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Sample records for canyon disposal cell

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project's long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  4. Strontium concentrations in chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal area in Bayo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal site Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003(c) in Bayo Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were collected and analyzed for strontium (90Sr) and total uranium. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of 90Sr than a control plant -- one plant, in particular, contained 90, 500 pCi 90Sr g-1 ash in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained 90Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels; this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving 90Sr to the soil interspace area. Although some soil surface migration of 90Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of 90Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the Bayo Canyon/State Road 5 intersection was still within regional (background) concentrations

  5. Deep Submarine Tailings Disposal (DSTP) the Proposed Use of Submarine Canyons and Artificial Turbidity Currents for the Disposal of Mine Waste: Current Practice, Future Plans, and Cumulative Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Moran, R.

    2015-12-01

    The wastes from mining operations ( tailings) have been disposed of in the fluvial environment (riverine disposal) and in nearshore marine environments for much of the last century. The scale of modern mining operations has led to increasing use of steep slopes and submarine canyons for deposition of these wastes at depths of 2000m - 4000m. Current mine disposal operations in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea which use Deep Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) release volumes between 5000 tpd and 160,000 tpd. Planning is underway by the"Consortium," an industry and government group in Chile which would deposit mine waste of 1M tpd into the Humbolt Current Large Marine Ecosystem (HCLME) which provides nearly 20% of the fish biomass harvested on a sustainable basis worldwide. Underwater pipelines discharge tailings as a slurry to create a continuous artificial turbidity current with particle size distribtions (PSD's) ranging from sand to clay sized fractions. Potential problems arise from benthic smothering, angular particulate uptake by benthic organisms, and from the bioaccumulation of a complex of heavy metals by both benthic and pelagic species. While much is known about the binding of copper and other toxic heavy metals in a reducing environment, little has been done to consider the implications of ocean dumping where 1% of tailings discharged may consist of unrecovered heavy metals. Synergistic cumulative impacts to just the HCLME from the dumping of the more than 3M tpy of reactive metals in these tailings sediments remains unknown and poses substantial risks. DSTP assumes a stable deep sea depositional environment but upwelling currents and plume shear may make this hard to accomplish.

  6. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanier, C.; Fabri, M.-C.; Buscail, R.; Biscara, L.; Koho, K.A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Cossa, D.; Galaup, S.; Chabaud, G.; Pigot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived minerals an

  7. Analysis of F-Canyon Effluents During the Dissolution Cycle with a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer/Multipath Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air samples from F-Canyon effluents were collected at the F-Canyon stack and transported to a laboratory at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for analysis using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in conjunction with a multipath cell. Air samples were collected during the decladding and acid cuts of the dissolution of the irradiated aluminum-cladded slugs. The FTIR analyses of the air samples show the presence of NO2, NO, HNO2, N2O, SF6, and 85Kr during the dissolution cycle. The concentration time profiles of these effluents corresponded with expected release rates from the F-Canyon operations

  8. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system`s designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy.

  9. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  10. Microbial activity in a deep underground HLW disposal cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, F.; Pellegrini, D. [IRSN/DSU/SSIAD/BERIS, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Libert, M. [CEA/DEN/DTN/SMTM/LMTE, CEA de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Urios, L. [UPPA/IPREM, UMR 5254, EEM/IBEAS, Pau (France)

    2010-07-01

    The research program conducted by IRSN on microbial activity in the context of deep underground radioactive waste disposal is focused on the potential impact of bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel materials involved in the design of high level waste (HLW) disposal cells developed in France by Andra. This program combines two different approaches: firstly, the evaluation of biodiversity of argillite, from undisturbed and disturbed (gallery wall, excavation damaged zone, presence of metallic platelets..) samples and secondly, the development of a conceptual model for development of microbial activity in a HLW disposal cell based on mass and energy balances. At this stage, it is worth noting that the effects of high radiation have not been taken into account. The characterization of biodiversity of the Toarcian argillite of Tournemire (experimental tunnel operated to develop IRSN skills in earth sciences) has shown that even if the argillite probably acts as a natural selective substratum for bacterial colonization, exogenous microorganisms may develop within disturbed areas. Indeed, the observed bacterial diversity tends to depend on the different oxygen and humidity conditions, and also probably on space availability. This characterization also highlighted the presence of a sulphate-reducing and iron-reducing bacterium capable to resist to high temperatures in a sample collected by scratching a steel platelet. Besides, the preliminary conceptual model of bacterial development has shown that iron-reducing and sulphate-reducing bacteria may be able to grow in the environment of HLW disposal cell. (orig.)

  11. Microbial activity in a deep underground HLW disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program conducted by IRSN on microbial activity in the context of deep underground radioactive waste disposal is focused on the potential impact of bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel materials involved in the design of high level waste (HLW) disposal cells developed in France by Andra. This program combines two different approaches: firstly, the evaluation of biodiversity of argillite, from undisturbed and disturbed (gallery wall, excavation damaged zone, presence of metallic platelets..) samples and secondly, the development of a conceptual model for development of microbial activity in a HLW disposal cell based on mass and energy balances. At this stage, it is worth noting that the effects of high radiation have not been taken into account. The characterization of biodiversity of the Toarcian argillite of Tournemire (experimental tunnel operated to develop IRSN skills in earth sciences) has shown that even if the argillite probably acts as a natural selective substratum for bacterial colonization, exogenous microorganisms may develop within disturbed areas. Indeed, the observed bacterial diversity tends to depend on the different oxygen and humidity conditions, and also probably on space availability. This characterization also highlighted the presence of a sulphate-reducing and iron-reducing bacterium capable to resist to high temperatures in a sample collected by scratching a steel platelet. Besides, the preliminary conceptual model of bacterial development has shown that iron-reducing and sulphate-reducing bacteria may be able to grow in the environment of HLW disposal cell. (orig.)

  12. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  13. An ethical framework for the disposal of autologous stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of haematopoietic stem cells stored for autologous transplantation purposes becomes a problem for hospitals when the conditions for their preservation cease to exist. When these cells have been stored for a considerable time the problem often becomes an ethical one involving informed consent and is linked to at least two simultaneous circumstances: (i) the indications regarding disposal contained in available informed consent papers are either absent or too generic; (ii) the person who provided the sample can no longer be traced. This article proposes and discusses some of the ethical criteria for addressing this problem on the basis of the so-called "principles" of North American bioethics, and compares them with some of the principles and values proposed in other models of bioethics. PMID:23412868

  14. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS WITH TANK 40 AND H CANYON NEPTUNIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M

    2009-04-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40. SB5 contains the contents of Tank 51 from November 2008, qualified by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the heel in Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 4. Current Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) plans are to (1) decant supernatant from Tank 40 to remove excess liquid caused by a leaking slurry pump and (2) receive a Np stream from H Canyon It should be noted that the Np stream contains significant nitrate requiring addition of nitrite to Tank 40 to maintain a high nitrite to nitrate ratio for corrosion control. SRNL has been requested to qualify the proposed changes; determine the impact on DWPF processability in terms of hydrogen generation, rheology, etc.; evaluate antifoam addition strategy; and evaluate mercury stripping. Therefore, SRNL received a 3 L sample of Tank 40 following the transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40 (Tank Farm Sample HTF-40-08-157 to be used in testing and to perform the required Waste Acceptance Product Specifications radionuclide analyses). Based on Tank Farm projections, SRNL decanted a portion* of the sample, added sodium nitrite, and added a Np solution from H Canyon representative of the Np to be dispositioned to Tank 40 (neutralized to 0.6 M excess hydroxide). The resulting material was used in a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration -- a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle. Preliminary data from the demonstration has been reported previously. This report includes discussion of these results and additional results, including comparisons to Tank Farm projections and the SB5 demonstration.

  16. Disposable orbitally shaken TubeSpin bioreactor 600 for Sf9 cell cultivation in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, Dominique T; Shen, Xiao; Tontodonati, Giulia; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2016-07-15

    Disposable orbitally shaken TubeSpin bioreactor 600 tubes (TS600s) were recently developed for the bench-scale cultivation of animal cells in suspension. Here we compared batch cultures of Sf9 insect cells in TS600s, spinner flasks, and shake flasks. Superior cell growth was observed in TS600s and shake flasks as compared with spinner flasks, and more favorable oxygen-enriched cell culture conditions were observed in TS600s as compared with either spinner or shake flasks. The results demonstrated the suitability of TS600s as a disposable vessel for the cultivation of Sf9 cells in suspension. PMID:27130502

  17. ACCELERATED PILOT PROJECT FOR U CANYON DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KEHLER KL

    2011-01-13

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is underway on a first-of-a-kind project with the decommissioning and demolition of the U Canyon. Following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Record of Decision for the final remediation of the canyon, CH2M HILL is combining old and new technology and techniques to prepare U Canyon for demolition. The selected remedial action called first for consolidating and grouting equipment currently in the canyon into lower levels of the plant (openings called cells), after which the cell galleries, hot pipe trench, ventilation tunnel, drains and other voids below the operating deck and crane-way deck levels will be filled with approximately 20,000 cubic yards of grout and the canyon roof and walls demolished down to the approximate level of the canyon deck. The remaining canyon structure will then be buried beneath an engineered barrier designed to control potential contaminant migration for a 500-year life. Methods and lessons learned from this project will set the stage for the future demolition of Hanford's four other canyon-type processing facilities.

  18. Characterization and Application of a Disposable Rotating Bed Bioreactor for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Neumann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC into the field of tissue engineering is a promising development since these cells can be expanded vivo to clinically relevant numbers and, after expansion, retain their ability to differentiate into various cell lineages. Safety requirements and the necessity to obtain high cell numbers without frequent subcultivation of cells raised the question of the possibility of expanding MSC in one-way (single-use disposable bioreactors. In this study, umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC were expanded in a disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor under dynamic conditions. Z was characterized regarding residence time and mixing in order to evaluate the optimal bioreactor settings, enabling optimal mass transfer in the absence of shear stress, allowing an reproducible expansion of MSC, while maintaining their stemness properties. Culture of the UC-MSC in disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor resulted in a reproducible 8-fold increase of cell numbers after 5 days. Cells were shown to maintain specific MSC surface marker expression as well as trilineage differentiation potential and lack stress-induced premature senescence.

  19. Plant Cell-Based Recombinant Antibody Manufacturing with a 200 L Orbitally Shaken Disposable Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Rasche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells are an attractive platform for the manufacture of a variety of biopharmaceutical proteins, including antibodies. Here, we describe the scaled-up cultivation of human IgG-secreting BY-2 cells in a 200 L orbitally shaken disposable bioreactor, resulting in cell growth and recombinant protein yields that are proportionately comparable with those obtained from cultivations in 500 mL shake flasks. Furthermore, we present an efficient downstream process for antibody recovery from the viscous spent culture medium using expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography. PMID:26614289

  20. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system. PMID:23420706

  1. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system.

  2. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip.

  3. Bioreactor engineering using disposable technology for enhanced production of hCTLA4Ig in transgenic rice cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Yang, Yong-Suk; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Nam, Hyung-Jin; Jin, Gi-Hong; Kim, Dong-Il

    2013-09-01

    Two kinds of disposable bioreactors, air-lift disposable bioreactors (ADB) and wave disposable bioreactors (WDB) were compared with stirred-tank reactors (5-L STR). These bioreactors were successfully applied to transgenic rice cell cultures for the production of recombinant human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig). In both systems, a fed-batch culture method was used to produce hCTLA4Ig efficiently by feeding concentrated amino acids and production levels were enhanced when dissolved oxygen (DO) level was regulated at 30% using pure oxygen sparging. Agitation and aeration rate during cultivation in ADB and WDB were determined by the same mixing time. The results in both disposable bioreactors showed similar values in maximum cell density (11.9 gDCW/L and 12.6 gDCW/L), doubling time (4.8- and 5.0-day), and maximum hCTLA4Ig concentration (43.7 and 43.3 mg/L). Relatively higher cell viability was sustained in the ADB whereas hCTLA4Ig productivity was 1.2-fold higher than that in WDB. The productivity was improved by increasing aeration rate (0.2 vvm). Overall, our experiments demonstrate pneumatically driven disposable bioreactors are applicable for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell cultures. These results will be useful for development and scale-up studies of disposable bioreactor systems for transgenic plant cell cultures.

  4. Bioreactor engineering using disposable technology for enhanced production of hCTLA4Ig in transgenic rice cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Yang, Yong-Suk; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Nam, Hyung-Jin; Jin, Gi-Hong; Kim, Dong-Il

    2013-09-01

    Two kinds of disposable bioreactors, air-lift disposable bioreactors (ADB) and wave disposable bioreactors (WDB) were compared with stirred-tank reactors (5-L STR). These bioreactors were successfully applied to transgenic rice cell cultures for the production of recombinant human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig). In both systems, a fed-batch culture method was used to produce hCTLA4Ig efficiently by feeding concentrated amino acids and production levels were enhanced when dissolved oxygen (DO) level was regulated at 30% using pure oxygen sparging. Agitation and aeration rate during cultivation in ADB and WDB were determined by the same mixing time. The results in both disposable bioreactors showed similar values in maximum cell density (11.9 gDCW/L and 12.6 gDCW/L), doubling time (4.8- and 5.0-day), and maximum hCTLA4Ig concentration (43.7 and 43.3 mg/L). Relatively higher cell viability was sustained in the ADB whereas hCTLA4Ig productivity was 1.2-fold higher than that in WDB. The productivity was improved by increasing aeration rate (0.2 vvm). Overall, our experiments demonstrate pneumatically driven disposable bioreactors are applicable for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell cultures. These results will be useful for development and scale-up studies of disposable bioreactor systems for transgenic plant cell cultures. PMID:23568400

  5. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance.

  6. Uptake of Uranium and Other Elements of Concern by Plants Growing on Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C. N.; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for long-term stewardship of disposal cells for uranium mill tailings throughout the United States. Rock-armored disposal cell covers create favorable habitat for deep-rooted plants by reducing soil evaporation, increasing soil water storage, and trapping windblown dust, thereby providing water and nutrients for plant germination and establishment. DOE is studying the tradeoffs of potential detrimental and beneficial effects of plants growing on disposal cell covers to develop a rational and consistent vegetation management policy. Plant roots often extend vertically through disposal cell covers into underlying tailings, therefore, uptake of tailings contaminants and dissemination through animals foraging on stems and leaves is a possible exposure pathway. The literature shows that plant uptake of contaminants in uranium mill tailings occurs, but levels can vary widely depending on plant species, tailings and soil chemistry, and cover soil hydrology. Our empirical field study measured concentrations of uranium, radium, thorium, molybdenum, selenium, manganese, lead, and arsenic in above ground tissues harvested from plants growing on disposal cells near Native American communities in western states that represent a range of climates, cover designs, cover soil types, and vegetation types. For risk screening, contaminant levels in above ground tissues harvested from plants on disposal cells were compared to Maximum Tolerance Levels (MTLs) set for livestock by the National Research Council, and to tissue levels in the same plant species growing in reference areas near disposal cells. Although tailings were covered with uncontaminated soils, for 14 of 46 comparisons, levels of uranium and other contaminants were higher in plants growing on disposal cells compared to reference area plants, indicating possible mobilization of these elements from the tailing into plant tissues. However, with one exception, all plant

  7. H CANYON PROCESSING IN CORRELATION WITH FH ANALYTICAL LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, E.

    2012-08-06

    Management of radioactive chemical waste can be a complicated business. H Canyon and F/H Analytical Labs are two facilities present at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC that are at the forefront. In fact H Canyon is the only large-scale radiochemical processing facility in the United States and this processing is only enhanced by the aid given from F/H Analytical Labs. As H Canyon processes incoming materials, F/H Labs provide support through a variety of chemical analyses. Necessary checks of the chemical makeup, processing, and accountability of the samples taken from H Canyon process tanks are performed at the labs along with further checks on waste leaving the canyon after processing. Used nuclear material taken in by the canyon is actually not waste. Only a small portion of the radioactive material itself is actually consumed in nuclear reactors. As a result various radioactive elements such as Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium are commonly found in waste and may be useful to recover. Specific processing is needed to allow for separation of these products from the waste. This is H Canyon's specialty. Furthermore, H Canyon has the capacity to initiate the process for weapons-grade nuclear material to be converted into nuclear fuel. This is one of the main campaigns being set up for the fall of 2012. Once usable material is separated and purified of impurities such as fission products, it can be converted to an oxide and ultimately turned into commercial fuel. The processing of weapons-grade material for commercial fuel is important in the necessary disposition of plutonium. Another processing campaign to start in the fall in H Canyon involves the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel for disposal in improved containment units. The importance of this campaign involves the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to ensure the safety and well-being of future generations and the environment. As processing proceeds in the fall, H Canyon will have a substantial

  8. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, N.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form.

  9. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative.

  10. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative

  11. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns

  12. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  13. Evaluation of Background Concentrations of Contaminants in an Unusual Desert Arroyo Near a Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cell - 12260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard P. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (United States); Morrison, Stan J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages 27 sites that have groundwater containing uranium concentrations above background levels. The distal portions of the plumes merge into background groundwater that can have 50 μg/L or more uranium. Distinguishing background from site-related uranium is often problematic, but it is critical to determining if remediation is warranted, establishing appropriate remediation goals, and evaluating disposal cell performance. In particular, groundwater at disposal cells located on the upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale may have relatively high background concentrations of uranium. Elevated concentrations of nitrate, selenium, and sulfate accompany the uranium. LM used geologic analogs and uranium isotopic signatures to distinguish background groundwater from groundwater contaminated by a former uranium processing site. The same suite of contaminants is present in groundwater near former uranium processing sites and in groundwater seeps emanating from the Mancos Shale over a broad area. The concentrations of these contaminants in Many Devils Wash, located near LM's Shiprock disposal cell, are similar to those in samples collected from many Mancos seeps, including two analog sites that are 8 to 11 km from the disposal cell. Samples collected from Many Devils Wash and the analog sites have high AR values (about 2.0)-in contrast, groundwater samples collected near the tailings disposal cell have AR values near 1.0. These chemical signatures raise questions about the origin of the contamination seeping into Many Devils Wash. (authors)

  14. Proinsulin atypical maturation and disposal induces extensive defects in mouse Ins2+/Akita β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxin Yuan

    Full Text Available Because of its low relative folding rate and plentiful manufacture in β-cells, proinsulin maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO through the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to genetic and environmental influences, and its disorder has been critically linked to defects in β-cells in diabetes. To explore this hypothesis, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR, metabolic-labeling, immunoblotting, and histological studies to clarify what defects result from primary disorder of PIHO in model Ins2(+/Akita β-cells. We used T antigen-transformed Ins2(+/Akita and control Ins2(+/+ β-cells established from Akita and wild-type littermate mice. In Ins2(+/Akita β-cells, we found no apparent defect at the transcriptional and translational levels to contribute to reduced cellular content of insulin and its precursor and secreted insulin. Glucose response remained normal in proinsulin biosynthesis but was impaired for insulin secretion. The size and number of mature insulin granules were reduced, but the size/number of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, mitochondrion, and lysosome organelles and vacuoles were expanded/increased. Moreover, cell death increased, and severe oxidative stress, which manifested as increased reactive oxygen species, thioredoxin-interacting protein, and protein tyrosine nitration, occurred in Ins2(+/Akita β-cells and/or islets. These data show the first clear evidence that primary PIHO imbalance induces severe oxidative stress and impairs glucose-stimulated insulin release and β-cell survival as well as producing other toxic consequences. The defects disclosed/clarified in model Ins2(+/Akita β-cells further support a role of the genetic and stress-susceptible PIHO disorder in β-cell failure and diabetes.

  15. Results and analysis of saltstone cores taken from saltstone disposal unit cell 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    As part of an ongoing Performance Assessment (PA) Maintenance Plan, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has developed a sampling and analyses strategy to facilitate the comparison of field-emplaced samples (i.e., saltstone placed and cured in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU)) with samples prepared and cured in the laboratory. The primary objectives of the Sampling and Analyses Plan (SAP) are; (1) to demonstrate a correlation between the measured properties of laboratory-prepared, simulant samples (termed Sample Set 3), and the field-emplaced saltstone samples (termed Sample Set 9), and (2) to validate property values assumed for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) PA modeling. The analysis and property data for Sample Set 9 (i.e. six core samples extracted from SDU Cell 2A (SDU2A)) are documented in this report, and where applicable, the results are compared to the results for Sample Set 3. Relevant properties to demonstrate the aforementioned objectives include bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), and radionuclide leaching behavior.

  16. An assessment of plant biointrusion at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project rock-covered disposal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This study is one of a number of special studies that have been conducted regarding various aspects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This special study was proposed following routine surveillance and maintenance surveys and observations reported in a special study of vegetative covers (DOE, 1988), in which plants were observed growing up through the rock erosion layer at recently completed disposal cells. Some of the plants observed were deep-rooted woody species, and questions concerning root intrusion into disposal cells and the need to control plant growth were raised. The special study discussed in this report was designed to address some of the ramifications of plant growth on disposal cells that have rock covers. The NRC has chosen rock covers over vegetative covers in the arid western United States because licenses cannot substantiate that the vegetative covers will be significantly greater than 30 percent and preferably 70 percent,'' which is the amount of vegetation required to reduce flow to a point of stability.'' The potential impacts of vegetation growing in rock covers are not addressed by the NRC (1990). The objectives, then, of this study were to determine the species of plants growing on two rock-covered disposal cells, study the rooting pattern of plants on these cells, and identify possible impacts of plant root penetration on these and other UMTRA Project rock-covered cells.

  17. An assessment of plant biointrusion at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project rock-covered disposal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is one of a number of special studies that have been conducted regarding various aspects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This special study was proposed following routine surveillance and maintenance surveys and observations reported in a special study of vegetative covers (DOE, 1988), in which plants were observed growing up through the rock erosion layer at recently completed disposal cells. Some of the plants observed were deep-rooted woody species, and questions concerning root intrusion into disposal cells and the need to control plant growth were raised. The special study discussed in this report was designed to address some of the ramifications of plant growth on disposal cells that have rock covers. The NRC has chosen rock covers over vegetative covers in the arid western United States because licenses cannot substantiate that the vegetative covers ''will be significantly greater than 30 percent and preferably 70 percent,'' which is the amount of ''vegetation required to reduce flow to a point of stability.'' The potential impacts of vegetation growing in rock covers are not addressed by the NRC (1990). The objectives, then, of this study were to determine the species of plants growing on two rock-covered disposal cells, study the rooting pattern of plants on these cells, and identify possible impacts of plant root penetration on these and other UMTRA Project rock-covered cells

  18. Acoustic micro-vortexing of fluids, particles and cells in disposable microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Ida; Ohlin, Mathias; Ramachandraiah, Harisha; Ye, Simon; Russom, Aman; Wiklund, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate an acoustic platform for micro-vortexing in disposable polymer microfluidic chips with small-volume (20 μl) reaction chambers. The described method is demonstrated for a variety of standard vortexing functions, including mixing of fluids, re-suspension of a pellet of magnetic beads collected by a magnet placed on the chip, and lysis of cells for DNA extraction. The device is based on a modified Langevin-type ultrasonic transducer with an exponential horn for efficient coupling into the microfluidic chip, which is actuated by a low-cost fixed-frequency electronic driver board. The transducer is optimized by numerical modelling, and different demonstrated vortexing functions are realized by actuating the transducer for varying times; from fractions of a second for fluid mixing, to half a minute for cell lysis and DNA extraction. The platform can be operated during 1 min below physiological temperatures with the help of a PC fan, a Peltier element and an aluminum heat sink acting as the chip holder. As a proof of principle for sample preparation applications, we demonstrate on-chip cell lysis and DNA extraction within 25 s. The method is of interest for automating and chip-integrating sample preparation procedures in various biological assays. PMID:27444649

  19. The Whittard Canyon - A case study of submarine canyon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard Canyon (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard Canyon is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-canyon causing sedimentary overflow in some upper canyon areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the canyon appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard Canyon fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the canyon and on the slope than in the lower canyon. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the canyon are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the canyon compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than

  20. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  1. Halomonas desiderata as a bacterial model to predict the possible biological nitrate reduction in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposals

    OpenAIRE

    Alquier, Marjorie; Kassim, Caroline; Bertron, Alexandra; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Rafrafi, Yan; Albrecht, Achim; Erable, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    After closure of a waste disposal cell in a repository for radioactive waste, resaturation is likely to cause the release of soluble species contained in cement and bituminous matrices, such as ionic species (nitrates, sulfates, calcium and alkaline ions, etc.), organic matter (mainly organic acids), or gases (from steel containers and reinforced concrete structures as well as from radiolysis within the waste packages). However, in the presence of nitrates in the near-field of waste, the wast...

  2. 2010 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Diablo Canyon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Diablo Canyon (2010), and San...

  3. Work plan for phase 1A paleochannel studies at the Cheney disposal cell, Grand Junction, Colorado: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document will serve as a Work Plan for continuing paleochannel characterization activities at the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado. Elevated levels of nitrate were encountered in ground water from two monitor wells installed in alluvial paleochannels near the Cheney disposal cell in 1994. This triggered a series of investigations (Phase 1) designed to determine the source of nitrate and other chemical constituents in ground water at the site. A comprehensive summary of the Phase 1 field investigations (limited to passive monitoring and modeling studies) conducted by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to date is provided in Section 2.0 of this document. Results of Phase 1 were inconclusive regarding the potential interaction between the disposal cell and the paleochannels, so additional Phase 1A investigations are planned. Recommendations for Phase 1A tasks and possible future activities are discussed in Section 3.0. Detailed information on the implementation of the proposed Phase 1A tasks appears in Section 4.0 and will provide the basis for Statements of Work (SOW) for each of these tasks. A detailed sampling plan is provided to ensure quality and a consistency with previous data collection efforts

  4. Work plan for phase 1A paleochannel studies at the Cheney disposal cell, Grand Junction, Colorado: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This document will serve as a Work Plan for continuing paleochannel characterization activities at the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado. Elevated levels of nitrate were encountered in ground water from two monitor wells installed in alluvial paleochannels near the Cheney disposal cell in 1994. This triggered a series of investigations (Phase 1) designed to determine the source of nitrate and other chemical constituents in ground water at the site. A comprehensive summary of the Phase 1 field investigations (limited to passive monitoring and modeling studies) conducted by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to date is provided in Section 2.0 of this document. Results of Phase 1 were inconclusive regarding the potential interaction between the disposal cell and the paleochannels, so additional Phase 1A investigations are planned. Recommendations for Phase 1A tasks and possible future activities are discussed in Section 3.0. Detailed information on the implementation of the proposed Phase 1A tasks appears in Section 4.0 and will provide the basis for Statements of Work (SOW) for each of these tasks. A detailed sampling plan is provided to ensure quality and a consistency with previous data collection efforts.

  5. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present a new disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for the online analysis of adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on quartz crystal resonators (QCRs). The device was conceived for the parallel cultivation of cells providing the same experimental conditions...... among all the sensors of the array. As well, dedicated sensor interface electronics were developed and optimized for fast spectra acquisition of all 16 QCRs with a miniaturized impedance analyzer. This allowed performing cell cultivation experiments for the observation of fast cellular reaction kinetics...... with focus on the comparison of the resulting sensor signals influenced by different cell distributions on the sensor surface. To prove the assumption of equal flow circulation within the symmetric micro-channel network and support the hypothesis of identical cultivation conditions for the cells living above...

  6. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunetti Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells and under five percent (viable cells. The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a

  7. Two new disposable bioreactors for plant cell culture: The wave and undertow bioreactor and the slug bubble bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier; Hénault, Nicolas; Cuvier, Arnaud; Bastin, Maryse; Aknin, Aziz; Dubreuil, Julien; Pétiard, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The present article describes two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors. The first one, the WU bioreactor, is based on the principle of a wave and undertow mechanism that provides agitation while offering convenient mixing and aeration to the plant cell culture contained within the bioreactor. The second one is a high aspect ratio bubble column bioreactor, where agitation and aeration are achieved through the intermittent generation of large diameter bubbles, "Taylor-like" or "slug bubbles" (SB bioreactor). It allows an easy volume increase from a few liters to larger volumes up to several hundred liters with the use of multiple units. The cultivation of tobacco and soya cells producing isoflavones is described up to 70 and 100 L working volume for the SB bioreactor and WU bioreactor, respectively. The bioreactors being disposable and pre-sterilized before use, cleaning, sterilization, and maintenance operations are strongly reduced or eliminated. Both bioreactors represent efficient and low cost cell culture systems, applicable to various cell cultures at small and medium scale, complementary to traditional stainless-steel bioreactors.

  8. Deepwater Canyons 2013: Pathways to the Abyss

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Leg I focused on biological objectives in Norfolk Canyon, with some sampling in Baltimore Canyon. Leg II focused on archaeological targets in and around the Norfolk...

