages than deep sites (1000-1500m).

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  12. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  13. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  14. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  15. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  16. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO4) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques

  17. Impact of a waste disposal site on children physical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Ocampo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of health problems among population living close to landfills. We evaluated the impact of a municipal solid waste disposal site on children’s growth between 0-3 years of age.Methods: Children were selected in sites likely to receive dispersion of air compounds from the waste disposal site and also in a control area, in Cali, Colombia, in 2005. Anthropometric measures were obtained at enrollment and in two follow-up visits at 3 months intervals to obtain standardized z scores of weight for height (WHZ and height for age (HAZ. In addition, questionnaires including information of socio-economical conditions and morbidity were applied at enrolment and during follow-up visits.Results: Children exposed had on average 0.16 less standard deviations (SD in WHZ scores when compared to control group (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -0.34, 0.01. Among those who have lived >50% of their life in the study area, a significantly lower HAZ score was observed (-0.12 associated with exposure. Our data also suggest a larger effect of exposure to the waste disposal site in WHZ among children with symptoms of respiratory disease than among asymptomatic children (p=0.08.

  18. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, Yucca Mountain. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-04-01

    The following information is given about the various sites: location (state and county), terrain, climate, weather, endangered plants and animals; nearest town, population, nearest railway, nearest interstate highway, economy, density within 50 miles, owners, and historical sites. (LM)

  19. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, Yucca Mountain. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following information is given about the various sites: location (state and county), terrain, climate, weather, endangered plants and animals; nearest town, population, nearest railway, nearest interstate highway, economy, density within 50 miles, owners, and historical sites. (LM)

  20. 1994 Characterization report for the state approved land disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, L.C.

    1994-09-19

    This report summarizes the results of characterization activities at the proposed state-approved land disposal site (SALDS); it updates the original characterization report with studies completed since the first characterization report. The initial characterization report discusses studies from two characterization boreholes, 699-48-77A and 699-48-77B. This revision includes data from implementation of the Groundwater Monitoring Plan and the Aquifer Test Plan. The primary sources of data are two down-gradient groundwater monitoring wells, 699-48-77C and 699-48-77D, and aquifer testing of three zones in well 699-48-77C. The SALDS is located on the Hanford Site, approximately 183 m north of the 200 West Area on the north side of the 200 Areas Plateau. The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluents from the 200 Areas of Hanford.

  1. Unsaturated zone transport modeling of the Greater Confinement Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsaturated zone transport modeling is being conducted as part of the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility which is located on the Nevada Test Site. This performance assessment is based on an iterative process of modeling and data collection to assess the likelihood the site will meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's containment, individual protection and groundwater protection requirements for the disposal of transuranic wastes, high-level wastes and spent fuel. The current iteration of the performance assessment evaluates the potential impact of future events on the transport system. The future events included in this analysis are subsidence, bioturbation, erosion, climate change, irrigated farming and drilling. This paper presents the unsaturated transport model, how it fits into the performance assessment and how the future events are incorporated in the model

  2. 1994 Characterization report for the state approved land disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of characterization activities at the proposed state-approved land disposal site (SALDS); it updates the original characterization report with studies completed since the first characterization report. The initial characterization report discusses studies from two characterization boreholes, 699-48-77A and 699-48-77B. This revision includes data from implementation of the Groundwater Monitoring Plan and the Aquifer Test Plan. The primary sources of data are two down-gradient groundwater monitoring wells, 699-48-77C and 699-48-77D, and aquifer testing of three zones in well 699-48-77C. The SALDS is located on the Hanford Site, approximately 183 m north of the 200 West Area on the north side of the 200 Areas Plateau. The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluents from the 200 Areas of Hanford

  3. Myth of nuclear explosions at waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 25 years ago, an event is said to have occurred in the plains immediately west of the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union that is being disputed to this very day. One person says it was an explosion of nuclear wastes buried in a waste disposal site; other people say it was an above-ground test of an atomic weapon; still others suspect that an alleged contaminated area (of unknown size or even existence) is the result of a series of careless procedures. Since the event, a number of articles about the disposal-site explosion hypothesis written by a Soviet exile living in the United Kingdom have been published. Although the Soviet scientist's training and background are in the biological sciences and his knowledge of nuclear physics or chemistry is limited, people who oppose the use of nuclear energy seem to want to believe what he says without question. The work of this Soviet biologist has received wide exposure both in the United Kingdom and the United States. This report presents arguments against the disposal-site explosion hypothesis. Included are discussions of the amounts of plutonium that would be in a disposal site, the amounts of plutonium that would be needed to reach criticality in a soil-water-plutonium mixture, and experiments and theoretical calculations on the behavior of such mixtures. Our quantitative analyses show that the postulated nuclear explosion is so improbable that it is essentially impossible and can be found only in the never-never land of an active imagination. 24 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  4. Atlantic 3800-meter radioactive waste disposal site survey (1978): sedimentary, micromorphologic and geophysical analyses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of 22-28 July, 1978, five dives were made in the manned submersible ALVIN into the Atlantic Ocean 3800 meter depth radioactive waste disposal site located in the Hudson Canyon channel approximately 320 kilometers from the Maryland-Delaware coast. A geological description of the site was made by direct examination of the bottom topography, bedrock exposures, sedimentary and erosional processes, and sediment cores collected from the dumpsite area. Observations within a depth range of 3985-3830 meters revealed angular blocks and piles of displaced channel wall rock, boulder and cobble olistoliths of Eocene-age chalks derived from higher elevations on the slope, and bedforms such as ripples and scour marks which imply the existence of periodic strong currents. Local benthic fauna were sparse. Three low-level radioactive waste drums were examined from the submersible, and one was subsequently recovered for corrosion, and concrete deterioration analyses. Photographic and visual evidence suggest that downslope transport of objects such as talus blocks, olistoliths, and radioactive waste drums has occurred in this area

  5. Generic Study of Geosphere Contamination from Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group from the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Authority)published a new study concerning waste acceptance criteria for near surface disposal. The study calculates the waste inventory values through off and on-site scenarios. The present work applied the results to assess the criteria, through an off-site scenarios of vault design from the acceptance criteria at El-Dabaa site, 150 Km west of Alexandria north Coast of Egypt. The present work deals with the study of the relation ship between the sealed faults parameters, which are detected from the integrated interpretation of the geophysical data and the seismic energy and its b-value were calculated. Two generic conservative scenarios were applied for the end of the institutional control period,. The first deals with the natural release of the radionuclides using the geophysical characteristics of the site, and the waste inventory resulting from the acceptance criteria to the nearest aquifer. The second considered an unexpected earthquake which creates crack in the reinforced concrete cover. The crack offered increases the infiltration rate inside the vault. A higher radionuclides release resulted from the vault to the nearest aquifer. From the two scenarios, the acceptance criteria, and the suitability of site for waste disposal are assessed by calculation of internal effective collective dose received by an individual using the water from the aquifer for domestic purposes

  6. Control and tracking arrangements for solid low-level waste disposals to the UK Drigg disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg disposal site has been the principal disposal site for solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in the United Kingdom since 1959. It is situated on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometers to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives LLW from a wide range of sources including nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle activities, defense activities, isotope manufacture, universities, hospitals, general industry and clean-up of contaminated sites. This LLW has been disposed of in a series of trenches cut into the underlying clay layer of the site, and, since 1988, also into concrete lined vault. The total volume of LLW disposed of at Drigg is at present in the order of 800,000m3, with disposals currently approximately 25,000m3 per year. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site. To meet operational and regulatory requirements, BNFL needs to ensure the acceptability of the disposed waste and be able to track it from its arising point to its specific disposal location. This paper describes the system that has been developed to meet these requirements

  7. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear waste packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus

  8. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  9. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, S2-

  10. Ponded infiltration tests at the Box Canyon site: data report and preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the design and present the main results of a two-week ponded infiltration test conducted in 1996 at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To investigate liquid flow and chemical transport in fractured basalt, the following types of instruments were installed in boreholes: tensiometers, suction lysimeters, thermistors, time domain reflectrometry probes, and electrical resisitivity probes. These probes were installed using an innovative technology of borehole instrumentation and completion using polyurethane foam injection. The probes were attached to plastic packers that were inflated using the polyurethane foam, and then the space between packers was back-filled with the foam in order to ensure the isolation of the instruments at different depths. Polyurethane foam showed great promise in enabling rapid, cost-effective installation of sensors and probes in fractured rock. A ponded infiltration test was conducted from 8/27/96 to 9/9/96, by maintaining water to an average depth of 23 cm in a rectangular infiltration pond. Within the 7 x 8 m pond, nine local infiltrometers (0.25 m diameter) were-installed to determine local values of the water flux. A slug of conservative tracer (KM) was added to the pond on 9/2/96, yielding a tracer concentration in the pond of approximately 3 g/L. The water supply to the pond was halted for two days so that the tracer concentration in the pond water would remain essentially constant. Thereafter, the water supply was re-established to maintain a constant water level. Installation procedures and measurement results for each type of probe are presented, along with a description of the data acquisition system. The attachments include a description of the calibration and testing of instrumentation. The data files can be found at the FTP site zenitMnel/ or the Web site http://www- esd.lbl.gov/ERT/inel/inel.htrnl

  11. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-05-27

    For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

  12. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  13. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative.

  14. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative

  15. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    The Cerro Grande fire of 2000 had an enormously adverse impact on and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Immediately there were concerns about the potential for enhanced runoff/offsite transport of contaminant-laden sediments because of watershed damage. In response to this concern, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers installed a low-head weir in Los Alamos Canyon near the White Rock ''Y.'' However, the occurrence of fractured basalt at the surface and ponding of runoff behind the weir enhance the possibility of downward migration of contaminants. Therefore, three boreholes were drilled on the south bank of the channel by LANL to provide a means of monitoring the impact of the Cerro Grande fire and of the weir on water quality beneath the canyon. The boreholes and associated instrumentation are referred to as the Los Alamos Weir Site (LAWS). The three boreholes include a vertical hole and two angled holes (one at approximately 45{sup o} and one at approximately 30{sup o}). Since the basalt is highly fractured, the holes would not stay open. Plans called for inserting flexible liners into all holes. However, using liners in such unstable ground was problematic and, in the angled holes, required deployment through scalloped or perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shield. The vertical hole (LAWS-01), drilled to a total depth of 281.5 ft below ground surface (bgs), was completed as a 278-ft deep monitoring well with four screens: one targeting shallow perched water encountered at 80 ft, two in what may correspond to the upper perched zone at regional groundwater characterization well R-9i (1/4 mi. to the west), and one in what may correspond to the lower perched zone at R-9i. A Water FLUTe{trademark} system deployed in the well isolates the screened intervals; associated transducers and sampling ports permit monitoring head and water quality in the screened intervals. The second hole (LAWS-02), drilled at an angle of 43{sup o} from horizontal

  16. Managing the nation`s nuclear waste. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, and Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-31

    In 1982, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), which established a comprehensive national program directed toward siting, constructing, and operating geologic repositories for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In February 1983, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) identified the nine referenced repository locations as potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository. These sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. The DOE findings and determinations are based on the evaluations contained in the draft Environmental Assessments (EA). A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The purpose of this document is to provide the public with specific site information on each potential repository location.

  17. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, and Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), which established a comprehensive national program directed toward siting, constructing, and operating geologic repositories for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In February 1983, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) identified the nine referenced repository locations as potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository. These sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. The DOE findings and determinations are based on the evaluations contained in the draft Environmental Assessments (EA). A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The purpose of this document is to provide the public with specific site information on each potential repository location

  18. Geochemical investigations at Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the NRC efforts to develop a data base on source term characteristics for low level wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced and analyzed a large amount of data on trench leachate chemistry at existing shallow land burial sites. In this report, we present the results of our investigations at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal site. In particular, data on trench leachate chemistry are reviewed and discussed in terms of mechanisms and processes controlling the composition of trench solutes. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying both intra- and extra-trench factors and processes contributing to source term characteristics, modifications, and uncertainties. BNL research on the Maxey Flats disposal site has provided important information not only on the source term characteristics and the factors contributing to uncertainties in the source term but also some generic insights into such geochemical processes and controls as the mechanics of leachate formation, microbial degradation and development of anoxia, organic complexation and radionuclide mobility, redox inversion and modification of the source term, solubility constraints on solute chemistry, mineral authigenesis, corrosion products and radionuclide scavenging, and the role of organic complexants in geochemical partitioning of radionuclides. A knowledge of such processes and controls affecting the geochemical cycling of radionuclides as well as an understanding of the important factors that contribute to variability and uncertainties in the source term is essential for evaluating the performance of waste package and the site, making valid predictions of release for dose calculations, and for planning site performance monitoring as well as remedial actions. 43 references, 47 figures, 30 tables

  19. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  20. Hydrological investigations of radioactive waste disposal site at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrological investigation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Site at PINSTECH was carried out to check the effectiveness of the existing monitoring wells, identify the locations for new wells and suggest design of the well for proper monitoring. For this purpose, five piezometers were installed. Soil samples of depth profiles were analyzed for grain size distribution and lithological logs were prepared. The soil texture is dominantly silty clay with minor fractions of fine sand and gravel. The strata do not vary significantly along the depth profiles. The hydraulic conductivity is extremely low. Therefore, the groundwater regime can be considered as an aquitard which is very suitable for disposal of wastes. From the data of piezometers and monitoring wells, water-table contour maps and groundwater flow nets were prepared. The existing monitoring wells are insufficient for surveillance of the site. Four additional wells are needed for more effective check of possible migration of radionuclides. Using the information on flow nets (hydraulic gradient, groundwater flow direction), proper locations of proposed additional monitoring well have been selected and design of the wells (casing dia.,depth, open area, slit size of the filter and grain size of gravel shroud etc.) has been suggested. (author)

  1. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles (mi)) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan

  2. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the &apos

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  4. Hydrologic characterization of the Fry Canyon, Utah site prior to field demonstration of reactive chemical barriers to control radionuclide and trace-element contamination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftz, D.L.; Freethey, G.W. [Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, J.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The Fry Canyon Site in southeastern Utah has been selected as a long term demonstration site to assess the performance of selected reaction barrier technologies for the removal of uranium and other trace elements from ground water. Objectives include site characterization and evaluation of barrier technologies.

  5. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  6. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches

  7. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by

  8. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix B to Attachment 3, Lithologic logs and monitor well construction information. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lithology logs and monitor well construction information for: NC processing site; UC processing site; and Burro Canyon disposal site. This information pertains to the ground water hydrology investigations which is attachment 3 of this series of reports

  9. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  10. Site investigations for the disposal of spent fuel - investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The revised site investigation program for the years 1986-2010 is presented in this report. The objectives and activities in the near future are described in more detail. The main objectives and frame programs for the investigations in the more distant future are described. The program planning of these investigations are being developed in the preceding site investigations. The investigations for the site selection are divided into four phases: 1983-1985 selection of the investigation areas, preparations for the field investigations, drilling and investigations in a deep test borehole; 1986-1992 preliminary site investigations in 5-10 investigation areas; 1993-2000 detailed site investigations in 2-3 investigation areas. Site selection in the year 2000; 2001-2010 complementary investigations on the selected site. The first investigation phase will be carried out as planned. In this phase a 1001 m deep test borehole was drilled at Lavia in western Finland. With the investigations in the borehole and related development work, preparations were made for the future field investigations. The equipment and investigation methods are being developed during the site investigations. The equipment for taking groundwater samples and the unit for hydraulic testing have been developed. In the future the emphasis in the work will be in developing equipment for monitoring of the hydraulic head and measuring the volumetric flow. In groundwater sampling the present procedure can be improved by adding the test for the in-situ measurements. The results of the field investigations will be stored and processed in a centralized data base. The data base will transmit the results for the interpretation and then the interpreted results transmitted for model calculations and reporting. The cost estimate for the investigations in 1986-2010 is 110-125 million

  11. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site characterization report provides the results of the field data collection activities for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site. Information gathered on the geology, hydrology, ecology, chemistry, and cultural resources of the area is presented. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  12. Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

    1991-12-01

    Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

  13. Site characterization quality assurance for the California LLRW Disposal Site Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December of 1985 US Ecology was chosen as the license designee for the State of California's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1987, three candidate sites were selected for characterization studies in preparation for identifying the preferred site. The geotechnical characterization activities along with studies of the ecological and archaeological attributes, as well as assessments of the socio-economic impacts and cultural resources all provide input towards selection of the proposed site. These technical studies in conjunction with comments from local citizen committees and other interested parties are used as a basis for determining the proposed site for which full site characterization as required by California licensing requirements are undertaken. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the program for Quality Assurance and Quality Control for the site characterization activities on the California LLRW Disposal Site Project. The focus is on three major perspectives: The composite QA Program and two of the primary characterization activities, the geotechnical and the meteorological investigations

  14. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139

  16. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  1. Major-element geochemistry of the Silent Canyon--Black Mountain peralkaline volcanic centers, northwestern Nevada Test Site: applications to an assessment of renewed volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Silent Canyon and Black Mountain volcanic centers are located in the northern part of the Nevada Test Site. The Silent Canyon volcanic center is a buried cauldron complex of Miocene age (13 to 15 m.y.). Black Mountain volcanic center is an elliptical-shaped cauldron complex of late Miocene age. The lavas and tuffs of the two centers comprise a subalkaline-peralkaline association. Rock types range from quartz normative subalkaline trachyte and rhyolite to peralkaline commendite. The Gold Flat Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain) is a pantellerite. The major-element geochemistry of the Black Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic centers differ in the total range and distribution of SiO2, contents, the degree of peralkalinity (molecular Na2O + K2O > Al2O3) and in the values of total iron and alumina through the range of rock types. These differences indicate that the suites were unrelated and evolved from differing magma bodies. The Black Mountain volcanic cycle represents a renewed phase of volcanism following cessation of the Timber Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic cycles. Consequently, there is a small but numerically incalculable probability of recurrence of Black Mountain-type volcanism within the Nevada Test Site region. This represents a potential risk with respect to deep geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  3. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  4. Contaminant Transport from Disposal Sites and Potential Impact on Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Agunwamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of groundwater reserve pollution by disposal sites was carried out using the Avu dumpsite situated at Owerri-Port Harcourt expressway, Owerri, Imo state. This was achieved through the use of an analytical solution to the Advective-Dispersive solute transport model. The contaminant compounds of interest were Nitrates and Phosphates due to their hazardous nature and predominance in environmental and health problem issues. The actual concentrations of Nitrates and Phosphates were determined experimentally by obtaining samples at a regular depth interval of 0.5 m from two locations at the dumpsite and at a control location. The predicted values were compared with the actual concentration values; a statistical analysis conducted to establish the relationship between the two variables. The Product-Moment coefficient of correlation, r between the predicted concentration values and the actual concentration values are high for both Nitrate and Phosphate. In addition, an inference test was conducted which positively established the fact that the presence of the dumpsite has a significant adverse effect on the surrounding soil and water environment. The predictions showed that the groundwater reserve might be polluted by the excessive Phosphate concentration (>0.02 mg L-1, while Nitrate is within the standard for use as drinking water (>10 mg L-1.

  5. Transuranic distribution beneath a retired underground disposal facility, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past liquid waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site included the discharge of solutions containing low-level concentrations of transuranics directly to the ground via structures collectively termed cribs. A study was conducted to determine the present spatial distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the retired 216-Z-1A Crib, which contains one of the highest cumulative plutonium inventories, 57 kilograms. Sixteen shallow wells were drilled in the unsaturated sediments underlying the facility using specialized, totally contained drilling techniques. Samples from each well were analyzed to obtain profiles of both sediment type and plutonium and americium concentrations as a function of depth beneath the facility. The results of the study show that the highest concentration of plutonium (>104 nCi/g of sediment) occurs within the first 3 meters of sediment beneath the central distribution pipe. The high activity at this position is tentatively attributed to the removal of solid particles from the waste stream by sediment filtration. The distributions of plutonium and americium in the sediments are similar. Peak transuranic activity in the sediment profile is generally associated with silt lenses or with major sedimentary unit interfaces (ie, sand to gravel). The maximum vertical extent of transuranic activity found is approximately 30 meters below the bottom of the crib or approximately 25 meters above the regional water table. No contamination greater than the instrumental limit of detection of 10-5 nCi/g of sediment was found from a depth of 30 to 40 meters, the maximum depth of sampling

  6. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps

  7. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  8. 10 CFR 61.62 - Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization. 61.62... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.62 Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization. (a) The... time (e.g., five years) yet which must be automatically renewed unless the party who issues the...

  9. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment plant, septic system waste, or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  10. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Davis Canyon Repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Davis Canyon, Utah environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to the report and include summary equipment lists for the repository (December, 1984) and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft (June and July, 1985). Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollutant emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 19 refs., 18 tabs

  11. Sewerage Treatment Plants - WASTE_TREATMENT_STORAGE_DISPOSAL_IDEM_IN: Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_TREATMENT_STORAGE_DISPOSAL_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  12. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  13. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site's long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  16. H CANYON PROCESSING IN CORRELATION WITH FH ANALYTICAL LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, E.