  9. Production of cell culture (MDCK) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Meena; Farooq, Masiha; Dang, Thi; Cortes, Bernadette; Liu, Jonathan; Maranga, Luis

    2010-08-15

    The majority of influenza vaccines are manufactured using embryonated hens' eggs. The potential occurrence of a pandemic outbreak of avian influenza might reduce or even eliminate the supply of eggs, leaving the human population at risk. Also, the egg-based production technology is intrinsically cumbersome and not easily scalable to provide a rapid worldwide supply of vaccine. In this communication, the production of a cell culture (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process using a novel Single Use Bioreactor (SUB) is presented. The cell culture and virus infection was maintained in a disposable stirred tank reactor with PID control of pH, DO, agitation, and temperature, similar to traditional glass or stainless steel bioreactors. The application of this technology was tested using MDCK cells grown on microcarriers in proprietary serum free medium and infection with 2006/2007 seasonal LAIV strains at 25-30 L scale. The MDCK cell growth was optimal at the agitation rate of 100 rpm. Optimization of this parameter allowed the cells to grow at a rate similar to that achieved in the conventional 3 L glass stirred tank bioreactors. Influenza vaccine virus strains, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 strain), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2 strain), and B/Malaysia/2506/04 (B strain) were all successfully produced in SUB with peak virus titers > or =8.6 log(10) FFU/mL. This result demonstrated that more than 1 million doses of vaccine can be produced through one single run of a small bioreactor at the scale of 30 L and thus provided an alternative to the current vaccine production platform with fast turn-around and low upfront facility investment, features that are particularly useful for emerging and developing countries and clinical trial material production. PMID:20589670

  10. A Study to Assess Economic Burden and Practice of Cell Phone Disposal among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj, Mittal; Rajasekar, Vedapriya Dande; Krishnagopal, Lavanya

    2013-01-01

    Context: Our country India is having 919.17 million cell phone users; currently this is the second largest number of cell phone users after China. The youth spend a good amount on talk time and purchasing cell phone handsets. Discarding of cell phone is another issue which needs attention because of generation of e-wastes, which leads to environmental pollution.

  11. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  12. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  13. Soft Trapping and Manipulation of Cells Using a Disposable Nanoliter Biochamber

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, Mamadou; Taylor, Rod

    2006-01-01

    Low-power continuous-wave laser radiation is used to form a very stable microbubble at the end of a specially etched and metalized optical fiber probe. We demonstrate that the microbubble, which is firmly attached to the fiber probe, can be used to benignly trap and manipulate living swine sperm cells as well as human embryonic kidney cells. The lifetime of the microbubble has been prolonged and the gaseous environment inside the bubble controlled using micropipette gas injection. The control...

  14. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  15. Substrate-favored lysosomal and proteasomal pathways participate in the normal balance control of insulin precursor maturation and disposal in β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zhang

    Full Text Available Our recent studies have uncovered that aggregation-prone proinsulin preserves a low relative folding rate and maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO in β-cells as a result of the integration of maturation and disposal processes. Control of precursor maturation and disposal is thus an early regulative mechanism in the insulin production of β-cells. Herein, we show pathways involved in the disposal of endogenous proinsulin at the early secretory pathway. We conducted metabolic-labeling, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry studies to examine the effects of selective proteasome and lysosome or autophagy inhibitors on the kinetics of proinsulin and control proteins in various post-translational courses. Our metabolic-labeling studies found that the main lysosomal and ancillary proteasomal pathways participate in the heavy clearance of insulin precursor in mouse islets/β-cells cultured at the mimic physiological glucose concentrations. Further immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry studies in cloned β-cells validated that among secretory proteins, insulin precursor is heavily and preferentially removed. The rapid disposal of a large amount of insulin precursor after translation is achieved mainly through lysosomal autophagy and the subsequent basal disposals are carried out by both lysosomal and proteasomal pathways within a 30 to 60-minute post-translational process. The findings provide the first clear demonstration that lysosomal and proteasomal pathways both play roles in the normal maintenance of PIHO for insulin production, and defined the physiological participation of lysosomal autophagy in the protein quality control at the early secretory pathway of pancreatic β-cells.

  16. Bell Canyon test summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bell Canyon Test was an in situ evaluation of the ability of a cement grout plug to seal boreholes. It consisted of a 2-m-long, 20-cm-diameter grout plug in an anhydrite formation at a depth of 1370 m, directly above an aquifer that provided a 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) differential pressure. The aquifer had a production capability of 38,000 l/day (240 bbl/day, 104 gal/day). The observed leakage after plug installation was 0.6 l/day, which is equivalent to a 50 microdarcy flow path assuming all flow occurred through the plug cross-sectional area. Laboratory results and analysis of field data indicate that the bulk of the flow occurred through a microstructure at the interface between the plug and the host rock. The Bell Canyon Test demonstrated that a plug could be formulated, emplaced, and tested under actual conditions and provide acceptable performance. When these results are related to the WIPP performance assessment models, they provide additional confidence that borehole plugging can be accomplished satisfactorily. The Bell Canyon results can also be used as basis for future activities in the generic repository sealing program for similar emplacements and performance assessment evaluations. If the observed leakage rates are not acceptable at other sites, the BCT results would indicate that the first step in improving such emplacements should deal with improved bonding of the plug to the rock at these sites. The results obtained from the BCT, when coupled with results from long-term durability assessments, form a plug performance data basis for repository designers at other proposed waste repository sites

  17. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  18. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  19. H-Canyon Recovery Crawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hera, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marzolf, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phillips, M. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-Canyon. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-Canyon crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and

  20. Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of close-to-star gas-giant exo-planets lends support to the idea of Earth's origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant and to the consequences of its compression, including whole-Earth decompression dynamics that gives rise, without requiring mantle convection, to the myriad measurements and observations whose descriptions are attributed to plate tectonics. I propose here another, unanticipated consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics: namely, a specific, dominant, non-erosion, underlying initiation-mechanism precursor for submarine canyons that follows as a direct consequence of Earth's early origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant.

  1. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  2. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  3. E4orf1: a novel ligand that improves glucose disposal in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Dhurandhar

    Full Text Available Reducing dietary fat intake and excess adiposity, the cornerstones of behavioral treatment of insulin resistance (IR, are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, offers a template to improve IR, independent of dietary fat intake or adiposity. Ad36 increases cellular glucose uptake via a Ras-mediated activation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase(PI3K, and improves hyperglycemia in mice, despite a high-fat diet and without reducing adiposity. Ex-vivo studies suggest that Ad36 improves hyperglycemia in mice by increasing glucose uptake by adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and by reducing hepatic glucose output. It is impractical to use Ad36 for therapeutic action. Instead, we investigated if the E4orf1 protein of Ad36, mediates its anti-hyperglycemic action. Such a candidate protein may offer an attractive template for therapeutic development. Experiment-1 determined that Ad36 'requires' E4orf1 protein to up-regulate cellular glucose uptake. Ad36 significantly increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was abrogated by knocking down E4orf1 with siRNA. Experiment-2 identified E4orf1 as 'sufficient' to up-regulate glucose uptake. 3T3-L1 cells that inducibly express E4orf1, increased glucose uptake in an induction-dependent manner, compared to null vector control cells. E4orf1 up-regulated PI3K pathway and increased abundance of Ras--the obligatory molecule in Ad36-induced glucose uptake. Experiment-3: Signaling studies of cells transiently transfected with E4orf1 or a null vector, revealed that E4orf1 may activate Ras/PI3K pathway by binding to Drosophila discs-large (Dlg1 protein. E4orf1 activated total Ras and, particularly the H-Ras isoform. By mutating the PDZ domain binding motif (PBM of E4orf1, Experiment-4 showed that E4orf1 requires its PBM to increase Ras activation or glucose uptake. Experiment-5: In-vitro, a transient transfection by E4orf1 significantly increased glucose uptake in preadipocytes

  4. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  5. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  7. Internal waves in the Petacalco canyon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Angulo, Angel; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    On the Mexican coastline, specifically on the Pacific side, there are many submarine canyons. One of the key rolls of coastal submarine canyons is that deep water from adjacent oceanic regions is brought up to the shelf with lots of nutrients enhancing primary production. The head of the Petacalco canyon is located in the Petacalco Bay, in the Pacific Ocean (ca. 17.5N and 102W). During, previous CTD surveys in the area, strong upwelling has been noticed, based on those observations a later survey was designed covering the Petacalco canyon with much larger spatial resolution. Along with those measurements, two thermistor arrays were deployed on the SW crest of the canyon at depths of approximately 60 [m]. The observations, from the thermistor arrays, show large temporal temperature variations with a semi-diurnal frequency. Those variations suggest the presence of internal waves traveling along the canyon axis, if the incidence angle of the internal wave matches the topographic slope results on breaking of internal waves enhancing mixing. This condition occurs at several locations along the canyon axis producing enough mixing of deep oceanic waters with continental waters, increasing the abundance of nutrients in the surrounding region.

  8. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (Northwest Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger number were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10 day model period, however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. Offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies were explained within this new dynamic framework.

  9. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  10. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    Monterey and Soquel Canyons, the relatively flat continental shelf contains only a few rocky outcrop exposures. Bedrock is covered largely by sediment derived from the Salinas and Pajaro Rivers. North of Monterey Canyon, the broad and flat continental shelf dips gently seaward, to water depths of about 95 m. To the south, the shelf also dips slightly, to water depths of as much as 150 m along the canyon edge.In the map area, Monterey Canyon splits the Santa Cruz littoral cell (north of the canyon) and the southern Monterey littoral cell (south of the canyon). It is estimated that about 400,000 m3/yr of sand on average enters Monterey Canyon from both of these littoral cells.In the Santa Cruz littoral cell, sand generally travels east and south. Sand is supplied through sea cliff erosion, as well as from the San Lorenzo River, the Pajaro River, and several other smaller coastal watersheds. About 152,911 m3/yr of sand is dredged from the entrance channel of the Santa Cruz Small Craft Harbor north of the map area and then placed on beaches to the east (downdrift) of it. This sand feeds the beaches in the southeastern reach of the Santa Cruz littoral cell and (or) is eventually trapped and lost by Monterey Canyon.The southern Monterey Bay littoral cell in the map area consists of two subcells. From the head of Monterey Canyon to the Salinas River, littoral drift is dominantly to the north; sand entering the ocean from the Salinas River either is deposited offshore or travels north in the littoral zone, nourishing the beaches until it is transported down Monterey Canyon. From south of the Salinas River to the southern extent of the map area, coastal sediment is moved mainly to the south; dune erosion is the only significant source of sand in this subcell.

  11. Simple and rapid fabrication of disposable carbon-based electrochemical cells using an electronic craft cutter for sensor and biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Uliana, Carolina V; Martucci, Diego H; Faria, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the construction of an all-plastic disposable carbon-based electrochemical cell (DCell) using a simple procedure based on the use of a home cutter printer for prototyping and laminating. The cutter printer and adhesive vinyl films were used to produce three electrodes in an electrochemical cell layout, and a laminating process was then used to define the geometric area and insulate the electrodes. The DCell showed excellent performance in several applications including the determination of toxic metals in water samples, the immobilization of DNA and the detection of Salmonella. An unmodified DCell was applied for Pb and Cd detection in the range of 100-300 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 50 and 39 ng mL(-1) for Cd and Pb, respectively. DNA was successfully immobilized on a DCell and used for studies of interaction between bisphenol A and DNA. The square wave voltammetry of a DNA modified DCell presented a guanine oxidation current 2.5 times greater after exposure of the electrode to bisphenol A and no current variation for the adenine moiety indicating that bisphenol A showed a preference for DNA interaction sites. A magneto-immunoassay was developed using a DCell for Salmonella detection in milk samples. The system presented a linear range from 100 to 700 cells mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 100 cells mL(-1) and good recovery values between 93% and 101% in milk samples, with no interference from Escherichia coli. Using the proposed method, hundreds of DCells can be assembled in less than two hours, at a material cost of less than US $0.02 per cell. The all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell developed was successfully applied as an electrochemical sensor and biosensor. The feasibility of the developed all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell was demonstrated in applications as both sensor and biosensor. PMID:26695279

  12. Simple and rapid fabrication of disposable carbon-based electrochemical cells using an electronic craft cutter for sensor and biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Uliana, Carolina V; Martucci, Diego H; Faria, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the construction of an all-plastic disposable carbon-based electrochemical cell (DCell) using a simple procedure based on the use of a home cutter printer for prototyping and laminating. The cutter printer and adhesive vinyl films were used to produce three electrodes in an electrochemical cell layout, and a laminating process was then used to define the geometric area and insulate the electrodes. The DCell showed excellent performance in several applications including the determination of toxic metals in water samples, the immobilization of DNA and the detection of Salmonella. An unmodified DCell was applied for Pb and Cd detection in the range of 100-300 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 50 and 39 ng mL(-1) for Cd and Pb, respectively. DNA was successfully immobilized on a DCell and used for studies of interaction between bisphenol A and DNA. The square wave voltammetry of a DNA modified DCell presented a guanine oxidation current 2.5 times greater after exposure of the electrode to bisphenol A and no current variation for the adenine moiety indicating that bisphenol A showed a preference for DNA interaction sites. A magneto-immunoassay was developed using a DCell for Salmonella detection in milk samples. The system presented a linear range from 100 to 700 cells mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 100 cells mL(-1) and good recovery values between 93% and 101% in milk samples, with no interference from Escherichia coli. Using the proposed method, hundreds of DCells can be assembled in less than two hours, at a material cost of less than US $0.02 per cell. The all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell developed was successfully applied as an electrochemical sensor and biosensor. The feasibility of the developed all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell was demonstrated in applications as both sensor and biosensor.

  13. Halomonas desiderata as a bacterial model to predict the possible biological nitrate reduction in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquier, Marjorie; Kassim, Caroline; Bertron, Alexandra; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Rafrafi, Yan; Albrecht, Achim; Erable, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    After closure of a waste disposal cell in a repository for radioactive waste, resaturation is likely to cause the release of soluble species contained in cement and bituminous matrices, such as ionic species (nitrates, sulfates, calcium and alkaline ions, etc.), organic matter (mainly organic acids), or gases (from steel containers and reinforced concrete structures as well as from radiolysis within the waste packages). However, in the presence of nitrates in the near-field of waste, the waste cell can initiate oxidative conditions leading to enhanced mobility of redox-sensitive radionuclides (RN). In biotic conditions and in the presence of organic matter and/or hydrogen as electron donors, nitrates may be microbiologically reduced, allowing a return to reducing conditions that promote the safety of storage. Our work aims to analyze the possible microbial reactivity of nitrates at the bitumen - concrete interface in conditions as close as possible to radioactive waste storage conditions in order (i) to evaluate the nitrate reaction kinetics; (ii) to identify the by-products (NO2(-), NH4(+), N2, N2O, etc.); and (iii) to discriminate between the roles of planktonic bacteria and those adhering as a biofilm structure in the denitrifying activity. Leaching experiments on solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes) were first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface, e.g. highly alkaline pH conditions (10 < pH < 11) imposed by the cement matrix. The screening of a range of anaerobic denitrifying bacterial strains led us to select Halomonas desiderata as a model bacterium capable of catalyzing the reaction of nitrate reduction in these particular conditions of pH. The denitrifying activity of H. desiderata was quantified in a batch bioreactor in the presence of solid matrices and/or leachate from bitumen and cement matrices. Denitrification was relatively fast in the presence of cement

  14. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  15. Street canyon ventilation and atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.; Mejean, P.

    Operational models for pollutant dispersion in urban areas require an estimate of the turbulent transfer between the street canyons and the overlying atmospheric flow. To date, the mechanisms that govern this process remain poorly understood. We have studied the mass exchange between a street canyon and the atmospheric flow above it by means of wind tunnel experiments. Fluid velocities were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry system and passive scalar concentrations were measured using a Flame Ionisation Detector. The mass-transfer velocity between the canyon and the external flow has been estimated by measuring the cavity wash-out time. A two-box model, used to estimate the transfer velocity for varying dynamical conditions of the external flow, has been used to interpret the experimental data. This study sheds new light on the mechanisms which drive the ventilation of a street canyon and illustrates the influence of the external turbulence on the transfer process.

  16. Modelling Aerosol Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, B. K.; Jones, D. P.; Gallagher, M. W.; McFiggans, G. B.; Watkins, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    Flow patterns within an urban street canyon are influenced by various micrometeorological factors. It also represents an environment where pollutants such as aerosols accumulate to high levels due to high volumes of traffic. As adverse health effects are being attributed to exposure to aerosols, an investigation of the dispersion of aerosols within such environments is of growing importance. In particular, one is concerned with the vertical structure of the aerosol concentration, the ventilation characteristics of the street canyon and the influence of aerosol microphysical processes. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of the aerosol concentrations within the street canyon and the lack of spatial resolution of measurement campaigns, these issues are an on-going debate. Therefore, a modelling tool is required to represent aerosol dispersion patterns to provide insights to results of past measurement campaigns. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are able to predict detailed airflow patterns within urban geometries. This capability may be further extended to include aerosol dispersion, by an Euler-Euler multiphase approach. To facilitate the investigation, a two-dimensional, multiphase CFD tool coupled with the k-epsilon turbulence model and with the capability of modelling mixed convection flow regimes arising from both wind driven flows and buoyancy effects from heated walls was developed. Assuming wind blowing perpendicularly to the canyon axis and treating aerosols as a passive scalar, an attempt will be made to assess the sensitivities of aerosol vertical structure and ventilation characteristics to the various flow conditions. Numerical studies were performed using an idealized 10m by 10m canyon to represent a regular canyon and 10m by 5m to represent a deep one. An aerosol emission source was assigned on the centerline of the canyon to represent exhaust emissions. The vertical structure of the aerosols would inform future directives regarding the

  17. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  18. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  19. Control of precursor maturation and disposal is an early regulative mechanism in the normal insulin production of pancreatic β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available The essential folding and maturation process of proinsulin in β-cells is largely uncharacterized. To analyze this process, we improved approaches to immunoblotting, metabolic labeling, and data analysis used to determine the proportion of monomers and non-monomers and changes in composition of proinsulin in cells. We found the natural occurrence of a large proportion of proinsulin in various non-monomer states, i.e., aggregates, in normal mouse and human β-cells and a striking increase in the proportion of proinsulin non-monomers in Ins2(+/Akita mice in response to a mutation (C96Y in the insulin 2 (Ins2 gene. Proinsulin emerges in monomer and abundant dual-fate non-monomer states during nascent protein synthesis and shows heavy and preferential ATP/redox-sensitive disposal among secretory proteins during early post-translational processes. These findings support the preservation of proinsulin's aggregation-prone nature and low relative folding rate that permits the plentiful production of non-monomer forms with incomplete folding. Thus, in normal mouse/human β-cells, proinsulin's integrated maturation and degradation processes maintain a balance of natively and non-natively folded states, i.e., proinsulin homeostasis (PIHO. Further analysis discovered the high susceptibility of PIHO to cellular energy and calcium changes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER and reductive/oxidative stress, and insults by thiol reagent and cytokine. These results expose a direct correlation between various extra-/intracellular influences and (atypical integrations of proinsulin maturation and disposal processes. Overall, our findings demonstrated that the control of precursor maturation and disposal acts as an early regulative mechanism in normal insulin production, and its disorder is crucially linked to β-cell failure and diabetes pathogenesis.

  20. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  1. Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazare canyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Garcia, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Cunha, M.R.; Pusceddu, A.; Danovaro, R.; Garcia, R.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine canyons transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter (OM) from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain. Three carbon-based food web models were constructed for the upper (300-750 m water depth), middle (2700-3500 m) and lower section (4000-5000 m) of the Nazare canyon (eastern

  2. The Whittard Canyon – a case study of submarine canyon processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V.A.I.; Allcock, A.L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J.S.; Danovaro, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A.J.; Gunton, L.M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K.L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C.E.; Lavaleye, M.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communit

  3. The Whittard Canyon – A case study of submarine canyon processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V.A.I.; Allcock, A.L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J.S.; Danovaro, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A.J.; Gunton, L.M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K.L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C.E.; Lavaleye, M.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communit

  4. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.)

  5. Use of Orbital Shaken Disposable Bioreactors for Mammalian Cell Cultures from the Milliliter-Scale to the 1,000-Liter Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; de Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; de Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

    Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

  6. TRAFFIC EMISSION TRANSPORTATION IN STREET CANYONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-min; WANG Jia-song; HUANG Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Spatial distributions of traffic-related pollutants in street canyons were investigated by field measurements and Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD).Two typical street canyons were selected for field monitoring,and a three-dimensional numerical model was built based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations equipped with the standard k-ε turbulence models for CFD simulations.The study shows that the pollutant concentrations of vehicle emission correlate well with the traffic volume variation,wind direction and wind speed.The wind direction and speed at the roof level determine overwhellmingly the flow field and the distributions of pollutant concentrations in the street canyon.When the wind speed is equal to zero,the pollutant concentrations on the breath height of the both sides of the street canyon are almost the same.When the wind direction is perpendicular to the street,one main vortex is formed with a shape depending on the building structure on both sides of the street,the pollutant is accumulated on the leeward side,and the pollutant concentrations at the breath height on the leeward side are 2 to 3 times as those at the breath height on the windward side.If the wind direction makes some angles with the street canyon,the pollutant concentration will be higher on the leeward side because one main vortex will also be formed in the vertical section of the canyon by the perpendicular component of the wind.But pollutant concentrations decrease in the canyon because pollutants are dispersed along the axis of the street.Pollutants at different heights of the vertical section decrease with height,i.e.there are concentration gradients in the vertical section,and the pollutant concentrations on the leeward side of the upstream building are much higher than those on the windward side of the downstream building.

  7. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  8. Nomograms for calculating pollution within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, A. T.; Middleton, D. R.

    The Environment Act 1995 has introduced the notion of local air quality management which requires that air quality in towns be reviewed and assessed. There is a need to identify those streets that are worst affected by vehicular pollutants. Such worst cases are likely to be narrow congested streets with tall buildings on each side. A nomogram presented here allows rapid screening of pollution in congested street canyons. The strong dependence on wind direction is reduced to the two extremes, namely wind along and wind across the canyon. Then canyon concentrations are estimated according to street geometry and traffic flow. The nomogram is designed for use by local authorities, is quick and easy to use, and paper or computer versions are available. It is suggested that detailed monitoring or modelling may only be required when simple screening methods predict high air pollution.

  9. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  10. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  11. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  12. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the...

  13. Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson Canyon Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson Canyon. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson Canyon, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean canyons. The activity provides learning…

  14. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande

  15. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    .... \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (September 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP electric service base... in power rate adjustments (10 CFR part 903) were published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  16. ACUMEN 2012: Atlantic Canyons Undersea Mapping Expeditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between February and August 2012, a team of NOAA and external partners will conduct a mapping ‘blitz’ focused on deepwater canyons off the northeastern...

  17. Environmenal analysis of the Bayo Canyon (TA-10) Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Hansen, W.R.

    1982-05-01

    The radiological survey of the old TA-10 site in Bayo Canyon found low levels of surface contamination in the vicinity of the firing sites and subsurface contamination in the old waste disposal area. The three alternatives proposed for the site are: (1) to take no action; (2) to restrict usage of the area of subsurface contamination to activities that cause no subsurface disturbance (minimal action); and (3) to remove the subsurface conamination to levels below the working criteria. Dose calculations indicate that doses from surface contamination for recreational users of the canyon, permanent residents, and construction workers and doses for workers involved in excavation of contaminated soil under the clean up alternative are only small percentages of applicable guidelines. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is small, especially considering that the area already has been affected by the original TA-10 decommissioning action, but nevertheless, the preferred alternative is the minimal action alternative, where 0.6 hectare of land is restricted to surface activities. This leaves the rest of the canyon available for development with up to 400 homes. The restricted area can be used for a park, tennis courts, etc., and the /sup 90/Sr activity will decay to levels permitting unrestricted usage in about 160 y.

  18. Environmenal analysis of the Bayo Canyon (TA-10) Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological survey of the old TA-10 site in Bayo Canyon found low levels of surface contamination in the vicinity of the firing sites and subsurface contamination in the old waste disposal area. The three alternatives proposed for the site are: (1) to take no action; (2) to restrict usage of the area of subsurface contamination to activities that cause no subsurface disturbance (minimal action); and (3) to remove the subsurface conamination to levels below the working criteria. Dose calculations indicate that doses from surface contamination for recreational users of the canyon, permanent residents, and construction workers and doses for workers involved in excavation of contaminated soil under the clean up alternative are only small percentages of applicable guidelines. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is small, especially considering that the area already has been affected by the original TA-10 decommissioning action, but nevertheless, the preferred alternative is the minimal action alternative, where 0.6 hectare of land is restricted to surface activities. This leaves the rest of the canyon available for development with up to 400 homes. The restricted area can be used for a park, tennis courts, etc., and the 90Sr activity will decay to levels permitting unrestricted usage in about 160 y

  19. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality. PMID:27179564

  20. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality.

  1. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  2. Oxygen supply in disposable shake-flasks: prediction of oxygen transfer rate, oxygen saturation and maximum cell concentration during aerobic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Sarah; Fröhlich, Alexander; John, Gernot T; Beutler, Falco; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen plays an essential role in aerobic cultivation especially due to its low solubility. Under unfavorable conditions of mixing and vessel geometry it can become limiting. This, however, is difficult to predict and thus the right choice for an optimal experimental set-up is challenging. To overcome this, we developed a method which allows a robust prediction of the dissolved oxygen concentration during aerobic growth. This integrates newly established mathematical correlations for the determination of the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in disposable shake-flasks from the filling volume, the vessel size and the agitation speed. Tested for the industrial production organism Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enabled a reliable design of culture conditions and allowed to predict the maximum possible cell concentration without oxygen limitation.

  3. Oxygen supply in disposable shake-flasks: prediction of oxygen transfer rate, oxygen saturation and maximum cell concentration during aerobic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Sarah; Fröhlich, Alexander; John, Gernot T; Beutler, Falco; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen plays an essential role in aerobic cultivation especially due to its low solubility. Under unfavorable conditions of mixing and vessel geometry it can become limiting. This, however, is difficult to predict and thus the right choice for an optimal experimental set-up is challenging. To overcome this, we developed a method which allows a robust prediction of the dissolved oxygen concentration during aerobic growth. This integrates newly established mathematical correlations for the determination of the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in disposable shake-flasks from the filling volume, the vessel size and the agitation speed. Tested for the industrial production organism Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enabled a reliable design of culture conditions and allowed to predict the maximum possible cell concentration without oxygen limitation. PMID:23592306

  4. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  5. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  6. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-P. Roeth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.

  7. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The...... small, and this suggests that most of the velocity fluctuations were fairly local and not caused by unsteady street vortices. The observed velocities scaled with the ambient wind speed except under low-wind conditions....

  8. “SHANGRI-LA” IN NUJIANG CANYON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    A few hours' drive took me to a place called Bingzhongluo,the largest piece of flatland in the canyon,where the Nujiang River takes two abrupt turns, forming the first bend on the Nujiang River,which is a best known scenic spot in China. At the side of the river there is a tablet of pure white marble inscribed with words painted in bright red,reading:“Bingzhongluo,the Shangri-La.”

  9. California State Waters Map Series--Hueneme Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Normark, William R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area lies within the eastern Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. The area is part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation - at least 90° - since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area, which is offshore of the Oxnard plain and west of and along the trend of the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains, lies at the east end of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, characterized by west-to-east littoral transport of sediment derived mainly from coastal watersheds. The Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area in California's State Waters is characterized by two major physiographic features: (1) the nearshore continental shelf, and (2) the Hueneme and Mugu Submarine Canyon system, which, in the map area, includes Hueneme Canyon and parts

  10. Efficient large volume electroporation of dendritic cells through micrometer scale manipulation of flow in a disposable polymer chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, Dávid; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Met, Özcan;

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid chip of polymer and stainless steel designed for high-throughput continuous electroporation of cells in suspension. The chip is constructed with two parallel stainless steel mesh electrodes oriented perpendicular to the liquid flow. The relatively high hydrodynamic resistance...... of the micrometer sized holes in the meshes compared to the main channel enforces an almost homogeneous flow velocity between the meshes. Thereby, very uniform electroporation of the cells can be accomplished. Successful electroporation of 20 million human dendritic cells with mRNA is demonstrated. The performance...... of the chip is similar to that of the traditional electroporation cuvette, but without an upper limit on the number of cells to be electroporated. The device is constructed with two female Luer parts and can easily be integrated with other microfluidic components. Furthermore it is fabricated from injection...

  11. The marine soundscape of the Perth Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Verma, Arti; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander; Parnum, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The Perth Canyon is a submarine canyon off Rottnest Island in Western Australia. It is rich in biodiversity in general, and important as a feeding and resting ground for great whales on migration. Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) has moorings in the Perth Canyon monitoring its acoustical, physical and biological oceanography. Data from these moorings, as well as weather data from a near-by Bureau of Meteorology weather station on Rottnest Island and ship traffic data from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority were correlated to characterise and quantify the marine soundscape between 5 and 3000 Hz, consisting of its geophony, biophony and anthrophony. Overall, biological sources are a strong contributor to the soundscape at the IMOS site, with whales dominating seasonally at low (15-100 Hz) and mid frequencies (200-400 Hz), and fish or invertebrate choruses dominating at high frequencies (1800-2500 Hz) at night time throughout the year. Ships contribute significantly to the 8-100 Hz band at all times of the day, all year round, albeit for a few hours at a time only. Wind-dependent noise is significant at 200-3000 Hz; winter rains are audible underwater at 2000-3000 Hz. We discuss how passive acoustic data can be used as a proxy for ocean weather. Passive acoustics is an efficient way of monitoring animal visitation times and relative densities, and potential anthropogenic influences.

  12. Fully solution-processed organic light-emitting electrochemical cells (OLEC) with inkjet-printed micro-lenses for disposable lab-on-chip applications at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhe; Pabst, Oliver; Beckert, Erik; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Microfluidic lab-on-chip devices can be used for chemical and biological analyses such as DNA tests or environmental monitoring. Such devices integrate most of the basic functionalities needed for scientific analysis on a microfluidic chip. When using such devices, cost and space-intensive lab equipment is no longer necessary. However, in order to make a monolithic and cost-efficient/disposable microfluidic sensing device, direct integration of the excitation light source for fluorescent sensing is often required. To achieve this, we introduce a fully solution processable deviation of OLEDs, organic light-emitting electrochemical cells (OLECs), as a low-cost excitation light source for a disposable microfluidic sensing platform. By mixing metal ions and a solid electrolyte with light-emitting polymers as active materials, an in-situ doping and in-situ PN-junction can be generated within a three layer sandwich device. Thanks to this doping effect, work function adaptation is not necessary and air-stable electrode can be used. An ambient manufacturing process for fully solution-processed OLECs is presented, which consist of a spin-coated blue light-emitting polymer plus dopants on an ITO cathode and an inkjet-printed PEDOT:PSS transparent top anode. A fully transparent blue OLEC is able to obtain light intensity > 2500 cd/m2 under pulsed driving mode and maintain stable after 1000 cycles, which fulfils requirements for simple fluorescent on-chip sensing applications. However, because of the large refractive index difference between substrates and air, about 80% of emitted light is trapped inside the device. Therefore, inkjet printed micro-lenses on the rear side are introduced here to further increase light-emitting brightness.

  13. Holocene sedimentary activity in a non-terrestrially coupled submarine canyon: Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Stevens, C. L.; Stirling, M. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Cook Strait Canyon system, located between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially coupled system. Sediment transport associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults, is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. A substantial dataset of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data have been collected across the region between 2002 and 2011. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of the data reveals a two-staged sediment transport system where: (1) oceanographic (tidal) processes mobilise sediment from the continental shelf and transport it to depocentres in the upper-central canyons, and (2) tectonic (earthquake) processes remobilise sediment that is transported through the lower canyon to the deep ocean. Tidal boundary-layer currents within the canyon reach velocities up to 0.53 m/s and are capable of mobilising fine sand in the central reach of the upper canyons. The velocity is higher at the canyon rim and capable of mobilising coarse sand. Sediment depocentres resulting from this tidally forced sediment transport have a well formed geomorphology within the mid-upper canyon arms of Cook Strait and Nicholson Canyons. Pseudo-static stability modelling, supported by sediment core analysis, indicates that sediment accumulated in the upper canyons fails during seismic events approximately every 100 years. The 100 year return period ground shaking-level (peak ground

  14. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  15. Ascension Submarine Canyon, California - Evolution of a multi-head canyon system along a strike-slip continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, D.K.; Mullins, H.T.; Greene, H. Gary

    1986-01-01

    Ascension Submarine Canyon, which lies along the strike-slip (transform) dominated continental margin of central California, consists of two discrete northwestern heads and six less well defined southeastern heads. These eight heads coalesce to form a single submarine canyon near the 2700 m isobath. Detailed seismic stratigraphic data correlated with 19 rock dredge hauls from the walls of the canyon system, suggest that at least one of the two northwestern heads was initially eroded during a Pliocene lowstand of sea level ???3.8 m.y. B.P. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that at this time, northwestern Ascension Canyon formed the distal channel of nearby Monterey Canyon and has subsequently been offset by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting along the San Gregorio fault zone. Some of the six southwestern heads of Ascension Canyon may also have been initially eroded as the distal portions of Monterey Canyon during late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sea-level lowstands (???2.8 and 1.75 m.y. B.P.) and subsequently truncated and offset to the northwest. There have also been a minimum of two canyon-cutting episodes within the past 750,000 years, after the entire Ascension Canyon system migrated to the northwest past Monterey Canyon. We attribute these late Pleistocene erosional events to relative lowstands of sea level 750,000 and 18,000 yrs B.P. The late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the six southeastern heads also appears to have been controlled by structural uplift of the Ascension-Monterey basement high at the southeastern terminus of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin. We believe that uplift of this basement high sufficiently oversteepened submarine slopes to induce gravitational instability and generate mass movements that resulted in the erosion of the canyon heads. Most significantly, though, our results and interpretations support previous proposals that submarine canyons along strike-slip continental margins can originate by tectonic trunction and lateral

  16. Efficient large volume electroporation of dendritic cells through micrometer scale manipulation of flow in a disposable polymer chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, David; Hansen, Thomas; Met, Özcan;

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid chip of polymer and stainless steel designed for high-throughput continuous electroporation of cells in suspension. The chip is constructed with two parallel stainless steel mesh electrodes oriented perpendicular to the liquid flow. The relatively high hydrodynamic resistance ...

  17. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  18. Long-term effects of bariatric surgery on meal disposal and β-cell function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camastra, Stefania; Muscelli, Elza; Gastaldelli, Amalia;

    2013-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery leads to marked improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetes (T2D); the impact on glucose fluxes in response to a physiological stimulus, such as a mixed meal test (MTT), has not been determined. We administered an MTT to 12 obese T2D...... patients and 15 obese nondiabetic (ND) subjects before and 1 year after surgery (10 T2D and 11 ND) using the double-tracer technique and modeling of β-cell function. In both groups postsurgery, tracer-derived appearance of oral glucose was biphasic, a rapid increase followed by a sharp drop, a pattern...... that was mirrored by postprandial glucose levels and insulin secretion. In diabetic patients, surgery lowered fasting and postprandial glucose levels, peripheral insulin sensitivity increased in proportion to weight loss (~30%), and β-cell glucose sensitivity doubled but did not normalize (compared with 21...

  19. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work...

  20. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG),...

  1. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  2. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  3. Modeling the Effect of Wider Canyons on Urban Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Memon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The k-? turbulence model is adopted in this study to simulate the impact of street canyon AR (Aspect Ratios on heating within street canyon. The two-dimensional model was validated for RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and energy transport equations. The validation process confirms that the results of the model for airtemperature and wind speed could be trusted. The application of the said model is carried out to ideal street canyons of ARs (ratio of building-height-to-street-width from 0.4 to 2 with the same boundary conditions. Notably, street canyon aspect ratio was calculated by varying the street width while keeping the building height constant. Results show that the weighted-average-air-temperature within AR 0.4 was around 0.8% (i.e. 2.4K higher than that within AR 2.0. Conversely, there was strong correlation (i.e., R2>0.9 between air temperature within the street canyon and street canyon AR. Results demonstrate stronger influence of vertical velocity on heating within street canyon. Evidently, increased vertical velocity decreased the temperatures. Conversely, temperatures were higher along the leeward side of the canyon in lower ARs.

  4. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  5. Failure of Tapo Canyon Tailings Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Leslie F Jr; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    The failure of the Tapo Canyon tailings dam was one of the most striking failures of an earth structure to result from the January 17, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. The failure involved a 60-m-wide breach of a tailings dam with a maximum height of 24 m, and 60 and 90 m downstream displacements of two sections of the dam. The failure resulted from liquefaction of the impounded tailings and possibly of the embankment materials. A significant volume of liquefied tailings passed through...

  6. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. The Black Canyon of the Gunnison: Today and Yesterday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1965-01-01

    Since the early visit of Captain John William Gunnison in the middle of the last century, the Black Canyon of the Gunnison has stirred mixed apprehension and wonder in the hearts of its viewers. It ranks high among the more awesome gorges of North America. Many great western canyons are as well remembered for their brightly colored walls as for their airy depths. Not so the Black Canyon. Though it is assuredly not black, the dark-gray tones of its walls and the hazy shadows of its gloomy depths join together to make its name well deserved. Its name conveys an impression, not a picture. After the first emotional impact of the canyon, the same questions come to the minds of most reflective viewers and in about the following order: How deep is the Black Canyon, how wide, how does it compare with other canyons, what are the rocks, how did it form, and how long did it take? Several western canyons exceed the Black Canyon in overall size. Some are longer; some are deeper; some are narrower; and a few have walls as steep. But no other canyon in North American combines the depth, narrowness, sheerness, and somber countenance of the Black Canyon. In many places the Black Canyon is as deep as it is wide. Between The Narrows and Chasm View in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument (fig. 15) it is much deeper than wide. Average depth in the monument is about 2,000 feet, ranging from a maximum of about 2,700 feet, north of Warner Point (which also is the greatest depth anywhere in the canyon), to a minimum of about 1,750 feet at The Narrows. The stretch of canyon between Pulpit Rock and Chasm View, including The Narrows, though the shallowest in the monument, is also the narrowest, has some of the steepest walls, and is, therefore, among the most impressive segments of the canyon (fig. 3). Profiles of several well-known western canyons are shown in figure 1. Deepest of these by far is Hells Canyon of the Snake, on the Idaho-Oregon border. Clearly, it dwarfs the

  8. Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary

    2014-06-01

    Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

  9. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-P. Roeth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  10. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Pollen taphonomy in a canyon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    1987-11-01

    Surface soil samples from the forested Chuska Mountains to the arid steppe of the Chinle Valley, Northeastern Arizona, show close correlation between modern pollen rain and vegetation. In contrast, modern alluvium is dominated by Pinus pollen throughout the canyon; it reflects neither the surrounding floodplain nor plateau vegetation. Pollen in surface soils is deposited by wind; pollen grains in alluvium are deposited by a stream as sedimentary particles. Clay-size particles correlate significantly with Pinus, Quercus, and Populus pollen. These pollen types settle, as clay does, in slack water. Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthus, Artemisia, other Tubuliflorae, and indeterminate pollen types correlate with sand-size particles, and are deposited by more turbulent water. Fluctuating pollen frequencies in alluvial deposits are related to sedimentology and do not reflect the local or regional vegetation where the sediments were deposited. Alluvial pollen is unreliable for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

  12. Recent Canyon Heads at the Bosphorus Outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lericolais, G.; Le Drezen, E.; Nouze, H.; Gillet, H.; Ergun, M.; Cific, G.; Avci, M.; Dondurur, D.; Okay, S.

    2002-12-01

    The Black and Marmara Seas have witnessed increased scientific interest in last decade due to improved cooperation between the riparian countries and western scientific institutions but also due to the controversy existing about the origin of the reconnection of the Black Sea and Mediterranean seas after the last Glacial Maximum and its ensuing sea level rise. The Black Sea is linked to the global ocean only through the Bosphorus-Dardanelles system of straits. The Bosphorus is narrow (0.76 to 3.6 km wide) and shallow (32 m) at the sill, restricting the two-way water exchange between the brackish Black Sea and the very saline Mediterranean Sea. The Bosphorus sill was responsible for the behaviour of the Black Sea during the global glaciations and deglaciations, during which the Black Sea level followed the global sea level changes as long as they were higher than the sill. When global sea level was lower than the Bosphorus sill the variations of the Black Sea level reflected specific regional climate conditions without being coupled to the ocean changes. Recent studies suggest that a rapid flooding event may have occurred in the Black Sea during the Holocene. In 1998, a French-Romanian survey collected 4500 km of high-resolution seismic profiles, multibeam bathymetry, and sediment cores on the northern margin of the Black Sea where the shelf is sufficiently wide to preserve ancient shorelines in the vicinity of the shelf edge. If rapid flooding occurred through the Bosphorus Strait to drown these shorelines, it should have created a cataract. In August 2002, the French research vessel "Le Suroit" equipped with a EM 300 multibeam echosounder and a TritonElics Chirp Sonar mapped the Bosphorus outlet at the shelf edge. The results show a large retrogressive canyon deeply incised into the shelf which can be followed landward towards the Bosphorus outlet. Coring on the shelf and in the canyon revealed mega-ripples of shell debris of recent origin.

  13. Habitat Mapping Cruise - Hudson Canyon (HB0904, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  14. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  15. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  16. Ecological-geochemical assessment of soil of the Dniester canyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorin D.O.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An method of calculation of background and anomalous heavy metals, petroleum products and pesticides in soil of the Dniester canyon area for the environmental assessment of the future national park.

  17. Folds--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  18. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included...

  19. Paleoshorelines--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Leslie Canyon NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  2. Damming Grand Canyon: The 1923 USGS Colorado River Expedition

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Diane E.; Webb, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    In 1923, America paid close attention, via special radio broadcasts, newspaper headlines, and cover stories in popular magazines, as a government party descended the Colorado to survey Grand Canyon. Fifty years after John Wesley Powell's journey, the canyon still had an aura of mystery and extreme danger. At one point, the party was thought lost in a flood. Something important besides adventure was going on. Led by Claude Birdseye and including colorful characters such as early river-runner E...

  3. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  4. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  5. 2008 High-Flow Experiment at Glen Canyon Dam Benefits Colorado River Resources in Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Grams, Paul E.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.; Draut, Amy E.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Korman, Josh; Hilwig, Kara D.; Schmit, Lara M.

    2010-01-01

    On March 5, 2008, the Department of the Interior began a 60-hour high-flow experiment at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, to determine if water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding could be used to improve downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and their cooperators undertook a wide range of physical and biological resource monitoring and research activities before, during, and after the release. Scientists sought to determine whether or not high flows could be used to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars, create nearshore habitat for the endangered humpback chub, and benefit other resources such as archaeological sites, rainbow trout, aquatic food availability, and riverside vegetation. This fact sheet summarizes research completed by January 2010.

  6. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  7. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  10. Geology of the Hamm Canyon quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Hamm Canyon quadrangle is on eof eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  11. Davis Canyon noise analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to quantify the level and effect of noise from the various major phases of development of the proposed potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository site at Davis Canyon, Utah. This report contains the results of a predictive noise level study for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operational phases. Included herein are graphic representations of energy averaged sound levels, and of audibility levels representing impact zones expected during each phase. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activity including traffic on highways and railroad routes are presented in isopleth maps. A description of the Environmental Noise Prediction Model used for the study, the study basis and methodologies, and actual modeling data are provided. Noise and vibration levels from blasting are also predicted and evaluated. Protective noise criteria containing a margin of safety are used in relation to residences, schools, churches, noise-sensitive recreation areas, and noise-sensitive biological resources. Protective ground motion criteria for ruins and delicate rock formation in Canyonlands National Park and for human annoyance are used in the evaluation of blasting. The evaluations provide the basis for assessing the noise impacts from the related activities at the proposed repository. 45 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Discovery of two new large submarine canyons in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P.R.; Karl, Herman A.

    1984-01-01

    The Beringian continental margin is incised by some of the world's largest submarine canyons. Two newly discovered canyons, St. Matthew and Middle, are hereby added to the roster of Bering Sea canyons. Although these canyons are smaller and not cut back into the Bering shelf like the five very large canyons, they are nonetheless comparable in size to most of the canyons that have been cut into the U.S. eastern continental margin and much larger than the well-known southern California canyons. Both igneous and sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Pliocene age have been dredged from the walls of St. Matthew and Middle Canyons as well as from the walls of several of the other Beringian margin canyons, thus suggesting a late Tertiary to Quaternary genesis of the canyons. We speculate that the ancestral Yukon and possibly Anadyr Rivers were instrumental in initiating the canyon-cutting processes, but that, due to restrictions imposed by island and subsea bedrock barriers, cutting of the two newly discovered canyons may have begun later and been slower than for the other five canyons. ?? 1984.

  13. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  14. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation...

  16. Software Configuration Management Plan for the B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-08-31

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This Software Configuration Management Plan provides instructions for change control of the CVCS.

  17. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project..., District Ranger, Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, 330 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, South Dakota 57730. Telephone Number: (605) 673- 4853. E-mail:...

  18. Samples from the Georges Bank Canyons acquired in 1936 (STETSON36 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine canyons cut into the edge of the continental shelf and the continental slope along much of the U.S. Atlantic coast. Three canyons along the southern edge...

  19. 2011 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Los Osos, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  20. 2013 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): San Simeon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  1. Data from Oceanographer, Lydonia, and Gilbert Canyons acquired in 1965 (SCHWARTZ65 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine canyons occur at the edge of the continental shelf and cut across the slope and rise along the U.S. east coast. Three of these canyons (Oceanographer,...

  2. TRU waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which is located on an arid 10,240 acre site in the remote Los Medanos (the dunes) region of the northern Chihuahuan desert in southeast New Mexico near Carlsbad. The mission of the WIPP is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste resulting from the nation's defense program activities. Authorized by Congress in 1979 via Public Law 96-164, the WIPP represents a necessary, environmentally responsible, deep geologic disposal option. Initially thought to be subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act, further definition of the 1980 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986 and 1988 has made it clear that this demonstration must also show compliance with RCRA. The majority of retrievable TRU waste proposed and available for eventual disposal at the WIPP also contains hazardous constituents defined by RCRA, with the resultant mixed waste subject to its provisions

  3. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  4. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection...

  5. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  6. Marine geophysical investigations across the submarine canyon (Swatch-of-No-Ground), northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    ., the morphology of the canyon is vice versa. The anatomy of the canyon suggests that the turbidity sediments flow in a semi-circular manner within it. When the muddy sediments strike the flank within the canyon, a part gets bounced-off in an orthogonal direction...

  7. Review of the Diablo Canyon probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sabek, M.G. [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Regulatory and Safety Center, Cairo (Egypt); Ravindra, M.K.; Johnson, J.J. [EQE Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report details the review of the Diablo Canyon Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DCPRA). The study was performed under contract from the Probabilistic Risk Analysis Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Research, USNRC by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The DCPRA is a full scope Level I effort and although the review touched on all aspects of the PRA, the internal events and seismic events received the vast majority of the review effort. The report includes a number of independent systems analyses sensitivity studies, importance analyses as well as conclusions on the adequacy of the DCPRA for use in the Diablo Canyon Long Term Seismic Program.

  8. Thermopower signatures and spectroscopy of the canyon of conductance suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiršanskas, G.; Hammarberg, S.; Karlström, O.; Wacker, A.

    2016-07-01

    Interference effects in quantum dots between different transport channels can lead to a strong suppression of conductance, which cuts like a canyon through the common conductance plot [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 186804 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.186804]. In the present work we consider the thermoelectric transport properties of the canyon of conductance suppression using the second-order von Neumann approach. We observe a characteristic signal for the zeros of the thermopower. This demonstrates that thermoelectric measurements are an interesting complimentary tool to study complex phenomena for transport through confined systems.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  10. Submarine canyons as important habitat for cetaceans, with special reference to the Gully: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors-Murphy, Hilary B.

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research interest in the use of submarine canyons by cetaceans, particularly beaked whales (family Ziphiidae), which appear to be especially attracted to canyon habitats in some areas. However, not all submarine canyons are associated with large numbers of cetaceans and the mechanisms through which submarine canyons may attract cetaceans are not clearly understood. This paper reviews some of the cetacean associations with submarine canyons that have been anecdotally described or presented in scientific literature and discusses the physical, oceanographic and biological mechanisms that may lead to enhanced cetacean abundance around these canyons. Particular attention is paid to the Gully, a large submarine canyon and Marine Protected Area off eastern Canada for which there exists some of the strongest evidence available for submarine canyons as important cetacean habitat. Studies demonstrating increased cetacean abundance in the Gully and the processes that are likely to attract cetaceans to this relatively well-studied canyon are discussed. This review provides some limited evidence that cetaceans are more likely to associate with larger canyons; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between the physical characteristics of canyons and enhanced cetacean abundance. In general, toothed whales (especially beaked whales and sperm whales) appear to exhibit the strongest associations with submarine canyons, occurring in these features throughout the year and likely attracted by concentrating and aggregating processes. By contrast, baleen whales tend to occur in canyons seasonally and are most likely attracted to canyons by enrichment and concentrating processes. Existing evidence thus suggests that at least some submarine canyons are important foraging areas for cetaceans, and should be given special consideration for cetacean conservation and protection.

  11. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  12. Disposal - practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  13. HLW Disposal System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm3. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability of HLW management

  14. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  15. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  16. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  17. 36 CFR 7.92 - Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.92 Section 7.92 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Aircraft-designated airstrip. (1) Fort Smith landing strip, located at approximate... Canyon National Recreation Area, except in the following areas: (i) In the gated area south of...

  18. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

  19. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon

  20. Submarine canyons as coral and sponge habitat on the eastern Bering Sea slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Miller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons have been shown to positively influence pelagic and benthic biodiversity and ecosystem function. In the eastern Bering Sea, several immense canyons lie under the highly productive “green belt” along the continental slope. Two of these, Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons, are the focus of current conservation interest. We used a maximum entropy modeling approach to evaluate the importance of these two canyons, as well as canyons in general, as habitat for gorgonian (alcyonacean corals, pennatulacean corals, and sponges, in an area comprising most of the eastern Bering Sea slope and outer shelf. These invertebrates create physical structure that is a preferred habitat for many mobile species, including commercially important fish and invertebrates. We show that Pribilof canyon is a hotspot of structure-forming invertebrate habitat, containing over 50% of estimated high-quality gorgonian habitat and 45% of sponge habitat, despite making up only 1.7% of the total study area. The amount of quality habitat for gorgonians and sponges varied in other canyons, but canyons overall contained more high-quality habitat for structure-forming invertebrates compared to other slope areas. Bottom trawling effort was not well correlated with habitat quality for structure-forming invertebrates, and bottom-contact fishing effort in general, including longlining and trawling, was not particularly concentrated in the canyons examined. These results suggest that if conserving gorgonian coral habitat is a management goal, canyons, particularly Pribilof Canyon, may be a prime location to do this without excessive impact on fisheries.

  1. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  2. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  3. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  4. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used

  5. Disposal in continental geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste retrievability is the factor used to distinguish between waste storage and waste disposal alternatives. Disposal options assume no assured ability to retrieve wastes, while storage alternatives are predicted on a design allowing waste recovery for a specified period of time. The waste form, the emplacement method, and the time elapsed since emplacement are three factors that influence the degree of retrievability from a storage or disposal alternative. An overview of these and other factors and how they apply to various waste management storage and disposal alternatives is presented. The advantages, disadvantages and technical uncertainties associated with geologic waste disposal in very deep holes (greater than 10 km) are summarized. Deep well injection and hydrofracture disposal of selected liquid wastes are briefly reviewed. The geologic requirements for deep well injection and its applicability to tritiated water disposal are discussed. Hydrofracture has been used to dispose of intermediate level liquid wastes at ORNL, and the results to date of this disposal operation are presented. Three emplacement methods for radioactive waste storage and disposal on, in, or under ice sheets are described. Recent international comments on ice sheet disposal, reflecting concern about the lack of knowledge and predictability of long-term ice sheet stability, are presented. Four melting disposal alternatives are described. These techniques all use the thermal power density of high-level waste to bring the surrounding medium to its melting temperature range. The techniques primarily differ in emplacement geometry and the time to first melt and to final resolidification. The similarities and differences of these techniques are discussed

  6. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Harbich, Loyde V.; Labaki, Lucila C.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Among several urban design parameters, the height-to-width ratio (H/W) and orientation are important parameters strongly affecting thermal conditions in cities. This paper quantifies changes in thermal comfort due to typical urban canyon configurations in Campinas, Brazil, and presents urban guidelines concerning H/W ratios and green spaces to adapt urban climate change. The study focuses on thermal comfort issues of humans in urban areas and performs evaluation in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), based on long-term data. Meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation over a 7-year period (2003-2010) were used. A 3D street canyon model was designed with RayMan Pro software to simulate the influence of urban configuration on urban thermal climate. The following configurations and setups were used. The model canyon was 500 m in length, with widths 9, 21, and 44 m. Its height varied in steps of 2.5 m, from 5 to 40 m. The canyon could be rotated in steps of 15°. The results show that urban design parameters such as width, height, and orientation modify thermal conditions within street canyons. A northeast-southwest orientation can reduce PET during daytime more than other scenarios. Forestry management and green areas are recommended to promote shade on pedestrian areas and on façades, and to improve bioclimate thermal stress, in particular for H/W ratio less than 0.5. The method and results can be applied by architects and urban planners interested in developing responsive guidelines for urban climate issues.

  7. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  8. Neptunium Disposal to the Savannah River Site Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of an acidic neptunium solution from a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing canyon and the properties of the resulting slurry to determine the feasibility of disposal in the SRS tank farm. The acidic solution displayed no properties that precluded the proposed disposal route. Neutralization of the acidic neptunium forms a 4 wt per cent slurry of precipitated metal hydroxides. The insoluble solids consist largely of iron (92 per cent) and neptunium hydroxides (2 per cent). The concentration of soluble neptunium remaining after neutralization equaled much less than previous solubility measurements predicted. Researchers used an apparatus similar to an Ostwald-type viscometer to estimate the consistency of the neptunium slurry with the solids present. The yield stress and consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry will allow transfer through the tank farm, although concentration of the insoluble solids above 4 wt per cent may cause significant problems due to increased consistency and yield stress. The consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry is 7.6 centipoise (cP) with a yield stress less than 1 Pascal (Pa). The neptunium slurry, when combined with actual washed radioactive sludge, slightly reduces the yield stress and consistency of the sludge and produces a combined slurry with acceptable rheological properties for vitrification

  9. Holocene canyon activity under a combination of tidal and tectonic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Joshu; Micallef, Aaron; Stevens, Craig; Stirling, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The majority of submarine canyon systems that are active during sea level highstands are coupled to terrestrial or littoral sediment transport systems (e.g. high sediment-yield rivers, wave-base sediment disturbance). However, non-coupled canyon systems can also exhibit sedimentary activity. Characterising the nature, origin, and spatial and temporal influence of the processes responsible for this sedimentary activity is important to understand the extent of sediment and carbon transfer to the deep sea, the impact of sedimentary flows on biological colonisation and diversity, and the control of recent seafloor processes on canyon morphology. The Cook Strait canyon system, between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially-coupled system. Sediment transport on the continental shelf, associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data reveals a system where oceanographic (tidal) and tectonic (earthquake) processes are moving sediment from the continental shelf, through the upper canyon, and finally to the deep ocean. Sediment accumulation rates may reach several mm/yr in the upper canyons, with data suggesting minimum rates of 0.5 mm/yr. We demonstrate that tidal currents are sufficient to mobilise fine to medium sand around and within the upper canyon

  10. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  11. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met

  12. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  13. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  14. Curcumin inhibits in vitro and in vivo chronic myelogenous leukemia cells growth: a possible role for exosomal disposal of miR-21

    OpenAIRE

    Taverna, S; Giallombardo, M.; Pucci, M; Flugy, A; Manno, M.; Raccosta, S; Rolfo, C.; Leo, G.; Alessandro, R

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are nanosize vesicles released from cancer cells containing microRNAs that can influence gene expression in target cells. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antitumor activities in a wide spectrum of human cancer. The addition of Curcumin, to Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) cells, caused a dose-dependent increase of PTEN, target of miR-21. Curcumin treatment also decreased AKT phosphorylation and VEGF expression and release. Colony formation assays indicated that Curcumin affects ...

  15. Control of Precursor Maturation and Disposal Is an Early Regulative Mechanism in the Normal Insulin Production of Pancreatic β-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Ying Chen; Qingxin Yuan; Wei Tang; Xiaoping Zhang; Kwame Osei

    2011-01-01

    The essential folding and maturation process of proinsulin in β-cells is largely uncharacterized. To analyze this process, we improved approaches to immunoblotting, metabolic labeling, and data analysis used to determine the proportion of monomers and non-monomers and changes in composition of proinsulin in cells. We found the natural occurrence of a large proportion of proinsulin in various non-monomer states, i.e., aggregates, in normal mouse and human β-cells and a striking increase in the...

  16. Headless submarine canyons and fluid flow on the toe of the Cascadia accretionary complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, D.L.; McAdoo, B.G.; Moore, J.C.; Tobin, H.; Screaton, E.; Chezar, H.; Lee, H.; Reid, M.; Vail, R.