    2012-08-06

    Management of radioactive chemical waste can be a complicated business. H Canyon and F/H Analytical Labs are two facilities present at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC that are at the forefront. In fact H Canyon is the only large-scale radiochemical processing facility in the United States and this processing is only enhanced by the aid given from F/H Analytical Labs. As H Canyon processes incoming materials, F/H Labs provide support through a variety of chemical analyses. Necessary checks of the chemical makeup, processing, and accountability of the samples taken from H Canyon process tanks are performed at the labs along with further checks on waste leaving the canyon after processing. Used nuclear material taken in by the canyon is actually not waste. Only a small portion of the radioactive material itself is actually consumed in nuclear reactors. As a result various radioactive elements such as Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium are commonly found in waste and may be useful to recover. Specific processing is needed to allow for separation of these products from the waste. This is H Canyon's specialty. Furthermore, H Canyon has the capacity to initiate the process for weapons-grade nuclear material to be converted into nuclear fuel. This is one of the main campaigns being set up for the fall of 2012. Once usable material is separated and purified of impurities such as fission products, it can be converted to an oxide and ultimately turned into commercial fuel. The processing of weapons-grade material for commercial fuel is important in the necessary disposition of plutonium. Another processing campaign to start in the fall in H Canyon involves the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel for disposal in improved containment units. The importance of this campaign involves the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to ensure the safety and well-being of future generations and the environment. As processing proceeds in the fall, H Canyon will have a substantial

  17. Interim long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney Disposal Site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  1. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  2. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (uranium was measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Sediment storage zones were also examined in the upper 8km of the system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  4. Low level radioactive waste disposal in the absence of a disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a six-step strategy to dispose of the large quantity and diverse waste types produced at Port Hope uranium conversion facility. The strategy provides a logical step-by-step process to first characterize a waste, then identify and access feasible options and select a preferred disposal or recycle route. Regulatory and financial approvals are obtained and, finally, implementation of the preferred route takes place. A total of 29 waste types have been identified at the facility. By employing the waste disposal strategy, some 16 wastes are now disposed of or routinely recycled. This represents about 3000 tons of waste material annually. The waste disposal strategy is currently being applied to another ten of the wastes: oils, non-usable drums, scrap metal, zirconium tetrafluoride (ZrF4), PCB liquids, PCB solids, magnesium fluoride, miscellaneous chemicals, waste solvents and calcium fluoride. The strategy is described for three of these: non-usable drums, scrap metal and ZrF4

  5. The site investigation at the next Rokkasho disposal facility. Disposal at around 50-100 m depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNFL started operations of the Rokkasho No.1 LLW near-surface disposal facility in 1992, continuing on the same-type No.2 facility, and we have been planning the next Rokkasho disposal project. It shall be located at a sufficient depth enough to avoid normal human activities in future, because higher radioactive wastes including decommissioning of reactors than the Rokkasho No.1 and No.2 will be disposed in this next facility. JNFL has performed the preliminary site investigations on geology and hydrogeology of Rokkasho at a concerned depth (around 50-100 m depth, sub-surface) for conceptual design purposes from 2001 to 2002 and, from their data etc., it is judged that this sub-surface facility will be basically feasible. Thus, the detailed investigation of approximately 3-year program has started from November 2002 for the purpose of basic design activities. This site investigation includes the inclined tunnel (ramp) excavating from surface to around 100 m depth, which reaches to the potential facility location into the host rock (pumice tuff and pumice mixed sandstone). This report represents the concept and current situation of the site investigation for the sub-surface disposal facility. (author)

  6. Transport and deposition of plutonium-contaminated sediments by fluvial processes, Los Alamos Canyon, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1945 and 1952 the development of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, resulted in the disposal of plutonium into the alluvium of nearby Acid and (to a lesser degree) DP Canyons. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between the disposal sites and the main river, a 20 km link formed by the fluvial system of Acid, Pueblo, DP, and Los Alamos Canyons. Empirical data from 15 yr of annual sediment sampling throughout the canyon system has produced 458 observations of plutonium concentration in fluvial sediments. These data show that, overall, mean plutonium concentrations in fluvial sediment decline from 10,000 fCi/g near the disposal area to 100 fCi/g at the confluence of the canyon system and the Rio Grande. Simulations using a computer model for water, sediment, and plutonium routing in the canyon system show that discharges as large as the 25 yr event would fail to develop enough transport capacity to completely remove the contaminated sediments from Pueblo Canyon. Lesser flows would move some materials to the Rio Grande by remobilization of stored sediments. The simulations also show that the deposits and their contaminants have a predictable geography because they occur where stream power is low, hydraulic resistance is high, and the geologic and/or geomorphic conditions provide enough space for storage. 38 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  7. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance

  9. Design and operation of a low-level solid-waste disposal site at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-1940's, approximately 185000 m3 of low-level and transuranic radioactive solid waste, generated in operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, have been disposed of by on-site shallow land burial. Procedures and facilities have been designed and evaluated in the areas of waste acceptance, treatment and storage, disposal, traffic control, and support systems. The methodologies assuring the proper management and disposal of radioactive solid waste are summarized

  10. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  11. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  14. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  15. Developments in support of low level waste disposal at BNFL's Drigg Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued upgrading of low-level waste pretreatment and disposal practices related to the United Kingdom Drigg disposal site is described, noting the need to take into account operational safety, long term post-closure safety, regulatory and public acceptance factors

  16. Recovery of low-level radioactive waste packages from deep ocean disposal sites. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the methods used for the recovery of three low-level radioactive-waste packages from deep-ocean disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the submersibles ALVIN and PISCES VI is described. Considerations for future waste disposal and recovery techniques are provided

  17. Site selection issues for radioactive waste disposal in arid regions of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, shallow land burial has been the principal method of low-level radioactive waste disposal for the past 24 years. Experience has included disposal sites in both arid and humid environments. This paper provides a general overview of the experience to date at the arid sites with contrasts to the humid site experience. Current practices are reviewed with respect to surface water management, trench construction and disposal operations, environmental monitoring of air, water, groundwater, soil and vegetation. As a result of recent federal legislation, new disposal sites are soon to be developed in various regions of the country. Site selection, licensing and development of these new facilities will be governed by federal regulations which have been developed on the basis of past experience and research. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', sets forth certain site suitability requirements and performance objectives with respect to acceptable levels of impact to man and the environment. Guidelines for the site selection process and site characterization are also provided. In this paper, these requirements and their conceptual bases are discussed, particularly in relation to implementation at an arid location. Another rule, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 193 is being developed to establish 'Standards for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal'. This rule is being supported by a risk assessment computer model developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency

  18. Identification of sites for the low-level waste disposal development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of site selection studies for potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Summaries of the site selection procedures used and results of previous site selection studies on the ORR are included. This report includes recommendations of sites for demonstration of shallow land burial using engineered trench designs and demonstration of above-grade disposal using design concepts similar to those used in tumulus disposal. The site selection study, like its predecessor (ORNL/TM-9717, Use of DOE Site Selection Criteria for Screening Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation), involved application of exclusionary site screening criteria to the region of interest to eliminate unacceptable areas from consideration. Also like the previous study, the region of interest for this study was limited to the Oak Ridge Department of Energy Reservation. Reconnaissance-level environmental data were used in the study, and field inspections of candidate sites were made to verify the available reconnaissance data. Five candidate sites, all underlain by Knox dolomite residuum and bedrock, were identified for possible development of shallow land burial facilities. Of the five candidate sites, the West Chestnut site was judged to be best suited for deployment of the shallow land burial technology. Three candidate sites, all underlain by the Conasauga Group in Bear Creek Valley, were identified for possible development of above-grade disposal technologies. Of the three sites identified, the Central Bear Creek Valley site lying between State Route 95 and Gum Hollow Road was ranked most favorable for deployment of the above-grade disposal technology

  19. Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailing Sites and Disposal Site, Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Estes Gulch disposal site is approximately 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of the town of Rifle, off State Highway 13 on Federal land administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The Department of Energy (DOE) will transport the residual radioactive materials (RRM) by truck to the Estes Gulch disposal site via State Highway 13 and place it in a partially below-grade disposal cell. The RRM will be covered by an earthen radon barrier, frost protection layers, and a rock erosion protection layer. A toe ditch and other features will also be constructed to control erosion at the disposal site. After removal of the RRM and disposal at the Estes Gulch site, the disturbed areas at all three sites will be backfilled with clean soils, contoured to facilitate surface drainage, and revegetated. Wetlands areas destroyed at the former Rifle processing sites will be compensated for by the incorporation of now wetlands into the revegetation plan at the New Rifle site. The UMTRA Project Office, supported by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC), oversees the implementation of the MAP. The RAC executes mitigation measures in the field. The TAC provides monitoring of the mitigation actions in cases where mitigation measures are associated with design features. Site closeout and inspection compliance will be documented in the site completion report

  20. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Siting Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Egypt (Proposal approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods and suitable criteria. Near surface disposal method has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. Establishing site criteria is the first step in the sitting process to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  4. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)

  5. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal site, which will be referred to as the Lowman site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. The radioactive sands at the Lowman site were stabilized on the site. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or a state, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992)

  7. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this task was to provide a concise summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed included those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). A brief summary of routine monitoring programs at the active commercial LLW sites was also included in the task report. The draft task report was transmitted to all sites for review in June 1986

  8. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams

  9. Technologies for in situ immobilization and isolation of radioactive wastes at disposal and contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes technologies that have been developed worldwide and the experiences applied to both waste disposal and contaminated sites. The term immobilization covers both solidification and embedding of wastes

  10. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  11. Sewerage Sludge Disposal and Application Sites, Published in 2006, City of Carson City.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Sludge Disposal and Application Sites dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often...

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office

  15. Formulation of Japanese consensus-building model for HLW geological disposal site determination. 1. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the sustainable community in Japan, formation of Japanese consensus-building model for HLW geological disposal site determination is one of key issues. In our project, we have reviewed the past history for HLW geological disposal site determination and propose next-generation Japanese consensus-building model which is based on the discussion not only with government and specialists but also with citizens. (author)

  16. Preliminary site investigation for LL and IL radwaste disposal for Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of selecting a disposal site for the low- and intermediate-level radwastes arising from Qinshan NPP, site investigations were carried out in several districts of Zhejiang Province. Investigation objectives included the circumstances of geology, hydrogeology, environmental ecology, and social economy. On the basis of collected data, five possible sites were recommended for policy-making reference and further investigation

  17. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  18. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  3. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  4. Technology development for a disposal cell at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) is a DOE cleanup of property and facilities near St. Louis, Missouri, that were used during WWII to produce explosives such as TNT, and during the post-war years, to produce uranium metal. The long history of operations at the facilities generated a complex mixture of contaminants, including toxicants such as nitroaromatics, metals, and radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. These contaminants occur in sod, sludges, construction debris, and bulk wastes from a nearby quarry that was used for waste disposal. Final decisions for site and quarry remediation have yet to bc determined. Alternatives being evaluated include on-site and off-site disposal options for contaminated materials. As part of this effort, studies are under way to define technical approaches and performance criteria for an engineered disposal cell that could be located at the WSSRAP chemical plant site. This cell would be designed to contain by-product radioactive wastes and the end products of treated chemical wastes. A program of support studies has been initiated to facilitate remedial planning. These studies include an evaluation of site suitability and potential long-term cell performance. This information will assist regulators in determining the acceptability of on-site disposal and will address public concerns should on-site disposal be selected as the preferred alternative. The studies will also lay the groundwork for the conceptual design of the disposal cell. The disposal facility studies encompass a broad range of topics in four basic categories: siting, barriers, waste, and constructibility. Because of the breadth of technical topics and an aggressive schedule, most studies are being performed concurrently by a broad array of experts

  5. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest

  6. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  7. A model for intrusion dose calculations for radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe management and disposal of radioactive waste is one of the main problems for nuclear energy, both for fission or fusion sources. High-level waste from nuclear reactors will have to be disposed of in deep underground repositories. The main purpose of this disposal, from the safety viewpoint, is to avoid the return of the radioactive waste into the biosphere, with possible interaction with the public. Intrusion is a way by which this could occur, that is, public inadvertent intrusion into a repository site, taking place after the site has lost its institutional control. The authors describe the assessment of a model for intrusion into a radioactive waste disposal site. An example of application to a fusion-specific repository, developed as part of the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP)-2 activities, will be given, up to the evaluation of doses to the inadvertent intruder

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  9. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment.For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  13. Radioactive waste disposal sites: Two successful closures at Tinker Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes remediation and closure of two radioactive waste disposal sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, making them exemption regulatory control. The approach consisted of careful exhumation and assessment of soils in sites expected to be contaminated based on historical documentation, word of mouth, and geophysical surveys; removal of buried objects that had gamma radiation exposure levels above background; and confirmation that the soil containing residual radium-226 was below an activity level equal to no more than a 10 mrem/yr annual dose equivalent. In addition, 4464 kg of chemically contaminated excavated soils were removed for disposal. After remediation, the sites met standards for unrestricted use. These sites were two of the first three Air Force radioactive disposal sites to be closed and were the first to be closed under Draft NUREG/CR-5512

  14. IAEA guidance on disposal and siting; IAEA Leitlinien zur Endlagerung inklusive Standortfindung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Kai; Bruno, Gerard [Internationale Atomenergie-Agentur (IAEA), Wien (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with its Safety Standards provides requirements and guidance on all steps in radioactive waste management. This includes predisposal activities as well as disposal activities. Imperative requirements mainly are given in the IAEA publication ''SSR-5, Safety Requirements on Disposal Radioactive Waste''. Currently in many member states siting is a topic of intensive controversial discussions. Whilst site characterization and site confirmation are addressed in this Safety Guides, site selection is not because it includes many aspects that are non-technical and specific to the societal context. In this article the existing guidance on siting is described and an overview on the most relevant existing documents on disposal is given.

  15. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.A. [Heartland Operation to Protect the Environment, Inc., Auburn, NE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  16. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Locations for Disposal, Storage and Handling of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains waste site locations for the disposal, storage, and handling of solid and hazardous waste...

  17. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  18. The application of assessment principles to an operational low level waste disposal site in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the current assessment principles utilized in England and discusses their application to the Drigg low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site. The Drigg Site was established in 1959 and the assessment principles were published in 1985; therefore, although the Drigg Site has operated successfully, the application of the assessment principles has caused changes in operations and the establishment of further site research by the Department of the Environment

  19. Application of geophysical exploration technology to geological disposal repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the development situation of high-level radioactive waste repository site in our country, and indicates that deep geological structures, space form and adverse geological mass in rock are the major geological problems in site selection. It summarizes the present situation of geophysical methods which are used in high-level radioactive waste repository siting, and gives an introduction to some methods, such as gravity and magnetic exploration, seismic exploration, electromagnetic method and spectrometer technology, and to Xinchang rock, Beishan area, as an example, explaining geophysical exploration technology application process. solves the main geological problems and deficiencies. Actual results of the detection show that geophysical techniques have a significant effect and good prospects in detecting deep structure for high-level radioactive waste repository siting. It provides a reference for high-level radioactive waste repository site assessment of stability and integrity. (authors)

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  5. Northwest disposal site for LLW and ILW in China radioactive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the studies and main conclusions in site selection, design, and radioactive impact assessment of the Northwest Disposal Site of China for intermediate- and low-level radioactive wastes. At the end of the paper, further works are proposed

  6. A low-level radioactive waste disposal facility siting simulation exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facilities. This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation consists of two sessions: in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred site is chosen from three suitable candidate sites. Several workshops involving the simulation have been conducted for persons involved in the planning of LLW management activities. The simulation is useful as (a) a training tool, (b) a vehicle to foster communication, and (c) a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The siting simulation is now available through the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in the development of LLW disposal facilities

  7. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  8. Non-Ferrous Metal Industry Waste Disposal Sites As A Source Of Poly-Extremotolerant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristas Peter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal sites from non-ferrous metal industry constitute environments very hostile for life due to the presence of very specialized abiotic factors (pH, salt concentration, heavy metals content. In our experiments microflora of two waste disposal sites in Slovakia – brown mud disposal site from aluminium production near Ziar nad Hronom and nickel sludge disposal site near Sered - was analyzed for cultivable bacteria. Isolated bacteria were characterized by a combination of classical microbiological approaches and molecular methods and the most of isolated bacteria shown a poly-extremotolerant phenotype. The most frequently halotolerant (resistant to the high level of salt concentrations and alkalitolerant (resistant to the high pH level bacteria belonging to the Actinobacteria class were detected. The most of bacteria shown very high level of heavy metal resistance e.g. more than 500 μg/ml for Zn2+ or Cu2+. Based on our data, waste disposal sites thus on one side represents an important environmental burden but on other side they are a source of new poly-extremotolerant bacterial strains and species possibly used in many biotechnology and bioremediation applications.

  9. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Geological Survey (USGS) or National Geodetic Survey (NGS) survey control stations, must be established on the site to facilitate surveys. The USGS or NGS control stations must provide horizontal and vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be...

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992)

  11. Waste acceptance policy and operational developments at the UK's Drigg LLW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg site has been in operation as the national facility for the disposal of LLW since 1959. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in favour of emplacement of containerized, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. For items of waste too large to be size-reduced and packaged into containers, in-vault grouting is carried out. The previous trench disposal facilities have been capped. The profiled earthen cap incorporates an impermeable membrane to minimize rainwater penetration. Monitoring of the environment demonstrates that the site's impact is negligible. Reduction in volumes of LLW for disposal resulting from waste minimization initiatives and the high force compaction of all compactible arisings has led to a review of the design of future vaults. Future disposal capacity is now based on modular vaults each of about 50,000 m3 capacity. These will be supplemented by in-vault grouting cells. These facilities together with residual space in the current vault will provide a future disposal capacity of about 800,000 m3. The radiological capacity of the site has been based on a post-closure risk assessment. On the basis of information in the UK Radioactive Waste Inventory, future arisings of wastes have been estimated and compared with the site's volumetric and radiological capacities. This has shown that the Drigg site should be able to accept essentially all UK LLW arisings to the middle of the next century, provided that a system of waste stream controls is operated to limit additional demands on radiological capacity from high specific activity streams, such as might arise from the reclassification of ILW to LLW either as a result of reassessment or decontamination. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  12. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Shallow seismic reflection profiling of waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional approaches to environmental site characterization usually involve drilling of relatively dense networks of continuously sampled and geophysically logged boreholes. In glaciated terrains, problems are often encountered in determining the lateral continuity and three-dimensional subsurface geometry of sediments between borehole locations. An improved and potentially more cost-effective approach combines drilling and borehole sampling with high-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiling. This approach is illustrated with case studies from candidate landfill sites. Seismic data provide critical information regarding the lateral continuity and geometry of sediments and pathways for ground water and contaminants. (author). 38 refs., 11 figs

  14. Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site, southeastern Utah - Indications of contaminant migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Horton, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site in San Juan County, southeastern Utah, was affected by the historical (1957-68) processing of uranium and copper-uranium ores. Relict uranium tailings and related ponds, and a large copper heap-leach pile at the site represent point sources of uranium and copper to local soils, surface water, and groundwater. This study was designed to establish the nature, extent, and pathways of contaminant dispersion. The methods used in this study are applicable at other sites of uranium mining, milling, or processing. The uranium tailings and associated ponds sit on a bench that is as much as 4.25 meters above the level of the adjacent modern channel of Fry Creek. The copper heap leach pile sits on bedrock just south of this bench. Contaminated groundwater from the ponds and other nearby sites moves downvalley and enters the modern alluvium of adjacent Fry Creek, its surface water, and also a broader, deeper paleochannel that underlies the modern creek channel and adjacent benches and stream terraces. The northern extent of contaminated groundwater is uncertain from geochemical data beyond an area of monitoring wells about 300 meters north of the site. Contaminated surface water extends to the State highway bridge. Some uranium-contaminated groundwater may also enter underlying bedrock of the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone along fracture zones. Four dc-resistivity surveys perpendicular to the valley trend were run across the channel and its adjacent stream terraces north of the heap-leach pile and ponds. Two surveys were done in a small field of monitoring wells and two in areas untested by borings to the north of the well field. Bedrock intercepts, salt distribution, and lithologic information from the wells and surface observations in the well field aided interpretation of the geophysical profiles there and allowed interpretation of the two profiles not tested by wells. The geophysical data for the two profiles to the north of the

  15. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary

  16. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Pyles; Jhon Carilli

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program. However, the NNSA/NSO has identified DOE complex-wide issues: (1) the temporary closure of the Hanford facility to off-site generators leaves the NTS as the only Federal facility able to dispose of MLLW. If the Hanford facility is not permitted to accept waste from off-site generators after December 2010, the DOE complex will have no Federal facility

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  19. Selecting host states for low-level waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1980, Congress enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), assigning state governments the responsibility to provide for safe and efficient low-level waste disposal. The law encourages cooperation among states in meeting this responsibility, and allows congressionally approved interstate compacts to restrict use of regional disposal sites to member states only after 1986. Six compacts covering the Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Central States, Southeast, Midwest, and Northeast regions have been negotiated. Each of the six compacts incorporate the 1986 exclusion provision. California and Texas are the only states proceeding individually. Establishment of new land disposal sites remains the critical measure of success. Identifying host states for new sites is the critical next step. A framework for a host state selection process is outlined

  20. Site qualification plan for the Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our evolving study to identify and examine sites in subseabed geological formations for use as repositories for high-level nuclear wastes, two primary criteria guide all phases of this work: the stability and barrier criteria of the site. The stability criterion defines areas of the seabed not likely to be disturbed by tectonic forces and oceanographic changes during the lifetime of a waste repository. The barrier criterion defines those subseabed geological formations most likely to form an effective barrier to the release of radionuclides. Because of the large area of the oceans, a phased approach has been adopted so that successively smaller areas of the seafloor can be studied in ever greater detail. The first phase, which is complete, has identified the abyssal clay deposits that are remote from tectonic boundaries and continental margins as being the regions (<10/sup 6/ km/sup 2/) on the seafloor within which acceptable sites might be most readily identified. The second phase involves downgrading less desirable areas within these regions using archived seismic reflection profiling, sediment cores, and oceanographic data. This winnowing process identifies locations about one degree square (≤10/sup 4/ km/sup 2/) for more detailed field studies during the first part of the third phase. From these locations candidate sites will be chosen, based on detailed geological and geophysical surveying. The second part of the third phase will involve detailed monitoring of the candidate sites to determine long-term baseline conditions. After monitoring is underway, a pilot repository will be established, using waste canisters