    1997-01-01

    Headless submarine canyons with steep headwalls and shallowly sloping floors occur on both the second and third landward vergent anticlines on the toe of the Cascadia accretionary complex off central Oregon (45 ??N, 125?? 30??W). In September 1993, we carried out a series of nine deep tow camera sled runs and nine ALVIN dives to examine the relationship between fluid venting, structure and canyon formation. We studied four canyons on the second and third landward vergent anticlines, as well as the apparently unfailed intercanyon regions along strike. All evidence of fluid expulsion is associated with the canyons; we found no evidence of fluid flow between canyons. Even though all fluid seeps are related to canyons, we did not find seeps in all canyons, and the location of the seeps within the canyons differed. On the landward facing limb of the second landward vergent anticline a robust cold seep community occurs at the canyon's inflection point. This seep is characterized by chemosynthetic vent clams, tube worms and extensive authigenic carbonate. Fluids for this seep may utilize high-permeability flow paths either parallel to bedding within the second thrust ridge or along the underlying thrust fault before leaking into the overriding section. Two seaward facing canyons on the third anticlinal ridge have vent clam communities near the canyon mouths at approximately the intersection between the anticlinal ridge and the adjacent forearc basin. No seeps were found along strike at the intersection of the slope basin and anticlinal ridge. We infer that the lack of seepage along strike and the presence of seeps in canyons may be related to fluid flow below the forearc basin/slope unconformity (overpressured by the impinging thrust fault to the west?) directed toward canyons at the surface.

  17. MOBILIZATION, POISONING, AND FILTRATION OF F-CANYON TANK 804 SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-04

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the F-Canyon 800 series underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks) and requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to develop methods to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (i.e., Tanks 804, 808, and 809). Because of the high plutonium content in Tank 804 (estimated to be as much as 1500 g), SDD needs to add a neutron poison to the sludge. They considered manganese and boron as potential poisons. Because of the large amount of manganese needed and the very slow filtration rate of the sludge/manganese slurry, SDD requested that SRNL investigate the impact of using boron rather than manganese as the poison. SRNL performed a series of experiments to help determine the disposal pathway of the material currently located in Tank 804. The objectives of this work are: (1) Determine the mobility of Tank 804 sludge when mixed with 10-15 parts sodium hydroxide as a function of pH between 10 and 14. (2) Determine the solubility of boron in sodium hydroxide solution with a free hydroxide concentration between 1 x 10{sup -4} and 2.0 M. (3) Recommend a filter pore size for SDD such that the filtrate contains no visible solids. (4) Determine whether a precipitate forms when the filtrate pH is adjusted to 12, 7, or 2 with nitric acid.

  18. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  19. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  20. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  1. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt;

    2014-01-01

    to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local......In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...

  2. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.

    1992-04-01

    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  3. A HYBRID APPROACH TO GPS IMPROVEMENT IN URBAN CANYONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal *

    2015-01-01

    GPS has become important tool in everyday life for safe and convenient transportation of automobiles. Pedestrians use hand held smart devices to know their own position in a town, modern vehicles in intelligent transport systems use relatively sophisticated GPS receivers for estimating current position of vehicle for safe driving. However, in urban areas with canyon of buildings where the GPS satellites are occluded by tall buildings, trees and reflections of GPS signals from near...

  4. Numerical and Experimental Studies on Flow and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study numerical simulations and water tank experiments were used to investigate the flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon. Two types of canyon geometry were tested. The studies indicate that in a step-up notch canyon (higher buildings on the downstream side of the canyon), the height and shape of the upstream lower buildings plays an important role in flow pattern and pollutant dispersion,while in a step-down notch canyon (lower buildings on the downstream side), the downstream lower buildings have little influence. The studies also show that the substitution of tall towers for parallelepiped buildings on one side of the canyon may enhance the street ventilation and decrease the pollutant concentration emitted by motor vehicles.

  5. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E.A.; Monroe, S.A.; Springer, A.E.; Blasch, K.W.; Bills, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  6. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  7. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality in Sandia Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, field studies of water quality and stream macroinvertebrate communities were initiated in Sandia Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies were designed to establish baseline data and to determine the effects of routine discharges of industrial and sanitary waste. Water quality measurements were taken and aquatic macroinvertebrates sampled at three permanent stations within the canyon. Two of the three sample stations are located where the stream regularly receives industrial and sanitary waste effluents. These stations exhibited a low diversity of macroinvertebrates and slightly degraded water quality. The last sample station, located approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from the nearest wastewater outfall, appears to be in a zone of recovery where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams in the Los Alamos area. A large increase in macroinvertebrate diversity was also observed at the third station. These results indicate that effluents discharged into Sandia Canyon have a marked effect on water quality and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities

  8. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment. PMID:24037300

  9. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... could erode or inundate waste disposal units. (7) The disposal site must provide sufficient depth to the... fluctuation of the water table. (8) The hydrogeologic unit used for disposal shall not discharge ground water... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.50 Disposal......

  10. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash. PMID:14703226

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF BUOYANCY ON FLOW AND POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN STREET CANYONS

    OpenAIRE

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Pulvirenti, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Britter, Rex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, the effect of buoyancy on flow and pollutant dispersion within street canyons is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We consider a neutral boundary layer approaching a 3D street canyon assuming a wind direction perpendicular to the street canyon. The Boussinesq hypothesis for incompressible fluids is chosen for modelling buoyancy. We distinguish three cases: leeward, ground and windward wall heating. Thermal effects on both the flow ...

  12. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  13. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  14. Preparations for Mixed Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is preparing for the receipt and disposal of low-level mixed waste (MV) generated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The NTS maintains and develops disposal locations to accommodate various waste forms, and is engaged in developing verification and handling processes to ensure proper acceptance and disposal. Operations at the RWMC are focused on ensuring future disposal needs can be accommodated with a maximum benefit to risk ratio. This paper addresses the programmatic developments implemented at the NTS to accommodate the receipt, verification, and disposal of MW. The Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP) has incorporated aspects of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) into the Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The verification program includes statistical sampling components that take into account waste form, program reliability, and other factors. The WAP allows for a conglomerate of verification techniques including visual examination, non-destructive examination, and chemical screening ensuring compliance with the NTSWAC. The WAP also provides for the acceptance of MW with most U.S. Environmental Protection Agency waste codes. The MW sent to the NTS for disposal must meet Land-Disposal Restriction standards. To support the verification processes outlined in the WAP, a Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) facility was constructed. Using a 450 keV, 5-mA tube-head system with a bridge and manipulator assembly, MW packages can undergo non-destructive examination (x-ray) at the RWMC. Prior to the NTS accepting the waste shipment, standard waste boxes, drums, and nominally sized bulk items can be manipulated on a cart and examined directly or skewed in real-time to ensure compliance with NTSWAC requirement s An existing MW disposal cell at the RWMC has been tailored to meet the requirements of a Category 2 non-reactor Nuclear Facility. In retrofitting an existing

  15. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  16. Compilation of PRF Canyon Floor Pan Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Jon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, Lawrence R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Garrett N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    On September 28, 2015, debris collected from the PRF (236-Z) canyon floor, Pan J, was observed to exhibit chemical reaction. The material had been transferred from the floor pan to a collection tray inside the canyon the previous Friday. Work in the canyon was stopped to allow Industrial Hygiene to perform monitoring of the material reaction. Canyon floor debris that had been sealed out was sequestered at the facility, a recovery plan was developed, and drum inspections were initiated to verify no additional reactions had occurred. On October 13, in-process drums containing other Pan J material were inspected and showed some indication of chemical reaction, limited to discoloration and degradation of inner plastic bags. All Pan J material was sealed back into the canyon and returned to collection trays. Based on the high airborne levels in the canyon during physical debris removal, ETGS (Encapsulation Technology Glycerin Solution) was used as a fogging/lock-down agent. On October 15, subject matter experts confirmed a reaction had occurred between nitrates (both Plutonium Nitrate and Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate (ANN) are present) in the Pan J material and the ETGS fixative used to lower airborne radioactivity levels during debris removal. Management stopped the use of fogging/lock-down agents containing glycerin on bulk materials, declared a Management Concern, and initiated the Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis determination process. Additional drum inspections and laboratory analysis of both reacted and unreacted material are planned. This report compiles the results of many different sample analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on samples collected from the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) floor pans by the CH2MHill’s Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Revision 1 added Appendix G that reports the results of the Gas Generation Rate and methodology. The scope of analyses requested by CHPRC includes the determination of

  17. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  18. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  19. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  20. Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E. Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

  1. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed; Anadromous Fish Habitat Restoration in the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Deb (Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2001-02-01

    Nez Perce Soil & Water Conservation District (NPSWCD) undertook the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed Steelhead Trout Habitat Improvement Project in the spring of 1999 with funding from a grant through the Bonneville Power Administration. The Project's purpose is to install and implement agricultural best management practices (MBPS) and riparian restorations with the goal of improving steelhead trout spawning and rearing habitat in the subwatershed. Improvements to fish habitat in the Big Canyon Creek tributaries enhances natural production of the species in Big Canyon Creek and ultimately the Clearwater River. This report is a summation of the progress made by the NPSWCD in the Project's second year.

  2. The influence of the San Gregorio fault on the morphology of Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.M.G.; Ryan, William B. F.; Eittreim, S.; Donald, Reed

    1998-01-01

    A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of Monterey Canyon and the San Gregorio fault zone, off shore of Monterey Bay. The acoustic character and morphology of the sonar images, enhanced by SeaBeam bathymetry, show the path of the San Gregorio fault zone across the shelf, upper slope, and Monterey Canyon. High backscatter linear features a few kilometers long and 100 to 200 m wide delineate the sea-floor expression of the fault zone on the shelf. Previous studies have shown that brachiopod pavements and carbonate crusts are the source of the lineations backscatter. In Monterey Canyon, the fault zone occurs where the path of the canyon makes a sharp bend from WNW to SSW (1800 m). Here, the fault is marked by NW-SE-trending, high reflectivity lineations that cross the canyon floor between 1850 m and 1900 m. The lineations can be traced to ridges on the northwestern canyon wall where they have ~ 15 m of relief. Above the low-relief ridges, bowl-shaped features have been excavated on the canyon wall contributing to the widening of the canyon. We suggest that shear along the San Gregorio fault has led to the formation of the low-relief ridges near the canyon wall and that carbonate crusts, as along the shelf, may be the source of the high backscatter features on the canyon floor. The path of the fault zone across the upper slope is marked by elongated tributary canyons with high backscatter floors and 'U'-shaped cross-sectional profiles. Linear features and stepped scarps suggestive of recent crustal movement and mass-wasting, occur on the walls and floors of these canyons. Three magnitude-4 earthquakes have occurred within the last 30 years in the vicinity of the canyons that may have contributed to the observed features. As shown by others, motion along the fault zone has juxtaposed diverse lithologies that outcrop on the canyon walls. Gully morphology and the canyon's drainage patterns have been influenced by the substrate into which the gullies have formed.

  3. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  4. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William P.; Frederick, Logan E.; Millington, Mallory R. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Vala, David [Murray High School, Murray, UT 84107 (United States); Reese, Barbara K. [Butler Middle School, Cottonwood Heights, UT 84121 (United States); Freedman, Dina R. [Hillside Middle School, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Stenten, Christina J. [Draper Park Middle School, Draper, UT 84020 (United States); Trauscht, Jacob S.; Tingey, Christopher E.; Kip Solomon, D.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Bowen, Gabriel J. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  5. Biological and physical processes in and around Astoria submarine Canyon, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Keith L.; Lavelle, J. William; Brodeur, Richard D.; Wakefield, W. Waldo; Emmett, Robert L.; Baker, Edward T.; Rehmke, Kara M.

    2004-09-01

    Astoria Canyon represents the westernmost portion of the Columbia River drainage system, with the head of the canyon beginning just 16 km west of the mouth of the Columbia River along the northern Oregon and southern Washington coasts. During the summer of 2001, physical, chemical, and biological measurements in the canyon were taken to better understand the hydrodynamic setting of, and the feeding relationships among, the pelagic and benthic communities. Results show that currents were strongly tidal, and transport, where measured, was primarily up and into the canyon below shelf depth as previous studies in the canyon have shown. Temperature time series suggests that the largest diurnal oscillations occurred at, or were trapped near, the bottom of the canyon. Within the upper canyon, subtidal temperature was correlated with upper-level shelf-edge currents, linking subtidal upwelling events in the canyon with near-surface subtidal along-shore flow. Invertebrates, such as shrimp, euphausiids, and squid, as well as mesopelagic fishes, dominated the Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl catches along the canyon walls. Large trawl catches were comprised mainly of hake and rockfishes (shallow trawls) and macrourids, scorpaenids, stomiids, and zoarcids (bottom trawls). Gut-content analysis of rockfishes and lanternfishes revealed substantial use of midwater prey such as euphausiids and mesopelagic fishes. The δ13C values of fishes and invertebrates reflected local primary production, as indicated by particulate organic matter (POM) δ13C values from samples collected at various depths along the axis of the canyon, as well as across the canyon at several sites. The δ15N values of fishes and invertebrates indicated lanternfishes, along with euphausiids, amphipods, shrimp and squid, may be important dietary components of higher-trophic-level fishes in both the benthic and benthopelagic food webs. The δ13C and δ15N values of Sebastes species showed significant enrichment in the

  6. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  7. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of humid lightweight coal ash derived from the disposal of waste on normal human keratinocyte and endothelial cell lines in 2-D and 3-D culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanarotti, Chiara; Vernazza, Stefania; Brignone, Massimiliano; Danailova, Jenia; Pronzato, Maria A; Bassi, Anna M

    2013-12-01

    The presence of waste in the environment has frequently been indicated as a significant risk to human health. Therefore, landfill sites and the disposal of urban solid and non-hazardous waste by incineration are subject to much environmental monitoring, in addition to the regulations already in place. However, little action has been taken, and consequently no specific legislation exists, in relation to the assessment of the real biological risk of various substances, including chemical mixtures and ashes, derived from the incineration processes. This study assessed the cytotoxic potential of humid lightweight coal ash (LA) derived from incineration processes and waste management, on two cell lines: NCTC 2544 normal human keratinocytes and HECV endothelial cells. To reach this goal and to assess more-realistic methods for animal replacement, we employed different in vitro experimental approaches: acute and longer exposure to LA, by direct and indirect contact (0-2mg/ml and 16mg, respectively), both in 2-D and 3-D cultures. In 2-D HECV cultures, we observed a decrease in the viability index, but only during direct contact with LA doses higher than 0.1mg/ml. Moreover, some striking differences in cytotoxicity were observed between the 2-D and 3-D models. Taken together, these observations indicate that, for studying pollutant toxicity during longer exposure times, 3-D cultures in direct contact with the pollutant seem to offer a more suitable approach - they mimic the in vivo behaviour of cells more realistically and under strictly controlled conditions. Thus, in readiness for possible forthcoming European regulations, we believe that the proposed study, even in its preliminary phase, can provide new advice on the assessment of the toxic and biological potential of particular chemical compounds derived from waste management processes. PMID:24512233

  8. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues

  9. Marble Canyon 10 x 20 NTMS area Arizona: data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Marble Canyon 10 x 20 quadrangle are presented. The target sampling density for all media collected was one site per 12 square kilometers. This resulted in 884 sediment samples being collected; however, dry conditions and sparse population resulted in the collection of only 2 ground water samples. Grand Canyon National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and much Indian tribal land in the southern half of the quadrangle were not sampled. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements for sediment samples are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Data from ground water include: water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); physical measurements (water temperature, and scintillometer readings); and elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: water chemistry measurements (where available) for pH, conductivity, and alkalinity; and elemental analyses(U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Histograms, cumulative frequency, and areal distribution plots for most elements; Log U/Th, Log U/Hf, and Log U/(Th + Hf) ratios; and scintillometer readings are included

  10. Downward and suspended sediment fluxes in the Palamós submarine canyon (North-Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanques, A.; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Guillén, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Palamós canyon is deeply incised in the Northern Catatonia continental shelf (North-western Mediterranean) which favour an active shelf-slope sediment transfer. To study particle dynamics in this canyon, seven moorings arrays equipped with current meters, turbidimeters and sediment traps were deployed near the bottom along the main canyon axis (400, 1200 and 1700 m depth), on both canyon walls (1200 m depth) and on the adjacent slope (1200 m depth). One set of these instruments was also deployed at intermediate waters (400 m water depth) in the canyon axis. At surface and mid-depths, suspended sediment fluxes were oriented along the mean flow direction (NE-SW), whereas near-bottom sediment fluxes were more constrained by the local bathymetry. The higher near-bottom downward and suspended particle fluxes were not recorded in the canyon head but in the mid-canyon axis, suggesting additional sediment supplies through or over the canyon walls and/or sediment resuspension in the mid canyon region. Several events of sharp sediment flux increases took place in the mid-canyon axis site during the water stratification season. These events could be related to the action of internal waves and even to fishing activities. In the canyon walls, downward and suspended particle fluxes were higher in the southern wall, where currents were lower than in the northern wall, evidencing an asymmetrical pattern. In the adjacent slope sediment fluxes were significantly lower than in the canyon. An important increase of downward particle fluxes in the canyon axis and both walls occurred by mid-November when a severe storm took place. The pattern of the sediment fluxes in the Palamós Canyon has some differences in relation to those observed in other Mediterranean submarine canyons and has downward particle fluxes from 2 to10 times higher than other studied canyons of this region.

  11. Effect of Fetch on a Mechanism for Pollutant Removal from a Two-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michioka, Takenobu; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroki; Sato, Ayumu

    2016-07-01

    Large-eddy simulation is conducted to investigate the effect of fetch on the pollutant-removal mechanism from a two-dimensional street canyon with a building-height to street-width (aspect) ratio of 1. The line sources were placed within the first, second, third, fifth, seventh and tenth canyons, and the six tracer gases are simultaneously released by a ground-level continuous pollutant line source placed parallel to the spanwise axis at the canyons. The mean concentration and the deviation of the concentration fluctuation within the canyon roughly reach a near-constant value downwind of the seventh canyon, which is similar to the behaviour of the turbulent intensities. In the first canyon, pollutant removal is affected by both advective flow and turbulent flow; however, the turbulent motions mainly affect pollutant removal from the top of the canyon as the fetch increases. In the first and third canyons, the low-momentum fluid does not always affect pollutant removal, but does so gradually as the fetch increases.

  12. 78 FR 42799 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of... AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent.... Dated: July 11, 2013. Glen Knowles, Chief, Adaptive Management Work Group, Upper Colorado...

  13. 75 FR 44809 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center,...

  14. 76 FR 584 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Work Group (AMWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of... Management Work Group (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center... addition, there will be updates from the Charter Ad Hoc Group and a follow up report on the work done...

  15. 75 FR 439 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), a Technical Work Group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  17. 75 FR 10838 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Pacific Gas... DPR-82, which authorize operation of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units Nos. 1 and 2 (DCPP). The... materials,'' Section 73.55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear...

  18. 75 FR 8152 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding... Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E, the licensee), for operation of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant... Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be...

  19. 77 FR 7211 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and... Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) for the Diablo Canyon (DC) Independent Spent Fuel...

  20. 75 FR 12315 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation..., Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Mail... Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) for the Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

  1. 78 FR 123 - Diablo Canyon, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; License Amendment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... COMMISSION Diablo Canyon, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; License Amendment Request, Opportunity... Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear... Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) site located in San Luis Obispo...

  2. 75 FR 26098 - Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake... vessels. Basis and Purpose The Lake Havasu Divers Association is sponsoring the Under Water Copper Canyon Clean up, which will involve 40 divers cleaning the river bottom in Lake Havasu. The Coast Guard...

  3. Captured in Stone: Women in the Rock Art of Canyon de Chelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Tara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the pictographs (painted images on stone) and petroglyphs (pecked images on stone) found in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona. Canyon de Chelly includes one of the largest concentrations of American Indian rock art in the southwest. Discusses the depiction of women in these images. (MJP)

  4. Las presas de Glen Canyon y Flaming Gorge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman, D. L.

    1962-04-01

    Full Text Available El Bureau of Reclamation, con sede en Denver, Colorado (EE. UU., está actualmente construyendo dos presas, de hormigón y gran altura. Este Departamento desempeña una función similar a la que vienen desarrollando nuestras Confederaciones hidrográficas nacionales. Las dos presas son: la de Glen Canyon, de 216 m de altura, y la de Flaming Gorge, de 153, que son las más importantes en cuanto a almacenamiento y reserva se refiere.

  5. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  6. Bathymetry and Canyons of the western Solomon Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H. L.; Keene, J. B.; Hashimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Stuart, J. E.; Tiffin, D. L.

    1986-12-01

    The floor of the western Solomon Sea (for new bathymetric map see inside back cover of this issue) is dominated by the arched and ridged basement of the Solomon Sea Basin, the partly-sediment-filled New Britain Trench, and a more completely filled trench, the Trobriand Trough. There is a deep basin where the trenches join (149° Embayment), and a silled basin west of the New Britain Trench (Finsch Deep). Submarine canyons descend from the west and south to the 149° Embayment. Abyssal fans and plains are structurally defined and locally disturbed by young faults. Probable submerged pinnacle reefs stand in water depths as great as 1,200 m.

  7. Variability in turbidity current frequency within a central Portuguese margin canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Joshua R.; Talling, Peter J.; Hunt, James E.; Clare, Michael E.; Pope, Ed

    2015-04-01

    Submarine canyons constitute one of the most important pathways for sediment transport into ocean basins. For this reason, understanding canyon architecture and sedimentary processes has significance for oil and gas reservoir characterisation, carbon budgets and geohazard assessment. Canyon sedimentation in the form of turbidity-currents is known to operate on a variety of scales and result from a number of different processes, including landslides, river-derived hyperpycnal flows and tidal or storm resuspension. Despite the expanding knowledge of turbidity current triggers, the spatial variability in turbidity current frequency within most canyon systems is not well defined. Here, new chronologies from cores in the lower reaches of Nazaré Canyon illustrate changes in turbidity current frequency and their relationship to sea level. These flows were relatively frequent during the last glacial maximum and the last deglaciation, with an average recurrence interval of ~70 years. Mid to early Holocene slowdown in activity (avg. recurrence of 1625 years) appears to occur later than other systems along the Iberian margin. Cores from the Iberian Abyssal Plain also provide the first recurrence interval estimates for large run-out turbidity currents from the central Portuguese margin. These large turbidity currents have an average recurrence interval of 2750 years, broadly comparable to modern turbidity flow events in the lower Nazaré Canyon. This indicates that Nazaré Canyon acted as a depocentre, capturing large volumes of sediment during glacial periods prior to large scale canyon flushing events. However, this sediment capture has largely been restricted to the middle and upper canyon since stabilisation of Holocene sea level. Recurrence intervals suggest that large turbidity flows which flush the canyon operate on a timescale independent of the sea level forcing evident in the lower canyon. While instability-triggered landsliding and tidal/storm resuspension are

  8. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Public Meeting for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Federal Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Meeting for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  9. Large eddy simulation of flow in a street canyon with tree planting under various atmospheric instability conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a large eddy simulation (LES) model, which includes momentum and heat source (or sink) inside the tree planting layer, is proposed for the simulation of flow in a street canyon with tree planting. Vegetation canopy layer simulation shows that this model can be used to simulate the velocity distribution and temperature variation inside the canopy layer. Effects of atmospheric instability on flow and pollutant distribution in a street canyon with tree planting of an aspect ratio of 0.5 are studied. Results show that compared with the canyon with no tree planting (or the exposed street canyon), the canyon with tree planting shows a reduced wind circulation and pollutant exchange rate (PER) at the top layer of the street canyon, which induces the increase in the pollutant concentrations near road surface, leeward wall and windward wall. When street canyon atmosphere is under a strongly unstable condition, wind velocity decreases while pollutant concentration is increased in the areas near the street canyon top, road surface, leeward and windward walls, compared with the wind velocity in the street canyon with the neutral stratification. When street canyon atmosphere is under a weakly unstable condition, wind velocity weakens near the street canyon top and windward wall, but strengthens near the road surface and leeward wall, and pollutant concentration is decreased near the leeward and windward walls and is increased between the two rows of trees. When the street canyon atmosphere is under an unstable condition, PER is lower than that under the neutral stratification.

  10. Comparing the Grand Canyon of the East to the Western one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorom, J.; Martinez-Hackert, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Grand Canyon of the West (GCW) is an internationally well-known geological world wonder of the South Western United States' Colorado Plateau. The Grand Canyon of the East is a similarly beautiful, less well-known, smaller canyon in the Devonian/Silurian sedimentary rocks of the western part of New York State in the Eastern United States. For the purpose of creating a comparative database to be used in the field, classroom and public education settings, features of New York's canyon, better known as Letchworth State Park (LSP) to Arizona's canyon, were collected, obtained, and recorded. We compared various numbers on rock formations, ages of the units, stream volume, and depth and age of canyon formation, erosion processes and other interesting geological features between the two canyons. The sedimentary rocks of both canyons tell the story of the conditions under which the rocks were laid onto the Earth's surface at the time. This study includes an evaluation of how the two canyons have formed including features we see in the strata. Literature research revealed that LSP is on the order of 10 times smaller than the Grand Canyon in various aspects. Genesee river is up to only 4 m deep while the Colorado River reaches depths of up to 30 m. The Genesee extends 25.3 km within its canyon, paling at the majestic 445.79km of the Colorado within its canyon. The depths of the two canyons also show how small LSP is in comparison to the GCW Letchworth canyon's depth is 0.17 km while GCW is 1.61 km. The width of LSP's canyon is 0.1 km while the Grand Canyons' is 28.97 km at their widest locations. Fieldwork in both canyons allowed for some comparison of the natural waterfall features within the canyons. With help from a laser range finder measurements were taken from the most prominent waterfalls of LSP and the Havasu creek. Rock formations were compared. While the periods of Precambrian to the middle Permian time are found in the GCW, the Silurian/Devonian formations are

  11. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  12. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  13. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  14. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  15. Examinations of samples of Bell Canyon Test 1-FF grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portland cement grout identified as BCT-1-FF (Bell Canyon Test 1-FF) was used in borehole plugging experiments of the Bell Canyon Tests in Holl AEC-7 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in New Mexico during September 1979 and February 1980. This grout was made with fresh water. A study of this grout was begun in August 1979 in the laboratory to evauate the possible effects of temperature, pressure, and storage in fresh water or simulated groundwater (brine) on its phase composition and compressive strength at early ages. Phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Temperatures ranged up to about 1500F and included elevation at a few hours age after mixing; pressure was as high as 1500 psi; specimens were stored in simulated groundwater (brine) or in fresh water. Data from 1 to 90 days showed: (a) Higher temperature accelerated early strength gain. These differences essentially vanished by 90 days age. (b) Hydration products as identified by X-ray diffraction were normal; this indicated that a temperature range of 78 to 1530F was not significant. (c) Pressure did not affect composition. (d) Storage in simulated groundwater (brine) or fresh water had no detectable effect. (e) Since the BCT-1-FF grout mixture contained added sulfate, it formed more ettringite as judged by X-ray diffraction than comparable portland cement mixtures without added sulfate

  16. Multidimensional analysis of Drosophila wing variation in Evolution Canyon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vincent Debat; Raphael Cornette; Abraham B. Koral; Eviatar Nevo; David Soulet; Jean R. David

    2008-12-01

    Environmental stress has been suggested to be a major evolutionary force, both through inducing strong selection and because of its direct impact on developmental buffering processes that alter the evolvability of organisms. In particular, temperature has attracted much attention because of its importance as an ecological feature and the relative ease with which it can be experimentally manipulated in the lab. Evolution Canyon, Lower Nahal Oren, Israel, is a well studied natural site where ecological parameters are suspected to drive evolutionary differentiation. In this study, using Drosophila melanogaster isofemale lines derived from wild flies collected on both slopes of the canyon, we investigated the effect of developmental temperature upon the different components of phenotypic variation of a complex trait: the wing. Combining geometric and traditional morphometrics, we find only limited evidence for a differentiation among slopes. Investigating simultaneously phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation among isofemale lines, variation among individuals and fluctuating asymmetry, we could not identify a consistent effect of the stressful conditions encountered on the south facing slope. The prevailing structuring effect is that of the experimentally manipulated temperature which clearly influences wing mean size and shape. Variability, in contrast, is not consistently affected by temperature. Finally, we investigated the specific relationship between individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry. Using metric multi-dimensional scaling we show that the related patterns of wing shape variation are not identical, supporting the view that the underlying developmental processes are to a certain extent different.

  17. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  18. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  19. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  20. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  1. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  2. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  4. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Slivac; V Gaurina Srček; K Radošević; I Kmetič; Z Kniewald

    2006-09-01

    A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of BHK 21 C13 cells in the wave bioreactor during 3-day period were determined. At the end of the 3-day culture period and cell density of 1.82 × 106 cells ml–1, the reactor was inoculated with 9 ml of gE- Bartha K-61 strain ADV suspension (105.9 TCID50) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01. After a 144 h incubation period, 400 ml of ADV harvest was obtained with titre of 107.0 TCID50 ml–1, which corresponds to 40,000 doses of vaccine against AD. In conclusion, the results obtained with the wave bioreactor using BHK 21 C13 cells showed that this system can be considered as suitable for ADV or BHK 21 C13 cell biomass production.

  5. Scattering and diffraction of plane SH-waves by periodically distributed canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Zhenning; Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Yanju

    2016-06-01

    A new method is presented to study the scattering and diffraction of plane SH-waves by periodically distributed canyons in a layered half-space. This method uses the indirect boundary element method combined with Green's functions of uniformly distributed loads acting on periodically distributed inclined lines. The periodicity feature of the canyons is exploited to limit the discretization effort to a single canyon, which avoids errors induced by the truncation of the infinite boundary, and the computational complexity and the demand on memory can be significantly reduced. Furthermore, the total wave fields are decomposed into the free field and scattered field in the process of calculation, which means that the method has definite physical meaning. The implementation of the method is described in detail and its accuracy is verified. Parametric studies are performed in the frequency domain by taking periodically distributed canyons of semi-circular and semi-elliptic cross-sections as examples. Numerical results show that the dynamic responses of periodically distributed canyons can be quite different from those for a single canyon and significant dynamic interactions exist between the canyons.

  6. The World's Largest Submarine Canyon—Kroenke Canyon in the Western Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Adams, N.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Heckman, M.; Ketter, T.; Neale, J. F.; Reyes, A.; Travers, A.

    2015-12-01

    Kroenke Canyon lies on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) in the western Equatorial Pacific, between the Solomon Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. In late 2014 aboard the Schmidt Ocean Institute's RV Falkor, we mapped, albeit incompletely, the Canyon for the first time, revealing that it is both the longest (>700 km) and the most voluminous (>6800 km3) submarine canyon yet discovered on Earth. Kroenke Canyon appears to originate in the vicinity of Ontong Java (Solomon Islands) and Nukumanu (Papua New Guinea) atolls, and presumably began to develop when the atolls were high-standing volcanic islands surmounting the ~120 Ma igneous basement of the OJP. The Canyon is characterised by numerous tributaries and significant mass wasting. Kroenke Canyon incises the layer-cake stratigraphy of OJP sediment and sedimentary rock, mostly carbonate with some interbedded chert, which has provided numerous slip surfaces for submarine landslides. The carbonate compensation depth (CCD) roughly coincides with the depth of the transition between the OJP and the neighbouring Nauru Basin. As a result, despite the large volume of sediment eroded and transported by canyon-forming processes, only a minor fan is evident in the Nauru Basin because most of the carbonate has dissolved.

  7. Modelled transport of benthic marine microplastic pollution in the Nazaré Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, A.; Pando, S.; Purser, A.; Juliano, M. F.; Thomsen, L.

    2013-12-01

    With knowledge of typical hydrodynamic behavior of waste plastic material, models predicting the dispersal of benthic plastics from land sources within the ocean are possible. Here we investigated the hydrodynamic behavior (density, settling velocity and resuspension characteristics) of non-buoyant preproduction plastic pellets in the laboratory. From these results we used the MOHID modelling system to predict what would be the likely transport and deposition pathways of such material in the Nazaré Canyon (Portugal) during the spring/summer months of 2009 and the autumn/winter months of 2011. Model outputs indicated that non-buoyant plastic pellets would likely be transported up and down canyon as a function of tidal forces, with only a minor net down canyon movement resulting from tidal action. The model indicated that transport down canyon was likely greater during the autumn/winter, primarily as a result of occasional mass transport events related to storm activity and internal wave action. Transport rates within the canyon were not predicted to be regular throughout the canyon system, with stretches of the upper canyon acting more as locations of pellet deposition than conduits of pellet transport. Topography and the depths of internal wave action are hypothesized to contribute to this lack of homogeneity in predicted transport.

  8. OPTIMIZING LAYOUT OF URBAN STREET CANYON USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION COUPLING WITH MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-song; ZHAO Bao-qing; YE Chun; YANG De-qing; HUANG Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Optimizing the layout of the urban street canyon to achieve the maximum environmental benefits should become a new idea for modern urban street design and planning. This paper aims to find out the optimized street canyon from a viewpoint of environmental protection by using the two-dimensional numerical simulation model with the turbulence model, coupling with the mathematical optimization method. The total pollutant concentration within and at top of the specific street canyons was taken as the objective function, and the height of one side of the canyon as the constrained condition. A nonlinearly improved constrained variable metric solver was used. The effect of the height of the leeward building and windward building on the integrated pollutant dispersion was studied to achieve the most beneficial configuration of the urban geometry. The optimization of layout for an asymmetrical street canyon was obtained. It is further found that the step-down street canyon with a large height difference is generally a good layout favoring to reduce the concentration accumulation in the street canyon.

  9. Facies and depositional model of Almada Canyon, Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Facies e modelo deposicional do Canyon de Almada, Bacia de Almada, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Avila, Roberto Salvador Francisco; Souza Cruz, Carlos Emanoel de; Oliveira Filho, Jose Souto; Jesus, Candida Menezes de; Cesero, Pedro de; Dias Filho, Dorval Carvalho; Lima, Claudio Coelho de; Queiroz, Claudia Lima de; Santos, Saulo Ferreira; Ferreira, Eduardo Araripe [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao]. E-mail: rdavila@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the continental portion of the Almada Basin outcrops of canyon filling deposits are represented by turbidite channels and associated facies from Urucutuca Formation. The canyon - semi-exhumated - eroded basement and pre-Cenomanian sedimentary rocks. The field study of the outcrops and cores obtained in adjacent perforations lead to the understanding of the facies and processes that controlled the deposition of these channeled turbidite that can be compared to the reservoirs of many oil fields in Brazil. The Almada canyon is a submarine conduct of tectonic origin that was enlarged by the repeated passing of turbidity currents. During the rift phase and the Albian period, compressive events reactivated old N E and N W faults in the basement as trans current fault systems. The continuation of these stresses, from the Cenomanian to the Maastrichtian, developed normal faults that controlled a submarine canyon that connected the continent, where an estuary was formed between the mountains, to the deep marine region of the basin. The canyon has received sediments brought by catastrophic fluvial floods coming from the surrounding mountains, which formed hyperpicnal flows that have evolved as turbidity currents, thus causing erosion of the substrate and carrying a huge volume of sediments to the basin. A part of that load was deposited in the canyon and formed turbidite channels filled by conglomerates, sandstones and shales. These moderately to highly efficient turbidite are intercalated to pro delta pelites and low density turbid plumes deposits, which have mostly been re mobilized as slump and debris flows (chaotic deposits). Pelites were accumulated mainly in the normal fluvial sedimentation phases, when the sandy sediment was retained next to the canyon head and were reworked by the tides on the upper part of the estuary. (author)

  10. NUMERICAL STUDIES ON AIRFLOW AND POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN URBAN STREET CANYONS FORMED BY SLANTED ROOF BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuan-dong; JIN Ming-xia; SUN Ya-nan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the CFD technique, fifteen cases were evaluated for the airflows and pollutant dispersions inside urban street canyons formed by slanted roof buildings. The simulated wind fields and concentration contours show that W/H, W/h and h/H (where W is the street width, and H and h are the heights of buildings at the leeward and windward sides of the street, respectively) are the crucial factors in determining the vortex structure and pollutant distribution within a canyon. It is concluded that (1) in a symmetrical canyon, at W/H =0.5 two vortices (an upper clockwise vortex between the slanted roofs and a lower counter-clockwise one) are developed and pollutants accumulate on the windward side of the street, whereas at W/H=2.0 only one clockwise vortex is generated and thus pollution piles up on the leeward side, (2) in a step-up canyon with W/H =0.5 to 2.0 (at h/H =1.5 to 2.0)and a step-down canyon with W/h=1.0 (at h/H =0.5 to 0.667), the pollution level close to the lower building is higher than that close to the taller building since a clockwise vortex is generated in the step-up canyon and a counter-clockwise one in the step-down canyon, (3) in a narrow step-down canyon with W/h=0.5 (at h/H =0.667) very poor ventilation properties is detected, and inside a wider step-down canyon with W/h=2.0 the vortex structure and consequently pollutant distribution varies greatly with h/H.

  11. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  12. Effects of a covering layer in a circular-arc canyon on incident plane SV waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analytical solution for scattering of incident plane SV waves by a circular-arc canyon with a covering layer was derived by Fourier-Bessel series expansion technique, and the solution was utilized to analyze the effects of the covering layer on incident plane SV waves. It was shown that the covering layer in a canyon, even if it is very thin, amplifies incident plane SV waves tremendously, and the amplification can be two and half times more than that for a simple canyon; the stiffness and thickness of the covering layer also have great effects on incident plane SV waves.

  13. Comparative study of measured and modelled number concentrations of nanoparticles in an urban street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Prashant; Garmory, Andrew; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a comparison between measured and modelled particle number concentrations (PNCs) in the 10-300 nm size range at different heights in a canyon. The PNCs were modelled using a simple modelling approach (modified Box model, including vertical variation), an Operational Street...... entire height of the canyon, showing a well-mixed region up to first ≈2 m and then decreasing PNCs with increased height. The CFD profiles do correctly reproduce the increase from road level to a height of ≈2 m; however, they do not predict the measured PNC decrease higher in the canyon. The PNC...

  14. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  15. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  16. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J B

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  17. National uranium resource evaluation, Marble Canyon Quadrangle, Arizona and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marble Canyon Quadrangle (20), northeast Arizona, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m for uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Known mines and prospects were examined; field reconnaissance was done in selected areas of the quadrangle; and a ground-water geochemical survey was made in the southeast third of the quadrangle. The Shinarump and Petrified Forest Members of the Triassic Chinle Formation, which is exposed in the western and northeastern parts of the quadrangle and is present beneath the surface of much of the quadrangle, were found favorable for channel-sandstone uranium deposits. A portion of the Cretaceous Toreva Formation in the southeast part of the quadrangle was found favorable for peneconcordant-sandstone uranium deposits. The western part of the quadrangle was found favorable for uranium concentrations in breccia pipes

  18. Achieving quality excellence at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance methods at the Diablo Canyon plant were transformed from the then typical industry practices that often alienated professional and technical people, as well as craftsmen and their foremen, to a cooperative method that allowed plant personnel to work together as a team. It has created an attitude to do it right the first time. The roles of quality professionals were expanded to include teaching and coaching to facilitate enhanced communication between and within functional organizations. This included regular presentations to managers and line personnel in an informal group participative atmosphere. These presentations have become widely known at the plant as quality awareness tailboard sessions. These presentations are intended to increase personnel sensitivity to the subject of quality and quality management. Economic achievement of excellence in quality is essential to remain competitive in today's marketplace. The proactive team-oriented approach of quality assurance achieves the bottom line of high quality with concurrently enhanced productivity and cost-effectiveness

  19. Results from the Bell Canyon borehole plugging test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    The BHP is an integrated program involving consequence assessment and plug performance calculations, materials evaluation, instrumentation development and field testing, and interfaces directly with other WIPP-related activities. This paper describes an in situ test conducted under the BHP Field Test Task. The Bell Canyon Test was conducted to evaluate candidate grout plugging mixes and plug emplacement techniques, and to assess plug performance under in-situ cure conditions. Laboratory testing of the brine-grout/rock combination revealed an adverse reaction between the brine-grout and the anhydrite. This discovery permitted a timely change to an additional laboratory compatibility testing program with an alternate fresh-water mix to permit maintenance of the test schedule with little delay. While cement emplacement technology is generally adequate to satisfy repository plugging requirements, plug compatibility with the host rock must be carefully assessed for each repository site. Generally accepted laboratory cement-testing techniques need to include flow characteristics and geochemical stability.

  20. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Davis Canyon, Utah, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impact sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 50 refs., 16 tabs

  1. Environmental chemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.R.; Williams, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    In this review the environmental chemistry problems associated with radioactive waste disposal are considered from the point of view of the threat to man of waste disposal, contamination pathways, the chemistry of waste containment, speciation of radio-isotopes, chemisorption, risk assessment and computerized simulation of waste disposal phenomena. A strategy for the future is discussed.

  2. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  3. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  4. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  5. Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Pelletier, J. D.; Duffin, K.; Ormand, C. J.; Hung, W.; Iverson, E. A.; Shernoff, D.; Zhai, X.; Chowdary, A.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science educators need interactive tools to engage and enable students to better understand how Earth systems work over geologic time scales. The evolution of landforms is ripe for interactive, inquiry-based learning exercises because landforms exist all around us. The Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon (WILSIM-GC, http://serc.carleton.edu/landform/) is a continuation and upgrade of the simple cellular automata (CA) rule-based model (WILSIM-CA, http://www.niu.edu/landform/) that can be accessed from anywhere with an Internet connection. Major improvements in WILSIM-GC include adopting a physically based model and the latest Java technology. The physically based model is incorporated to illustrate the fluvial processes involved in land-sculpting pertaining to the development and evolution of one of the most famous landforms on Earth: the Grand Canyon. It is hoped that this focus on a famous and specific landscape will attract greater student interest and provide opportunities for students to learn not only how different processes interact to form the landform we observe today, but also how models and data are used together to enhance our understanding of the processes involved. The latest development in Java technology (such as Java OpenGL for access to ubiquitous fast graphics hardware, Trusted Applet for file input and output, and multithreaded ability to take advantage of modern multi-core CPUs) are incorporated into building WILSIM-GC and active, standards-aligned curricula materials guided by educational psychology theory on science learning will be developed to accompany the model. This project is funded NSF-TUES program.

  6. Brittle deformation and hoodoo development in Bryce Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E. K.; Webb, C.; McNitt, J.; Pollock, G. L.; Davis, L.; MacLean, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bryce Canyon is a dramatic southeast-facing escarpment located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range Province and the Colorado Plateau. Stream erosion of the Paleocene-to-Eocene Claron Formation generates vast amphitheaters and alcoves replete with elaborate fins, windowed walls, and hoodoos from Fairyland to Bryce Point. Geomorphic models of hoodoo development describe the influence of differential weathering and ice wedging along systematic vertical fractures formed during uplift of the Colorado Plateau. Conjugate shear fractures in the footwall of the south-vergent Rubys Inn thrust fault may provide additional preexisting weaknesses intersecting the predominantly flat-lying strata. During a summer 2015 GeoCorpsTM America internship, we investigated the contribution of joint sets to focused erosion of exposed fins and hoodoo development in Bryce Canyon National Park. Our field mapping documents the nature and spatial distribution of known fractures as well as a previously undocumented third generation characterized by steeply-dipping conjugates and zones of distributed deformation. Evidence for normal reactivation of contractional structures in the Sevier River drainage (MacLean, 2014) suggests that distributed deformation evolved during Basin and Range extension, possibly associated with the nearby Paunsaugunt fault. Cross-cutting relations among fracture sets suggest modest uplift and vertical jointing prior to collapse of the Marysvale volcanic complex (~22-20 Ma) and more recent Basin and Range extension. Spatial trends in fracture density illustrate a systematic increase in vertical, shear fractures, and reactivated zones to the north, proximal to thrust faulting. The increase in fracture density leads to accelerated weathering and erosion, with a corresponding increase in windows, hoodoos, and gentle slopes. While erosional windows commonly develop along vertical fractures intersecting relatively weak lithologies, approximately 60% of the 130

  7. The disposal of mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the consequences of dam building with slime of high water content, and therefore low relative density, such as the tailings usually associated with the extraction of uranium. It shows how a low relative density reduces the practica maximum rate of rise, and hence the establishment cost, of slimes dams built by conventional means. Further hidden costs of such tailings dams are examined. It is concluded that dewatering of tailings before their disposal is the most cost-effective means of increasing the rate at which a particular dam can be constructed, or of reducing operating or stability problems on existing dams. In the longer term, underground disposal seems to be a feasible alternative. However, it is pointed out that there are factors that can compound the operating difficulties, and that these should be investigated before remedial steps are taken

  8. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  9. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  10. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  11. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  12. Regional gross disposable household income

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Presents estimates published in May 2008, an overview of methodology used and future plans for regional economic dataThis article looks at estimates for regional gross disposable household income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in May 2008. These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels for the period 1995 to 2006. There is an overview of the methodology used ...

  13. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  14. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj

    2015-06-01

    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal. PMID:26648628

  15. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  16. Hanford site grout disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) completed processing and disposal of an initial 3,800 m3 of radioactive waste from the Hanford site's double-shell tanks (DSTs) on July 11, 1989. For the first time in the Hanford site's 46-yr history, tank wastes resulting from weapons-grade plutonium production were moved out of liquid storage and converted into a solid for environmentally safe disposal. In addition to the 3,800 m3 of nonhazardous, low-level waste processed in 1988 and 1989, ∼ 163,000 m3 of mixed waste will be treated for disposal between 1992 and 2013. These low-level wastes are radioactive, concentrated salt solutions classified as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and dangerous by the Washington State Department of Ecology. As feed for the grouting process they contain ∼ 11% sodium nitrate, 6% sodium hydroxide, 5% sodium nitrite, 3% sodium aluminate, 1% sodium phosphate, 0.5% sodium chloride, and 73% water. Many radionuclides are present, although 137Cs contributes more than 99% of the 0.3 Ci/l activity. From a long-term performance assessment standpoint, nitrate, 99Tc, and 129I are the primary contaminants of concern

  17. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  18. Sutton: Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California

    OpenAIRE

    Basgall, Mark E

    1987-01-01

    Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California Mark Q. Sutton. Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 9, 1986, 72 pp., 17 figures, 3 Appendices, $3.95 (paper).

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The Vegetation Map of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks was produced over an eight...

  20. Collembolan species diversity of calcareous canyons in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşmachiu, Galina; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The study of collembolan communities from the Vîşcăuți canyon in Moldova revealed 63 species belonging to 41 genera and 12 families, including four species new for the fauna of the Republic of Moldova. A checklist of collembolan species identified in the five calcareous canyons sampled so far in Moldova is included, with data on habitats, life form, occurrence and comments of distribution of most remarkable species. Of the 98 recognized species of these calcareous canyons, only 38 were shared by Vîşcăuți and the other canyons. The richness of calcareous habitats together with the high heterogeneity in faunal composition suggests that further significant increase in the species richness of the region may be expected.

  1. BackscatterA [USGS SWATH]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  2. BackscatterD [CSUMB Swath]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  3. Field Plot Points for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Classification Relevé Location executable shapefile (cachplot.exe) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)...

  4. Accuracy Assessment Points for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Accuracy Assessment Observation Location executable shapefile (cachaa.exe) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems...

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Walnut Canyon National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part...

  6. Geology and geomorphology--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  7. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process identifies the sampling and analytical requirements necessary to support future detailed evaluation of alternatives via the CERCLA process, for final disposition of the 221-U Canyon Facility. Viable alternatives for the disposition of the 221-U Facility have been identified in a CERCLA Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) (DOE-RL 1997) for the Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI). The scope of this DQO Process is limited to the 221-U Process Canyon Building and equipment contained within the facility. Associated stacks, filters, solvent handling, vaults, and storage facilities external to the 221-U Building are not addressed in this DQO. This DQO focuses on the 221-U Building because it provides the greatest potential source of contaminant volumes and concentrations and the physical structure poses the greatest challenge for disposition decisions

  8. Integrated Project Management Planning for the Deactivation of the Savannah River Site F-Canyon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.G.

    2000-12-01

    This paper explains the planning process that is being utilized by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to take the F-Canyon Complex facilities from operations to a deactivated condition awaiting final decommissioning.

  9. 76 FR 23335 - Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... proper food storage; party size; camping and campsites; human waste management; stock use; meadow... National Park Service Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon... Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for Wilderness Stewardship Plan, Sequoia and...

  10. Formation of Box Canyon, Idaho, by megaflood: implications for seepage erosion on Earth and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael P; Dietrich, William E; Aciego, Sarah M; Depaolo, Donald J; Manga, Michael

    2008-05-23

    Amphitheater-headed canyons have been used as diagnostic indicators of erosion by groundwater seepage, which has important implications for landscape evolution on Earth and astrobiology on Mars. Of perhaps any canyon studied, Box Canyon, Idaho, most strongly meets the proposed morphologic criteria for groundwater sapping because it is incised into a basaltic plain with no drainage network upstream, and approximately 10 cubic meters per second of seepage emanates from its vertical headwall. However, sediment transport constraints, 4He and 14C dates, plunge pools, and scoured rock indicate that a megaflood (greater than 220 cubic meters per second) carved the canyon about 45,000 years ago. These results add to a growing recognition of Quaternary catastrophic flooding in the American northwest, and may imply that similar features on Mars also formed by floods rather than seepage erosion.

  11. 75 FR 27550 - Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of...

  12. San Bernardino and Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuges : Comprehensive Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this CCP for San Bernadino and Leslie Canyons NWRs, an ecosystem approach is adopted to achieve the goals of the refuges over a 15-year timespan. Much emphasis...

  13. Accuracy Assessment Points for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Walnut Canyon National Monument and in the...

  14. Deepwater Canyons 2012: Pathways to the Abyss on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster between 20120815 and 20121001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mid-Atlantic Deep-Water Canyons project is co-funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (which...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  17. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  18. Targeted cryotherapy using disposable biopsy punches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avitus John Raakesh Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin.

  19. Movements of subadult prickly sharks Echinorhinus cookei in the Monterey Canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The prickly shark Echinorhinus cookei is a poorly known predatory shark that occurs in the Monterey Canyon, USA. Between March 2005 and September 2006, 15 subadult prickly sharks (170 to 270 cm total length) were tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked to determine their site fidelity, home range, habitat use, rates of movement, and diel activity. An array of moored receivers extending 3.5 km offshore from the apex of the Monterey Canyon recorded the occurrence of 8 sharks tagged with c...

  20. Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area 2003 visitor use survey: Completion report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea; Gillette, Shana C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the analysis of research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The purpose is to provide socio-economic and recreational use information that can be used in the development of a Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area (CCNCA). The results reported here deal primarily with recreation-based activities in four areas: Kokopelli Loops, Rabbit Valley, Loma Boat Launch, and Devil’s Canyon.

  1. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  2. Development of CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal Concepts for the Improvement of Disposal Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two types of spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants, CANDU type and PWR type. PWR spent fuels which include a lot of reusable material can be considered to be recycled. CANDU spent fuels are considered to directly disposed in deep geological formation, since they have little reusable material. In this study, based on the Korean Reference spent fuel disposal System(KRS) which is to dispose both PWR and CANDU spent fuels, the more effective CANDU spent fuel disposal systems have been developed. To do this, the disposal canister has been modified to hold the storage basket which can load 60 spent fuel bundles. From these modified disposal canisters, the disposal systems to meet the thermal requirement for which the temperature of the buffer materials should not be over have been proposed. These new disposals have made it possible to introduce the concept of long term storage and retrievability and that of the two-layered disposal canister emplacement in one disposal hole. These disposal concepts have been compared and analyzed with the KRS CANDU spent fuel disposal system in terms of disposal effectiveness. New CANDU spent fuel disposal concepts obtained in this study seem to improve thermal effectiveness, U-density, disposal area, excavation volume, and closure material volume up to 30 - 40 %.

  3. Impact of aspect ratio and solar heating on street canyon air temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained from RNG (Re-Normalization Group) version of k-and turbulence model are reported in this study. The model is adopted to elucidate the impact of different building aspect ratios (i.e., ratio of building-height-to-street-canyon-width) and solar heating on temperatures in street canyon. The validation of Navier-Stokes and energy an sport equations showed that the model prediction for air-temperature and ambient wind provides reasonable accuracy. The model was applied on AR (Aspect Ratios) one to eight and surface temperature difference (delta and theta/sub s-a/)) of 2 -8. Notably, air-temperatures were higher in high AR street canyons in particular on the leeward side of the street canyon. Further investigation showed that the difference between the air-temperature 'high and low AR street canyons (AR) was positive and high with higher delta and theta/sub s-a/) conversely, the AR become negative and low gradually with lower values of delta and theta(/sub s-a/). These results could be very beneficial for the city and regional planners, civil engineers Id HVAC experts who design street canyons and strive for human thermal comfort with minimum possible energy requirements. (author)

  4. Near-inertial motions in the DeSoto Canyon during Hurricane Georges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Antoni; Wang, Dong-Ping; Hamilton, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Hurricane Georges passed directly over an array of 13 moorings deployed in the DeSoto Canyon in the northern Gulf of Mexico on 27-28 September 1998. Current velocity data from the mooring array were analyzed together with a primitive-equation model simulation with realistic hurricane forcing, to characterize the generation and propagation of the hurricane-generated near-inertial waves. The model successfully reproduces the observed mean (sub-inertial) and near-inertial motions. The upper ocean response is strongly impacted by the canyon 'wall': a strong jet is formed along the slope, and the near-inertial motions on the shelf are rapidly suppressed. The model results moreover suggest that strong near-inertial waves in the mixed layer are mostly trapped in an energy flux recirculating gyre around the canyon. This gyre retains the near-inertial energy in the canyon region and enhances the transfer of near-inertial energy below the mixed layer. Additional simulations with idealized topographies show that the presence of a steep slope rather than the canyon is fundamental for the generation of this recirculating gyre. The near-inertial wave energy budget shows that during the study period the wind generated an input of 6.79 × 10-2 Wm-2 of which about 1/3, or 2.43 × 10-2 Wm-2, was transferred below the mixed layer. The horizontal energy flux into and out of the canyon region, in contrast, was relatively weak.

  5. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  6. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  8. Xenophyophores (Rhizaria, Foraminifera) from the Nazaré Canyon (Portuguese margin, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, A. J.; Aranda da Silva, A.; Pawlowski, J.

    2011-12-01

    Xenophyophores are abundant on a terrace of the lower Nazaré Canyon (4300 m water depth) on the Portuguese margin. Here, the most abundant species, Reticulammina cerebreformis sp. nov., occurs in densities of up to 21 individuals/m 2. This large species has a soft, friable hemispherical test up to 10 cm in diameter consisting of curved, sinuous plates (lamellae) that branch and anastomose. The plates are separated by deep furrows and other depressions to form a distinctive 'brain-like' structure. The outer test layer is thin, weakly cemented and is dominated by fine sediment particles; the internal xenophyae include a higher proportion of larger mineral grains. The second new species at the 4300-m site, Nazareammina tenera gen. et sp. nov., is much less common. The test is basically plate-like, but towards the interior it is perforated by oval spaces, which typically merge into complex system of bar-like features, sometimes with irregular excrescences. The granellare system (cell body and its organic envelope) is packed with tiny mineral grains of various sizes and shapes, including titanium-bearing particles. Also common at this deep site are clusters, with a maximum diameter up to 10 cm or occasionally more, of irregular tubes belonging to Aschemonella ramuliformis Brady 1884, a species previously known mainly from isolated tubes. Rather than being single individuals, these clusters comprise a large number of separate branched tubes. Finally, Syringammina fragillissima Brady 1883, a well-known species that is widely distributed on the NW European margin, occurred on steep sediment-covered slopes at a shallower (1555 m water depth) site in the upper canyon. Almost complete SSU rDNA gene sequences obtained from A. ramuliformis and R. cerebreformis confirm that these xenophyophores are foraminifera. Together with two previously sequenced xenophophores ( Shinkaia lindsayi Lecroq, Gooday, Tsuchiya, Pawlowski 2009 and Syringammina corbicula Richardson 2001), and the

  9. Street canyon ventilation control by proper planning and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakin Vladimir Vasil'evich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height, or where the buildings are long and close together. With

  10. Radioactive wastes, disposal sites wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two towns that were selected by the French government to home a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes, have withdrawn their bid. ANDRA (French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) attributes this withdrawal to the unbearable pressure made by the opponents on the city councils despite the public information meetings that were held in the 2 cities. The selection rules included the presence of clay layers with a thickness of at least 50 m, the absence of seismic activity and zones containing exploitable resources like petroleum or metal ores were barred in order to avoid future unexpected drilling. (A.C.)

  11. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Nedenskov, Jonas;

    2011-01-01

    AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH4) emission from...... the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation...

  12. Joint PDF Modelling of Turbulent Flow and Dispersion in an Urban Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2009-05-01

    The joint probability density function (PDF) of turbulent velocity and concentration of a passive scalar in an urban street canyon is computed using a newly developed particle-in-cell Monte Carlo method. Compared to moment closures, the PDF methodology provides the full one-point one-time PDF of the underlying fields containing all higher moments and correlations. The small-scale mixing of the scalar released from a concentrated source at the street level is modelled by the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean (IECM) model, with a micro-mixing time scale designed for geometrically complex settings. The boundary layer along no-slip walls (building sides and tops) is fully resolved using an elliptic relaxation technique, which captures the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the Reynolds stress tensor in these regions. A less computationally intensive technique based on wall functions to represent the boundary layers and its effect on the solution are also explored. The calculated statistics are compared to experimental data and large-eddy simulation. The present work can be considered as the first example of computation of the full joint PDF of velocity and a transported passive scalar in an urban setting. The methodology proves successful in providing high level statistical information on the turbulence and pollutant concentration fields in complex urban scenarios.

  13. Joint PDF modelling of turbulent flow and dispersion in an urban street canyon

    CERN Document Server

    Bakosi, J; Boybeyi, Z; 10.1007/s10546-009-9370-x

    2010-01-01

    The joint probability density function (PDF) of turbulent velocity and concentration of a passive scalar in an urban street canyon is computed using a newly developed particle-in-cell Monte Carlo method. Compared to moment closures, the PDF methodology provides the full one-point one-time PDF of the underlying fields containing all higher moments and correlations. The small-scale mixing of the scalar released from a concentrated source at the street level is modelled by the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean (IECM) model, with a micro-mixing time scale designed for geometrically complex settings. The boundary layer along no-slip walls (building sides and tops) is fully resolved using an elliptic relaxation technique, which captures the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the Reynolds stress tensor in these regions. A less computationally intensive technique based on wall functions to represent boundary layers and its effect on the solution are also explored. The calculated statistics are compa...