  1. Geotechnical measurements at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky low-level radioactive waste disposal site - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to opening the Maxey Flats site in 1963, site selection investigations were conducted to assess basic geohydrologic characteristics of the site. These studies included the measurement of ground water levels and in-situ hydraulic conductivities at the site; however, testing of site materials did not include measurement of other geotechnical parameters of undisturbed and disturbed site materials. During the operation of the site, difficulties were encountered in maintaining the covers of filled trenches in a stable condition. Instabilities resulted from consolidation of the buried waste with subsequent settlement and disruption of the trench covers. Water accumulated in the completed trenches, and migration of contaminated water from one of the trenches occurred. The problems which have occurred at the Maxey Flats site and other sites have led to an appreciation of the need to understand the behavior of the site after use. This requires a knowledge of the geotechnical properties of site materials in both natural and disturbed states. Current practices include the measurement of these parameters and the design of critical disposal cell components to accommodate site conditions and materials properties. In retrospect, it is apparent that the studies at the Maxey Flats site should have included the measurement of consolidation properties of the disposed waste and backfill, and the hydraulic properties and shrink-swell characteristics of the cover soils. A knowledge of these parameters would have allowed the development of site designs and operating procedures which could have minimized the problems of trench cover instability and water accumulation

  2. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: IMPACTS OF FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS ON SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These “123 agreements” are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

  3. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority (the Authority) was formed by the 67th Legislature and charged with the responsibility of site selection, design, construction, operation, maintenance, decommissioning, closing, and financing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas. The Authority is governed by a six-member Board of Directors and advised by a Citizens Advisory Board. In February, 1983, the Authority retained Dames and Moore to perform a statewide siting study to define one or more suitable sites. The study was conducted in three phases, progressing from statewide screening to site-specific studies. Each phase of screening included a more rigorous application of the Authority's siting criteria at various scales to narrow the search to more favorable areas. In February, 1985, the siting study culminated in the identification of five sites and recommendation of one site for further consideration by the Authority. This paper provides a discussion of this site selection process

  4. Suggested state requirements and criteria for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of criteria and procedure is presented for a state to follow in the development of a program to regulate a LLW disposal site. This would include identifying those portions of the NRC regulations that should be matters of compatibility, identifying the various expertise and disciplines that will be necessary to effectively regulate a disposal site, identifying the resources necessary for conducting a confirmatory monitoring program, and providing suggestions in other areas which, based on experiences, would result in a more effective regulatory program

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

  6. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  7. The influence of disposal capacity on the course of site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of, or more accurately the lack of, disposal capacity has altered the course of decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated sites. Political sensitivities in the 1970s caused a congressional restructuring of the disposal system in the United States. At the same time, the 1970s saw a movement towards reexamining many previously decontaminated facilities with a new emphasis on environmental protection. A reexamination of accessibility to disposal capacity began in the 1980s because the three states with disposal facilities wanted to restrict use of their facilities and create new capacity in other states. The passage of the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act and Amendments Act permitted states to form compacts to restrict use of disposal facilities in their region. The Amendments Act also permitted the collection of surcharges that ultimately increased the cost of disposal by 300% within a decade. Radioactive facilities that were reevaluated include radium facilities of the first decades of the Twentieth Century, government and private facilities that took part in atomic weapon development during the World War II era, and older facilities licensed under the Atomic Energy Act in the latter half of the century. The reevaluations resulted in modern day conclusions that further remedial actions may be needed. The solution appeared straightforward: removal of the radiological contamination that is in excess of current day environmental standards. The large volumes of slightly contaminated debris and the limited, costly disposal capacity have created a need for alternatives to excavation and removal. Some of the techniques have created opportunities such as specialized disposal sites (e.g., Envirocare), reuse of contaminated metals, more aggressive decontamination processes, and recycling (e.g., mill reprocessing). (author)

  8. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1

  9. Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Charleston, South Carolina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) has been heavily utilized as a disposal site for dredged material resulting from maintenance and channel deepening in the Charleston Harbor. Continuous monitoring by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources at the ODMDS has indicated the presence of fine-grained sediment within the monitoring zones. However, since the Charleston Harbor is formed by the conjunction of three rivers, it has been suggested that some of the fine-grained sediment surrounding the ODMDS could be due to river transport rather than solely by disposal activities. In order to trace the outflow of sediment from the harbor, natural and man-made isotopes were utilized. 7Be (natural cosmogenic isotope) and 137Cs (man-made isotope) are often associated with estuarine sediments. Both isotopes were used as tracers in an attempt to determine the extent of density driven sediment flow from the Charleston Harbor. 7Be was detected in many of the offshore sampling stations indicating a direct correlation to the harbor. 137Cs was only found in one sediment trap sample offshore, but none the less indicated some transport from the harbor. Further study for utilizing isotopic tracers in determining offshore sediment transport is still being conducted at the disposal site. It is anticipated that further 7Be and 137Cs isotopic monitoring offshore Charleston will aid in determining the role that tidal and density driven sediments play in the sediment budgets at the hard bottom reef sites

  10. Characterization of organics in leachates from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry, universities, research institutions, and hospitals are disposed of in shallow-land trenches and pits. In 1962 the first commercial disposal site was opened in Beatty, Nevada. Since then, the industry has grown to include three private companies operating six disposal areas located in sparsely populated areas: at Maxey Flats (Morehead), Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; Sheffield, Illinois; Barnwell, South Carolina; West Valley, New York; and Richland, Washington. Although the facilities are operated by private industry, they are located on public land and are subject to federal and state regulation. Although inventories of the radioactive materials buried in the disposal sites are available, no specific records are kept on the kinds and quantities of organic wastes buried. In general, the organic wastes consist of contaminated paper, packing materials, clothing, plastics, ion-exchange resins, scintillation vials, solvents, chemicals, decontamination fluids, carcasses of experimental animals, and solidification agents. Radionuclides such as 14C, 3H, 90Sr, 134137Cs, 60Co, 241Am, and 238239240Pu have been identified in leachate samples collected from several trenches at Maxey Flats and West Valley. The purpose of this report is to identify some of the organic compounds present in high concentrations in trench leachates at the disposal sites in order to begin to evaluate their effect on radionuclide mobilization and contamination of the environment

  11. The Michigan site selection process for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michigan as the host for the Midwest Compact, a consortium of states, is in the process of site selection of three potential candidate sites for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Ultimately, three detailed site characterization studies will be performed concurrently. The site selection process consists of application of siting criteria. An initial screening of the entire state with exclusionary criteria incorporated into a geographic information system eliminated about 97 percent of the state. The remaining areas of over 2,250 acres in extent are being investigated using available data. Three have been eliminated to date and the remaining 79 continue under study. (author) 10 figs

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  13. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, L.; Lean, C

    2005-09-15

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  14. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Potential noise impact from proposed operations at the Davis Canyon, Utah site: Evaluation of atmospheric acoustic refractive index profiles: Task 1, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was motivated by the need to assess whether or not there would be significant noise impact from a proposed industrial operation to be sited in Davis Canyon, Utah. Completion of the study required improving several aspects of our fundamental understanding of atmospheric sound propagation and analysis of a diverse set of meteorological measurements which pertained specifically to the Davis Canyon location. The above two ''generic'' and ''specific'' objectives were sufficiently different that this final report has been divided into two parts. The first, generic, portion was prepared because neither existing noise standards nor standard field measurement techniques adequately recognize the importance of normal atmospheric boundary layer structure and processes on the magnitude and variations of noise propagated out-of-doors. The second, specific, part of the report summarizes a variety of acoustically-oriented analyses of meteorological measurements made near Davis Canyon. The results in both parts of the report are based on sophisticated atmospheric analysis, boundary layer and propagation models. The presentation of time dependent ''maps'' of predicted sound pressure levels (also as a function of frequency and source-surrounding topography) represents a significant advance in the state-of-the-art of environmental noise analysis and prediction

  17. Current disposal planning for dry active wastes at Rokkasho Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In nuclear power stations, two kinds of low level radioactive wastes are generated: `uniform solidified waste` in which waste liquid, spent resin and so on are uniformly solidified and `solid waste` in which metals, lagging materials, plastics and others are solidified. In Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Burying Center, the burying facility for the first period for the uniform solidified waste started the operation in December, 1992, and this time as the second period plan, it has been planned to increase No. 2 waste burying facility for the solid waste. The kinds of the radioactive waste solidified in containers to be buried are the solid state radioactive waste generated by the operation of nuclear power stations and that generated accompanying the operation of this facility. The wastes are classified, cut, pressed and melted as occasion demands so that cement filling material is easily filled in containers, and solidified in the containers. As for the waste to be buried, at the time of its acceptance, 6 months or longer have elapsed since its generation in nuclear power stations, and the surface dose equivalent rate does not exceed 10 mSv/h. The acceptance plan and the expected number of burying, the total radioactivity of buried waste, and the location, geological and hydraulic features, the structure and facilities of waste burying facilities, the method of burying, the management of waste burying site and the evaluation of dose equivalent are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Current disposal planning for dry active wastes at Rokkasho Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power stations, two kinds of low level radioactive wastes are generated: 'uniform solidified waste' in which waste liquid, spent resin and so on are uniformly solidified and 'solid waste' in which metals, lagging materials, plastics and others are solidified. In Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Burying Center, the burying facility for the first period for the uniform solidified waste started the operation in December, 1992, and this time as the second period plan, it has been planned to increase No. 2 waste burying facility for the solid waste. The kinds of the radioactive waste solidified in containers to be buried are the solid state radioactive waste generated by the operation of nuclear power stations and that generated accompanying the operation of this facility. The wastes are classified, cut, pressed and melted as occasion demands so that cement filling material is easily filled in containers, and solidified in the containers. As for the waste to be buried, at the time of its acceptance, 6 months or longer have elapsed since its generation in nuclear power stations, and the surface dose equivalent rate does not exceed 10 mSv/h. The acceptance plan and the expected number of burying, the total radioactivity of buried waste, and the location, geological and hydraulic features, the structure and facilities of waste burying facilities, the method of burying, the management of waste burying site and the evaluation of dose equivalent are reported. (K.I.)

  19. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  20. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Register (FR). Historically, dredged material generated around Guam by the Navy and the Port Authority of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY... for continued use (40 CFR 228.5 and 40 CFR 228.6(a)). General Selection Criteria 1. The dumping...

  1. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...: Comments. The comment period for the proposed rule and draft EIS published May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29687), is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...

  2. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... permits. Pursuant to its voluntary NEPA policy, published at 63 FR 58045 (October 29, 1998), EPA typically... designation through a rulemaking proposal published in the Federal Register (FR), as here. Formal designation... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...

  3. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

  4. Modelling and assessment work in support of the Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated with low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Drigg in Cumbria is a programme of technical support work. The role of this work in the recent review of the site authorisation is described, with particular emphasis on the hydrogeological modelling and radiological assessment studies. The scope of the ongoing technical programme is described. (author)

  5. Modeling of a sedimentary rock alternative for the siting of the radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are described the main concepts, the approximations, and all those simulation aspects that characterize the modeling performed using the unsaturated saturated approach for porous media. The objective of this work is to obtain a generic description of a sedimentary rock soil as an alternative site for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system. (author)

  6. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

  7. Long-term predictions of water table from precipitation analysis for a waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term predictions of water table fluctuations at a waste disposal site have been made from precipitation analysis. Two methods have been applied: a statistical/empirical correlative approach, and a hydrogeologic modelling approach using the finite difference code SWIFT (Simulator for Waste Injection Flow and Transport). This paper discusses the methodology and the results of these assessments

  8. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 240, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Waste. (d) If the Regional Director... Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.); (vi) Sludge from a waste treatment plant... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites...

  9. Nonradiological groundwater quality at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC is investigating appropriate regulatory options for disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing nonradiological hazardous constituents, as defined by EPA regulations. Standard EPA/RCRA procedures to determine hazardous organics, metals, indicator parameters, and general water quality are applied to samples from groundwater monitoring wells at two commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. At the Sheffield, IL site (nonoperating), several typical organic solvents are identified in elevated concentrations in onsite wells and in an offsite area exhibiting elevated tritium concentrations. At the Barnwell, SC site (operating), only very low concentrations of three organics are found in wells adjacent to disposal units. Hydrocarbons associated with petroleum products are detected at both sites. Hazardous constituents associated with previosuly identified major LLW mixed waste streams, toluene, xylene, chromium, and lead, are at or below detection limits or at background levels in all samples. Review of previously collected data also supports the conclusion that organic solvents are the primary nonradiological contaminants associated with LLW disposal

  10. Hillslope erosion at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site, northeastern Kentucky. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey Flats, a disposal site for low-level radioactive waste, is on a plateau that rises 300 to 400 feet above the surrounding valleys in northeastern Kentucky. Hillslope gradients average 30 to 40 percent on three sides of the plateau. The shortest distance from a hillslope to a burial trench is 140 feet on the west side of the site. The report presents the results of a 2-year study of slope erosion processes at the Maxey Flats disposal site, and comments on the long-term integrity of the burial trenches with respect to slope retreat. Thus, the report is of much broader scope in terms of earth-surface processes than the period of data collection would suggest. As such, the discussion and emphasis is placed on infrequent, large-magnitude events that are known to occur over the time scale of interest but have not been specifically documented at the site

  11. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments which are bounded by 6 meter high embankments of earth. According to a special design, it is possible to build layers upon the existing disposal site using phosphogypsum for making embankments. So far, the first 6-meter high level has been built with a 1:3 side slope of phosphogypsum embankments. Formation of the second level with 1:5 side slope is currently in progress. Another byproduct of phosphoric acid production is fluoride- and phosphorus-polluted wastewater. Before being discharged into the natural recipient, this wastewater is treated with calcium hydroxide. The product of neutralisation is calcium fluoride (CaF2 which is deposited in separate lagoons as nonhazardous waste. The application of calcium fluoride as a substrate for plants in the process of vegetative covering of the phosphogypsum disposal site is a new method of its usage. This way, a significant financial benefit is achieved because it is not necessary to build a new lagoon for calcium fluoride disposal. Regarding the environmental aspect, usage for vegetative covering is far better than the standard process of calcium fluoride disposal because residual phosphorus from CaF2 is utilised for enhanced growth of the plants. At the same time, the necessity for natural soil covering of the disposal site is reduced by 500 000 m3. Apart from the natural grass species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., grass mixtures with high content of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. and false indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L. displayed the best growth on the

  12. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF6 conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report

  13. Development and assessment of closure technology for liquid-waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharge of low-level liquid wastes into soils was practiced previously at the Hanford Site. Technologies for long-term confinement of subsurface contaminants are needed. Additionally, methods are needed to assess the effectiveness of confinement technologies in remediating potentially diverse environmental conditions. Recently developed site remediation systems and assessment methods for in situ stabilization and isolation of radioactive and other contaminants within and below low-level liquid-waste disposal structures are summarized

  14. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  15. Disposal of VLLW at the Grand View, Idaho, hazardous waste site, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex provides a case study of the Grand View, Idaho, hazardous waste site's experience obtaining permit approvals and disposing of very low activity radioactive waste. To date, the Idaho facility has accepted more than 1.3 million t of low activity material. While rare earth processors and other industry facilities have utilized the Grand View site for low activity waste, most waste has been shipped from federal government remediation projects involving large volumes of contaminated soil and debris

  16. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in

  17. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection

  18. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  19. Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

  20. Should high-level nuclear waste be disposed of at geographically dispersed sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration of the technical feasibility of Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the site for a high-level nuclear waste repository has led to an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and political impacts of the repository. Impediments to the siting process mean that the nuclear waste problem is being resolved by adhering to the status quo, in which nuclear waste is stored at scattered sites near major population centers. To assess the merits of alternative siting strategies--including both the permanent repository and the status quo- we consider the variables that would be included in a model designed to select (1) the optimal number of disposal facilities, (2) the types of facilities (e.g., permanent repository or monitored retrievable facility), and (3) the geographic location of storage sites. The objective function in the model is an all-inclusive measure of social cost. The intent of the exercise is not to demonstrate the superiority of any single disposal strategy; uncertainties preclude a conclusive proof of optimality for any of the disposal options. Instead, we want to assess the sensitivity of a variety of proposed solutions to variations in the physical, economic, political, and social variables that influence a siting strategy

  1. A study for the safety evaluation of geological disposal of TRU waste and influence on disposal site design by change of amount of TRU waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of the geological disposal of the TRU waste, it is extremely important to share the information with the Research and development organization (JAEA: that is also the waste generator) by the waste disposal entrepreneur (NUMO). In 2009, NUMO and JAEA set up a technical commission to investigate the reasonable TRU waste disposal following a cooperation agreement between these two organizations. In this report, the calculation result of radionuclide transport for a TRU waste geological disposal system was described, by using the Tiger code and the GoldSim code at identical terms. Tiger code is developed to calculate a more realistic performance assessment by JAEA. On the other hand, GoldSim code is the general simulation software that is used for the computation modeling of NUMO TRU disposal site. Comparing the calculation result, a big difference was not seen. Therefore, the reliability of both codes was able to be confirmed. Moreover, the influence on the disposal site design (Capacity: 19,000m3) was examined when 10% of the amount of TRU waste increased. As a result, it was confirmed that the influence of the site design was very little based on the concept of the Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste disposal sites. January 1984-August 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1984-August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning disposal sites for radioactive waste materials. Studies on potential sites for nuclear waste disposal include environmental surveys, trace element migration studies, groundwater characterization, rock mechanics, public opinion, pilot studies, and economic considerations. Safety aspects and risks associated with radioactive waste disposal are also considered. Radioactive waste processing and containerization are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 155 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Guansu province, northwest of China, as an example, this paper introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, this paper also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System. (author)

  4. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Gansu Province, northwest of China, as an example, the author introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, the author also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System

  5. OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF LANDFILL DISPOSAL SITE: A FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh, A. K. Vidyarthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbitrary disposal through land-fill sites and also the unscientific management of solid wastes generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities leading to serious problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in India demand an immediate proper solid waste disposal planning otherwise it may cause a serious problem, especially in small and medium-sized cities/towns if proper steps are not initiated now. The present paper aims to develop decision support systems to allocate the best landfill disposal site among the given alternative sites for Vidya Vihar, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. The technique is applied to determine the overall strategy for planning of solid waste disposal and management, while taking into account its environmental impact, as well as economical, technical and sustainable development issues. The model effectively reflects dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system and provides decision-makers with a decision tool to make a better decision while choosing a municipal solid waste management strategy.

  6. Conceptual design report: below-grade bulk waste disposal facility. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents two conceptual designs for below-grade land disposal facilities in the Northeastern United States for wastes managed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The wastes are low specific activity radioactive wastes generated by programs of the Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC). One design presented is for a hypothetical disposal facility for the state of New York and one for the state of New Jersey. Each design is based on the estimated volume of FUSRAP waste in each state. Since no specific sites have been identified for the disposal facilities, the geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and meteorologic conditions chosen for the conceptual design are only representative of conditions in New York and New Jersey. The principal difference in the two sites is the assumed soil permeability which requires an engineered clay liner surrounding the waste for the New York facility, but not for the New Jersey facility. The conceptual designs are intended to be conservative and were developed to be compatible with proposed 10 CFR 61 and proposed 40 CFR 192. The designs are developed in sufficient detail to verify the feasibility of the design concepts and to provide a basis for developing capital cost estimates for below-grade land disposal facilities

  7. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials are... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and...