  14. Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Conlan

    Full Text Available Two South Australian canyons, one shelf-incising (du Couedic and one slope-limited (Bonney were compared for macrofaunal patterns on the shelf and slope that spanned three water masses. It was hypothesized that community structure would (H1 significantly differ by water mass, (H2 show significant regional differences and (H3 differ significantly between interior and exterior of each canyon. Five hundred and thirty-one species of macrofauna ≥ 1 mm were captured at 27 stations situated in depth stratified transects inside and outside the canyons from 100 to 1500 m depth. The macrofauna showed a positive relationship to depth in abundance, biomass, species richness and community composition while taxonomic distinctness and evenness remained high at all depths. Biotic variation on the shelf was best defined by variation in bottom water primary production while sediment characteristics and bottom water oxygen, temperature and nutrients defined biotic variation at greater depth. Community structure differed significantly (p<0.01 among the three water masses (shelf-flowing South Australian current, upper slope Flinders current and lower slope Antarctic Intermediate Water (H1. Although community differences between the du Couedic and Bonney regions were marginally above significance at p = 0.05 (H2, over half of the species captured were unique to each region. This supports the evidence from fish and megafaunal distributions that the du Couedic and Bonney areas are in different bioregions. Overall, the canyon interiors were not significantly different in community composition from the exterior (H3. However, both canyons had higher abundance and/or biomass, increased species dominance, different species composition and coarser sediments near the canyon heads compared to outside the canyons at the same depth (500 m, suggestive of heightened currents within the canyons that influence community composition there. At 1000-1500 m, the canyon interiors were

  15. Large-Eddy Simulation of Ventilation and Pollutant Removal in Neutrally and Unstably Stratified Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Cheng, W.; Leung, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    Large-eddy simulation model was developed to study the ventilation and pollutant removal of urban street canyons in neutral and unstable stratifications. Street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width ratio were considered. For the case with unstable stratification, the ground was heated up to a Richardson number Rb (= gh/Uh2(Θh-Θ0)/Θref) of -10, where g is the gravitational acceleration, h the building height, Uh the roof-level velocity scale, Θref the reference temperature, Θh the roof-level temperature and Θ0 the ground temperature. The gaseous pollutant was modeled as a passive scalar. Ground-level area sources with uniform pollutant concentrations were used to model traffic emission. In neutral stratification, skimming flow and poor pollutant removal are observed. A primary recirculation is developed in the street canyon core by the prevalent wind (Fig 1a). It occupies nearly all the space inside the street canyon leaving three small secondary recirculations at the ground-level leeward, ground-level windward and roof-level leeward corners. The pollutant emitted from the street is mostly trapped inside the street canyon hence elevated pollutant concentration is observed. Unstable stratification modifies the flow pattern significantly that enhances the pollutant removal. An enlarged secondary recirculation is observed at the ground-level windward corner (Fig 1b). It pushes the primary recirculation upward which eventually extends over the roof level of street canyon immersing into the shear layer aloft. The sizes of the two small recirculations on the leeward side shrink instead. The wind speed inside the street canyon increases that enhances the pollutant mixing. As a result, the overall pollutant concentration is lower compared with that in neutral stratification. In contrast to a roof-level thin layer of pollutant in neutral stratification, pollutant is carried upward by the convective updraft moving from the building roof level into the shear

  16. Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsund, S.; Xu, J.; Nemec, W.

    2007-12-01

    The method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used, in the form of a 3D numerical model (Flow- 3D®), to perform a full-scale simulation of turbidity currents measured in December 2002 by three moorings in the Soquel and Monterey canyons. The model was verified by simulation of laboratory flows, and was upscaled to the Monterey Canyon system on the basis of high-resolution bathymetric data and flow measurements. The measured velocity profiles were sufficient to assess the flow thickness, initial velocity and duration in the canyon head zone. A computational grid with a highest feasible resolution was used, and both bathymetry and hydrostatic pressure were accounted for. The volumetric sediment concentration and exact grain- size composition of the flows were unknown, and thus a range of values for the initial concentration and bed roughness were assumed and assessed on a trial-and-error basis. The simulations reveal the behavior of a turbidity current along its descent path, including its local hydraulic characteristics (the 3D field of velocity, sediment concentration, shear stress, strain rate, and dynamic viscosity, as well as the magnitude of velocity and turbulent shear). The results confirm that the velocity structure of turbidity current is highly sensitive to variation in seafloor topography. The December 17th flow in the Soquel Canyon appears to have lost capacity by dilution over a relatively short distance and shown significant velocity fluctuations, which is attributed to the rugged topography of the canyon floor. A major loss of momentum occurred when the flow plunged at high angle into the Monterey Canyon, crashing against its bend's southern wall. The December 20th flow in the Monterey Canyon, in contrast, developed a considerably longer body and strongly accelerated towards the canyon's sharp second bend before crashing against its western wall. The mooring data show a down-canyon decline of velocity and suggest gradual waning, but the

  17. Combining Wind-Tunnel and Field Measurements of Street-Canyon Flow via Stochastic Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Laurent; Blackman, Karin; Savory, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate how application of the stochastic estimation method can be employed to combine spatially well-resolved wind-tunnel particle image velocimetry measurements with instantaneous velocity signals from a limited number of sensors (six sonic anemometers located within the canyon in the present case) to predict full-scale flow dynamics in an entire street-canyon cross-section. The investigated configuration corresponds to a street-canyon flow in a neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer with the oncoming flow being perpendicular to the main canyon axis. Data were obtained during both full-scale and 1:200-scale wind-tunnel experiments. The performance of the proposed method is investigated using both wind-tunnel data and signals from five sonic anemometers to predict the velocity from the sixth one. In particular, based on analysis of the influence of the high-frequency velocity fluctuations on the quality of the reconstruction, it is shown that stochastic estimation is able to correctly reproduce the large-scale temporal features of the flow with the present set-up. The full dataset is then used to spatially extrapolate the instantaneous flow measured by the six sonic anemometers and perform detailed analysis of instantaneous flow features. The main features of the flow, such as the presence of the shear layer that develops over the canyon and the intermittent ejection and penetration events across the canyon opening, are well predicted by stochastic estimation. In addition, thanks to the high spatial resolution made possible by the technique, the intermittency of the main vortical structure existing within the canyon is demonstrated, as well as its meandering motion in the canyon cross-section. It is also shown that the canyon flow, particularly its spanwise component, is affected by large-scale fluctuations of low temporal frequency along the canyon axis. Finally, the proposed techniques based on wind-tunnel data can prove useful for a priori

  18. Application of a Lagrangian transport model to organo-mineral aggregates within the Nazaré canyon

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pando; Juliano, M. F.; García, R.; P. A. de Jesus Mendes; Thomsen, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model was applied to the Nazaré submarine canyon with boundary forcing provided by an operational forecast model for the west Iberian coast for the spring of 2009. After validation, a lagrangian transport model was coupled to the hydrodynamic model to study and compare the transport patterns of three different classes of organo-mineral aggregates along the Nazaré canyon. The results show that the transport in the canyon is neither constant, nor ...

  19. Preliminary assessment of freshwater crayfish as environmental indicators of human impacts in canyons of the Blue Mountains, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Canyoning has become a popular recreation activity in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (Australia), and park management consider that the activity is having an impact on the local fauna of the fragile canyon ecosystems. Although only limited data exist on the native freshwater crayfish populations that inhabit these canyons, it has been suggested that freshwater crayfish have the potential to act as a rapid bioindicator of human impacts. As a preliminary assessment, we sampled c...

  20. An Investigation of Amphitheater-Headed Canyon Distribution, Morphology Variation, and Longitudinal Profile Controls in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Whipple, K. X.

    2014-12-01

    Amphitheater-headed canyons are primarily distinguished from typical fluvial channels by their abrupt headwall terminations. A key goal in the study of river canyons is to establish a reliable link between form and formation processes. This is of particular significance for Mars, where, if such links can be established, amphitheater-headed canyons could be used to determine ancient erosion mechanisms and, by inference, climate conditions. Type examples in arid regions on Earth, such as in Escalante River, Utah, previously have been interpreted as products of groundwater seepage erosion. We investigate amphitheater-headed canyons in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa where variations in canyon head morphology may hold clues for the relative roles of rock properties and fluvial and groundwater processes. In lower Escalante, amphitheaters are only present where canyons have breached the Navajo Sandstone - Kayenta Formation contact. In some canyons, amphitheater development appears to have been inhibited by an abundance of coarse bedload. In Tarantula Mesa, canyons have a variety of headwalls, from amphitheaters to stepped knickzones. Headwall morphology distribution is directly related to the spatially variable presence of knickpoint-forming, fine-grained interbeds within cliff-forming sandstones. Amphitheaters only form where the sandstone unit is undisrupted by these interbeds. Finally, most canyons in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa, regardless of substrate lithology, amphitheater presence, or groundwater spring intensity, are well described by a slope-area power law relationship with regionally constant concavity and normalized steepness indices. This suggests that all channels here are subject to the same erosion rates, independent of groundwater weathering intensity. Thus: 1) variations in canyon headwall form do not necessary relate to differences in fluvial history, 2) stratigraphic variations are clearly of importance in sedimentary canyon systems, and 3) although

  1. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  2. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  3. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William P; Frederick, Logan E; Millington, Mallory R; Vala, David; Reese, Barbara K; Freedman, Dina R; Stenten, Christina J; Trauscht, Jacob S; Tingey, Christopher E; Kip Solomon, D; Fernandez, Diego P; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2015-11-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen-solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. PMID:26057623

  4. Physical Experiments to Investigate the Effects of Street Bottom Heating and Inflow Turbulence on Urban Street-Canyon Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Jin KIM; Jong-Jin BAIK

    2005-01-01

    The effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow are experimentally investigated using a circulating water channel. Three experiments are carried out for a street canyon with a street aspect ratio of 1. Results from each experiment with bottom heating or inflow turbulence are compared with those without bottom heating and appreciable inflow turbulence. It is demonstrated that street bottom heating or inflow turbulence increases the intensity of the canyon vortex. A possible explanation on how street bottom heating or inflow turbulence intensifies the canyon vortex is given from a fluid dynamical viewpoint.

  5. Permeation of captan through disposable nitrile glove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalen, R.N.; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of an aqueous emulsion of the pesticide, captan, as a wettable powder (48.9% captan) through a disposable nitrile glove material using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. The goal was to investigate the protective capability of the gloves against dermatitis. The analytical method was based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The least quantifiable limit (LQL) was 6 ng for GC-ECD and 30 ng for GC-MS. Testing was conducted using the ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation method and a worst-case aqueous concentration 217 mg/ml of captan 50-WP. The average permeation rates were low, with 12{+-}5 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 2 h, 50{+-}25 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 4 h, and 77{+-}58 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 8 h. The calculated diffusion coefficient was (1.28{+-}0.10)x10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/h. No significant swelling or shrinkage occurred at P{<=}0.05. Infrared (IR) reflectance analysis of pre- and post-exposure glove surfaces confirmed no outer or inner surface degradation. The disposable nitrile glove showed excellent resistance to a highly concentrated aqueous emulsion of captan. Because the ASTM normalized breakthrough detection time of 250 ng/cm{sup 2} was <2 h, these gloves should not be reused once worn, and decontamination is not advised. Protection is also advised for agricultural reentry field workers, because captan has been shown to persist on crops with a half-life greater than the current reentry intervals of 1-4 days.

  6. Geology of the Red Canyon quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, E.J.; Jobin, D.A.

    1953-01-01

    The Red Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium, minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  7. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  8. That very interesting dance in the Baltimore Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, A.

    1978-09-11

    Pointing out that offshore oil and gas has been a marginal proposition until now--the only consistent moneymaker being the Federal government as leaser--it is hard to understand the feverish spasms that have swept the stock market for months, at the slightest hint of a discovery in Baltimore Canyon. Despite the dismal returns vs. risks up to the present, most of the oil industry believes it must continue offshore if it wants to stay in the oil and gas business. Most of these oil men widely share the belief that most of the large fields that remain to be discovered are in frontier areas of the continential shelf; and one ''big elephant'' discovered can easily erase a string of losses. Still another reason to keep playing is an astonishing advance in exploration technology known as ''bright spots''. Finally, oil men are lured into the offshore arena by a subtle mixture of perceived necessity, an innate if somewhat battered spirit of optimism, and an unabashed fascination with the game itself--the latter, little understood outside the industry according to Dick Palmer, Texaco's top exploration man, but ''a very interesting dance''.

  9. Shelf break exchange events near the De Soto Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter; Speer, Kevin; Snyder, Richard; Wienders, Nicolas; Leben, Robert R.

    2015-11-01

    Observations of currents, temperature, sea-surface height, sea-surface temperature and ocean color, derived from moorings, surface and deep drifters, hydrographic surveys, and satellites, are used to characterize shelf-slope exchange events near the apex of the De Soto Canyon in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. During the winter of 2012-2013, shelf-break time series showed a number of events where cold shelf water extruded over the slope. These events were largely consistent with slope eddies of both signs influencing shelf break currents. Larger-scale circulations, derived from the Loop Current and a separating Loop Current eddy, strongly influenced circulation over the De Soto slope during summer 2012, with flow patterns consistent with potential vorticity conservation over shoaling topography. Statistical investigation into shelf-slope exchange using large numbers of surface drifters indicated that export from the shelf is larger than vice-versa, and is more uniformly distributed along the shelf break. Import onto the shelf appears to favor a region just east of the Mississippi Delta, which is also consistent with the observed onshore transport of surface oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

  10. Pilot RCM application to the Diablo Canyon main stream system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986 Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company (PG ampersand E) became extremely interested in reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) after the initial review of two successful Electric Power Research Institute sponsored projects. RCM was visualized as a methodology to common sensitize the burgeoning preventive maintenance (PM) program at the Diablo Canyon plant. RCM could further the uses of predictive and condition-monitoring techniques, as well as eliminate maintenance on components whose failures were noncritical. An extensive review of maintenance and operation experience data, in conjunction with plant staff recommendations and a prioritization according to maintenance expenditures and operational/safety significance, produced the selected system: the turbine main steam supply system (main steam). The pilot project segmented the main steam system into eight subsystems to aid in analysis: (a) main steam isolation valves, (b) auxiliary feedwater pump turbine, (c) overpressure protection (steam dump), (d) main feedwater pump turbines, (e) main steam, (f) main turbine, (g) steam blowdown, and (h) moisture separator reheaters. System analysis activities, including the preparation of functional failure analyses, failure modes and effects analyses, and logic model analyses, were conducted in parallel with corrective and preventive maintenance data-gathering activities to maximize project team personnel participation during the project. Results and lessons learned are summarized

  11. Effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jong-Jin; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Seung-Bu; Ryu, Young-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Building roof greening is a successful strategy for improving urban thermal environment. It is of theoretical interest and practical importance to study the effects of building roof greening on urban air quality in a systematic and quantitative way. In this study, we examine the effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes the thermodynamic energy equation and the transport equation of passive, non-reactive pollutants. For simplicity, building roof greening is represented by specified cooling. Results for a simple building configuration with a street canyon aspect ratio of one show that the cool air produced due to building roof greening flows into the street canyon, giving rise to strengthened street canyon flow. The strengthened street canyon flow enhances pollutant dispersion near the road, which decreases pollutant concentration there. Thus, building roof greening improves air quality near the road. The degree of air quality improvement near the road increases as the cooling intensity increases. In the middle region of the street canyon, the air quality can worsen when the cooling intensity is not too strong. Results for a real urban morphology also show that building roof greening improves air quality near roads. The degree of air quality improvement near roads due to building roof greening depends on the ambient wind direction. These findings provide a theoretical foundation for constructing green roofs for the purpose of improving air quality near roads or at a pedestrian level as well as urban thermal environment. Further studies using a CFD model coupled with a photochemistry model and a surface energy balance model are required to evaluate the effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons in a more realistic framework.

  12. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site's long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards

  13. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  14. Mechanical performance of disposable surgical needle holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E H; Towler, M A; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Himel, H N; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    The mechanical performance of disposable Webster surgical needle holders supplied by three different surgical instrument companies was determined by recording the forces (clamping moment) applied by the different needle holder jaws to curved surgical needles. This investigation demonstrated that there was a large variability in the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holders supplied by each surgical instrument company. In addition, the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holder of each surgical instrument company was distinctly different.

  15. Recycling Engineering Of Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces conception of waste, generation of waste with generation and circulation of waste, waste generation amount, and classification of waste, management of waste, collection of waste on plan of collection, transportation and device of waste, waste management system such as extended producer responsibility, manifest system, exchange system of waste, volume-rate garbage disposal system, recycling of waste, including disposal technology for recycling waste, sanitary landfill, incineration, composting and human waste of disposal.

  16. Disposable bioreactors for inoculum production and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Regine; Löffelholz, Christian; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Disposable bioreactors have been increasingly implemented over the past ten years. This relates to both R & D and commercial manufacture, in particular, in animal cell-based processes. Among the numerous disposable bioreactors which are available today, wave-mixed bag bioreactors and stirred bioreactors are predominant. Whereas wave-mixed bag bioreactors represent the system of choice for inoculum production, stirred systems are often preferred for protein expression. For this reason, the authors present protocols instructing the reader how to use the wave-mixed BIOSTAT CultiBag RM 20 L for inoculum production and the stirred UniVessel SU 2 L for recombinant protein production at benchtop scale. All methods described are based on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cell line expressing the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP).

  17. Post-disposal safety assessment of toxic and radioactive waste: waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria, assessment methods and post-disposal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for safety assessments of waste disposal stems not only from the implementation of regulations requiring the assessment of environmental effects, but also from the more general need to justify decisions on protection requirements. As waste-disposal methods have become more technologically based, through the application of more highly engineered design concepts and through more rigorous and specific limitations on the types and quantities of the waste disposed, it follows that assessment procedures also must become more sophisticated. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities through the development and testing of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. This report records all the work which has been undertaken during Phase 1 of the study. Waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria and assessment methods for both toxic and radioactive waste are reviewed with the purpose of identifying those features relevant to assessment methodology development. Difference and similarities in waste types, disposal practices, criteria and assessment methods between countries, and between toxic and radioactive wastes are highlighted and discussed. Finally, an approach to identify post-disposal impacts, how they arise and their effects on humans and the environment is described

  18. Safety analysis and the code development on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding development of the safety analysis codes to be used for 'cross-check' (which is the evaluation of the validity of the safety analysis conducted by the licensee through cross comparison of the simulated result) of the sub-surface disposal conducted by the licensee, the codes are required to be capable of confirming the long term safety of the sub-surface disposal. The influence of the rainfall infiltration change on groundwater flow over the long term period due to climate change was studied. As a result, it was found that shoreline movement caused by the sea level change significantly influenced groundwater flow. Regarding development of the safety analysis codes to be used for 'cross-check' of the near surface disposal, it is important to efficiently simulate the groundwater flow with finely discretized mesh model. We therefore improved the memory allocation algorithm of the groundwater flow simulation code, TOUGH2 to be able to treat the large mesh model, such as several million cells. Modifications are made for the simulation support system, by adding the groundwater flow code 3D-SEEP which can treat land uplift and erosion and its associated modules. This modification not only improves efficiency but also allows to avoid human error. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the unsaturated conditions such as infiltration rate on the migration of important nuclides of near surface disposal was conducted. As a result, influence of the unsaturated conditions on the exposed dose was evaluated. (author)

  19. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  20. Fluctuating helical asymmetry and morphology of snails (Gastropoda in divergent microhabitats at 'Evolution Canyons I and II,' Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developmental instability of shelled gastropods is measured as deviations from a perfect equiangular (logarithmic spiral. We studied six species of gastropods at 'Evolution Canyons I and II' in Carmel and the Galilee Mountains, Israel, respectively. The xeric, south-facing, 'African' slopes and the mesic, north-facing, 'European' slopes have dramatically different microclimates and plant communities. Moreover, 'Evolution Canyon II' receives more rainfall than 'Evolution Canyon I.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined fluctuating asymmetry, rate of whorl expansion, shell height, and number of rotations of the body suture in six species of terrestrial snails from the two 'Evolution Canyons.' The xeric 'African' slope should be more stressful to land snails than the 'European' slope, and 'Evolution Canyon I' should be more stressful than 'Evolution Canyon II.' Only Eopolita protensa jebusitica showed marginally significant differences in fluctuating helical asymmetry between the two slopes. Contrary to expectations, asymmetry was marginally greater on the 'European' slope. Shells of Levantina spiriplana caesareana at 'Evolution Canyon I,' were smaller and more asymmetric than those at 'Evolution Canyon II.' Moreover, shell height and number of rotations of the suture were greater on the north-facing slopes of both canyons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data is consistent with a trade-off between drought resistance and thermoregulation in snails; Levantina was significantly smaller on the 'African' slope, for increasing surface area and thermoregulation, while Eopolita was larger on the 'African' slope, for reducing water evaporation. In addition, 'Evolution Canyon I' was more stressful than Evolution Canyon II' for Levantina.

  1. A Laboratory Model for the Flow in Urban Street Canyons Induced by Bottom Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉志; 梁彬; 朱凤荣; 张伯寅; 桑建国

    2003-01-01

    Water tank experiments are carried out to investigate the convection flow induced by bottom heating and the effects of the ambient wind on the flow in non-symmetrical urban street canyons based on the PIV (Particle Image Visualization) technique. Fluid experiments show that with calm ambient wind,the flows in the street canyon are completely driven by thermal force, and the convection can reach the upper atmosphere of the street canyon. Horizontal and vertical motions also appear above the roofs of the buildings. These are the conditions which favor the exchange of momentum and air mass between the street canyon and its environment. More than two vortices are induced by the convection, and the complex circulation pattern will vary with time in a wider street canyon. However, in a narrow street canyon, just one vortex appears. With a light ambient wind, the bottom heating and the associated convection result in just one main vortex. As the ambient wind speed increases, the vortex becomes more organized and its center shifts closer to the leeward building.

  2. A review of the role of submarine canyons in deep-ocean exchange with the shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Allen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross shelf-break exchange is limited by the tendency of geostrophic flow to follow bathymetric contours, not cross them. However, small scale topography, such as canyons, can reduce the local lengthscale of the flow and increase the local Rossby number. These higher Rossby numbers mean the flow is no longer purely geostrophic and significant cross-isobath flow can occur. This cross-isobath flow includes both upwelling and downwelling due to wind-driven shelf currents and the strong cascading flows of dense shelf-water into the ocean. Tidal currents usually run primarily parallel to the shelf-break topography. Canyons cut across these flows and thus are often regions of generation of strong baroclinic tides and internal waves. Canyons can also focus internal waves. Both processes lead to greatly elevated levels of mixing. Thus, through both advection and mixing processes, canyons can enhance Deep Ocean Shelf Exchange. Here we review the state of the science describing the dynamics of the flows and suggest further areas of research, particularly into quantifying fluxes of nutrients and carbon as well as heat and salt through canyons.

  3. Numerical Study of Traffic Pollutant Dispersion within Different Street Canyon Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to numerically study flow and traffic exhaust dispersion in urban street canyons with different configurations to find out the urban-planning strategies to ease the air pollution. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model used in this study—Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM software package—was firstly validated against the wind-tunnel experiment data by using three different k-ε turbulence models. And then the patterns of flow and dispersion within three different kinds of street canyon configuration under the perpendicular approaching flow were numerically studied. The result showed that the width and height of building can dramatically affect the pollution level inside the street canyon. As the width or height of building increases, the pollution at the pedestrian level increases. And the asymmetric configuration (step-up or step-down street canyon could provide better ventilation. It is recommended to design a street canyon with nonuniform configurations. And the OpenFOAM software package can be used as a reliable tool to study flows and dispersions around buildings.

  4. On the Impact of Trees on Dispersion Processes of Traffic Emissions in Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-04-01

    Wind-tunnel studies of dispersion processes of traffic exhaust in urban street canyons with tree planting were performed and tracer gas concentrations using electron capture detection (ECD) and flow fields using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) were measured. It was found that tree planting reduces the air exchange between street canyons and the ambience. In comparison to treeless street canyons, higher overall pollutant concentrations and lower flow velocities were measured. In particular, for perpendicular approaching wind, markedly higher concentrations at the leeward canyon wall and slightly lower concentrations at the windward canyon wall were observed. Furthermore, a new approach is suggested to model porous vegetative structures such as tree crowns for small-scale wind-tunnel applications. The approach is based on creating different model tree crown porosities by incorporating a certain amount of wadding material into a specified volume. A significant influence of the crown porosity on pollutant concentrations was found for high degrees of porosity, however, when it falls below a certain threshold, no further changes in pollutant concentrations were observed.

  5. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H CANYON FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Lindsay; Fuller, Kenneth

    2013-07-09

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H Canyon Facility is the only large scale, heavily shielded, nuclear chemical separations plant still in operation in the U.S. The facility's operations historically recovered uranium-235 (U-235) and neptunium-237 (Np-237) from aluminum-clad, enriched-uranium fuel tubes from Site nuclear reactors and other domestic and foreign research reactors. Today the facility, in conjunction with HB Line, is working to provide the initial feed material to the Mixed Oxide Facility also located on SRS. Many additional campaigns are also in the planning process. Furthermore, the facility has started to integrate collaborative research and development (R&D) projects into its schedule. H Canyon can serve as the appropriate testing location for many technologies focused on monitoring the back end of the fuel cycle, due to the nature of the facility and continued operation. H Canyon, in collaboration with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), has been working with several groups in the DOE complex to conduct testing demonstrations of novel technologies at the facility. The purpose of conducting these demonstrations at H Canyon will be to demonstrate the capabilities of the emerging technologies in an operational environment. This paper will summarize R&D testing activities currently taking place in H Canyon and discuss the possibilities for future collaborations.

  6. Street canyon flow patterns in a horizontal plane : measurements from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); Khalsa, H. S. (Hari S.); Nelson, M. A. (Matthew Aaron); Boswell, D. (David)

    2004-01-01

    As part of the larger Joint URBAN 2003 tracer field experiment performed in Oklahoma City from June 29 to July 30, 2003, a collaborative team of government and university researchers instrumented a downtown street canyon with a high density of wind sensor instrumentation (Brown et al., 2003). The goal of the Park Avenue street canyon experiment was to garner flow field information in order to better understand the transport and dispersion of tracers released in the street canyon and to test and improve the next generation of urban dispersion models. In this paper, we focus on describing the mean flow patterns that developed in the street canyon in a horizontal plane near the surface. We look at the patterns that develop over entire Intensive Operating Periods (IOP's) lasting from 6-9 hours in length, and as a function of inflow wind direction. Most prior street canyon experiments have generally focused on the vertical structure of the flow; this work contributes to the understanding of the horizontal nature of the flow.

  7. Characterising the pollutant ventilation characteristics of street canyons using the tracer age and age spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, K. W.; Ngan, K.

    2015-12-01

    The age of air, which measures the time elapsed between the emission of a chemical constituent and its arrival at a receptor location, has many applications in urban air quality. Typically it has been estimated for special cases, e.g. the local mean age of air for a spatially homogeneous source. An alternative approach uses the response to a point source to determine the distribution of transit times or tracer ages connecting the source and receptor. The distribution (age spectrum) and first moment (mean tracer age) have proven to be useful diagnostics in stratospheric modelling because they can be related to observations and do not require a priori assumptions. The tracer age and age spectrum are applied to the pollutant ventilation of street canyons in this work. Using large-eddy simulations of flow over a single isolated canyon and an uneven, non-uniform canyon array, it is shown that the structure of the tracer age is dominated by the central canyon "vortex"; small variations in the building height have a significant influence on the structure of the tracer age and the pollutant ventilation. The age spectrum is broad, with a long exponential tail whose slope depends on the canyon geometry. The mean tracer age, which roughly characterises the ventilation strength, is much greater than the local mean age of air.

  8. Fault tree analysis of Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust Systems, is a $177 million project with the purpose of upgrading the Exhaust Systems for both F and H Canyon Facilities. This upgrade will replace major portions of the F and H-Canyon exhaust systems, downstream of their respective sand filters with higher capacity and more reliable systems. Because of the high cost, DOE requested Program Control ampersand Integration (PC ampersand I) to examine specific deletions to the project. PC ampersand I requested Nuclear Processes Safety Research (NPSR) to perform an analysis to compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed exhaust system and specific proposed exhaust system alternatives. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis and compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed project exhaust system and proposed project alternatives. Based on fault tree analysis, two conclusions are made. First, D ampersand D activities can be eliminated from the project with no significant decrease to exhaust system safety. Deletion of D ampersand D activities would result in a cost savings of $29 million. Second, deletion of DOE Order 6430.1A requirements regarding DBAs would decrease exhaust system safety by a factor of 12

  9. Grand Canyon 10 x 20 NTMS area: Arizona. Data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data report presents results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Grand Canyon 10 x 20 quadrangle. Surface samples (sediment) were collected from 1013 sites. The target sampling density was one site per 16 square kilometers (six square miles). Ground water samples were collected at 84 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites (also on microfiche in pocket) include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements, U/Th, U/Hf, and Th/La ratios, and scintillometer readings for sediment samples are included on the microfiche

  10. Bell Canyon Test (BCT) cement grout development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the cement grout for the Bell Canyon Test was accomplished at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. Initial development work centered on a saltwater grout with Class H cement, fly ash, and an expansive additive. Testing of the saltwater grout showed suitable properties except for the interface between anhydrite rock and grout in small core samples. Higher than expected permeability occurred at the interface because of space between the grout and the anhydrite; the space was produced as a result of allowing the specimens to dry. A change to freshwater grout and proper care to prevent the specimens from drying alleviated this condition. The BCT-1FF freshwater grout mixture was used in both the plug ONE and ONEX field grouting operations. Testing of the development grout mixtures was also done at Dowell, Pennsylvania State University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Results of the testing and evaluation by the four laboratories are included in the report. Field batching, mixing, and placement of the grout at the plug locations for both plug ONE and ONEX were satisfactory with adequate quality control. The freshwater grout mixture maintained adequate flow characteristics for pumpability for 3 1/2 h during each of the two field operations. Physical property and expansivity data for the field samples through 90 days' age are in general agreement with laboratory development data. A large number of samples were obtained for inclusion in the long-term durability studies and the geochemical programs. The high-density, low water-cement ratio expansive grout (BCT-1FF) is considered to be an excellent candidate for plugging boreholes at most locations

  11. Seismic stratigraphy of northern Green Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.G.; Bryant, W.R.

    1986-05-01

    The Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico is an active frontier exploration area of the continental slope underlain by relatively shallow salt or shale diapirs and ridges forming large intraslope basins and troughs. Analysis of more than 200 multichannel seismic profiles in this area show several seismic sequences within each basin or trough. The depositional history of the area is interpreted from the seismic sequences and seismic facies distribution within each basin. These facies are based on reflection configuration and include parallel to subparallel reflections, prograding clinoforms, hummocky clinoforms, chaotic zones, and acoustically semitransparent zones. Sigmoid and oblique progradational clinoforms are found at the shelf edge where outbuilding and aggradation occur. Hummocky clinoforms are widespread in each basin and occur in thick sequences. These grade vertically and laterally into parallel or semitransparent zones resulting in alternating reflection patterns. The parallel reflections can be interpreted as low-energy turbidites deposited during lower sea level. Chaotic zones show contorted stratal surfaces suggesting mass movement deposits. The evolution of each basin is unique. Structure and isopach maps of each sequence along with the facies distribution indicate several depositional mechanisms. These are possibly related to sea level fluctuations and shifting sediment supply. Correlation of sequences between basins and troughs is hampered in the western half of the area because of the presence of shallow subsurface diapirs and ridges, and large growth faults, and the absence of well data. Diapirs in the eastern half are less numerous and more isolated, with thicker sedimentary troughs between them because of the eastward migration of the Mississippi fan across this area in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

  12. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  13. Hydrologic implications of solid-water disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    The disposal of more than 1,400 million pounds of solid wastes in the United States each day is a major problem. This disposal in turn often leads to serious health, esthetic, and environmental problems. Among these is the pollution of vital ground-water resources.

  14. Radioactive waste products - suitability for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    48 papers were read at the conference. Separate records are available for all of them. The main problem in radioactive waste disposal was the long-term sealing to prevent pollution of the biosphere. Problems of conditioning, acceptance, and safety measures were discussed. Final disposal models and repositories were presented. (PW)

  15. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  16. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  17. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Guideline, 40 CFR 247.10. EPA provides recovered materials content recommendations for paper and paper... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposable containers. 2902.21 Section 2902.21... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for...

  18. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  19. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  2. Retrievability in the Deep Geological Disposal motivation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final disposal of High Level Wastes (HLW) in a repository without the intention of retrieval has been the conceptual basis used by most countries to define their deep geological disposal concepts. As a result, current disposal concepts allow, but do not facilitate, the retrieval of the waste. The concept of retrievability has been introduced in the stepwise development process of the deep geological disposal for a series of ethical, socio-political, and technological reasons, which have structured a great deal of attention in the international community. At present, although no clear definition has been given to the term retrievability there seems to be a general consensus in respect of its interpretation as the capacity to retrieve waste from the underground facilities of the repository up to several years after its closure. The retrieval of the HLW packages from the disposal cells entails tackling a series of technological and operational constraints stemming, on the one hand, from the configuration and state of the repository at the time of retrieval and, on the other, from the environmental conditions of temperature and radiation in which such operations have to be carried out. Most countries, Spain included, are assessing the technical feasibility of retrieving waste during the different stages of the repository lifetime, exploring at the same time the possibility of implementing some changes in the repository's design, construction and operation without affecting its long-term safety. The purpose of this paper is three-fold (1) to identify the motivations that have led the international community to consider retrievability in the repository's stepwise development process, (2) to analyse, qualitatively, the different implications this has on current repository concepts, and (3) to state the current Spanish position. (Author)

  3. User's guide to the 'DISPOSALS' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a User's Guide to the 'DISPOSALS' computer model and includes instructions on how to set up and run a specific problem together with details of the scope, theoretical basis, data requirements and capabilities of the model. The function of the 'DISPOSALS' model is to make assignments of nuclear waste material in an optimum manner to a number of disposal sites each subject to a number of constraints such as limits on the volume and activity. The user is able to vary the number of disposal sites, the range and limits of the constraints to be applied to each disposal site and the objective function for optimisation. The model is based on the Linear Programming technique and uses CAP Scientific's LAMPS and MAGIC packages. Currently the model has been implemented on CAP Scientific's VAX 11/750 minicomputer. (author)

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  6. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427) AGENCY... Grapevine Canyon Wind Project was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 34041). After considering the... proposed wind park would be built in one or more phases, dependent on one or more power sale contracts....

  7. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application...

  8. 76 FR 9347 - Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Coyote Canyon Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. 77 FR 32625 - William J. Stevenson, Estate of Lynn E. Stevenson, Black Canyon Bliss, LLC; Notice of Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission William J. Stevenson, Estate of Lynn E. Stevenson, Black Canyon Bliss, LLC... 23, 2012, William J. Stevenson, Estate of Lynn E. Stevenson (transferor) and Black Canyon Bliss,...

  10. 77 FR 61790 - Pacific Gas and Electric; Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric; Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to... Gas and Electric (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated October 24, 2011 (ADAMS Accession No... amendment to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-80 and DPR-82 for the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units...

  11. 75 FR 54920 - In the Matter of Pacific Gas & Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Pacific Gas & Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2... proceeding concerns the November 23, 2009, application of Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) to renew Operating License Nos. DPR-80 and DPR-82 for the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2, near...

  12. 76 FR 37843 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Unit 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Unit 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-80 and DPR-82, which authorize operation of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Unit 1 and 2...

  13. 76 FR 23807 - Blue Canyon Windpower VI LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Canyon Windpower VI LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Blue Canyon Windpower VI LLC's application for market-based...

  14. 75 FR 26788 - Public Land Order No. 7742; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository; UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Tailings Repository; UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY... laws for a period of 5 years to protect the integrity of the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository and... Canyon Tailings Repository. The Bureau of Land Management intends to evaluate the need for a...

  15. A study on soil–structure interaction analysis in canyon-shaped topographies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oguz Akin Duzgun; Ahmet Budak

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a coupled finite and infinite element system is used to study the effects of canyon-shaped topography and geotechnical characteristics of the soil on the dynamic response of free surface and of 2- soil–structure systems under ground motion. A parametric study is carried out for canyon-shaped topographies. It is concluded that topographic conditions may have important effects on the ground motion along the canyon. Geotechnical properties of the soil also have significant amplification effects on the whole system motion, which cannot be neglected for design purposes. Thus, the dynamic response of both free surface and a soil–structure system are primarily affected by surface shapes and geotechnical properties of the soil. Location of the structure is another parameter affecting the whole system response.

  16. Characterization of a shallow canyon aquifer contaminated by mine tailings and suggestions for constructed wetlands treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shallow aquifer consisting of mine tailings mixed with alluvial sediments is being investigated by the University of Idaho. The shallow aquifer is located in the lower Canyon Creek drainage in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of northern Idaho. Canyon Creek is a major contributor of dissolved heavy metal loads to the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Problem metals include zinc, lead, and cadmium. A total of 16 new monitoring wells were constructed in a 2.5 by .5 mile study area during summer of 1993 to map the water table configuration and collect water samples. A monitoring network of wells have been established in the Lower Canyon Creek valley which includes these 16 new monitoring wells, 5 monitoring wells installing previously, 10 domestic wells, and 7 wells located near tailing ponds. Water quality analyses for ground and surface water samples collected during low creek flow conditions are presented along with geologic, geophysical and geohydrological information

  17. Heavy mineral sorting in downwards injected Palaeocene sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov;

    2011-01-01

    Post-depositional remobilization and injection of sand are often seen in deep-water clastic systems and has been recently recognised as a significant modifier of deep-water sandstone geometry. Large-scale injectite complexes have been interpreted from borehole data in the Palaeocene Siri Canyon...... of depositional structures in deep-water sandstones, the distinction between "in situ" and injected or remobilised sandstones is often ambiguous. Large scale heavy mineral sorting (in 10 m thick units) is observed in several reservoir units in the Siri Canyon and has been interpreted to represent the depositional...... sorting. In this study we describe an example of effective shear-zone sorting of heavy minerals in a thin downward injected sandstone dyke which was encountered in one of the cores in the Cecilie Field, Siri Canyon. Differences in sorting pattern of heavy minerals are suggested as a tool for petrographic...

  18. Numerical Studies on Flow Fields Around Buildings in an Urban Street Canyon and Cross-Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xueling; HU Fei

    2005-01-01

    The questions on how vortices are constructed and on the relationship between the flow patterns and concentration distributions in real street canyons are the most pressing questions in pollution control studies. In this paper, the very large eddy simulation (VLES) and large eddy simulation (LES) are applied to calculate the flow and pollutant concentration fields in an urban street canyon and a cross-road respectively. It is found that the flow separations are not only related to the canyon aspect ratios, but also with the flow velocities and wall temperatures. And the turbulent dispersions are so strongly affected by the flow fields that the pollutant concentration distributions can be distinguished from the different aspect ratios, flow velocities and wall temperatures.

  19. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  20. Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for

  1. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  2. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  3. A study of sound absorption by street canyon boundaries and asphalt rubber concrete pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Graeme Robert

    A sound field model, based on a classical diffusion equation, is extended to account for sound absorption in a diffusion parameter used to model sound energy in a narrow street canyon. The model accounts for a single sound absorption coefficient, separate accommodation coefficients and a combination of separate absorption and accommodation coefficients from parallel canyon walls. The new expressions are compared to the original formula through numerical simulations to reveal the effect of absorption on sound diffusion. The newly established analytical formulae demonstrate satisfactory agreement with their predecessor under perfect reflection. As well, the influence of the extended diffusion parameter on normalized sound pressure levels in a narrow street canyon is in agreement with experimental data. The diffusion parameters are used to model sound energy density in a street canyon as a function of the sound absorption coefficient of the street canyon walls. The acoustic and material properties of conventional and asphalt rubber concrete (ARC) pavement are also studied to assess how the crumb rubber content influences sound absorption in street canyons. The porosity and absolute permeability of compacted specimens of asphalt rubber concrete are measured and compared to their normal and random incidence sound absorption coefficients as a function of crumb rubber content in the modified binder. Nonlinear trends are found between the sound absorption coefficients, porosity and absolute permeability of the compacted specimens and the percentage of crumb rubber in the modified binders. The cross-sectional areas of the air voids on the surfaces of the compacted specimens are measured using digital image processing techniques and a linear relationship is obtained between the average void area and crumb rubber content. The measured material properties are used to construct an empirical formula relating the average porosity, normal incidence noise reduction coefficients and

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action, acid/middle Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, and Pueblo Canyon found residual radioactivity at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons, all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of radioactive material is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. The only areas where residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed cleanup criteria are at the former vehicle decontamination facility, located between the former treatment plant site and Acid Canyon, around the former untreated waste outfall and for a short distance below, and in two small areas farther down in Acid Canyon. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to fence the areas where the residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed criteria (minimal action), and (3) to clean up the former vehicle decontamination facility and around the former untreated waste outfall. Calculations based on actual measurements indicate that the annual dose at the location having the greatest residual radioactivity would be about 12% of the applicable guideline. Most doses are much smaller than that. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is very small. The preferred alternative is to clean up the areas around the former vehicle decontamination facility and the untreated waste outfall. This course of action is recommended not because of any real danger associated with the residual radioactivity, but rather because the cleanup operation is a minor effort and would conform with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) philosophy

  5. Environmental analysis of Acid/middle Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, and Pueblo Canyon found residual radioactivity at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons, all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of radioactive material is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. The only areas where residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed cleanup criteria are at the former vehicle decontamination facility, located between the former treatment plant site and Acid Canyon, around the former untreated waste outfall and for a short distance below, and in two small areas farther down in Acid Canyon. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to fence the areas where the residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed criteria (minimal action), and (3) to clean up the former vehicle decontamination facility and around the former untreated waste outfall. Calculations based on actual measurements indicate that the annual dose at the location having the greatest residual radioactivity would be about 12% of the applicable guideline. Most doses are much smaller than that. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is very small. The preferred alternative is to clean up the areas around the former vehicle decontamination facility and the untreated waste outfall. This course of action is recommended not because of any real danger associated with the residual radioactivity, but rather because the cleanup operation is a minor effort and would conform with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) philosophy

  6. Environmental analysis of Acid/middle Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Hansen, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, and Pueblo Canyon found residual radioactivity at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons, all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of radioactive material is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. The only areas where residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed cleanup criteria are at the former vehicle decontamination facility, located between the former treatment plant site and Acid Canyon, around the former untreated waste outfall and for a short distance below, and in two small areas farther down in Acid Canyon. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to fence the areas where the residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed criteria (minimal action), and (3) to clean up the former vehicle decontamination facility and around the former untreated waste outfall. Calculations based on actual measurements indicate that the annual dose at the location having the greatest residual radioactivity would be about 12% of the applicable guideline. Most doses are much smaller than that. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is very small. The preferred alternative is to clean up the areas around the former vehicle decontamination facility and the untreated waste outfall. This course of action is recommended not because of any real danger associated with the residual radioactivity, but rather because the cleanup operation is a minor effort and would conform with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) philosophy.

  7. Subaqueous grain flows at the head of Carmel Submarine Canyon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Very coarse sand is the predominate material on the beach, adjacent shelf, and upper canyon-head slopes, while silt and clay cover the surface below a water depth at about 35 m. On angle-of-repose slopes in the upper canyon head, downslope-coarsening deposits are similar to a type of sediment gravity flow deposit formed by grain flows (sand avalanches). Using three sand fractions that were dyed different fluorescent colors, scuba divers generated sand avalanches that produced deposits similar to the natural deposits. -from Authors

  8. An analysis of background noise in selected canyons of Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchton, K.; Koch, S.W.; Robinson, R.

    1997-10-01

    The authors recorded background noise levels in six canyons within Los Alamos County in order to establish a baseline for future comparisons and to discover what noises animals are exposed to. Noise level measurements were taken within each canyon, beginning at an established starting point and at one-mile intervals up to four miles. The primary source of noise above 55 dBA was vehicular traffic. One clap of thunder provided the highest recorded noise level (76 dBA). In general, the level of noise, once away from highways and parking lots, was well below 60 dBA.

  9. Attachments for fire modeling for Building 221-T, T Plant canyon deck and railroad tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this attachment is to provide historical information and documentation for Document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-008 Rev 0, ``Fire Modeling for Building 221-T--T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel``, dated September 29, 1994. This data compilation contains the following: Resumes of the Technical Director, Senior Engineer and Junior Engineer; Review and Comment Record; Software Files; CFAST Input and Output Files; Calculation Control Sheets; and Estimating Sprinkler Actuation Time in the Canyon and Railroad Tunnel. The T Plant was originally a fuel reprocessing facility. It was modified later to decontaminate and repair PuRex process equipment.

  10. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  11. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  12. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  13. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  14. Numerical Model of Turbulence, Sediment Transport, and Sediment Cover in a Large Canyon-Bound River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. V.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is confined by bedrock and coarse-grained sediments. Finer grain sizes are supply limited, and sandbars primarily occur in lateral separation eddies downstream of coarse-grained tributary debris fans. These sandbars are important resources for native fish, recreational boaters, and as a source of aeolian transport preventing the erosion of archaeological resources by gully extension. Relatively accurate prediction of deposition and, especially, erosion of these sandbar beaches has proven difficult using two- and three-dimensional, time-averaged morphodynamic models. We present a parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model using the Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) technique. DES is a hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). RANS is applied to the near-bed grid cells, where grid resolution is not sufficient to fully resolve wall turbulence. LES is applied further from the bed and banks. We utilize the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence closure with a rough wall extension. The model resolves large-scale turbulence using DES and simultaneously integrates the suspended sediment advection-diffusion equation. The Smith and McLean suspended sediment boundary condition is used to calculate the upward and downward settling of sediment fluxes in the grid cells attached to the bed. The model calculates the entrainment of five grain sizes at every time step using a mixing layer model. Where the mixing layer depth becomes zero, the net entrainment is zero or negative. As such, the model is able to predict the exposure and burial of bedrock and coarse-grained surfaces by fine-grained sediments. A separate program was written to automatically construct the computational domain between the water surface and a triangulated surface of a digital elevation model of the given river reach. Model results compare favorably with ADCP measurements of flow taken on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

  15. Permeation of captan through disposable nitrile glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of an aqueous emulsion of the pesticide, captan, as a wettable powder (48.9% captan) through a disposable nitrile glove material using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. The goal was to investigate the protective capability of the gloves against dermatitis. The analytical method was based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The least quantifiable limit (LQL) was 6 ng for GC-ECD and 30 ng for GC-MS. Testing was conducted using the ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation method and a worst-case aqueous concentration 217 mg/ml of captan 50-WP. The average permeation rates were low, with 12+/-5 ng/(cm(2)min) after 2h, 50+/-25 ng/(cm(2)min) after 4h, and 77+/-58 ng/(cm(2)min) after 8h. The calculated diffusion coefficient was (1.28+/-0.10) x 10(-5)cm(2)/h. No significant swelling or shrinkage occurred at Pcaptan. Because the ASTM normalized breakthrough detection time of 250 ng/cm(2) was captan has been shown to persist on crops with a half-life greater than the current reentry intervals of 1-4 days.

  16. DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. F. Loros

    2000-06-30

    The Disposal Container Handling System receives and prepares new disposal containers (DCs) and transfers them to the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) or Canister Transfer System (CTS) for loading. The system receives the loaded DCs from ATS or CTS and welds the lids. When the welds are accepted the DCs are termed waste packages (WPs). The system may stage the WP for later transfer or transfer the WP directly to the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. The system can also transfer DCs/WPs to/from the Waste Package Remediation System. The Disposal Container Handling System begins with new DC preparation, which includes installing collars, tilting the DC upright, and outfitting the container for the specific fuel it is to receive. DCs and their lids are staged in the receipt area for transfer to the needed location. When called for, a DC is put on a cart and sent through an airlock into a hot cell. From this point on, all processes are done remotely. The DC transfer operation moves the DC to the ATS or CTS for loading and then receives the DC for welding. The DC welding operation receives loaded DCs directly from the waste handling lines or from interim lag storage for welding of the lids. The welding operation includes mounting the DC on a turntable, removing lid seals, and installing and welding the inner and outer lids. After the weld process and non-destructive examination are successfully completed, the WP is either staged or transferred to a tilting station. At the tilting station, the WP is tilted horizontally onto a cart and the collars removed. The cart is taken through an air lock where the WP is lifted, surveyed, decontaminated if required, and then moved into the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. DCs that do not meet the welding non-destructive examination criteria are transferred to the Waste Package Remediation System for weld preparation or removal of the lids. The Disposal Container Handling System is contained within the Waste Handling Building System

  17. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  18. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  19. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  20. Sympatric speciation of spiny mice, Acomys, unfolded transcriptomically at Evolution Canyon, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Huihua; Cai, Zhenyuan; Wang, Liuyang; Xu, Qinqin; Lövy, Matěj; Wang, Zhenlong; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-19

    Spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus, colonized Israel 30,000 y ago from dry tropical Africa and inhabited rocky habitats across Israel. Earlier, we had shown by mtDNA that A. cahirinus incipiently sympatrically speciates at Evolution Canyon I (EC I) in Mount Carmel, Israel because of microclimatic interslope divergence. The EC I microsite consists of a dry and hot savannoid "African" slope (AS) and an abutting humid and cool-forested "European" slope (ES). Here, we substantiate incipient SS in A. cahirinus at EC I based on the entire transcriptome, showing that multiple slope-specific adaptive complexes across the transcriptome result in two divergent clusters. Tajima's D distribution of the abutting Acomys interslope populations shows that the ES population is under stronger positive selection, whereas the AS population is under balancing selection, harboring higher genetic polymorphisms. Considerable sites of the two populations were differentiated with a coefficient of FST = 0.25-0.75. Remarkably, 24 and 37 putatively adaptively selected genes were detected in the AS and ES populations, respectively. The AS genes involved DNA repair, growth arrest, neural cell differentiation, and heat-shock proteins adapting to the local AS stresses of high solar radiation, drought, and high temperature. In contrast, the ES genes involved high ATP associated with energetics stress. The sharp ecological interslope divergence led to strong slope-specific selection overruling the interslope gene flow. Earlier tests suggested slope-specific mate choice. Habitat interslope-adaptive selection across the transcriptome and mate choice substantiate sympatric speciation (SS), suggesting its prevalence at EC I and commonality in nature. PMID:27370801

  1. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  2. Topographic change detection at select archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert; Dealy, Timothy P.; Bedford, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Human occupation in Grand Canyon, Arizona, dates from at least 11,000 years before present to the modern era. For most of this period, the only evidence of human occupation in this iconic landscape is provided by archeological sites. Because of the dynamic nature of this environment, many archeological sites are subject to relatively rapid topographic change. Quantifying the extent, magnitude, and cause of such change is important for monitoring and managing these archeological sites. Such quantification is necessary to help inform the continuing debate on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of Grand Canyon National Park, are affecting site erosion rates, artifact transport, and archeological resource preservation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is inherent in the Grand Canyon region, continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Thus, this subject is of considerable interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Understanding the causes and effects of archeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors, including the location, timing, and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rates of change, and the relative contribution of potential causes. These potential causes include sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather and overland flow patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term regional climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar techniques, and building upon three previous surveys of archeological sites performed in 2006 and 2007, we

  3. Il Canyon di Caprera: un hot spot di cetacei nel Mar Tirreno centrale? = Is the Caprera Canyon an hot spot of cetaceans within the central Tyrrhenian Sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Bittau, Luca; Manconi, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Presence of cetaceans was monitored using a platform of opportunity (whale watching) off north eastern Sardinia, jrom summer 2010 to winter 2011. The monitoring consisted in seventeen surveys covering a total of 1930 km. Six cetacean species have been observed, totalizing 49 sightings. Striped dolphin was the most abundant species in the continental slope area. The waters in the Caprera Canyon appear as a potential hot spot of cetaceans and will be surveyed by dedicated campaigns. Moreover...

  4. Difference in full-filled time and its controlling factors in the Central Canyon of the Qiongdongnan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Zhilei; XIE Xinong; LI Xushen; ZHANG Daojun; HE Yunlong; YANG Xing; CUI Mingzhe

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interpretation of high resolution 2D/3D seismic data, sedimentary filling characteristics and full-filled time of the Central Canyon in different segments in the Qiongdongnan Basin of northwestern South China Sea have been studied. The research results indicate that the initial formation age of the Central Canyon is traced back to 11.6 Ma (T40), at which the canyon began to develop due to the scouring of turbidity currents from west to east. During the period of 11.6–8.2 Ma (T40–T31), strong downcutting by gravity flow occurred, which led to the formation of the canyon. The canyon fillings began to form since 8.2 Ma (T31) and were dominated by turbidite deposits, which constituted of lateral migration and vertical superposition of turbidity channels during the time of 8.2–5.5 Ma. The interbeds of turbidity currents deposits and mass transport deposits (MTDs) were developed in the period of 5.5–3.8 Ma (T30–T28). After then, the canyon fillings were primarily made up of large scale MTDs, interrupted by small scale turbidity channels and thin pelagic mudstones. The Central Canyon can be divided into three types according to the main controlling factors, geomorphology-controlled, fault-controlled and intrusion-modified canyons. Among them, the geomorphology-controlled canyon is developed at the Ledong, Lingshui, Songnan and western Baodao Depressions, situated in a confined basin center between the northern slope and the South Uplift Belt along the Central Depression Belt. The fault-controlled canyon is developed mainly along the deep-seated faults in the Changchang Depression and eastern Baodao Depression. Intrusion-modified canyon is only occurred in the Songnan Low Uplift, which is still mainly controlled by geomorphology, the intrusion just modified seabed morphology. The full-filled time of the Central Canyon differs from west to east, displaying a tendency of being successively late eastward. The geomorphology-controlled canyon was

  5. Problems of radioactive waste disposal in cryolithozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the problems of utilizing perennially frozen rocks as host medium for underground disposal of radwaste. Peculiarities of mechanical, thermal and chemical interaction of radwaste with frozen ground are shown. Significant differences in the impact of low-, intermediate- and high-active waste on the geological environment of cryolithozone are established; the differences require a mathematical modeling of thermal interaction of heat emitting radwaste with frozen soils. The investigations show that a long-term reliable disposal of radwaste in the frozen rock formations is feasible and, according to many indicators, is more preferable as compared to the disposal in nonfrozen rock formations. 15 refs., 10 figs

  6. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2013-09-03

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste. 

  7. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  8. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  9. Nutrient Enrichment Effects on Benthic Biodiversity by the Mississippi River and Submarine Canyon of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C.; Rowe, G. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biodiversity is measured by (1) α diversity: number of species in relation to a standardized number of individual within a define habitat; (2) β diversity: compositional change or turnover of species between two or more spatial units; and (3) γ diversity: total number of species in a large geographic area. The pattern of biodiversity is usually driven by various physico-chemical conditions. In the deep sea, a cross-isobath parabolic diversity pattern has been well-documented for benthic macrofauna and the cause has been attributed to a dynamic equilibrium between population growth and competition exclusion along a gradient of declining food resources with depth (Rex 1981). Both nutrient-enriched (dominated by opportunistic species) and oligotrophic conditions (slow growth rate) could depress diversity, while the highest diversity can be reached by competitive equilibrium within communities at intermediate resource conditions. In the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), the discharge of Mississippi River can enhance the organic flux to the seafloor adjacent to the mouth of Mississippi River and Mississippi Canyon. The goal of this study was to test Rex's (1981) dynamic equilibrium model between depth-transects that were exposed to different levels of organic enrichment. Four treatments contrasted along the upper slope (250m to 1500m) included (1) Mississippi Canyon (active canyon), (2) De Soto Canyon (inactive canyon), (3) central slope transect (in proximity to Mississippi Canyon), and (4) the west and east slope transects (away from the influence of the Mississippi River). SeaWifs satellite data confirmed that the head of Mississippi Canyon experience highest surface primary production and export POC flux. The lowest α diversity of benthic macrofauna (collecting between 2000 and 2002) was observed at the head of the Mississippi Canyon where γ diversity was relatively high. This suggested that the canyon head was dominated by opportunistic species due the high POC flux but

  10. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  11. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of keff for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes

  12. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  13. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  14. Design of the disposal facility 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel accumulated from the nuclear power plants in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and in Haestholmen in Loviisa will be disposed of in Olkiluoto. A facility complex will be constructed at Olkiluoto, and it will include two nuclear waste facilities according to Government Degree 736/2008. The nuclear waste facilities are an encapsulation plant, constructed to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel and a disposal facility consisting of an underground repository and other underground rooms and above ground service spaces. The repository is planned to be excavated to a depth of 400 - 450 meters. Access routes to the disposal facility are an inclined access tunnel and vertical shafts. The encapsulated fuel is transferred to the disposal facility in the canister lift. The canisters are transferred from the technical rooms to the disposal area via central tunnel and deposited in the deposition holes which are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels and are lined beforehand with compacted bentonite blocks. Two parallel central tunnels connect all the deposition tunnels and these central tunnels are inter-connected at regular intervals. The solution improves the fire safety of the underground rooms and allows flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages during the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level. ONKALO is designed and constructed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. The goal is that the first part of the disposal facility will be constructed under the building permit phase in the 2010's and operations will start in the 2020's. The fuel from 4 operating reactors as well the fuel from the fifth nuclear power plant under construction, has been taken into account in designing the disposal facility. According to the information from TVO and Fortum, the amount of the spent nuclear fuel is 5,440 tU. The disposal facility is being excavated

  15. Erosion during extreme flood events dominates Holocene canyon evolution in northeast Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Edwin R C; Attal, Mikaël; Niedermann, Samuel; Kirstein, Linda A; Dugmore, Andrew J; Naylor, Mark

    2015-02-24

    Extreme flood events have the potential to cause catastrophic landscape change in short periods of time (10(0) to 10(3) h). However, their impacts are rarely considered in studies of long-term landscape evolution (>10(3) y), because the mechanisms of erosion during such floods are poorly constrained. Here we use topographic analysis and cosmogenic (3)He surface exposure dating of fluvially sculpted surfaces to determine the impact of extreme flood events within the Jökulsárgljúfur canyon (northeast Iceland) and to constrain the mechanisms of bedrock erosion during these events. Surface exposure ages allow identification of three periods of intense canyon cutting about 9 ka ago, 5 ka ago, and 2 ka ago during which multiple large knickpoints retreated large distances (>2 km). During these events, a threshold flow depth was exceeded, leading to the toppling and transportation of basalt lava columns. Despite continuing and comparatively large-scale (500 m(3)/s) discharge of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, there is no evidence for a transition to an abrasion-dominated erosion regime since the last erosive event because the vertical knickpoints have not diffused over time. We provide a model for the evolution of the Jökulsárgljúfur canyon through the reconstruction of the river profile and canyon morphology at different stages over the last 9 ka and highlight the dominant role played by extreme flood events in the shaping of this landscape during the Holocene.