  8. On site treatment of NORM for surface waste disposal in Texas under Texas Railroad Commission Rule 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) by surface disposal under the provisions of Texas Railroad Commission Rule 94 and the applicable provisions of the Texas Department of Health Radiation Control Regulations is permitted under current State regulation and represents a viable alternative to commercial disposal under many circumstances. The economic advantages of on-sit disposal compared with commercial disposal can be significant, provided the generator is aware of the limitations of on-site disposal and has enough information and expertise to ensure a successful project. This report examines the experience gained from disposals performed under Rule 94 and summarizes the methods used and the results of actual NORM disposal projects at production sites under varying field conditions

  9. Using performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal decision making - implementation of the methodology into the third performance assessment iteration of the greater confinement disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of a variety of radioactive wastes. Some of these wastes are prohibited from shallow land burial and also do not meet the waste acceptance criteria for proposed waste repositories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and Yucca Mountain. These wastes have been termed open-quotes special-caseclose quotes waste and require an alternative disposal method. From 1984 to 1989, the Department of Energy disposed of a small quantity of special-case transuranic wastes at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, an iterative performance assessment is demonstrated as a useful decision making tool in the overall compliance assessment process for waste disposal. The GCD site has been used as the real-site implementation and test of the performance assessment approach. Through the first two performance assessment iterations for the GCD site, and the transition into the third, we demonstrate how the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk assessment concepts to guide effective decisions about site characterization activities and how it can be used as a powerful tool in bringing compliance assessment decisions to closure

  10. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  11. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - 13454

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has added the capability needed for the safe, secure disposal of non-nuclear classified components that have been declared excess to national security requirements. The NNSS has worked with U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration senior leadership to gain formal approval for permanent burial of classified matter at the NNSS in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. Additionally, by working with state regulators, the NNSS added the capability to dispose non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous classified components. The NNSS successfully piloted the new disposal pathway with the receipt of classified materials from the Kansas City Plant in March 2012. (authors)

  12. Remediation and assessment of the national radioactive waste storage and disposal site in Tajikistan - 59110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Site was established in 1959 in the Faizabad region approximately 50 km east of the capital, Dushanbe. The site is located on the southern flank of the Fan Mountains facing the Gissar Valley in a sparsely populated agricultural area, with the nearest villages located a few km from the site. The site was initially designed to accept a wide range of contaminated materials, including obsolete smoke detectors, sealed radioactive sources, waste from medical institutions, and radioactive liquids. Between 1962 and 1976, 363 tonnes and 1146 litres of material, contaminated with a range of radionuclides were shipped to the site. Between 1972 - 1980 and 1985 - 1991, ∼4.8 x 1014 and 2 x 1013 Bq, respectively, were shipped to the site. An additional 7 x 1014 Bq was shipped to the site in 1996. Partly as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the disposal site had fallen into disrepair and currently presents both an environmental hazard and a potential for the proliferation of radionuclides that could potentially be used for illicit purposes. Remediation of the disposal site was started in 2005. New security fences were erected and a new superstructure over an in-ground storage site constructed. A central alarm monitoring and observation station has been constructed and is now operational. The geology, flora, and fauna of the region have been documented. Radiation surveys of the buildings and the storage and disposal sites have been carried out. Samples of soil, surface water and vegetation have been taken and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Results show a slight extent of contamination of soils near the filling ports of the underground liquid storage container where a Cs-137 concentration of 2.3 x 104 Bq/kg was obtained. Similar values were obtained for Ra- 226. Radiation fields of the in-ground storage site were generally 3. Most of the activity appears to be associated with the sediments in the tank

  13. Geological factors of disposal site selection for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes, shallow-ground disposal can provide adequate isolation of waste from human for a fairly long period of time. The objective of disposal site selection is to ensure that the natural properties of the site together with the engineered barrier site shall provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the human beings and environment, so the whole disposal system can keep the radiological impact within an acceptable level. Since the early 1980's, complying with the national standards and the expert's conception as well as the related IAEA Criteria, geological selection of disposal sites for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes has been carried out in East China, South China, Northwest China and Southwest China separately. Finally, 5 candidate sites were recommended to the CNNC

  14. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site

  15. Cost effectiveness of below-threshold waste disposal at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A minimal health and environmental risk, limitations on disposal capacity, and the relatively high costs of low level waste (LLW) disposal are basic driving forces that lead to consideration of less restrictive disposal of wastes with very low levels of radiological contamination. The term threshold limit describes radioactive wastes that have sufficiently low-levels of radiological content to be managed according to their nonradiological properties. Given the efforts described elsewhere to provide guidance on the definition of below threshold (BT) doses and concentration levels, the purpose of this study was to quantify the resultant quantities, costs and cost effectiveness of BT disposal. For purposes of consistency with the previous demonstrations of the application of the threshold concept, available data for waste streams at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) sites were collected and analyzed with regard to volumes, radionuclide concentrations, and disposal costs. From this information, quantities of BT waste, potential cost savings and cost effectiveness values were estimated. 1 reference, 5 tables

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  17. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  18. Test program for closure activities at a mixed waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 58-acre site at the Savannah River Plant which was used for disposal of low-level radioactive waste and quantities of the hazardous materials lead, cadmium, scintillation fluid, and oil will be the first large waste site at the Savannah River Plant to be permanently closed. The actions leading to closure of the facility will include surface stabilization and capping of the site. Test programs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic compaction as a stabilization technique and the feasibility of using locally derived clay as a capping material

  19. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Frank G.; Phifer, Mark A.

    2014-01-22

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory

  20. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy

  1. Siting history and current construction status of disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean government decided disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), which is located at coastal area near the Wolsong nuclear power plants in Gyeong-Ju city in December. 2005, based on the result of votes of residents in four candidate sites. Since then, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), which is the management company of the LILW disposal facility, has carried out the preparation for construction of disposal facility and its licensing process. At the first phase, 100 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the rock cavern type disposal facility located at the depth from 80m to 130m below the sea level, and finally 800 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the site. This report shows the history of siting for the LILW disposal, the outline of design of disposal facility and current status of its construction, based on the information which was obtained mainly during our visit to the disposal site in Korea. (author)

  2. Evaluation and design of drained low-level radioactive disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level disposal in shallow trenches has been the subject of much critical assessment in recent years. Historically most trenches have been located in fairly permeable settings and any liquid waste stored has migrated at rates limited mainly by hydraulic effects and the ion exchange capacity of underlying soil minerals. Attempts to minimize such seepage by choosing sites in very impermeable settings lead to overflow and surface runoff, whenever the trench cap is breached by subsidence or erosion. The work described in this report was directed to an optimum compromise situation where less reliance is placed on cap permanence, any ground seepage is directed and controlled, and the amount of waste leaching that would occur is minimized by keeping the soil surrounding the waste at only residual moisture levels at all times. Measurements have been conducted to determine these residual levels for some representative soils, to estimate the impact on waste migration of mainly unsaturated flow conditions, and to generate a conceptual design of a disposal facility which would provide adequate drainage to keep the waste from being exposed to continuous leaching by standing water. An attempt has also been made to quantify the reduced source terms under such periodic, unsaturated flow conditions, but those tests have not been conclusive to date. For low-permeability soils the waste should be placed about 1 ft. above the saturated layer formed by suction forces immediately above the gravel layer. Since most disposal sites, even in humid regions of the United States, are exposed only to intermittent rainfall and as most trench designs incorporate some gravel base for drainage, the results of this project have broader applications in assessing actual migration conditions in shallow trench disposal sites. Similar considerations may also apply to disposal of hazardous wastes

  3. The assessment of future human actions at radioactive waste disposal sites: An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991-1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group's report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means to reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging the risks associated with FHA

  4. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  5. DRINK: a biogeochemical source term model for low level radioactive waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, P; McGarry, R; Hoffmann, A; Binks, P

    1997-07-01

    Interactions between element chemistry and the ambient geochemistry play a significant role in the control of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These same interactions influence radionuclide release from near surface, low level radioactive waste, disposal sites once physical containment has degraded. In situations where LLW contains significant amounts of metal and organic materials such as cellulose, microbial degradation in conjunction with corrosion can significantly perturb the ambient geochemistry. These processes typically produce a transition from oxidising to reducing conditions and can influence radionuclide migration through changes in both the dominant radionuclide species and mineral phases. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) code is a biogeochemical transport code designed to simulate the long term evolution of the UK low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg. Drigg is the UK's principal solid low level radioactive waste disposal site and has been receiving waste since 1959. The interaction between microbial activity, the ambient geochemistry and radionuclide chemistry is central to the DRINK approach with the development of the ambient pH, redox potential and bulk geochemistry being directly influenced by microbial activity. This paper describes the microbial aspects of the code, site data underpinning the microbial model, the microbiology/chemistry interface and provides an example of the code in action. PMID:9340003

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  7. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes at a Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has resulted in long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor soil water potential conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in soil water potential in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to above normal precipitation. These tensiometer data have the potential to effectively and rapidly validate that a remedial action such as placement of an ET cover would be successful in reducing the water moisture movement inside the disposal area to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  8. Recommended radiation protection practices for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupationally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61. 66 references, 26 figures, 7 tables

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas

  10. Safeguards for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Methods and technologies for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final disposal of the nuclear material shall introduce new safeguards concerns which have not been addressed previously in IAEA safeguards approaches for spent fuel. The encapsulation plant to be built at the site will be the final opportunity for verification of spent fuel assemblies prior to their transfer to the geological repository. Moreover, additional safety and safeguards measures are considered for the underground repository. Integrated safeguards verification systems will also concentrate on environmental monitoring to observe unannounced activities related to possible diversion schemes at the repository site. The final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological formation will begin in Finland within 10 years. After the geological site investigations and according to legal decision made in 2001, the final repository of the spent nuclear fuel shall be located at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The next phase of site investigations contains the construction of an underground facility, called ONKALO, for rock characterisation purposes. The excavation of the ONKALO is scheduled to start in 2004. Later on, the ONKALO may form a part of the final repository. The plans to construct the underground facility for nuclear material signify that the first safeguards measures, e.g. baseline mapping of the site area, need to take prior to the excavation phase. In order to support the development and implementation of the regulatory control of the final disposal programme, STUK established an independent expert group, LOSKA. The group should support the STUK in the development of the technical safeguards requirements, in the implementation of the safeguards and in the evaluation of the plans of the facility operator. This publication includes four background reports produced by this group. The first of these 'NDA verification of spent fuel, monitoring of disposal canisters, interaction of the safeguards and safety issues in the final disposal' describes the new

  11. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/Navarro/NSTec

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program.

  12. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford?s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program

  13. Disposal facility, host state and site selection process in the Southeast Compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact envisions a multistep process to identify the net regional disposal site. The first part of that process is the selection of the host state. The final site selection is made by the designated host state. The Southeast Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact consists of the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. All of the states have approved the compact and are awaiting consent by Congress. Under the terms of the compact a host state for a disposal facility must be designated by July 21 of 1986. Further, each party state is to require a minimization of waste generation within the state

  14. Application of geographic information system as support technique in site selection for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes an application of Geographic Information System (GIS). This technology was used to select, hypothetically, a site to disposal of radioactive wastes. In this work, the methodology is applied in an area of the Projeto Hidrogeologico do Engenho Nogueira (PROHBEN), located at Pampulha's region, in Belo Horizonte city. The GIS used the software Idrisi. This software was used to create the Digital Elevation Model, maps of declivity, thickness of unsaturated zone and geology of the region. This database was processed using GIS's recourses capability to create a vulnerability map of the aquifer, of the region. The site to disposal of radioactive wastes was select using the vulnerability map. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-06-11

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation or neutrino oscillation by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5 percent respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock

  16. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-08-01

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation--or neutrino oscillation--by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5% respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock mechanical

  17. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, R.W.; deVries, M.P.; Sturrock, A.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Theory, methods, and results of a 2-yr study of microclimate and evapotranspiration of vegetated trench caps, conducted at the disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, are presented in the report. Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: energy-budget, aerodynamic-profile, and water-budget. Daily evapotranspiration ranged from 0 to 6 mm. The yearly average for the three methods of 657 mm was equivalent to 70% of precipitation and 75% of potential evapotranspiration.

  18. Ground water flow analysis of potential low level radioactive waste disposal sites using electrical circuit analogies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analogy between electrical circuits and ground water flow systems is developed. The analogy previously required an extensive electrical network to obtain the desired results. This paper deals with adapting the analogy to a computer based electrical circuit analysis program. The application of the analogy is then demonstrated through a preliminary ground water modeling of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Illinois, USA. (orig.)

  19. SITE SUITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN JALGAON CITY USING GEOINFORMATICS TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Chetan D. Mahajan; Sameer M. Quresh; Mahendra H. Raut

    2014-01-01

    Waste management has become a global environmental concern and issue due to the large amount of waste being generated in urban areas. Improper waste management has led to both economic and environmental problems. Proper planning and efficient solid waste management is necessary in urban areas to prevent environmental, economic and health hazards. This study makes the use of advanced technologies like GIS and Remote Sensing to identify the suitable waste disposal sites ...

  20. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  1. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work

  2. Ecological impacts of Highveld gerbils (Tatera Brantsii) on a rehabilitated ash disposal site / Nevil Ian Wright

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nevil Ian

    2006-01-01

    Tatera brantsii was numerically dominant in the small mammal community on the plateaux of the rehabilitated ash disposal sites of ESKOM's Hendrina Power Station in 1998 and 1999 (Vermaak 2000). The species seemed well adapted to exploit this environment and, through biopedturbation, had altered the topsoil structure and chemistry. The consequences of this and other activities also affected the rehabilitated plant community of the PFA-dam habitat. Burrowing appeared limited to j...

  3. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory, methods, and results of a 2-yr study of microclimate and evapotranspiration of vegetated trench caps, conducted at the disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, are presented in the report. Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: energy-budget, aerodynamic-profile, and water-budget. Daily evapotranspiration ranged from 0 to 6 mm. The yearly average for the three methods of 657 mm was equivalent to 70% of precipitation and 75% of potential evapotranspiration

  4. Discussion on technical ideas of site selection of geological disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of technical ideas has been comprehensively made in site selection of geological disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste in such countries as Sweden, Canada, Finland and USA. There is a good understanding and analysis on experience and lessons taken by these countries in the process of site selection of geological disposal repository. The results, achievements and problems in site selection of geological disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste in China are summarized. On the basis of comprehensive research, technical ideas of site selection of geological disposal repository in China are presented which include principles and scope of site selection in details, objectives and general technique steps are defined so as to make the site selection of repository in a way of system and standardization and unification. (authors)

  5. From NIMBY to YIMBY: How generators can support siting LLRW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequently head complaint about siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. The producers or generators of this waste can help move public opinion form NIMBY to YIMBY (YES exclamation point In MY Back Yard exclamation point). Generators of low-level radioactive waste often believe it is the responsibility of other organizations to site disposal facilities for the waste, and that their role is to assure the technical aspects of the facility, such as acceptability criteria for the various waste forms, are clearly defined. In reality, generators, using a properly designed and effectively implemented communications plan, can be the most effective advocates for siting a facility. The communications plan must include the following elements: an objective focusing on the importance of generators becoming vocal and active; clearly defined and crafted key messages; specifically defined and targeted audiences for those messages; and speaker training which includes how to communicate with hostile or concerned audiences about a subject they perceive as very risky. Generators must develop coalitions with other groups and form a grassroots support organization. Finally, opportunities must be developed to deliver these messages using a variety of means. Written materials should be distributed often to keep the need for disposal capability in the public's mind. Can we get from NIMBY to YIMBY? It is difficult, but doable--especially with support from the people who make the waste in the first place

  6. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  7. Consolidation and disposal of nuclear test debris at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how numerous operational activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) resulted in 24 fenced-off areas containing radioactively-contaminated debris. The debris consists of structural tower components, building debris, earthen materials, and equipment contaminated during atmospheric and underground testing of nuclear devices. Contaminated materials were consolidated, covered with clean fill, and fenced to reduce the area requiring controlled access and to provide additional radiation safety barriers. In 1980, disposal of the consolidated debris in subsidence craters, formed as a result of underground nuclear testing, was initiated. The waste materials are disposed using conventional landfill techniques where each layer of debris is covered with clean fill before additional waste materials are disposed. The waste is placed to within 3 m of the land surface and backfilled with compacted earthen material to the original grade. Requirements for air sampling, anticontamination, decontamination, and area access control are determined on a site-by-site basis due to the variety of conditions that exist

  8. Site investigations for final disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research concerning disposal of high-level nuclear waste of the Industrial Power Company Ltd has focused on deep underground disposal in Finnish precambrian bedrock. The present target is to have a repository for high-level waste in operation by 2020. Selection of the repository site is based on site investigations. In addition to geosciences, selection of appropriate site includes many branches of studies; engineering, safety analysis, ecology, transport, demography etc. The investigations required for site selection for high-level waste have been arranged in a sequence of four phases. The aim of the phases is that investigations become more and more detailed as the selection process continues. Phase I of the investigations is the characterization of potential areas. This comprises establishment of criteria for site selection and identification of areas that meet selection criteria. Objective of these studies is to determine areas for phase II field investigations. The studies are largely made by reviewing existing data and remote-sensing techniques. Phase II field investigations will be undertaken between 1986-1992. The number of potential candidates for repository site is reduced to few preferred areas by preceeding generic study. The site selection process culminates in phase III in site confirmation studies carried out at 2...3 most suitable sites during 1992-2010. This is then followed by phase IV, which comprises very detailed investigations at the selected site. An alternative for these investigations is to undertake them by using pilot shaft and drifts. Active development is taking place in all phases concerning investigation methods, criteria, parameters, data processing and modelling. The applicability of the various investigation methods and techniques is tested in a deep borehole in phase I. The co-operation with countries with similar geological conditions makes it possible to compare results obtained by different techniques

  9. Preliminary identification of sensitive geologic characteristics in site selection of repository of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the concept similarity of high-level radioactive waste disposal of Switzerland, Japan and China, a performance assessment model of systems of the first disposal repository in China has been set up. Then, by analyzing the sensitivity of 9 geologic parameters in 8 cases, 3 sensitive geologic characteristics have been preliminarily identified. This research project is of certain guiding significance in the site selection of repository of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China at present. (author)

  10. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  11. Siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: The public policy dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book's focus is on one overwhelming problems facing the compacts and states: figuring out where low-level waste disposal sites should be located. The author discusses the central issues underlying this dilemma - authority, trust, risk, justice - and the roles each plays in determining whether the siting processes are regarded as legitimate. The structure of the book provides a mix of narrative, fact and philosophy and adds to the body of well researched information saying that is is not only right but more efficient to develop and implement a just process

  12. Selection of a Site for a Near-Surface Disposal Facility: A Joint Report on Characterization of Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report describes general and safety-relevant environmental conditions of investigated sites and provides an overview of information concerning wastes to be disposed of. Safety relevant design aspects are given in the Project Report on Reference Design for a Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Low-and Intermediate-Level Short-Lived Radioactive Waste in Lithuania. This Report summarizes results of investigations performed during 2003-2005 by a number of researchers and evaluated by RATA. The work was performed by the Institute of Geology and Geography, the Lithuanian Energy Institute, Vilnius University, the Institute of Chemistry, UAB Grota, the Lithuanian Geological Survey, Swedish consultants from Geodevelopment, SKB and SKI-ICP, and generalized by RATA

  13. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  14. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  15. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref

  16. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes At A Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has allowed long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor moisture conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in moisture content presumably in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to normal to above normal precipitation. This tensiometer data can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of the current conceptual model of flow at this site. It also shows that a moisture monitoring system should be effective to rapidly validate that a proposed remedial action (such as placement of an ET cover) would be effective in reducing the moisture movement to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  17. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref.

  18. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  19. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  20. Internal architecture of the proto-Kern Canyon Fault at Engineer's Point, Lake Isabella Dam site, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Z. S.; Andrews, G. D.; Brown, S. R.; Krugh, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The core of the Cretaceous (?) proto-Kern Canyon Fault (KCF) is exposed continuously for 1.25 km along Engineer's Point at Lake Isabella, Kern County, California. The proto-KCF is notable for (1) its long and complex history within, and perhaps preceding the Sierra Nevada batholith, and (2) hosting the Quaternary Kern Canyon Fault, an active fault that threatens the integrity of the Lake Isabella auxiliary dam and surrounding communities. We are investigating the internal architecture of the proto-KCF to explore its control on the likely behavior of the modern KCF. The proto-KCF is developed in the Alta Sierra biotite-granodiorite pluton. A traverse across Engineer's Point, perpendicular to the proto-KCF trace, reveals gradational increases in fracture density, fracture length, bulk alteration, and decreases in fracture spacing and grain size toward the fault core. Mapping of the fault core reveals two prominent and laterally extensive zones: (1) continuous foliated blastomylonitic granodiorite with steeply-dipping, anastomosing shear bands and minor mylonite planes, and (2) foliated orange and green fault breccia with intergranular gouge, strong C/S fabric, and a central gouge plane. The fault breccia zone is intruded by a lensoidal, post-deformation dacite dike, probably ca. 105 - 102 Ma (Nadin & Saleeby, 2008) and is weakly overprinted by a set of cross-cutting spaced, short, brittle fractures, often coated in calcite, which we infer to be genetically related to the modern KCF. We present our structural and lithological data that will be supported by mineralogical and geochemical analyses. E. Nadin & J. Saleeby (2008) Disruption of regional primary structure of the Sierra Nevada batholith by the Kern Canyon fault system, California: Geological Society of America Special Paper 438, p. 429-454.

  1. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site Grand Junction, Colorado: Audit date, August 9--11, 1993. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Jim Hylko and Bill James of the TAC conducted this audit August 9 through 11, 1993. Bob Cornish and Frank Bosiljevec represented the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents one programmatic finding, eleven site-specific observations, one good practice, and four programmatic observations.

  2. Recovery of low-level radioactive-waste packages from deep-ocean disposal sites, September 1990. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the techniques to recover low-level radioactive waste packages from three deep-ocean disposal sites: Atlantic 3800-meter and the Pacific (Farallon Islands) 900-meter. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the submersibles ALVIN and PISCES VI is described. Considerations for future waste disposal and recovery techniques are provided

  3. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  4. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçioğlu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-01-01

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights. PMID:20303733

  5. Preliminary safety studies on a French candidate granite site for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general orientations for ANDRA have been defined by the law of 1991. It is specified that ANDRA has to assess, by the year 2006, the feasibility of deep geological disposal of long-lived waste. This will be performed on the basis of research and development work using at least two underground research laboratories, on different sites, to be built starting in 1998. Granite under sedimentary cover is one of the two types of geological medium which is under consideration at the present time. Several phases have been set up. The first one, until 1997, concerns the defining of a draft disposal concept. Efforts are being developed within this phase to determine the roles of each barrier within the disposal system. The second phase will include several iterative safety assessments using the results obtained from underground laboratories. This paper will deal with two major subjects: the preliminary description of the reference scenario for the normal evolution on a French granite site; and an application of the performance allocation method, using OASIS, which is a simplified safety computational tool developed for this purpose. (author)

  6. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover

  7. The characterization of spent fuel to be shipped to a disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designs of various components within the spent fuel disposal system are heavily influenced by the characteristics of the products they are going to receive. The storage and disposal facilities are required to estimate the thermal loading on their facilities from the receipt of various quantities of spent fuel. The anticipated thermal loading of the facility feeds directly into the receiving and processing designs and media stress and deformation calculations. In addition to the design of the various facilities, the design of the transportation fleet required to deliver the spent fuel will be directly affected. The quantity of fuel that may be contained within various cask designs are a direct function of the thermal output of the transported fuel. An accurate projection of the thermal characteristics of the spent fuel to be shipped to a given disposal site is of prime importance for ongoing design and planning activities. A logistics code has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) to analyze the interaction of the various facilities within the nuclear waste disposal system. This program tracks spent fuel discharges (historic and projected) from a given reactor fuel basin through a series of facilities that includes Federal Interim Storage (FIS), Fuel Reprocessing Plants (FRP), Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS), and Mined Geologic Disposal (MGD). The characteristics of the inventory at each of these facilities during any given year is available from the analysis. The majority of the input supplied to the logistics analysis is derived from the DOE Spent Fuel Data Base currently being maintained at PNL. The logistics model utilizing both historic and projected discharges was used to analyze the characteristics of spent fuel to be shipped to a proposed MGD facility or facilities

  8. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover.

  9. The significance of natural ground-water recharge in site selection for mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milling operations throughout the world have created vast amounts of waste by-products, or tailings, which are often disposed on the land surface. The wastes may be disposed behind dams, on untreated ground, or on compacted clay or synthetic liners of impoundments and trenches. Often one of the principle concerns of environmental regulatory agencies is whether seepage from the waste pile could move through the vadose zone to the water table and possibly contaminate an aquifer. The seepage may be generated by the drainage of liquids initially deposited along with the tailings or by infiltrating meteoric water which leaches soluted from the tailings. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the commonly held assumptions regarding storage of seepage wastes in the unsaturated zone. The significance of recent studies of water movement in dry climates which pertain to tailings site selection are presented

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  11. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  12. Selection criteria for a radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program commenced in 1978 to select a suitable site for the disposal of nuclear waste in South Africa. This entailed the examination of a variety of socio-economic and earthscience related parameters over large parts of South Africa. The site selection program, for which the Geology Department of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) (previously the Nuclear Development Corporation (NUCOR)) accepted responsibility, commenced with an initial screening phase and led to the identification of potentially suitable areas by mid 1980. A site suitability phase involving regional, and subsequently detailed socio-economic, geological, geohydrological and geophysical studies in the areas identified by the screening phase was completed in December 1982. As a result of very positive indications that the district of Namaqualand was the most suitable candidate area it was possible, after further detailed investigations, to identify and purchase a site judged to be suitable for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste by February 1983. The area acquired measures some 10 000ha in extent and is situated 100km southeast of Springbok in the northwestern Cape and 600km north of the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town

  13. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  14. Studies on environmental geology of the northwest disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northwest Disposal Site is used for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes in China. There are no poor geological phenomena in the site. The site has favorable engineering geological conditions. There is no phreatic water in the Quaternary sediments. The depth of confined water level in the Tertiary sediments is relatively deep. The groundwater recharge, runoff and discharge conditions are ascertained. Actual flow rate, direction, dispersity and dispersion coefficients of groundwater are achieved by the dispersion tests. The coefficient of unsaturated permeability of the rocks and soils of the site are obtained by research of the aerated zone. Rocks and soils of the site have higher exchangeable Ca2+. They with effectually adsorb and retard the 63Ni and 239Pu. There are many favourable environmental geological conditions at the Northwest Disposal Site. The site will provide effective natural barriers for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

  15. EXAMPLE OF A RISK-BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL: SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP

  16. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  17. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  18. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions

  19. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the comments made by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. DOE's responses to the comments are also included

  20. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  1. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  2. Radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK: site selection, geological and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK Nirex is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its investigation work at a site owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd near Sellafield. Planning permission was sought in 1994 for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at the site. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in the 34 chapters of this book and separate abstracts have been written for each contribution. (UK)

  3. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Organic contaminant release from a mixed waste disposal site: A computer simulation study of transport through the vadose zone and site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of organic contaminants from mixed waste disposal sites is emerging as a increasingly significant environmental problem. Organic contaminants, particularly in the vapor phase, can pose a health hazard to workers in the vicinity of the disposal site and can cause contamination of the underlying aquifer. Volatile organic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene are frequently encountered at waste sites. These chlorinated hydrocarbons are relatively common chemicals and widely used as industrial solvents. Problems with organic vapors have been noted at waste disposal sites at a number of US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, for example, problems with organic vapors (Laney, et al., 1988) have occurred at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Analyses of soil-gas samples and groundwater samples indicate that organic vapors are being emitted from disposal pits in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the RWMC. The primary source of the organic vapor has been determined to be organic wastes that were disposed at the site in the mid-1960's. To address the organic problems at the RWMC, a multi-task activity was initiated. The first task involved a records search to determine the quantities and distribution of organic wastes. The second task consisted of a detailed soil-gas survey to identify the specific disposal areas that are producing the organic vapors

  5. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  6. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 543 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2007). CAU 543 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (Figure 1), and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping; and CAS 06-07-01 is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, adjacent to Yucca Lake. The remaining CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm in Area 15. The purpose of this CR is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present analytical data confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place for two of the CASs, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs.

  8. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; and preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. This does not represent the entire body of data available. Other types of information are archived at BHI Document Control. Five ground water monitoring wells were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site to directly investigate site- specific hydrogeologic conditions. Well and borehole activity summaries are presented in Volume 1. Field borehole logs and geophysical data from the drilling are presented in this document. Well development and pump installation sheets are presented for the groundwater monitoring wells. Other data presented in this document include borehole geophysical logs from existing wells; chemical data from the sampling of soil, vegetation, and mammals from the ERDF to support the preoperational baseline; ERDF surface radiation surveys;a nd aquifer testing data for well 699-32-72B

  9. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  10. Deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in France: The volunteering approach in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Waste Act of December 1991 set up important dispositions among which the deep disposal of long-lived waste should be evaluated before 2006. ANDRA, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, is particularly responsible for the siting, the construction and the operation of underground laboratories designed to study potential geologic host-formations for deep disposal. An open decision-making process started up in 1992, specially to restore the public confidence after strong contest in the early 1990. The mission of negotiation conducted in 1993 all over the country by the appointed Member of Parliament, Mr. Bataille, allowed volunteer candidates for the siting surveyed by ANDRA in 1994 and 1995. Four areas are presently under characterization investigations, proceeding with the first phase of the underground laboratory program with the objective of choosing two sites for two underground laboratories. France is now entering a new and very important phase on the long path towards the creation of an underground repository where public's understanding and acceptance is an important part of the overall process as it is shown in this paper

  11. Ecotoxicological screen of Potential Release Site 50-006(d) of Operable Unit 1147 of Mortandad Canyon and relationship to the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential ecological risk associated with soil contaminants in Potential Release Site (PRS) 50-006(d) of Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was assessed by performing an ecotoxicological risk screen. The PRS surrounds Outfall 051, which discharges treated effluent from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Discharge at the outfall is permitted under the Clean Water Act National Pollution Discharge Elimination System. Radionuclide discharge is regulated by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5. Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALSs) were computed for nonradionuclide constituents in the soil, and human risk SALs for radionuclides were used as ESALs. Within the PRS and beginning at Outfall 051, soil was sampled at three points along each of nine linear transects at 100-ft intervals. Soil samples from 3 depths for each sampling point were analyzed for the concentration of a total of 121 constituents. Only the results of the surface sampling are reported in this report

  12. Ecotoxicological screen of Potential Release Site 50-006(d) of Operable Unit 1147 of Mortandad Canyon and relationship to the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Newell, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    Potential ecological risk associated with soil contaminants in Potential Release Site (PRS) 50-006(d) of Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was assessed by performing an ecotoxicological risk screen. The PRS surrounds Outfall 051, which discharges treated effluent from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Discharge at the outfall is permitted under the Clean Water Act National Pollution Discharge Elimination System. Radionuclide discharge is regulated by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5. Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALSs) were computed for nonradionuclide constituents in the soil, and human risk SALs for radionuclides were used as ESALs. Within the PRS and beginning at Outfall 051, soil was sampled at three points along each of nine linear transects at 100-ft intervals. Soil samples from 3 depths for each sampling point were analyzed for the concentration of a total of 121 constituents. Only the results of the surface sampling are reported in this report.

  13. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  14. Low-Level Waste Overview of the Nevada Test Site Waste Disposal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview and the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Operational changes have been implemented, such as larger trench sizes and more efficient soil management as have administrative processes to address U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Code of Federal Regulation analyses. Some adverse conditions have prompted changes in transportation and mixed low-level waste polices, and a new funding mechanism was developed. This year has seen many changes to the NTS disposal family. (authors)

  15. Long term evolution of waste disposal sites: scenario selection and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety analysis of long term radioactive waste disposal projects must take into account the evolution of the sites natural environment. The present paper aims at reassessing some questions relating to the methods and to some lack of knowledge which may appear when we try to forecast such evolutions and their results, and to some solutions that can be considered. We will particularly discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the deterministic approaches and the construction and working out of scenarios. The presentation is illustrated by reference to recent examples. 5 refs., 6 figs

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to

  17. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Application of Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling for Optimization of Maintenance Studies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration of the Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose defense-generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed radioactive waste, and ''classified waste'' in shallow trenches and pits. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated by the DOE under DOE Order 435.1. This Order requires formal review of a performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA; assessment of all interacting radiological sources) for each LLW disposal system followed by an active maintenance program that extends through and beyond the site closure program. The Nevada disposal facilities continue to receive NTS-generated LLW and defense-generated LLW from across the DOE complex. The PA/CAs for the sites have been conditionally approved and the facilities are now under a formal maintenance program that requires testing of conceptual models, quantifying and attempting to reduce uncertainty, and implementing confirmatory and long-term background monitoring, all leading to eventual closure of the disposal sites. To streamline and reduce the cost of the maintenance program, the NNSA/NV is converting the deterministic PA/CAs to probabilistic models using GoldSim, a probabilistic simulation computer code. The output of probabilistic models will provide expanded information supporting long-term decision objectives of the NTS disposal sites

  19. Feasibility study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In July 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations to comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the remediation of the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. EPA, Waste Management Branch, had approved a closure plan in December 1989 for the UNC Disposal Site. This feasibility study (FS) is a fully satisfy the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) requirements for support of the selection of a remedial response for closure of the UNC Disposal Site. For two years the UNC Disposal Site accepted and disposed of waste from the decommissioning of a UNC uranium recovery facility in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Between June 1982 and November 1984, the UNC Disposal Site received 11,000 55-gal drums of sludge fixed in cement, 18,000 drums of contaminated soil, and 288 wooden boxes of contaminated building and process demolition materials. The FS assembles a wide range of remedial technologies so the most appropriate actions could be selected to remediate potential contamination to below MCLs and/or to below the maximum level of acceptable risk. Technologies were evaluated based on technical effectiveness, ease of implementation, and costs. Applicable technologies were then selected for alternative development. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Feasibility study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations to comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the remediation of the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. EPA, Waste Management Branch, had approved a closure plan in December 1989 for the UNC Disposal Site. This feasibility study (FS) is a fully satisfy the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) requirements for support of the selection of a remedial response for closure of the UNC Disposal Site. For two years the UNC Disposal Site accepted and disposed of waste from the decommissioning of a UNC uranium recovery facility in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Between June 1982 and November 1984, the UNC Disposal Site received 11,000 55-gal drums of sludge fixed in cement, 18,000 drums of contaminated soil, and 288 wooden boxes of contaminated building and process demolition materials. The FS assembles a wide range of remedial technologies so the most appropriate actions could be selected to remediate potential contamination to below MCLs and/or to below the maximum level of acceptable risk. Technologies were evaluated based on technical effectiveness, ease of implementation, and costs. Applicable technologies were then selected for alternative development. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs

  1. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. PMID:25002369

  2. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from the Port of Santos and the disposal sites of dredged material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduinetty Ceci P. M. Sousa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dredging of sediments from the Santos Channel is necessary to allow the navigation of ships operating in the Port of Santos. The disposal sites for such sediments are situated on the coastal zone, in front of the Santos Bay. The present paper aimed at evaluating the toxicity of sediments collected at the Santos Channel and at the former and current sediment disposal sites. Whole sediment tests with amphipods and elutriate assays with sea-urchin embryos were used. The samples from the Santos Channel were considered the most toxic: all the sediment samples from this area showed toxicity. Moreover, some samples from both former and new sediment disposal sites exhibited toxicity. Therefore, results showed that sediments from the studied areas present evidences of degradation; however, further studies are required to determine relationships between toxicity and contamination. Results also suggested that the disposal of dredged sediments should be re-evaluated.A dragagem dos sedimentos do Canal de Santos é necessária para permitir o trânsito de navios que operam no Porto de Santos. As áreas de disposição do material dragado estão situadas na zona costeira, em frente à Baía de Santos. Este estudo visou avaliar a qualidade dos sedimentos do Canal de Santos e das áreas de disposição atuais e antigas, utilizando testes de toxicidade de sedimento integral com anfípodos e de toxicidade de elutriatos com embriões de ouriço do mar. As amostras do Canal de Santos foram consideradas as mais tóxicas: todas as amostras dessa área foram consideradas significativamente tóxicas. Além disso, algumas amostras das áreas de disposição exibiram toxicidade. Os resultados mostraram, portanto, que os sedimentos apresentam evidências de degradação em sua qualidade, porém novos estudos devem ser conduzidos visando determinar as relações entre contaminação e toxicidade. Os resultados sugerem ainda que a disposição dos sedimentos dragados

  3. Estimation of distribution coefficient for uranium in soil around a waste disposal site at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination arising from the disposed waste from industrial origin is of major concern now a days. There is a possibility of run off as well as Ieaching of contaminants from the sites to nearby aquatic bodies through rain water. Distribution coefficient, Kd in soil is an important parameter to predict the migration of contaminants. However it requires precise measurement not only for the accurate prediction of contaminant transport but also for describing the sorption behavior in a particular environment. The variation of Kd values for a radionuclide is due to differences in geochemical conditions, soil materials, nature of water and methods used for the measurements. For the present study soil samples have been collected near a waste disposal site at Trombay and the sorption of uranium has been studied by measuring the distribution coefficient (Kd) by laboratory batch method. In our earlier studies, we could notice substantial effect of ionic composition of ground water on the Kd values of uranium. In this study we have used rain water as the sorption media and the measured Kd value s were compared with previous values for different soil and water characteristics from different regions of India

  4. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  5. Region-scale groundwater flow modelling of generic high level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional-scale groundwater flow modelling analyses are performed on generic high level waste (HLW) disposal sites to assess the extent to which a large crystalline rock mass such as a pluton or batholith can be expected to contain and isolate HLW in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a variety of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The two-dimensional cross-sectional conceptual models of generic HLW disposal sites are evaluated using SWIFT III, which is a finite-difference flow and transport code. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data and information on geological and hydrogeologic conditions in plutons and batholiths are summarized. The generic conceptual models developed from this information are defined in terms of the finite difference grid, the geologic and hydrogeologic properties and the hydrologic boundary conditions used. The modelled results are described with contour maps showing the modelled head fields, groundwater flow paths and travel times and groundwater flux rates within the modelled systems. The results of the modelling analyses are used to develop general conclusions on the scales and patterns of groundwater flow in granitic plutons and batholiths. The conclusions focus on geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics that can result in favourable conditions, in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a HLW repository. (author) 43 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  6. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater. PMID:26586231

  8. The Canadian approach to site characterization for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the concept of deep disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock. One of the main objectives of the geoscience research programme is to develop and evaluate methods for characterizing potential disposal sites to assess their long term safety. Demonstrations of the successful use of site characterization methods and the successful application of predictive models to real situations are an important component of the programme. A comparison of structural interpretations, based on surface mapping and gravity modelling, with the results from cored boreholes in a gabbroic pluton showed that there was reasonable agreement and that inferences about gross characteristics were not changed substantially when detailed mapping followed reconnaissance mapping. A more complex comparison of groundwater response in the volume of rock surrounding the shaft of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory, as simulated by a three-dimensional groundwater flow model, with measured responses at 171 measuring points during shaft construction showed a generally good agreement. The rate of groundwater inflow to the shaft was overpredicted by a factor of three. (author)

  9. Radiochemical studies in support of the low level waste ocean disposal program (East Coast Site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the final year of field work for the Low Level Waste Ocean Disposal program. The goal of the work has been to describe the extent and rates of scavenging of naturally occurring radionuclides at the Bettis east coast site. In order to characterize the extent of chemical removal of radionuclides from the oceanic water column, data are required on the partitioning between particles and solution, on the fluxes of particles (and radionuclides) through the water column, and on the amount (or inventory) of nuclide accumulated in bottom sediment at the site. This information was collected through analyses of samples taken with in situ pumps, sediment traps and gravity and box cores

  10. Estimation of the effect of concentration mixing among waste materials in the disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of nuclei at the disposal sites where plurality of waste materials coexist, should be eliminated. The effect of concentration mixing depends on the relative direction of the tunnel and the flow of underground water. It is important to understand this effect for the evaluation of conventional models for near-field transportation of nuclei. A site with some tens of tunnels was assumed. Migration effects are calculated using three-dimensional groundwater permeation and material transport analysis code (TR3D), with the angle of tunnel direction and the ground water direction as a parameter. A more precise estimation of concentration mixing was made using three-dimensional finite element method nuclear transport analysis code (MIGR96), taking into account the adsorption and decay of nuclei, permeation from artificial barrier, and concentration mixing with basement rocks, (A. Yamamoto)

  11. Development of radiological impact assessments for the Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg low-level waste disposal site has developed from simple trenches cut in clay, accepting loosely tipped waste, to an engineered vault constructed of reinforced concrete receiving containerised waste. The paper describes the associated development of the radiological impact assessments and how those assessments have been influenced by the development of legislation and Government policy. The current deterministic risk assessment is described and the major conclusions presented. The successor to this model is based on a 3-D network approach to the representation of site specific engineering and geological features, with compartmental modelling of the biosphere. The development of this model, which will be used in deterministic and probabilistic modes for the next assessment, is described. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, W H; Kirby, L J

    1987-02-01

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow. PMID:3818287

  13. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow

  14. Ground water flow simulations in the saturated zone of the LIL waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment of the Saligny site proposed for LIL waste disposal requests reliable models for contaminant transport and dispersion through the geological formations and aquifers. The modelling of vadose zone of the Saligny site was completed successfully. The modelling efforts are continuously combined with the experimental work in order to achieve a reliable model of the saturated zone. Successive simulations of water flow in steady-state and transient conditions as well as the existing experimental in field data led to a more accurate image of the main aquifer hydrogeology for the modelled zone, quite different than the initial concept. According to the new simulations, good predictions of the water heads can be achieved for an incoming flux of 0.003 kg/s applied on the south-east side and for a discharge on the north and north-east side. (authors)

  15. Palaeomagnetism of major rock units surrounding the Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaeomagnetic measurements were made on the major rock units in the area surrounding the Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in the north-western Cape, South Africa. This study formed part of the structural evaluation during the site-suitability investigations. Three of the five rock units sampled yielded significantly grouped magnetization directions. Northward rotation of the Garies Terrane with respect to the Okiep Terrane about the Buffels River Shear Zone is postulated by comparing virtual geomagnetic pole positions of equivalent rock units on either side of this transcurrent fault. Thrust faulting in the Vaalputs area is tentatively dated at approximately 1 000 Ma by comparing the antipole obtained in the hanging wall rocks with that yielded by the Port Edward charnockite. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  17. Slope and bank erosional stability of the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, UMTRA disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comments received in a letter of 8 March 1994. This letter included discussions of the US Department of Energy (DOE) 21 May 1993 geomorphic report for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, site. To clarify the NRC's position, a DOE/NRC conference call was held on 12 April 1994. The NRC clarified that it did not require a preliminary erosion protection design for the Canonsburg site, but directed the DOE to address a ''one-bad-year'' scenario. The NRC wants confirmation that one bad year of stream flooding and landsliding will not release residual radioactive material (RRM) from the Canonsburg site into the creek. The NRC is concerned that a bad year theoretically could occur between postcell-closure inspections. These annual inspections are conducted in September or October. The NRC suggested that the following procedures should be conducted in this analysis: a flooding analysis, including the maximum saturation levels (flood water elevations) anticipated during a 100-year flood; a stream bank erosion analysis to determine how much of the bank adjacent to the site may be removed in a bad year; a slope stability analysis to determine how far back the site would be disturbed by slope instability that could be triggered by a bad year of stream bank erosion; and a ''critical cross section'' study to show the relationship of the RRM located outside the disposal cell to the maximum computer estimated erosion/landslide activity

  18. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the first in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the text (Appendices A through G). Volume 2 provides raw data. A site located between 200 East and 200 West Areas, in the central portion of the Hanford Site, was selected as the prime location for the ERDF. Modifications to the facility design minimize the footprint and have resulted in a significant reduction in the areal size. This change was initiated in part as a response to recommendations of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group to limit waste management activities to an exclusive zone within the squared-off boundary of the 200 Areas. Additionally, the reduction in size of the footprint was initiated to minimize impacts to ecology. The ERDF is designed for disposal of remediation wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site and could be expanded to hold as much as 28 million yd3 (21.4 million m3) of solid waste

  19. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  20. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns

  1. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  2. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  3. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method

  4. Measuring and modeling high-resolution topographic change at archaeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Corbett, S. C.; Fairley, H. C.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion of archaeological sites within Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) Arizona, located in the southwestern United States is a subject of continuing interest to land and resource managers. This is partly fueled by an ongoing debate about whether and to what degree controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of GCNP, are affecting the physical integrity of archaeological sites. Long-term topographic change due to natural sources is typical in the desert southwest region. However, continuing erosion, which may be related in-part to anthropogenic factors, threatens both the preservation of archaeological sites as well as our ability to study evidence of past human habitation in GCNP that dates back at least 8,000 years before present. To quantitatively identify changes to archaeological sites in this region, and with the broader intention of developing numerical models to predict how and under what circumstances dam-controlled flows influence archaeological sites, we undertook a detailed terrestrial-lidar based monitoring program at thirteen sites between 2006 and 2010. Our studies looked specifically at sites located along the Colorado River that are potentially subject to changes related to dam operations. This could occur, for example, by limited sediment supply to sand bars which in turn contribute aeolian sediment to archaeologic sites. Each site was several hundred to several thousand square meters in size and was surveyed multiple times during the 5-year period. Our monitoring program shows how various data registration and georeferencing techniques result in varying degrees of topographic surface model accuracy. For example, surveys performed between 2006 and 2007 used point cloud registration methods and resulted in estimated change detection thresholds of 8 cm between repeat surveys. In 2010, surveys at the same sites used control point registration methods and resulted in estimated change detection thresholds of 3 cm. Error

  5. Use of Modeling for the Prevention of Solids Formation During Canyon Processing of Legacy Nuclear Materials at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Management (EM) nuclear material stabilization program includes the dissolution and processing of legacy materials from various DOE sites. The SRS canyon facilities were designed to dissolve and process spent nuclear fuel and targets. As the processing of typical materials is completed, unusual and exotic nuclear materials are being targeted for stabilization. These unusual materials are often difficult to dissolve using historical flowsheet conditions and require more aggressive dissolver solutions. Solids must be prevented in the dissolver to avoid expensive delays associated with the build-up of insoluble material in downstream process equipment. Moreover, it is vital to prevent precipitation of all solids, especially plutonium-bearing solids, since their presence in dissolver solutions raises criticality safety issues. To prevent precipitation of undesirable solids in aqueous process solutions, the accuracy of computer models to predict precipitate formation requires incorporation of plant specific fundamental data. These data are incorporated into a previously developed thermodynamic computer program that applies the Pitzer correlation to derive activity coefficient parameters. This improved predictive model will reduce unwanted precipitation in process solutions at DOE sites working with EM nuclear materials in aqueous solutions

  6. A study of isotope hydrology on environmental hydrogeological assessment of a disposal site for contaminated industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describes geological-hydrogeological conditions of a disposal site for contaminated industrial wastes. Some new methods in the field of isotope hydrology such as hydrochemical method, environmental isotopic techniques (tritium, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in waters) and radioisotopic single borehole tracing techniques were applied to investigate the groundwater movement in the area. The sources of Quaternary pore phreatic water and Tertiary red bed pore-fissure water have been distinguished and groundwater flow rate and flow direction under the disposal site have been measured and determined. The obtained data show that the movement of groundwater is not hydraulically related to surface water. The disposal of contaminated industrial wastes will not cause the pollution of surface water through groundwater migration. The above-mentioned information demonstrates that the geological and hydrogeological environments are safe and reliable for disposing contaminated industrial wastes

  7. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  8. Examining guidelines for the site selection for geological disposal. Research activities principle for future risk assessment and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A draft for the committee in charge of nuclear safety regulations regarding geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities is presented. The report particularly concerns with a line of policy or principle at the stage of investigation activities for the site selection and site characterization. IAEA guidelines are consulted. (S. Ohno)

  9. Proposed Plan for an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Department of Energy (Tri- Parties) are proposing an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision (ERDF ROD). EPA is the lead regulatory agency for the ERDF Project. This Proposed Plan includes two elements intended to promote Hanford Site cleanup activities by broadening utilization and operation of ERDF as follows: (1) Construct the planned Phase II of ERDF using the current disposal cell design and (2) enable centralized treatment of remediation waste at ERDF prior to disposal, as appropriate

  10. Design of geo-metadata in GIS for pre-selected disposal site of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information system for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste aims at the integrated management and full application of multi-source information in the research for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The establishment and operation of the system need geo-metadata's support for multi-source information. In this paper, on the basis of geo-data analysis for pre-selected disposal site of high-level radioactive waste, we can apply the existing geo-metadata standards. Also we can research and design the content information, management pattern and application for geo-metadata of the multi-source information. (authors)

  11. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report

  12. Greater confinement disposal of high activity and special case wastes at the Nevada Test Site: A unified migration assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Field Office has disposed of a small quantity of high activity and special case wastes using Greater Confinement Disposal facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. Because some of these wastes are transuranic radioactive wastes, the Environmental Protection Agency standards for their disposal under 40 CFR Part 191 which requires a compliance assessment. In conducting the 40 CFR Part 191 compliance assessment, review of the Greater Confinement Disposal inventory revealed potentially land disposal restricted hazardous wastes. The regulatory options for disposing of land disposal restricted wastes consist of (1) treatment and monitoring, or (2) developing a no-migration petition. Given that the waste is already buried without treatment, a no-migration petition becomes the primary option. Based on a desire to minimize costs associated with site characterization and performance assessment, a single approach has been developed for assessing compliance with 40 CFR Part 191, DOE Order 5820.2A (which regulates low-level radioactive wastes contained in Greater Confinement Disposal facilities) and developing a no-migration petition. The approach consists of common points of compliance, common time frame for analysis, and common treatment of uncertainty. The procedure calls for conservative bias of modeling assumptions, including model input parameter distributions and adverse processes and events that can occur over the regulatory time frame, coupled with a quantitative treatment of data and parameter uncertainty. This approach provides a basis for a defensible regulatory decision. In addition, the process is iterative between modeling and site characterization activities, where the need for site characterization activities is based on a quantitative definition of the most important and uncertain parameters or assumptions

  13. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960's through 1990's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the time period covered in this report (1960's through early 1990's), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site's general design, (2) each site's inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site's chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington

  14. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. ► However, the reduction cannot be sustained. ► Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006–2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  15. Radionuclide characterization, migration and monitoring at a commercial low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is being studied to characterize the physico-chemical forms of the radionuclides and their behaviour during migration in groundwaters. Environmental monitoring studies are also in progress to identify and assess migration pathways of the radionuclides. At the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site, mobile species of various radionuclides have migrated short distances on-site (metres to tens of metres) from the trenches. Plutonium is migrating as a soluble anionic complex in the Pu(III) and Pu(IV) oxidation states. Empirical evidence suggests that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) contained in the trench water has formed strong organic complexes with plutonium and 60Co, thereby increasing their mobility. Mobile forms of 90Sr and 137Cs are associated with a variety of polar organic species, e.g. carboxylic acids. Environmental monitoring studies at the Maxey Flats site are assessing surface contamination and biological monitoring techniques that can be used for long-term surveillance. Deciduous forests growing near the Maxey Flats site offer the potential to detect the migration of radionuclides, particularly tritium, occurring by subterranean flow from the waste trenches if the flow is within the rooting depth of the trees. (author)

  16. Radionuclide characterization, migration, and monitoring at a commercial low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is being studied to characterize the physicochemical forms of the radionuclides and their behavior during migration in ground waters. Environmental monitoring studies are also in progress to identify and assess migration pathways of the radionuclides. At the Maxey Flats, Kentucky low-level waste burial site, mobile species of various radionuclides have migrated short distances on-site (meters to tens of meters) from the trenches. Plutonium is migrating as a soluble anionic complex in the Pu(III) and Pu(IV) oxidation states. Empirical evidence suggests that EDTA contained in the trench water has formed strong organic complexes with plutonium and 60Co, thereby increasing their mobility. Mobile forms of 90Sr and 137Cs are associated with a variety of polar organic species, e.g. carboxylic acids. Environmental monitoring studies at the Maxey Flats site are assessing surface contamination and biological monitoring techniques which can be used for long-term surveillance. Deciduous forests growing near the Maxey Flats site offer the potential to detect the migration of radionuclides, particularly tritium, occurring by subterranean flow from the waste trenches of the flow is within the rooting depth of the trees

  17. Distribution of plutonium and americium beneath a 33-year-old liquid waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Pu, 241Am, and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as the previous field and laboratory studies of radionuclide migration performed at this site. One of the absorption beds studied had 20.5 m of water added to it in 1961 in an aggressive attempt to change the distribution of radionuclides in the tuff beneath the bed. Plutonium and 241Am were detected to sampling depths of 30 m in this bed, but only found to depths of 6.5 to 13.41 m in an adjacent absorption bed (bed 2) not receiving additional water in 1961. After 17 yr of migration of the slug water added to bed 1, 0.3 to 5.1% of the Pu inventory and 3.0 to 49.6% of the 241Am inventory was mobilized within the 30-m sampling depth, as less than one column volume of water moved through the tuff profile under the bed. The results of similar lab and field studies performed since 1953 were compared with our 1978 data and site hydrologic data was used as a time marker to estimate how fast radionuclide migration occurred in the tuff beneath absorption bed 1. Most of the radionuclide migration appeared to have occurred within 1 yr of the 20.5-m water leaching in 1961. 16 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  18. Botanical aspects of the ecological integrity of a radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botanical factors play a key role in maintaining the long term integrity of ecosystems. The results of botanical research at the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site in Bushmanland, South Africa, are outlined. Vaalputs is in an arid region and its vegetation is a patchy mosaic of low shrub and grass communities. Soil variation from site to site is the main determinant of community structure and erratic precipitation is a major stochastic forcing factor. Management measures to conserve taxa, ecosystems and local genetic biogeography are discussed in relation to natural and artificial disturbances which may occur over long time-scales. Restoration of vegetation over the burial trenches should as far as possible be to the site's former ecotypes except that deep-rooted species should be excluded. Precautions should be taken against the accidental establishment of exotic plant invaders at Vaalputs especially if they are deep-rooted. More is now known about plant ecology at Vaalputs than any other part of Bushmanland. It would be valuable to develop such studies further and establish Vaalputs as a permanent reserve for arid-zone biological research

  19. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  20. An overview of international siting programmes for radioactive waste disposal facilities: Possible lessons for Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this short report is to examine methodologies used in countries other than Sweden which are following a process of site selection for nuclear waste management and disposal facilities. It is planned here to identify possible countries and methodologies which may offer the authorities in Sweden suggestions for the future, and it is hoped that further work, possibly involving in-country visits and detailed reviews will follow. The end result of this exercise is to learn from the efforts (successes and/or mistakes) of other countries, thereby enabling Sweden to pursue a siting policy which involves as many stakeholders as possible, resulting in a programme which Swedish citizens can feel they truly own. First, the classification of siting methodologies is reviewed, both those of the past and those currently in use. Examples from programmes around the world are given. The distinction between Public Involvement and Public Participation in the siting process is discussed, in light of the programmes reviewed. Methodologies worthy of further study for adaptation to the Swedish situation are then highlighted in the context of a general discussion of the issues raised. Finally, a series of recommendations as to further investigations are given, which could be carried out as a part of this project. Particular methodologies in particular countries and their relevance to the Swedish situation are discussed. 66 refs

  1. 1983 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1983 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 76,702 m3 of radioactive waste containing 505,340 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1983. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is tabulated. Typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector are given. Predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector are tabulated. Sometimes the amount of waste reported by power facilities is equal to or exceeds the state volume reported from commercial disposal site operators. Discrepancies may be a result of waste volumes being credited to the home state of the waste broker instead of the actual state location of the generator. Additionally, waste volumes may have been in transit from the generator to the disposal site at year's end. The Low-Level Waste Management Program felt a responsibility to report information accurately from the various sources, so did not alter the figures to make them balance

  2. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock - Kivetty site report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Kivetty. The bedrock of Kivetty belongs to the large Svecofennian granitoid complex of central Finland, about 1880 million years in age. The most common rock type is porphyritic granodiorite, which is cut by younger medium-grained granodiorite and porphyritic or even-grained granite. Minor bodies of gabbro, older than the porphyritic granodiorite, are also present. The granitoids show evidence of two deformation phases. Altogether 29 bedrock 'structures' (R-structures) have been modelled at the investigation site, most of them representing steeply dipping fracture zones. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed 'intact rock', which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 1.3-10-6 m2/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock, measured using a 2 m packer interval is 4*10-11 m2/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found for the intact rock, and there seems to be a parallel decrease in the transmissivity of structures. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater of Kivetty is classified as fresh water and the

  3. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock - Romuvaara site report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [Fortum Engineering Oy (Finland); Ahokas, H. [Fintact Oy (Finland); Front, K. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Romuvaara. The bedrock of Romuvaara belongs to the Archean basement complex, whose oldest parts date back over 2800 million years. The bedrock consists mainly of migmatitic banded gneisses (tonalite, leucotonalite and mica gneiss), which are cut by granodiorite and metadiabase dykes. The rocks, excluding the metadiabase, have undergone a polyphase Archaean deformation. Altogether 31 bedrock structures (R-structures) have been modelled at the investigation site, most of them representing steeply dipping fracture zones. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed `intact rock`, which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 1.6 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock measured using a 2 m packer interval is 8 x 10{sup -12} m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found, for both the R-structures and the intact rock. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater of Romuvaara is classified as fresh water and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and chloride contents increase with depth. The chemically

  4. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock - Romuvaara site report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Romuvaara. The bedrock of Romuvaara belongs to the Archean basement complex, whose oldest parts date back over 2800 million years. The bedrock consists mainly of migmatitic banded gneisses (tonalite, leucotonalite and mica gneiss), which are cut by granodiorite and metadiabase dykes. The rocks, excluding the metadiabase, have undergone a polyphase Archaean deformation. Altogether 31 bedrock structures (R-structures) have been modelled at the investigation site, most of them representing steeply dipping fracture zones. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed 'intact rock', which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 1.6 x 10-7 m2/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock measured using a 2 m packer interval is 8 x 10-12 m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found, for both the R-structures and the intact rock. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater of Romuvaara is classified as fresh water and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and chloride contents increase with depth. The chemically most evolved

  5. ACCELERATED PILOT PROJECT FOR U CANYON DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KEHLER KL

    2011-01-13

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is underway on a first-of-a-kind project with the decommissioning and demolition of the U Canyon. Following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Record of Decision for the final remediation of the canyon, CH2M HILL is combining old and new technology and techniques to prepare U Canyon for demolition. The selected remedial action called first for consolidating and grouting equipment currently in the canyon into lower levels of the plant (openings called cells), after which the cell galleries, hot pipe trench, ventilation tunnel, drains and other voids below the operating deck and crane-way deck levels will be filled with approximately 20,000 cubic yards of grout and the canyon roof and walls demolished down to the approximate level of the canyon deck. The remaining canyon structure will then be buried beneath an engineered barrier designed to control potential contaminant migration for a 500-year life. Methods and lessons learned from this project will set the stage for the future demolition of Hanford's four other canyon-type processing facilities.

  6. Message development for surface markers at the Hanford Radwaste Disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1984-12-31

    At the Hanford Reservation in Washington, there are sites which received liquid and solid transuranic wastes from the late 1940`s until 1970. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) is investigating the feasibility of several options for the permanent disposal of these wastes. One option is to stabilize the wastes in their present locations and to add barriers to minimize water infiltration and root penetration into the wastes. This report forms part of the project to develop a marking system for transuranic wastes on the Hanford Reservation. The focus of this report is the development of the message system to appear on the surface markers. A logical framework is developed to deduce what is required by the message system. Alternatives for each message component are evaluated and justification is provided for the choice of each component. The components are then laid out on the surface marker to provide a legible, comprehensible message system. The surface markers are tall, standing monoliths which ring the perimeter of each disposal area. Based on the logical framework, it is recommended that three domains of representation -- symbols, pictures, and language -- be used in the message system. The warning symbol chosen for the message system is the radiation trefoil. Two other options were considered, including the warning symbol developed by the Human Interference Task Force for a high-level waste repository. The trefoil was preferred because of the widespread usage and international acceptance which is already enjoys.

  7. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones

  8. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  9. Considerations in the development of a site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of LLNW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Arizona, under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy has recently (1985) developed a site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level nuclear waste (LLNW). The manual was developed to aid states and regions in formulating a program for the detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface disposal site. Included in the program are procedures for site characterization management, identification of pertinent technical parameters and methods for their determination, and the development of general procedures for conducting a site characterization study. The nine technical study areas identified as critical to LLNW disposal are discussed briefly in this paper. A representative parameter, fluid conductivity, is chosen from the area of groundwater hydrology to illustrate the format used in the manual to describe why that parameter is important and how it can be evaluated. An illustration is also given of the total characterization of a site with respect to geotechnical engineering parameters. Finally, a brief description is given of a general procedure for site characterization that can be used by planners, managers and staff personnel to implement the process of evaluating the suitability of a site for LLNW disposal

  10. Consideration of post-closure controls for a near surface low level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently an ongoing programme of disposal of low level radioactive wastes by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg, Cumbria, and this programme is likely to continue through the first few decades of the 21st century. Although control of the site is anticipated for a period of about 100 years post-closure, eventually restrictions on access will lapse. Thereafter, the possibility of human actions leading to exposure to, and/or exhumation of, the wastes exists and has to be addressed in post-closure radiological performance assessments. Potential modes of intrusion into the Drigg site have been studied using a suite of computer codes developed specifically for this purpose. Required inputs to these codes include information on possible future uses of the site and the various human actions associated with those uses. This information was obtained from a group of experts using formal elicitation procedures. Although the most likely site uses, notably those involving agricultural activities, are unlikely to result in intrusion into the wastes, others, such a urban development, do have the potential to result in such intrusion. In these circumstances, it seemed appropriate to give consideration to the degree to which documentary records and markers could protect the Drigg site against intrusive activities. Overall, it is concluded that provided that a variety of documentary records are established, ranging from local council archives to mass produced maps, then memory of the site can realistically be assumed whilst civilization continues to exist. However, if this first line of defence fails, markers constitute a second warning system. Finally, assessment calculations can be used to demonstrate that, even if these two lines of defence fail, risks from intrusion and radiation doses contingent upon intrusive events having occurred would not be unacceptably large. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Geostatistical risk estimation at waste disposal sites in the presence of hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper aims to estimate risk by using geostatistics at the wider coal mining/waste disposal site of Belkovskaya, Tula region, in Russia. In this area the presence of hot spots causes a spatial trend in the mean value of the random field and a non-Gaussian data distribution. Prior to application of geostatistics, subtraction of trend and appropriate smoothing and transformation of the data into a Gaussian form were carried out; risk maps were then generated for the wider study area in order to assess the probability of exceeding risk thresholds. Finally, the present paper discusses the need for homogenization of soil risk thresholds regarding hazardous elements that will enhance reliability of risk estimation and enable application of appropriate rehabilitation actions in contaminated areas.

  12. A combined modeling program for evaluating the cover design at a uranium mill tailings disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a modeling program for evaluating the performance of a proposed cover at a uranium mill tailings disposal location applied to the site's design. In this application, the volume of leachate from the base of the proposed tailings impoundment was estimated by a fundamental Darcian-style analysis, and with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) computer model. The potential impacts to the local ground water regime were assessed initially by diluting the leachate flux, predicted by the HELP model, with the estimated volume of ground water available for dilution. Following this, the potential for leachate attenuation from chemical precipitation was simulated with the geochemical speciation code PHREEQE (pH redox equilibrium equations). The volume and estimated composition of the leachate was mixed with the volume and chemical character of the existing ground water by using the mixing mode of PHREEQE

  13. Isotope hydrological characteristics of groundwater of preselected L/ILW disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By studying the chemical compositions of the groundwater (deuterium, tritium, and stable isotope of oxygen- 18, and the radioactive isotope of uranium) in the test area, the shallow groundwater (pore water) and the crevice-water in weathered bed rocks were successfully distinguished; the characteristics of groundwater outcrops in Ling'ao-Changwan area and the relationship between groundwater recharge, runoff, and discharge were discussed; and the relative age of different groundwater in the area was determined. The comprehensive analysis fairly conform to the conclusions obtained from the exploration activities. Therefore, a reliable scientific basis is provided to assess the preselected sites for disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW)

  14. Hydraulic containment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: [Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the use of impermeable barriers for the containment of liquid radioactive wastes at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Included are a review of existing barrier systems, assessments of laboratory and field data, and simulations of system performance under humid and arid conditions. Alternatives are identified as the most promising of the existing systems based on retention of irradiated water, field installation feasibility, and response to aggressive permeation. In decreasing order of preference, the favored systems are asphalt slurry, high density polyethylene synthetic liner, polyvinyl chloride synthetic liner, lean portland cement concrete, and compacted bentonite liner. It should be stressed that all five of these alternatives effectively retain irradiated water in the humid and arid simulations. Recommendations on the design and operation of the hydraulic containment system and suggestions on avenues for future research are included. 102 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs

  15. The development of a site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level nuclear waste (LLNW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manual was recently (1985) developed at The University of Arizona to aid government agencies in formulating a program for the detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface, low-level nuclear waste (LLNW) disposal site. Included in the manual are specific procedures for site characterization management, identification of pertinent technical parameters and methods for their determination, and the development of general procedures for conducting a site characterization study. This paper describes the general make up of the manual and presents an example of site characterization with respect to geotechnical engineering parameters. A brief description is also given of a general procedure for site characterization that can be used by planners, managers, and staff personnel to implement the process of evaluating the suitability of a site for LLNW disposal

  16. Hillslope erosion at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, northeastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey Flats, a disposal site for low level radioactive waste, is on a plateau that rises 300 to 400 ft above the surrounding valleys in northeastern Kentucky. Rates of hillslope retreat were determined through a combination of direct erosion measurements during the 2-year study and through dendrogeomorphic techniques. Rates of hillslope retreats were determined through a combination of direction erosion measurements during the 2-year study and through dendrogeomorphic techniques. Rates of hillslope retreat determined from dendrogeomorphic evidence rate from 3.8 to 9.1 in/century, so that time to exposure of the trenches ranges from 35,000 to 65,000 years. The minimum estimate of 35,000 years is for the most actively eroding southern slope. Throughout tens of thousands of years, the rate of hillslope retreat is determined more by the occurrence of infrequent extreme events such as slope failure than by the continuous processes of slope wash observed in this study. These slope failures cause as much erosion in one event as hundreds or even thousands of years of slope wash. Periods of tens of thousands of years are also sufficiently long for significant changes in climate and tectonic activity to occur. Rates of erosion observed during this 2-year study are highly unlikely to be indicative of rates averaged over periods of tens of thousands of years during which many extreme events can occur. Thus, the long-term geomorphic stability of the Maxey Flats disposal site will be highly dependent upon the magnitude and frequency of extreme erosive events and upon trends in climate change and tectonic activity

  17. The effects of copper oxy chloride waste contamination on selected soil biochemical properties at disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out at a sanitary waste disposal site for Kutsaga Tobacco Research Station, Zimbabwe, which uses large amounts of copper oxy chloride for sterilization of recycled float trays in flooded bench tobacco seedling production systems. Soil samples randomly collected from six stream bank zones (bands up the valley slope) varying in their distance ranges from the centre of both the wastewater-free and wastewater-affected paths [0-5 m (B1); 6-10 m (B2); 11-15 m (B3); 16-20 m (B4); 21-25 m (B5) and 26-30 m (B6)] in two sample depths (0-15; 15-30 cm) were analysed for metal copper, organic matter contents, and soil pH and subjected to agarized incubation for microbial counts. Results suggest that the repeated disposals of copper oxy chloride waste from tobacco float tray sanitation sinks into a creek amplify metal copper loads in the soil by 500 fold. The greatest concentrations of copper in both the topsoil and upper subsoil were recorded in the B3, B4 and B5 stream bank zones of the wastewater path. The concentration of copper was significantly lower in the middle of the waste-affected creek than that in the stream bank zones. This trend in the copper concentration coincided with the lowest acidity of the soil. Overloading the soil with copper, surprisingly, enhances the content of soil organic matter. The repeated release of copper oxy chloride waste into a stream causes an accelerated build-up of metal copper and soil acidity in the stream bank on-site while contamination is translocated to either underground water reserve or surface stream water flow in the middle of the wastewater path

  18. Groundwater Flow Modeling in the KURT site for a Case Study about a Hypothetical Geological Disposal Facility of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater flow simulations were performed to obtain data of groundwater flow used in a safety assessment for a hypothetical geological disposal facility assumed to be located in the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) site. A regional scale modeling of the groundwater flow system was carried out to make boundary conditions for a local scale modeling. And, fracture zones identified at the study site were involved in the local scale groundwater flow model. From the results of the local scale modeling, a hydraulic head distribution was indicated and it was used in a particle tracking simulation for searching pathway of groundwater from the location of the hypothetical disposal facility to the surface where the groundwater reached. The flow distance and discharge rate of the groundwater in the KURT site were calculated. It was thought that the modeling methods used in this study was available to prepare the data of groundwater flow in a safety assessment for a geological disposal facility of radioactive wastes.

  19. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  20. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. PMID:27073166

  1. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey's continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  3. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  4. DEVELOPMENT, QUALIFICATION, AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  5. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  7. Proposed plan for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, is releasing the proposed plan for remedial action at the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this document is to present and solicit for comment to the public and all interested parties the ''preferred plan'' to remediate the UNC Disposal Site. However, comments on all alternatives are invited

  8. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  9. 1993 State-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1993 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1989 through 1993; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1993. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report

  10. 1994 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1994 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1990 through 1994; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1994. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report

  11. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary

  12. North Carolina Geological Survey's role in siting a low-level radioactive (LLRW) waste disposal facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southeast Compact Commission in 1986 selected North Carolina to host the Southeast's LLRW disposal facility for the next twenty years. The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) for six years has played a major role in the State's efforts by contributing to legislation and administrative code, policy, technical oversight and surveillance and regulation as a member of the State's regulatory team. Future activities include recommendation of the adequacy of characterization and site performance pursuant to federal code, state general statutes and administrative code, and review of a license application. Staff must be prepared to present testimony and professional conclusions in court. The NCGS provides technical advice to the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP), the regulatory agency which will grant or deny a LLRW license. The NCGS has not participated in screening the state for potential sites to minimize bias. The LLRW Management Authority, a separate state agency siting the LLRW facility, hired a contractor to characterize potential sites and to write a license application. Organizational relationships enable the NCGS to assist the DRP in its regulatory role without conflict of interest. Disposal facilities must be sited to ensure safe disposal of LLRW. By law, the siting of a LLRW disposal facility is primarily a geological, rather than an engineering, effort. Federal and State statutes indicate a site must be licensable on its own merits. Engineered barriers cannot make a site licensable. The project is 3 years behind schedule and millions of dollars over budget. This indicates the uncertainty and complexity inherent in siting such as facility, the outcome of which cannot be predicted until site characterization is complete, the license application reviewed and the performance assessment evaluated. State geological surveys are uniquely qualified to overview siting of LLRW facilities because of technical expertise and experience in the state's geology

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0) with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 137 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 28 through August 17, 2006, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. ROTC-1: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR. ROTC-2: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR.

  14. Sites and projects for the disposal of radioactive waste and repositories in Russia and other states of the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry in Russia and other states of the former USSR contents the whole nuclear fuel cycle - Uranium mining, fuel element production, nuclear power and research reactors, nuclear powered ships and reprocessing of nuclear fuel. High amounts of radioactive waste are already disposed at the sites of these industrial centers and further radioactive waste is arising in production, reprocessing and decommissioning processes. Spent fuel elements are reprocessed or stored onsite. Solid and liquid wastes are disposed near surface at the sites of nuclear power plants, radiochemical plants, 'Radon'- and other sites. High volumes of high-, medium- and low-level liquid waste with high radioactivity has been injected into deep geologic formations at the sites of radiochemical plants. In Russia perspective all spent fuel elements shall be reprocessed and dry storage facilities are planned for long term storage until reprocessing. Repositories for solid waste are foreseen in deep geological formations (e.g. salt, granite) at several sites. (author)

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  16. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr+ ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10−2 g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred

  17. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model

  18. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  19. Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, R.W. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Gray, J.R. (Geological Survey, Tucson, AZ (United States)); de Vries, M.P. (Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)); Mills, P.C.

    1989-04-01

    The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site.

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for solid waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New solid waste regulations require that the existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) municipal landfills, which receive less than 20 tons of waste per day, be permitted or closed by October 9, 1995. In order to be permitted, the existing landfills must meet specific location, groundwater monitoring, design, operation, and closure requirements. The issuance of these regulations has resulted in the need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a practical, cost-effective, environmentally sound means of solid waste disposal at the NTS that is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. The current landfills in Areas 9 and 23 on the Nevada Test Site do not meet design requirements specified in new state and federal regulations. The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposal to modify the Area 23 landfill to comply with the new regulations and to close the Area 9 landfill and reopen it as Construction and Demolition debris landfill. Based on information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  1. Safety Assessment of a Hypothetical Near Surface Disposal at PPTN Serpong Site: Near-Field Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The near field modeling of a hypothetical surface disposal at Serpong site has been performed. Considering a realistic downward water flux of 10-10 m/s through the conditioned waste zone and the concrete barriers, transport of radionuclide by advection and dispersion below the bottom of the repository was calculated using PORFLOW computer code. The result shows that the highest fluxes were observed H-3, Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni-59, all about 104 Bq/a/m2. Intermediate fluxes were obtained for Cs-137, I-129 and Co-60. Lowest were due to Ni-63 and C-14. The effect on radionuclide fluxes by having an unsaturated soil of 1.0-m depth below the bottom of the repository also was investigated. The results indicate that the highest fluxes are due to Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni- 59, approximately 104 Bq/a/m2. The fluxes owing to H-3 has decreased to 10-9 Bq/a/m2 owing to decay. Radionuclides that are not absorbed onto lateritic clay soil, C-14 and I-129 are not decreased in flux. All other radionuclides has significantly smaller fluxes compared to the ones calculated at the bottom of the repository. This indicates that the lateric clay soil at Serpong site plays an important role in retarding and dispersing the radionuclide migration towards the ground water. (author)

  2. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 19762(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act3. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order1 (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress

  3. Geology of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vaalputs site is underlain by an extensive veneer of Tertiary and Quaternary deposits covering a crystalline basement of Precambrian age. The geological history of the area, from the oldest to the youngest event, may be summarized as follows: 1. Polyphasic ductile/ductile-brittle deformation and 1 100 Ma old granulite facies metamorphism of a (volcano) sedimentary sequence, and of associated syntectonic to late-tectonic granitic and basic intrusions. 2. Deposition of glacial tillite after a long erosional hiatus in Karoo (Permian) times. The preservation of these rocks is limited to down-faulted structural blocks within the area investigated. 3. Lower Tertiary rejuvenation of older faults and shear zones, accompanied by kimberlitic volcanism, resulted in the uplift of the Kamiesberge mountain range west of the site. Intense erosion of these mountains shed abundant detritus, which accumulated in tectonically controlled troughs and fans. 4. From ca. 25 Ma ago to the Present, tectonic stability and (semi)arid conditions have generally prevailed, leading to an extensive thin cover of calcrete and wind-blown Kalahari sands. The unfaulted, highly impermeable nature of the Vaalputs formation renders it very suitable for the safe disposal of low- to medium-level radioactive waste in the area selected. However, the numerous faults and shear zones in the granitic and gneissic basement will need in-depth investigations should a high-level radwaste repository be required

  4. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994

  5. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock. Olkiluoto site report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Ahokas, H. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Front, K. [VTT Communication and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Olkiluoto. The bedrock of the Olkiluoto site consists of Svecofennian metasediments and platonic rocks, 1800-1900 million years in age. Migmatitic mica gneiss is the most abundant rock type, and is intruded by foliated tonalites and granodiorites and massive coarse-grained granites and pegmatites. Five successive plastic deformation phases have been defined. In total, 30 bedrock structures (R-structures) have been modelled at the site. Most of these represent steeply dipping fracture zones, but several sub-horizontal zones, gently dipping to the SE, have also been identified. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed `intact rock`, which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 3 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock measured using a 2 m packer interval, is 8 x 10{sup -13} m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found for the intact rock, and there seems to be a parallel decrease in the transmissivity of structures. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater chemistry reflects the

  6. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock. Olkiluoto site report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Olkiluoto. The bedrock of the Olkiluoto site consists of Svecofennian metasediments and platonic rocks, 1800-1900 million years in age. Migmatitic mica gneiss is the most abundant rock type, and is intruded by foliated tonalites and granodiorites and massive coarse-grained granites and pegmatites. Five successive plastic deformation phases have been defined. In total, 30 bedrock structures (R-structures) have been modelled at the site. Most of these represent steeply dipping fracture zones, but several sub-horizontal zones, gently dipping to the SE, have also been identified. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed 'intact rock', which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 3 x 10-7 m2/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock measured using a 2 m packer interval, is 8 x 10-13 m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found for the intact rock, and there seems to be a parallel decrease in the transmissivity of structures. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater chemistry reflects the postglacial history of

  7. Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program final report: Site characterization of the Pacific Study Area, West Coast, Northern Site (W-N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the outcome of a Pacific Ocean research program begun in November 1978 by Sandia National Laboratories for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. The six-year oceanographic program was in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation of possible sea disposal of defueled, decommissioned, nuclear-powered submarines. Evaluation guidelines were written to define a site suitable for such sea disposal. This final report, which combines results from two previous progress reports and data from recently completed studies, characterizes a suitable site, the West Coast, Northern Site (W-N). Although W-N is neither the only possible nor the best Pacific site, it is one suitable location under the site evaluation guidelines. 95 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  9. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  10. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock. Haestholmen site report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Ahokas, H. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Front, K. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-06-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Haestholmen. The Haestholmen area is located within the anorogenic Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith, about 1630 million years in age, representing one of the youngest rock formations in Finland. Wiborgite, pyterlite, porphyritic rapakivi granite and even-grained rapakivi granite are the rock types present. 25 bedrock structures have been modelled at the site. Most of them are steeply-dipping fracture zones trending NW-SE and NE-SW, but several sub-horizontal zones, mainly dipping to the N-NE and the SW, are also present. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed `intact rock`, which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The bedrock structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 8 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s or 1.3 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s, depending on how structures are defined. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values measured for the intact rock using a 2 m packer interval is 1 x 10{sup -12} m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found in the intact rock. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100-200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater chemistry reflects the post-glacial history of the island of Haestholmen, which rose

  11. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock. Haestholmen site report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Haestholmen. The Haestholmen area is located within the anorogenic Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith, about 1630 million years in age, representing one of the youngest rock formations in Finland. Wiborgite, pyterlite, porphyritic rapakivi granite and even-grained rapakivi granite are the rock types present. 25 bedrock structures have been modelled at the site. Most of them are steeply-dipping fracture zones trending NW-SE and NE-SW, but several sub-horizontal zones, mainly dipping to the N-NE and the SW, are also present. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed 'intact rock', which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The bedrock structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 8 x 10-6 m2/s or 1.3 x 10-6 m2/s, depending on how structures are defined. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values measured for the intact rock using a 2 m packer interval is 1 x 10-12 m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found in the intact rock. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100-200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater chemistry reflects the post-glacial history of the island of Haestholmen, which rose from the Baltic Sea some 4000

  12. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock - Kivetty site report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Ahokas, H.; Front, K. [Fintact Oy (Finland)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Kivetty. The bedrock of Kivetty belongs to the large Svecofennian granitoid complex of central Finland, about 1880 million years in age. The most common rock type is porphyritic granodiorite, which is cut by younger medium-grained granodiorite and porphyritic or even-grained granite. Minor bodies of gabbro, older than the porphyritic granodiorite, are also present. The granitoids show evidence of two deformation phases. Altogether 29 bedrock 'structures' (R-structures) have been modelled at the investigation site, most of them representing steeply dipping fracture zones. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed 'intact rock', which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 1.3-10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock, measured using a 2 m packer interval is 4*10{sup -11} m{sup 2}/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found for the intact rock, and there seems to be a parallel decrease in the transmissivity of structures. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater of

  13. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of a nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional (3D) modeling study was completed on a very large electrical resistivity survey conducted at a nuclear waste site in eastern Washington. The acquisition included 47 pole-pole two dimensional (2D) resistivity profiles collected along parallel and orthogonal lines over an area of 850 m-570 m. The data were geo-referenced and inverted using EarthImager3D (EI3D). EI3D runs on a Microsoft 32-bit operating system (e.g. WIN-2K, XP) with a maximum usable memory of 2 GB. The memory limits the size of the domain for the inversion model to 200 m-200 m, based on the survey electrode density. Therefore, a series of increasing overlapping models were run to evaluate the effectiveness of dividing the survey area into smaller subdomains. The results of the smaller subdomains were compared to the inversion results of a single domain over a larger area using an upgraded form of EI3D that incorporates multi-processing capabilities and 32 GB of RAM memory. The contours from the smaller subdomains showed discontinuity at the boundaries between the adjacent models, which do not match the hydrogeologic expectations given the nature of disposal at the site. At several boundaries, the contours of the low resistivity areas close, leaving the appearance of disconnected plumes or open contours at boundaries are not met with a continuance of the low resistivity plume into the adjacent subdomain. The model results of the single large domain show a continuous monolithic plume within the central and western portion of the site, directly beneath the elongated trenches. It is recommended that where possible, the domain not be subdivided, but instead include as much of the domain as possible given the memory of available computing resources.

  14. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ..., EPA published a proposed rule at 75 FR 5708 to designate two new ocean dredged material disposal sites... the Federal Register in 1977 (42 FR 2461), a status superseded by later statutory changes to the MPRSA... NEPA Documents,'' (Voluntary NEPA Policy), 63 FR 58045, (October 29, 1998), sets out both the...

  15. Comment and response document for the final long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains comments made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission addressing their concerns over the long-term monitoring program for the Green River Disposal Site, UMTRA project. Responses are included as well as plans for implementation of changes, if any are deemed necessary

  16. Obstacle factors and overcoming plans of public communication: With an emphasis on radioactive waste disposal facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea is confronting a serious social conflict, which is phenomenon of local residents reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility. This phenomenon is traced back to the reason that the project sponsors and local residents do not communicate sufficiently each other. Accordingly, in order to overcome local residents' reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility siting effectively, it is absolutely necessary to consider the way of solutions and strategies with regard to obstacle factors for public communication. In this content, this study will review three cases (An-myon Island, Gul-up Island, Yang-yang) on local residents reaction to facility siting. As a result of analysis, authoritarian behavior of project sponsors, local stigma, risk, antinuclear activities of environmental group, failures in siting the radioactive waste disposal facility, etc. has negative impact on public communication of the radioactive waste disposal facility siting. In this study, 5 strategies (reform of project sponsor's authoritarianism, incentive offer, strengthening PA activities, more active talks with environmental groups, promoting credibility of project sponsors) arc suggested to cope with obstacle factors of public communication

  17. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... policy to prepare a voluntary National Environmental Policy document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the designation of an ODMDS off the...

  18. Geological evaluation of spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal in the site of NPP candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the consideration of techno-economy and environmental safety, the radioactive waste treatment installation (RWI), interim storage of spen fuel (ISSF) and low-intermediate level disposal shall be sited in the surrounding of NPP area. The land suitability of NPP's site candidate at Muria Peninsula as spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal need to be studied. Site selection was conducted by overlay method and scoring method, and based on safety criteria which include geological and environmental aspects. Land evaluation by overlay method has given result a potential site which have highest suitable land at surrounding of borehole L-15 about 17.5 hectares. Land evaluation by scoring method has given result two land suitability classes, i.e. moderate suitability class (includes 14 borehole) and high suitability class, include borehole L-2, L-14 and L-15 (author)

  19. Application of Geographic Information System and Remotesensing in effective solid waste disposal sites selection in Wukro town, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedshum, A. A.; Gebresilassie, M. A.; Rulinda, C. M.; Kahsay, G. H.; Tesfay, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    Identifying solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a challenging task to many developing countries. This is a critical problem too in Ethiopia in general and in Wukro town in particular. The existing site for Wukro town is not sufficient in its capacity and it is damaging the environment due to its location, and the type of waste dumped, while the surrounding area is being irrigated. Due to the swift expansion and urbanization developments in Wukro town, it badly needs to develop controlled solid waste dumping site to prevent several contamination problems. This study was conducted first, to assess the existing waste management strategies in Wukro town; and second, to find out the potential waste disposal sites for the town, using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The study exploited the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods to combine necessary factors considered for dumping site selection. The selected method also uses various geographical data including remote sensing data, with GIS spatial analysis tools. Accordingly, site suitability maps for each of the factors were developed in a GIS environment. Results indicate that 12 dumping sites were appropriate and they were further ranked against their suitability in terms of wind direction, proximity to settlement area and distance from the center of the town. Finally, two sites are the best suitable for dumping site. This study indicated that the application of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques are efficient and low cost tools to study and select appropriate dumping site so as to facilitate decision making processes.

  20. Ocean FUSRAP: feasibility of ocean disposal of materials from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progam (FUSRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the Department of Energy is designed to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District and the US Atomic Energy Commission. Where required, remedial action will be instituted to remove potential restrictions on the use of the sites due to residual low-level radioactive contamination. A total of 31 sites that may require remedial action has been identified. The purpose of the Ocean FUSRAP Program, which began in March 1981, is to assess the technical, environmental, and institutional feasibility of disposing, in the ocean and on the ocean floor, of FUSRAP soil and rubble which contains traces of natural radioactive materials. The initial focus has been on the Middlesex, New Jersey, Sampling Plant site and surrounding properties, which contain on the order of 100,000 metric tons of material. The Belgian Congo uranium ore and other uranium ores used by the United States were handled at the sampling plant site. In studying the feasibility of ocean disposal of FUSRAP material from Middlesex, New Jersey, we have begun to examine institutional requirements to be met, the composition of the source material with regard to its inventory of toxic chemical and radiochemical components and the impact of the source material in the marine environment. To date we have found nothing that would preclude safe and inexpensive disposal of this material in the ocean

  1. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, R.W.; deVries, M.P.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    From July through June 1984, a study was made of the microclimate and evapotranspiration at the low-level, radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: energy-budget, aerodynamic-profile, and water-budget. Estimates by the first two methods were computed from hourly data, then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates for March through November, by these methods, were quite close-648 and 626 mm, respectively. Daily estimates ranged from 0 to 6 mm. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly gamma-attenuation, soil-moisture-content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method was 655 mm and included only the months of April through October. The yearly (March through November) average of 657 millimeters for the three methods was equivalent to 70% of precipitation and 75% of Penman potential evapotranspiration. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and emitted longwave and short-wave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at three heights. 59 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Automated system for monitoring groundwater levels at an experimental low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems with disposing of low-level solid wastes in the eastern United States is the potential for water-waste interactions and leachate migration. To monitor groundwater fluctuations and the frequency with which groundwater comes into contact with a group of experimental trenches, work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Engineered Test Facility (ETF) has employed a network of water level recorders that feed information from 15 on-site wells to a centralized data recording system. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system being used and to document the computer programs that have been developed to process the data. Included in this report are data based on more than 2 years of water level information for ETF wells 1 through 12 and more than 6 months of data from all 15 wells. The data thus reflect both long-term trends as well as a large number of short-term responses to individual storm events. The system was designed to meet the specific needs of the ETF, but the hardware and computer routines have generic application to a variety of groundwater monitoring situations. 5 references

  3. Social acceptance process model for ensuring the high-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology are unacceptable to the public for fear of their unknown nature. Here, the social acceptance process model was examined on the basis of the analysis of the cause phenomenon and numerical grounds, by referring to the problems on the application of literature documentation for location examination of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site in Toyo town in Kochi Pref. in April 2007. In analyzing the Toyo town case, we have found a possibility that the majority of local residents knew very little about the object opposed by the fringe route processing. To ensure a healthy decision making by the public, it is vital to convey fundamental information using sufficient wide-area PR media before the issue becomes actual. After the issue becomes actual, dialog with residents through a careful technology assessment is indispensable. The authors focus attention on the decision-making process of human beings from the social and psychological viewpoints, and point out that it is desirable for promoting social acceptance by adopting two approaches: a direct approach aiming at better intelligibility for the different resident layers and a deductive approach in technological essence. (author)

  4. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel-equipment for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of a certain geological formation as a repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel can be determined only after detailed investigation and analysis. The purpose of the investigations is to provide information on the geology and the hydrology and chemistry of the site concerned. The value of these data largely depends on the way in which they have been collected. The report of the findings should enable the investigating party to evaluate the function and the accuracy of the equipment with which field data have been collected for KBS 3. This report describes the geophysical equipment, the hydraulic testing equipment, the water chemistry sample extracting equipment and the core-logging equipment used. The objectives of the instrument development have been: - to obtain a high data quality. - to collect data automatically in logs and tape recorders for direct transfer to a central processing unit. - to provide back-up in order to counteract loss of data. - to make instrument more efficient. (author)

  5. Geochemical indications for underground disposal site selection: The Mayak enterprise area, Southern Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoscience study of the ''Mayak'' area with the aim of site selecting for underground depository of nuclear wastes has run into difficulties with poor exposure of the rock basement and radioactive contamination of the surface. The geological structure of this Early Paleozoic basement is too complex for extrapolations between drilling logs without surficial observation. In this context geochemical data interpretation can be especially valuable to compensate for the lack of geological information, using samples from drilling holes and sparse accessible outcrops. High indicative capacity of trace and rare elements made it possible to identify the oceanic island-arc origin of metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary formation which constitutes the bulk of the territory rock basement. Furthermore, the geochemical analysis has given some additional reasons for detailed subdivision of the formation fitness of rock suitable for underground disposal. More favorable are basic volcanics with regular distribution of chemical constituents. The authors consider less favorable tectonically deformed geological medium composed by more acid or heterogeneous rocks. Such a medium has been distinguished by presence of geochemical anomalies mostly related to subsequent intrusions or to permeable zones of tectonic dislocations

  6. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought

  7. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) at two candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate locations were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning in System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data were overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Two species of rare vascular plants have previously been reported to occur in the vicinity of the candidate locations. Two C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. No significant ecological impact is anticipated if the MLLWDF were constructed on either candidate location. However, both candidate locations are in the central area of the INEL where there is minimal disturbance to the ecosystem by facilities or humans

  8. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  9. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From July through June 1984, a study was made of the microclimate and evapotranspiration at the low-level, radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: energy-budget, aerodynamic-profile, and water-budget. Estimates by the first two methods were computed from hourly data, then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates for March through November, by these methods, were quite close-648 and 626 mm, respectively. Daily estimates ranged from 0 to 6 mm. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly gamma-attenuation, soil-moisture-content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method was 655 mm and included only the months of April through October. The yearly (March through November) average of 657 millimeters for the three methods was equivalent to 70% of precipitation and 75% of Penman potential evapotranspiration. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and emitted longwave and short-wave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at three heights. 59 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Leaching studies of low-level waste as input to radiological assessment at the Drigg disposal site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the period of operation of the low-level waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, several radiological assessments have been carried out. This paper discusses data requirements for such an assessment and in particular describes a project to measure the leaching behaviour of wastes. This project, jointly set up by the staff of BNFL and Environmental Safety Centre at Harwell, began in 1985. The objectives were to determine the processes operating within the waste disposal trenches at Drigg and conditions affecting them. The paper describes the installation and operation of the first of a series of lysimeters designed to simulate conditions in current trenches. (author)

  11. Modeling potential migration of petroleum hydrocarbons from a mixed-waste disposal site in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring of a mixed-waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has confirmed release and migration into the vadose zone of: (1) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vapor phase and (2) trace levels of certain transuranic elements. The finding has prompted an evaluation of the potential role of waste petroleum hydrocarbons in mediating or influencing contaminant migration from the disposal site. Disposal records indicate that a large volume of machine oil contaminated with transuranic isotopes was disposed at the site along with the chlorinated solvents and other radioactive wastes. A multiphase flow model was used to assess the possible extent of oil and vapor movement through the 177 m thick vadose zone. One dimensional simulations were performed to estimate the vertical distribution of the vapor phase, the aqueous phase, and immiscible free liquid as a function of time. The simulations indicate that the oil may migrate slowly through the vadose zone, to potentially significant depths. Calculated transport rates support the following ranking with regard to relative mobility: vapor phase > aqueous phase > free liquid. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. A correction in the CDM methodological tool for estimating methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M M O; van Elk, A G P; Romanel, C

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) - especially landfills - are a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Although having the potential to be captured and used as a fuel, most of the methane formed in SWDS is emitted to the atmosphere, mainly in developing countries. Methane emissions have to be estimated in national inventories. To help this task the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published three sets of guidelines. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol established the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to assist the developed countries to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions by assisting other countries to achieve sustainable development while reducing emissions. Based on methodologies provided by the IPCC regarding SWDS, the CDM Executive Board has issued a tool to be used by project developers for estimating baseline methane emissions in their project activities - on burning biogas from landfills or on preventing biomass to be landfilled and so avoiding methane emissions. Some inconsistencies in the first two IPCC guidelines have already been pointed out in an Annex of IPCC latest edition, although with hidden details. The CDM tool uses a model for methane estimation that takes on board parameters, factors and assumptions provided in the latest IPCC guidelines, while using in its core equation the one of the second IPCC edition with its shortcoming as well as allowing a misunderstanding of the time variable. Consequences of wrong ex-ante estimation of baseline emissions regarding CDM project activities can be of economical or environmental type. Example of the first type is the overestimation of 18% in an actual project on biogas from landfill in Brazil that harms its developers; of the second type, the overestimation of 35% in a project preventing municipal solid waste from being landfilled in China, which harms the environment, not for the project per se but for the undue generated carbon credits. In a simulated landfill - the same

  13. Environmental evaluation of the feasibility of disposal and utilization of coal combustion residues in abandoned mine sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity produces large volumes of solid wastes containing chemicals particularly trace elements. About one fourth of these 80 million tons of coal combustion residues are currently utilized and the remaining accumulate in on site piles and ponds, or are carried away to landfills for disposal. The US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated regulations governing the disposal of such solid wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. The major impetus behind these regulations is protection of ground water. Since landfill sites are becoming more scarce, it is highly desirable to find large volume beneficial uses for these combustion residues provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. This study determines the possibility of returning these residues to abounded mine sites for reclamation with subsequent evaluation of environmental implications on groundwater quality. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Structure of ENVIS in sites for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal repository in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Uido Island, Buankun is announced as candidate site for the LILRW disposal site, the total system for safe management of data from the repository is required. Environmental assessment and site characterization will be produced to meet the regulatory requirements. Those data needs to be managed systematically. For this purpose, the site information and total environmental data management system (SITES) is being developed. The SITES is composed of three modules, SIMS, ENVIS and M and A. In this paper, the structure of ENVIS in SITES program will be introduced. The ENVIS covers almost whole items of environmental assessment report required by Environment Ministry and also Science and Technology Ministry in Korea. This program will be effectively used in future for the monitoring pre-during and post-operation of the facility, and its safety assessment

  15. Structure of ENVIS in sites for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal repository in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Se Moon; Rhee, Chan Goo; Kim, Chang Lak; Lee, Ho Jin; Lim, Yong Soo [KHNP, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Since Uido Island, Buankun is announced as candidate site for the LILRW disposal site, the total system for safe management of data from the repository is required. Environmental assessment and site characterization will be produced to meet the regulatory requirements. Those data needs to be managed systematically. For this purpose, the site information and total environmental data management system (SITES) is being developed. The SITES is composed of three modules, SIMS, ENVIS and M and A. In this paper, the structure of ENVIS in SITES program will be introduced. The ENVIS covers almost whole items of environmental assessment report required by Environment Ministry and also Science and Technology Ministry in Korea. This program will be effectively used in future for the monitoring pre-during and post-operation of the facility, and its safety assessment.

  16. Pathways analyses and their role in the decision making process for selection of low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathways analyses have been extensively used to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The analyses rely on conservative scenarios to describe potential human exposure to the waste. Conceptual and numerical models are used to simulate the long-term transport of contamination to man and additional conservatism generally is built into the analysis when assumptions concerning future events have to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics exist. This conservatism is useful in ascertaining whether the site provides an adequate buffer to persons outside the site boundary. In reaching conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability, however, considerations must be given to the uncertainties involved in the analysis. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainties may prove useful in the decision making process for site suitability. 7 references, 1 figure

  17. Site selection and evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive waste: Regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy produced by Nuclear Power Plants will be one of the most important sources of heat and electricity production for many countries now and in the future. Unfortunately atomic energy produces, besides electricity, spent nuclear fuel and various categories of radioactive wastes, that need special treatment, financial, scientific and research resources for their conditioning, reprocessing, storage and disposal. Bulgaria is evaluating deep geological disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. To facilitate the evaluation of geological disposal and long-term isolation capacity of underground repository for spent nuclear fuel and disposal of high-level radioactive waste, both national nuclear regulations and standards, such as those of the USA, France, and UK, and recommendations of some international organizations responsible for nuclear and radiation safety such as IAEA and ICRP have been considered. Their regulation must insure the safe storage, management, and final disposal of these dangerous radioactive wastes

  18. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  19. Development of a prototype plan for the effective closure of a waste disposal site in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of a semiarid low-level waste disposal site. This prototype plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos based on previous shallow land burial (SLB) field research both at the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility (EETF), and at a waste disposal area at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems at Waste Disposal Area B having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that one of the two models tested represented soil moisture more accurately than the second model. The accuracy of modeling all of the parameters of the water balance equation was then evaluated using field data from the Integrated Systems Demonstration plots at the EETF. Optimized parameters were developed for one model to describe observed values of deep percolation, evapotranspiration, and runoff from the field plots containing an SLB trench cap configuration

  20. Arsenic concentration in porewater of an alkaline coal ash disposal site: Roles of siderite precipitation/dissolution and soil cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.; Park, S.M.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.; Moon, J.T.; Hwang, G.S.; Cha, W.S. [Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2009-09-15

    The geochemical behavior of As in porewaters of an alkaline coal ash disposal site was investigated using multilevel samplers. The disposal site was in operation from 1983 until 1994 and was covered with 0.3-0.5 m thick soils in 2001 when this study was initiated. Sequential extraction analyses and batch leaching experiments were also performed using the coal ash samples collected from the disposal site. The results suggest the important roles of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) precipitation/dissolution and soil cover, which have been ignored previously. Arsenic levels in the porewater were very low (average of 10 {mu} g L{sup -1}) when the site was covered with soil due to coprecipitation with siderite. The soil cover enabled the creation of anoxic conditions, which raised the Fe concentration by the reductive dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides. Because of the high alkalinity generated from the alkaline coal ash, even a small increase in the Fe concentration (0.66 mg L{sup -1} on average) could cause siderite precipitation. When the soil cover was removed. however, an oxidizing condition was created and triggered the precipitation of dissolved Fe as (hydr)oxides. As a result, the dissolution of previously precipitated As-rich siderite caused higher As concentration in the porewater (average of 345 {mu} g L{sup -1}).

  1. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  2. Morbidity among children living around clinical waste treatment and disposal site in the Northwest region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. K. Mochungong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical waste is ineffectively treated and disposed in Cameroon. Disposal sites have unrestricted access and are located within communities. We hypothesize that vector proliferation and exposure to chronic low-level emissions will increase morbidity in children living around such sites. Self-reported disease frequency questionnaires were used to estimate the frequency of new episodes of intestinal, respiratory and skin infections among exposed children less than 10 years. Data was simultaneously collected for unexposed children of the same age, using the same questionnaire. Data reporting by the parents was done in the first week in each of the 6 months study period. The risk ratios were 3.54 (95% CI, 2.19-5.73, 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60 and 1.35 (95% CI, 0.75-2.44 for respiratory, intestinal and skin infections respectively. Their respective risk differences were 0.47 (47%, 0.18 (18% and 0.08 (8%. The study revealed that poor treatment and disposal of clinical waste sites enhance morbidity in children living close to such areas. Simple health promotion and intervention programs such as relocating such sites can significantly reduce morbidity.

  3. Geology, hydrology, thickness and quality of salt at three alternate sites for disposal of radioactive waste in Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three sites selected by the AEC for additional study for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Kansas are; Site A located in south-central Lincoln County, Site D-2 located in south-central Wichita County, and Site A-1 located in north-western Lincoln County. Results of the study show that all sites failed to meet the detailed criteria. Areas A and A-1 fail to meet the criteria concerning thickness and quality. Area D-2 fails to meet the criteria concerning quality and mineability of the salt. Areas west of Site A-1 and in south-central Harper County, in the authors' opinion, appear to be the best prospects for future study in Kansas

  4. Current and future impact of an uranium mine waste disposal site on groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Schluesselgrund valley, East Germany an uranium mine dump of about 4 Mil m3 had been built due to an intensive exploitation of uranium ore deposit near Dresden. In order to evaluate and to specify the current and future environmental impact of the disposal site, investigations of environ-mental and radioactive isotopes have been performed as part of a hydrogeological and hydrochemical study at the Schluesselgrund Mine Dump. Beneath the dump we find significantly contaminated water in the first and second aquifer in a narrow strip of faulted rock. The main contaminants comprise of uranium and radium as well as of zinc, nickel and sulphate. The mean residence time of those waters percolating the dump is about 1 to 5 years with contributions of an older component. The 3H and 85Kr contents in the groundwater of the first aquifer yield a mean residence time of about 20 years, which obviously is less than the life time of the dump (built in 1967). The second aquifer shows a ground-water mixing system. Within this study, the groundwater of the third aquifer with 3H contents close to or below detection limit did not show any detectable influence of the dump waters. This is supported by high groundwater ages of several thousand years according to the 14C values. Close to the former mine system, there are local groundwater samples from the third aquifer showing 3H contents of up to 8 TU, which may be caused by groundwater flowing on fractures and on pathways within the former mine system. Part of the dump waters drain into the nearby rivers by interflow processes as indicated by stable isotopes. (author)

  5. An interdisciplinary geoscientific investigation of a proposed site for radioactive waste disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geological reconnaissance of potentially suitable formations for long-term storage of highly active radioactive waste in Austria showed that such formations could be expected within the Bohemian Massif. Careful interpretation of LANDSAT imagery and available air-photo coverage led to the selection of an unfaulted area, approximately in the centre of a large body of granodiorite. Field geology confirmed the homogeneity of granodiorite; hydrologic investigations revealed the absence of a groundwater table except for small amounts of surface water in the soil cover and weathering zone. A morphological analysis showed that erosional processes are minimal at present and will remain so in the foreseeable geological future. Geophysical investigations included, amongst others, magnetic measurements (vertical intensity). The area chosen for further investigation is situated in a region of positive measurements of vertical intensity. Some minor flat anomalies are due to higher magnetite content of the granodiorite, which has magnetic susceptibilities of (4.0-5.8)x10-4 (SI) or (32-46)x10-6 (CGS). Well-logging demonstrated high electric resistivities (some 1000 ohm.m) in fresh rock; these values are reduced to about 100 ohm.m in weathered and fractured rock. Temperature logs reveal undisturbed increase with depth; the average temperature gradient (to 90 m depth) is 0.0180C/m. There is no microscopic evidence of tectonism or fracturing. In conclusion, the large-scale regional features which indicate stability and lack of tectonism, and geophysical data, are supported by a detailed petrological investigation of the granodiorite. The chosen area and site seem to be well suited to meet the containment and isolation requirements for disposal of all sorts of radioactive waste to be expected. (author)

  6. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  7. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  8. Comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO) cover the following issues: fundamentals of the 10 micro-Sv concept for clearance; specific regulations for the clearance of wastes from the dismantling of KWO for disposal on a dump site; disposal concept at shutdown and dismantling of KWO; measurements and control during clearance for disposal during shutdown and dismantling of KWO; documentation and reports.

  9. Application of organic tracers in characterizing the greater confinement disposal test at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) is a research project investigating the feasibility of augered-shaft disposal of low-level radioactive waste considered unsuitable for shallow land burial. Gaseous diffusion of radionuclides through alluvial sediments is considered the primary contaminant migration process. Volatile halocarbon tracers are released in the subsurface and their migration is monitored to determine media effective diffusion coefficients, tortuosity values, and sorption terms. Design and instrumentation of the emplacement and monitoring shafts of the disposal facility are detailed. Instrumentation includes a three-dimensional array of soil-air sample stations encircling the disposal waste. Recirculation flow lines minimize induced advection in the alluvial matrix due to tracer sample collection. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  10. Radiobiological effects in small mammals populations dwelled at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major issue in evaluating the ecological acceptability of a disposal system for radioactive waste is in preventing the ecological risk that may arise from exposures in the distant future. There is uncertainty surrounding any estimate of these doses or risks due to lack of knowledge about future conditions. Therefore, the adequate estimation of the ecological acceptability of a radioactive waste disposal system required a complex radioecological and radiobiological approach. Environmental surveillance at the Sergievo-Posadsky radioactive waste disposal system of the Scientific and Industrial Association Radon in additional to a standard complex radiological testing includes also the study of the radiobiological effects in different biological objects sampled from the contaminated areas. In present report the results obtained on small rodents (mice and voles) sampled from the strict mode and fence zones of this disposal system are displayed and discussed. (author)

  11. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from

  12. A Methodology for Characterizing Potential Uranium Transport in Deep Geological Disposal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    In order to make safe and reasonable decisions about radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic sites, it is important to understand the fate and potential transport of long half-life transuranic radionuclides over a wide range of time and distance scales. The objective of this study was to evaluate and demonstrate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured/weathered granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments involving uranium, as well as other actinides, have already been conducted. Working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experimental results with field-scale observations. Drilled rock cores and weathered fracture fill material (FFM) from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption/desorption and column breakthrough experiments. Uranium solutions were made by adding uranium to a synthetic Grimsel groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry found in the GTS groundwater. Batch and breakthrough experiments were conducted using solutions between pH 6.9 and 9.0. All column experiments were conducted using syringe pumps at low flow rate (<0.3 ml h-1) in small columns containing 5 g of material with pore volumes of 2-3 ml. These small columns allow rapid and economical evaluation of sorption/desorption behavior under flowing conditions (and in duplicate or triplicate). Solutions were switched to uranium-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after equilibration in batch experiments or after near-steady uranium breakthrough occurred in column experiments. The measurement of uranium concentrations as a function of time under these conditions allowed interrogation of desorption rates which we believe control uranium fate and transport over long time and distance scales. Uranium transport

  13. Pre-selection of geological disposal reservoir sites of high-level waste in northern Sichuan-southern Shaanxi regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper states the petrography, the features of structure and neo-tectonics in northern Sichuan and southern Shaanxi regions. Four stable regions are divided within the region on the basis of this characteristic and the distributions of earthquake risk zoning. Then according to contents of wall rocks, hydrogeology, engineering geology and physical and economic geography of the stable regions, four candidates regions of disposal reservoir sites are determined. Some feasible studies have been done on the sites. The paper also proved that granite is the advantageous wall-rock of the disposal reservoir, and the pre-selection principle of the reservoir is stated in terms of the working experience of several years

  14. Proposed plan for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to present and solicit for comment to the public and all interested parties the plan to remediate the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The preferred alternative for remediating the UNC Disposal Site is construction of a modified Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cap. A modified RCRA cap provides the best balance between long-term effectiveness and permanence, reduction of toxicity, mobility, or volume and short-term effectiveness among the alternatives. The cap provides a high degree of protection for human health and environment, complies with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs), and is easily implemented and cost effective

  15. Regional repositories - The best alternative for countries with unfavorable conditions for siting their own disposal sites. The Latin American case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. These countries would benefit from regional co-operation for the disposal. The intentions of this paper are to discuss the advantages of having a common repository (repositories) in Latin American Region and to promote the cooperation between countries interested in advancing the concept of shared storage and disposal. Small potential users of a common facility should be able to speak with a common voice when discussing the options with international bodies or with potential host countries offering such back-end services. (author)

  16. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: A case study in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north–south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38 m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  17. A studies on characteristics of groundwater system in discontinuous rockmass for evaluation of safety on disposal site of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Kim, Kyu Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Lee, Chee Hyeong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    This study contains the development of numerical model of groundwater system and its application for the evaluation of safety in disposal site of radioactive waste. Through the identification of hydraulic properties, characteristics of discontinuity and selection of discontinuity model around LPG underground storage facility, the application of continuum model and discrete fracture network model was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater flow and solute transport.

  18. Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2001-09-28

    This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

  19. A studies on characteristics of groundwater system in discontinuous rockmass for evaluation of safety on disposal site of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study contains the development of numerical model of groundwater system and its application for the evaluation of safety in disposal site of radioactive waste. Through the identification of hydraulic properties, characteristics of discontinuity and selection of discontinuity model around LPG underground storage facility, the application of continuum model and discrete fracture network model was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater flow and solute transport

  20. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Nedenskov, Jonas;

    2011-01-01

    AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH4) emission from...... horizontal leachate drainage pipes placed in permeable gravel layers in the bottom of empty cells was likely....