  16. FRESHWATER ALGAE OF RAE LAKES BASIN, KINGS CANYON NATIONAL PARK (CALIFORNIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report illustrates and characterizes algae (exclusive of diatoms) found in Kings Canyon National Park, California and describes their distribution among the Rae Lakes within. It is the first taxonomic study of the freshwater algae for the southern Sierra Nevada and the most ...

  17. Flushing of a dense fluid from an urban canyon part 1: Steady state measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Nigel; Baratian, Zahra

    2011-11-01

    We consider the role of buoyancy on the vertical transport of a dense gas due to a horizontal wind flow above a street canyon. The density of the pollutant suppresses vertical mixing as the turbulent shear flow at the top of the canyon must do work to raise the dense gas up above the canyon top. We present results of a series of experiments to measure the rate of removal of a dense miscible fluid from a two dimensional square canyon open at the top. The cavity is formed by square blocks up- and down-stream. Dense fluid is introduced at a constant rate at the base of the cavity and is removed by mixing with the flow passing over the top of the cavity. Two different steady flows are observed. For higher Richardson numbers, a two layer stratification develops in which there is a relatively sharp interface. In this case the mixing is parameterized in terms of an entrainment velocity across the interface that is a function of the Richardson number and the fractional depth of the interface below the cavity top. For lower Richardson numbers no interface is observed and the buoyancy increases linearly with height above the cavity base. We also found a range of Richardson numbers for which both steady stratifications are possible and for which the steady flow depends on the initial conditions.

  18. English Writing Placement Recommendations at College of the Canyons: An Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joseph

    A study was undertaken at California's College of the Canyons (CoC) to determine whether evidence existed of disproportionate impact in English course placement based on student ethnicity, gender, or age. Data were compiled for all 4,309 students tested between spring 1993 and fall 1995, while the standard for disproportionate impact was taken…

  19. English Reading Placement Recommendations at College of the Canyons: An Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joseph

    A study was undertaken at California's College of the Canyons (CC) to determine whether evidence existed of disproportionate impact in English reading course placement based on student ethnicity, gender, or age. Data were compiled for all 4,312 students tested between spring 1993 and fall 1995, while the standard for disproportionate impact was…

  20. Phase I feasibility study for the Canyon disposition initiative (221-U facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) presented in this document is to provide decision makers sufficient information on the remedial alternatives specific to the disposition of the 221-U Canyon Building (221-U Facility) located at the Hanford Site, and to determine which alternatives are viable for further detailed analysis

  1. Seasonal dependence of the urban heat island on the street canyon aspect ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, N.E.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Ronda, R.J.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van L.W.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the relation between the urban heat island (UHI) in the urban canyon and street geometry, in particular the aspect ratio. Model results and observations show that two counteracting processes govern the relation between the nocturnal UHI and the building aspect ratio: i.e. trap

  2. Ground motions around a semicircular canyon with a dipping edge under SH plane wave incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kao-Hao; Tsaur, Deng-How; Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution and temporal variation of ground motions near a semicircular canyon with a dipping edge, a simplified mathematical model is constructed. Based on the region-matching technique, a Fourier-Bessel series solution for the plane SH-wave excitation is derived and then applied to theoretically simulate the seismic response of the canyon. The use of the adequate wavefunctions and a newly derived Graf's addition formula can solve the unknown expansion coefficients. Parametric analyses with respect to the frequency of input motion, angle of incidence, and canyon geometry are illustrated. Both frequency- and time-domain computations are presented. The canonical case, a completed semicircular canyon, which has the exact analytical solution, and the horizontally truncated case analyzed in previous works are considered as particular cases of the proposed general model. Comparisons with boundary-element solutions show good agreement. Steady-state results show that the phenomenon of wave focusing tends to be significant when the incident angle bends toward the horizontal ground surface. Propagation and attenuation of scattered waves that originated from the surficial anomaly are exhibited in transient-state simulations.

  3. 75 FR 20381 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... technical work group (TWG), a monitoring and research center, and independent review panels. The AMWG makes.... (PDT) to ensure that the connections work properly. The one hour test Web site is:...

  4. 76 FR 29280 - Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing for Amendment...: John M. Goshen, Project Manager, Licensing Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation..., possession, storage and transfer of spent fuel, reactor-related Greater than Class C waste and...

  5. Numerical modeling of flow and pollutant dispersion in street canyons with tree planting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balczo, Marton [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Theodore von Karman Wind Tunnel Lab.; Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Lab. of Building- and Environmental Aerodynamics

    2009-04-15

    Numerical simulations of the impact of tree planting on airflow and traffic pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons have been performed using the commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code MISKAM. A {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model including additional terms for the treatment of vegetation, has been employed to close the Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results were compared to wind tunnel data. In the case of the investigated wind direction perpendicular to the street axis, the presence of trees lead to increased pollutant concentrations inside the canyon. Concentrations increased strongly on the upstream side of the canyon, while on the downstream side a small concentration decrease could be observed. Lower flow velocities and higher pollutant concentrations were found in the numerical simulations when directly compared to the experimental results. However, the impact of tree planting on airflow and concentration fields when compared to the treeless street canyon as a reference configuration were simulated quite well, meaning that relative changes were similar in the wind tunnel investigations and numerical computations. This feature qualifies MISKAM for use as a tool for assessing the impacts of vegetation on local air quality. (orig.)

  6. 75 FR 41232 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID; Malheur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington...), intend to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge....gov . Fax: Attn: Refuge Manager, (208) 467-1019. U.S. Mail: Refuge Manager, Deer Flat...

  7. 78 FR 16523 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties, ID, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington... comprehensive conservation plan and environmental impact statement (Draft CCP/EIS) for the Deer Flat National... may request hard copies or a CD-ROM of the documents. Email: deerflat@fws.gov . Include ``Deer...

  8. Influence of photochemical processes on traffic-related airborne pollutants in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střižík, Michal; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Civiš, Svatopluk; Bestová, Iva; Nevrlý, Václav; Kadeřábek, Petr; Čadil, Jan; Berger, Pavel; Černý, Alexandr; Engst, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The urban street canyon of Legerova Street is part of the north-south trunk road that passes through the centre of Prague and remains an unresolved environmental issue for the capital of the Czech Republic. As many as one hundred thousand cars move through this region per day, and mortality has increased as a result of dust, NOx and other exhaust pollutants. The spatial distribution of pollutants (i.e., NO2, NO, and O3) during a day was measured by combined DIAL/SODAR techniques and spot analyzers that were appropriately located near the bottom of the street canyon. The measurements were performed under different meteorological conditions (autumn versus summer period). A purely physical approach does not provide a true description of reality due to photochemical processes that take place in the street canyon atmosphere. Sunlight in the summer triggers the production of ozone and thereby influences the concentration of NO2. The formation of an inverse non-diffuse vertical concentration distribution of NO2 in the morning hours was found to be related to the direct emission of O3 in the street and its background concentration. Rapid changes of NO2 concentrations were observed over time and in the vertical profile. An approach using a photochemical reactor to describe processes in a street canyon atmosphere was developed and verified as a useful tool for prediction purposes.

  9. The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn; Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The link between urban density and building energy use is a complex balance between climatic factors and the spatial, material and use patterns of urban spaces and the buildings that constitute them. This study uses the concept of the urban canyon to investigate the ways that the energy performan...

  10. Possible sources of archaeological maize found in Chaco Canyon and Aztec Ruin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Stein, J.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Maize played a major role in Chaco's interaction with outlying communities in the southern Colorado Plateau. This paper seeks to determine where archaeological corn cobs brought to Chaco Canyon were grown. Strontium-isotope and trace-metal ratios of 180 soil-water and 18 surface-water sites in the Southern Colorado Plateau have revealed possible source areas for some of 37 archaeological corn cobs from Chaco Canyon and 10 archaeological corn cobs from Aztec Ruin, New Mexico. The most probable source areas for cobs that predate the middle-12th-century drought include several Upper Rio Chaco sites (not including Chaco Canyon). There are many potential source areas for cobs that date to the late A.D. 1100s and early 1200s, all of which lie in the eastern part of the study area. Some Athapascan-age cobs have potential source areas in the Totah, Lobo Mesa, and Dinetah regions. One Gallo Cliff Dwelling cob has a strontium-isotope ratio that exceeds all measured soil-water values. Field sites for this cob may exist in association with Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks found 80-90 km from Chaco Canyon. Potential source areas for most Aztec Ruin cobs (many of which were found in rooms dating to the first half of the 13th-century) appear to be associated with a loess deposit that blankets the Mesa Verde and McElmo Dome regions.

  11. 78 FR 3370 - Proposed Establishment of the Ballard Canyon Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... the name ``Ballard Canyon'' in a brand name, including a trademark, or in another label reference as..., and pulp of the grape which contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the wine. Temperature The... producing thicker skins, lower juice-to-skin ratios during ferment, and wines of deeper color and...

  12. Assessment of tight-gas resources in Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean resources of 5 trillion cubic feet of gas and 187 million barrels of natural gas liquids in tight-gas assessment units in the Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas.

  13. A refined astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age for Fish Canyon sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the FishCanyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence monitor,

  14. Seasonal pathways of organic matter within the Avilés submarine canyon: Food web implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl; Höfer, Juan; Duineveld, Gerard; Rumín-Caparrós, Aitor; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    The transport and fate of organic matter (OM) sources within the Avilés submarine canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay) were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. The isotopic composition of settling particles and deep bottom sediments closely resembled that of surface particulate OM, and there were no marked differences in the isotopic composition of settling particles inside and outside of the AC. This indicates that the Avilés Canyon (AC) receives inputs of sinking OM mostly from the upper water column and less through advective near-bottom down-canyon transport. Sinking OM fluxes are of marine and terrestrial origin in proportions which vary seasonally. Analysis of δ13C in the canyon fauna indicates a dependence on OM mainly produced by marine phytoplankton. A tight coupling of isotopic signatures between pelagic organisms and benthic suspension feeders reflects an active biological vertical transport of OM from the surface to the deep-sea. The food web presented seasonal variations in the trophic niche width and the amplitude of the primary carbon sources, reflecting seasonality in the availability of fresh particulate OM. Those seasonal changes are larger for benthic organisms of lower trophic levels.

  15. Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

  16. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III;

    2014-01-01

    to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand...

  17. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  18. Disturbance, productivity and diversity in deep-sea canyons: A worm's eye view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterson, G.L.J.; Glover, A.G.; Cunha, M.R.; Neal, L.; de Stigter, H.C.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Billett, D.S.M.; Wolff, G.A.; Tiago, A.; Ravara, A.; Lamont, P.; Tyler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of polychaetes from the Nazare, Setubal and Cascais Canyons along the Iberian Margin were studied as part of the EU project HERMES. A Dynamic Equilibrium Model (DEM) was used to identify the main environmental factors structuring the assemblages. Box

  19. UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES: STATE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Centner, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of pounds of unwanted pesticides have accumulated in barns throughout our country. The potential environmental and health risks posed by this situation has garnered public attention and governmental action. The federal government has revised its Universal Waste Rule so that it is easier to dispose of unwanted pesticides rather than simply banned pesticides. Nearly every state has initiated efforts to collect and dispose of accumulated pesticides in a safe manner. While the possession...

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Ćurković, Lidija; Fajković, Hana; Rončević, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in...

  1. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  2. Development of the Borehole Disposal Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (Necsa) initiated the Borehole Disposal Concept (BDC) with a view to improving radioactive waste management practices in Africa. An IAEA Technical Cooperation project was launched to investigate the technical feasibility and economic viability of a borehole for the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources. Phase III of the project was completed by the end of 2004, and the main objective of this phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the concept by means of a practical demonstration. The disposal concept consists of a 260 mm diameter borehole drilled to a depth of up to 100 m in which stainless steel disposal containers are emplaced and backfilled with cement. Each disposal container contains a source within a stainless steel capsule within a containment barrier. Included in the terms of reference of Phase III were the design and the evaluation of the disposal concept. The evaluation included container materials, backfill materials and a generic post-closure safety assessment. The post-closure safety assessment and the associated derivation of activity limits showed that, through the use of multiple physical and chemical barriers, the BDC provides an appropriate degree of long term safety. Furthermore, the safety of the disposal concept is not reliant on an extended period of institutional control, and owing to its small 'footprint', the likelihood of direct human intrusion into the borehole is small. An international peer review team positively assessed the technical feasibility, economic viability and overall safety of the concept, and thus concluded the development phase of the project. The Member States of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) have decided to proceed to Phase IV of the project with the main aim to implement the borehole disposal technology. (author)

  3. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  4. US charts plans for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) passed in 1982 defines long-term federal programs to dispose of the leftovers from nuclear power generation. A succession of interacting multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, is to protect the public. Inside a mined underground repository will go waste packages. The geological formations surrounding the repository will be the final barrier. The article discussed site selections, salt sites, and subseabed disposal. (DP)

  5. Typhoon associated hyperpycnal turbidity current in a submarine canyon off a river mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, R. T.; Liu, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    As the result of the interplay between frequent earthquake occurrence, typhoon invasion, and heavy rainfall, many rivers in Taiwan have the potential to generate hyperpycnal plume especially when the typhoon passes through the Taiwan Island and brings a large amount of rainfall. In order to capture the hyperpcnal turbidity current signal, two moorings each configured with an SCTD and ADCP, one with an additional non-sequential sediment trap, were deployed in the head region of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon three days after the typhoon-induced peak of the river discharge and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the Gaoping River in southern Taiwan. Our data show a demarcation between a tidal and hyperpycnal regimes. The latter lasted for the first 5 days for the 18-day deployment, as defined by higher water density due to high suspended sediment concentration. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of the tail end of a hyperpycnal turbidity current (HTC), including the retention of warm water near the canyon floor, high SSC, down-canyon directed flow and its vertical structure, and high terrestrial fraction (larger than 70%) of the organic particles carried in the flow. The decreasing mass flux during the passing of the HTC is also an indication of a waning HTC. Our findings also show that the vertical flow structure and the direction of the gravity-driven down-canyon HTC were little affected by the instantaneous tidal oscillations in the canyon. Typhoon Fanapi hit Taiwan on Sep. 19th. (a) The satellite image indicated the cyclonic clouds covered all over the island. (b) The heavy rainfall accumulated over 1000 mm in one day in the southwestern Taiwan. Especially, the high precipitation was concentrated mostly in the drainage basin of the Gaoping River in the southern central range. (Graphs in a and b are by courtesy of Central Weather Bureau-CWB in Taiwan) (c) This graph was taken by FORMOSAT-2 on Sep. 21st and superimposed by the Gaoping Submarine

  6. Influence of roadside hedgerows on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Jamarkattel, Nabaraj; Ruck, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    Understanding pollutant dispersion in the urban environment is an important aspect of providing solutions to reduce personal exposure to vehicle emissions. To this end, the dispersion of gaseous traffic pollutants in urban street canyons with roadside hedges was investigated. The study was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel using a reduced-scale (M = 1:150) canyon model with a street-width-to-building-height ratio of W/H = 2 and a street-length-to-building-height ratio of L/H = 10. Various hedge configurations of differing height, permeability and longitudinal segmentation (continuous over street length L or discontinuous with clearings) were investigated. Two arrangements were examined: (i) two eccentric hedgerows sidewise of the main traffic lanes and (ii) one central hedgerow between the main traffic lanes. In addition, selected configurations of low boundary walls, i.e. solid barriers, were examined. For a perpendicular approach wind and in the presence of continuous hedgerows, improvements in air quality in the center area of the street canyon were found in comparison to the hedge-free reference scenario. The pollutant reductions were greater for the central hedge arrangements than for the sidewise arrangements. Area-averaged reductions between 46 and 61% were observed at pedestrian head height level on the leeward side in front of the building for the centrally arranged hedges and between 18 and 39% for the two hedges arranged sidewise. Corresponding area-averaged reductions ranging from 39 to 55% and from 1 to 20% were found at the bottom of the building facades on the leeward side. Improvements were also found in the areas at the lateral canyon ends next to the crossings for the central hedge arrangements. For the sidewise arrangements, increases in traffic pollutants were generally observed. However, since the concentrations in the end areas were considerably lower compared to those in the center area, an overall improvement remained

  7. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Miller

    Full Text Available Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide.

  8. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J; Hocevar, John; Stone, Robert P; Fedorov, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:22470486

  9. Submarine canyons on the north of Chiwei Island:influenced by recent extension of the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuexia; LIU Baohua; LI Xishuang; LIU Chenguang; WU Jinlong; WANG Kuiyang

    2008-01-01

    Based on new multibeam bathymetric data and about 300 km long single seismic profiles,three topographic units were identified:the canyons,fractural valley and submarine terrace on the north of Chiwei Island where is a structural transition zone between the southern trough and the middle trough.The Chiwei Canyon and the North Chiwei Canyon are two of the largest canyons in the East China Sea (ECS) slope.Topographic features and architectures of them are described.The study shows that both of them are originated along faults.The evolution and spatial distribution of topographic units in the study area are controlled mainly by three groups of faults which were formed and reactive in the recent extensional phase of Okinawa Trough.The Chiwei Canyon was initia-ted during the middle Pleistocene and guided by F4 that is a N-S trending fault on the slope and F1,a large NW-SE trending fault on the trough.The pathway migration from the remnant channel to the present one of Chiwei Canyon is the result of uplift of tilted fault block that is coupled to the recent extension movements of the southern trough.The submarine terrace is detached from the ECS slope by the NEE-trending fault.The North Chiwei Canyon,developing during the late Pleistocene,is guided by F5,a N-S trending fault,diverted and blocked by the submarine terrace.

  10. Preliminary geologic map of Black Canyon and surrounding region, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Tracey J.; Beard, L. Sue; Anderson, Zachary W.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Seixas, Gustav B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal springs in Black Canyon of the Colorado River, downstream of Hoover Dam, are important recreational, ecological, and scenic features of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. This report presents the results from a U.S. Geological Survey study of the geologic framework of the springs. The study was conducted in cooperation with the National Park Service and funded by both the National Park Service and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The report has two parts: A, a 1:48,000-scale geologic map created from existing geologic maps and augmented by new geologic mapping and geochronology; and B, an interpretive report that presents results based on a collection of fault kinematic data near springs within Black Canyon and construction of 1:100,000-scale geologic cross sections that extend across the western Lake Mead region. Exposures in Black Canyon are mostly of Miocene volcanic rocks, underlain by crystalline basement composed of Miocene plutonic rocks or Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The rocks are variably tilted and highly faulted. Faults strike northwest to northeast and include normal and strike-slip faults. Spring discharge occurs along faults intruded by dacite dikes and plugs; weeping walls and seeps extend away from the faults in highly fractured rock or relatively porous volcanic breccias, or both. Results of kinematic analysis of fault data collected along tributaries to the Colorado River indicate two episodes of deformation, consistent with earlier studies. The earlier episode formed during east-northeast-directed extension, and the later during east-southeast-directed extension. At the northern end of the study area, pre-existing fault blocks that formed during the first episode were rotated counterclockwise along the left-lateral Lake Mead Fault System. The resulting fault pattern forms a complex arrangement that provides both barriers and pathways for groundwater movement within and around Black

  11. The surface sediment distribution and sedimentary environment of the Pearl River Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X.; Chu, F.; Li, J.; Xu, D.; Zhang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The grain size composition, particle size parameters, clay mineral, and detrital mineral of surface sediment of this The Pearl River Submarine Canyon (the PRSC, for short) area have been measured and analyzed, which were took sampling in 2005 and 2006 in the northern South China Sea. The results show that the isolines distribution features of these parameters have very good corresponding relation with the geomorphology of the PRSC. On the continental-shelf slope break of the PRSC head (123m-1500m water depth), the close interval isolines of the surface sediment particle size percentage content and size parameters nearly parallel with the water depth isolines. The data of sand percentage content and mean grain size, sorting coefficient and skewness decreases with the increase of water depth. The other way around, the silt and clay percentage content and kurtosis value increase with deeper water. These show that in the canyon head sediment distribution was controlled by the material source (mainly comes from the Pearl River), slope and the northern South China Sea offshore current. In the main PRSC area, the surface sediment grain size composition content and grain size parameter numerical isolines have become a isoline platform which has the similar shape with the main PRSC and extended to the northeast and southwest deep sea basin. This means that the sedimentary environment of main canyon is apparently different with the head environment, that is affected by the high-temperature and high-salt the South China Sea Branch of by the Kuroshio along the 3500 m water depth isoline and alone the canyon to bending. The 25% percentage content isoline of the calcium biological and 45% percentage content isoline of the light mineral show a broadband distribution along the head and upside of the PRSC, and reduces in the entrance with the water depth isolines, apparently influenced by the South China Sea Branch of the Kuroshio. A high value area of the silt, clay mineral, light

  12. Safety Assessment of the New Very Low-Level Waste Disposal Installation at El Cabril, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish government in 2006, foresees important volumes of wastes with a very low content of radioactivity mainly coming from the dismantling of nuclear power plants, along with the occurrence of some radiological industrial incidents in the past. This fact has boosted the construction of a new disposal installation, specifically designed for this category of waste. This new installation is part of the existing low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility at El Cabril, and includes four cells with a total capacity of around 130,000 m3. The design of the cells is consistent with the European Directive for the disposal of hazardous waste and fulfils the same basic safety criteria as the present facility for LILW. The safety assessment methodology applied for the very low level waste (VLLW) installation is fully coherent with the approach adopted for the existing disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (concrete vaults disposal system) and takes into account the potential impact of the new installation during both the operational and long-term periods. The license for the VLLW installation was granted by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce (MITYC) in July 2008, following technical approval by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), and the first disposal operation occurred in October 2008. (authors)

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal site, which will be referred to as the Lowman site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. The radioactive sands at the Lowman site were stabilized on the site. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or a state, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992)

  14. Waste disposal technologies: designs and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many states and compacts are presently in the throes of considering what technology to select for their low level waste disposal site. Both the technical and economic aspects of disposal technology are important considerations in these decisions. It is also important that they be considered in the context of the entire system. In the case of a nuclear power plant, that system encompasses the various individual waste streams that contain radioactivity, the processing equipment which reduces the volume and/or alters the form in which the radioisotopes are contained, the packaging of the processed wastes in shipment, and finally its disposal. One further part of this is the monitoring that takes place in all stages of this operation. This paper discusses the results of some research that has been sponsored by EPRI with the principal contractor being Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation. Included is a description of the distinguishing features found in disposal technologies developed in a generic framework, designs for a selected set of these disposal technologies and the costs which have been derived from these designs. In addition, a description of the early efforts towards defining the performance of these various disposal technologies is described. 5 figures, 1 table

  15. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  16. Radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the policy of the United Kingdom Government is that HLW should be stored in a suitable facility for at least fifty years before considering further storage or final disposal. This period allows many short-lived radionuclides, but more importantly, the associated radioactive decay heat, to diminish ahead of disposal. For intermediate-level solid wastes current policy is to develop, as soon as possible, a suitable deep geological facility for its permanent disposal. LLW constitutes the majority by volume of all radioactive waste. The waste arises not only from the nuclear industry, but also from all users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals, research establishments and industry. At present, it is mainly disposed of at a 300-acre site at Drigg in Cumbria, operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNEL). It is packed into containers and placed in concrete-lined trenches which are subsequently sealed. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years. Original plans-term disposal route for LLW involved disposal in a new near-surface repository. However, in 1987, this proposal was abandoned, on cost-benefit arguments, and the Government agreed that a yet to be developed national deep repository should also be used for some LLW. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  18. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  20. Modeling of low-level-waste disposal for environmental impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model was developed to analyze environmental impacts resulting from disposal of both radioactive and chemical wastes. The model simulates a waste-disposal system and includes infiltration through disposal cell caps, source leach rates, and solute transport in geologic media. The solute transport model used is a modified version of an analytical code originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The solute transport code was modified based on the Group-Transfer Concentration concept developed by the author. The original model is applicable only to homogeneous media under saturated conditions, but the modified model extends applicability to nonhomogeneous media (layered soils and fractures) and partially saturated conditions. The modified model has broader applicability, e.g., it can be applied to both humid and arid waste-disposal sites, and it is also more practical for environmental impact analysis. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Fluid mechanical dispersion of airborne pollutants inside urban street canyons subjecting to multi-component ventilation and unstable thermal stratifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shuo-Jun; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Wang, Han-Qing; Li, Xiao-Hong

    2016-09-15

    The pedestrian level pollutant transport in street canyons with multiple aspect ratios (H/W) is numerically investigated in the present work, regarding of various unstable thermal stratification scenarios and plain surrounding. Non-isothermal turbulent wind flow, temperature field and pollutant spread within and above the street canyons are solved by the realizable k-ε turbulence model along with the enhanced wall treatment. One-vortex flow regime is observed for shallow canyons with H/W=0.5, whereas multi-vortex flow regime is observed for deep canyons with H/W=2.0. Both one-vortex and multi-vortex regimes could be observed for the street canyons with H/W=1.0, where the secondary vortex could be initiated by the flow separation and intensified by unstable thermal stratification. Air exchange rate (AER) and pollutant retention time are adopted to respectively evaluate the street canyon ventilation and pollutant removal performance. A second-order polynomial functional relationship is established between AER and Richardson number (Ri). Similar functional relationship could be established between retention time and Ri, and it is only valid for canyons with one-vortex flow regime. In addition, retention time could be prolonged abruptly for canyons with multi-vortex flow regime. Very weak secondary vortex is presented at the ground level of deep canyons with mild stratification, where pollutants are highly accumulated. However, with the decrease of Ri, pollutant concentration adjacent to the ground reduces accordingly. Present research could be applied to guide the urban design and city planning for enhancing pedestrian environment. PMID:27262984

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  3. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plans, Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facilities: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1987-06-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho to mitigate the impacts to wildlife habitat and production due to the development and operation of the Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facilities (i.e., dam, power plant, and reservoir areas). The Anderson Ranch Facility covered about 4812 acres of wildlife habitat while the Black Canyon Facility covered about 1115 acres. These acreages include dam and power plant staging areas. A separate mitigation plan has been developed for each facility. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the mitigation plans to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost at each facility as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering the needs of wildlife in the areas. Totals of 9619 and 2238 target species HU's were estimated to be lost in the Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facility areas, respectively. Through a series of projects, the mitigation plans will provide benefits of 9620 target species HU's to replace Anderson Ranch wildlife impacts and benefits of 2195 target species HU's to replace Black Canyon wildlife impacts. Target species to be benefited by the Anderson Ranch and/or Black Canyon mitigation plans include the mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, mule deer, blue grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, and peregrine falcon.

  4. Growth and asymmetry of soil microfungal colonies from "Evolution Canyon," Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluctuating asymmetry is a contentious indicator of stress in populations of animals and plants. Nevertheless, it is a measure of developmental noise, typically obtained by measuring asymmetry across an individual organism's left-right axis of symmetry. These individual, signed asymmetries are symmetrically distributed around a mean of zero. Fluctuating asymmetry, however, has rarely been studied in microorganisms, and never in fungi. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We examined colony growth and random phenotypic variation of five soil microfungal species isolated from the opposing slopes of "Evolution Canyon," Mount Carmel, Israel. This canyon provides an opportunity to study diverse taxa inhabiting a single microsite, under different kinds and intensities of abiotic and biotic stress. The south-facing "African" slope of "Evolution Canyon" is xeric, warm, and tropical. It is only 200 m, on average, from the north-facing "European" slope, which is mesic, cool, and temperate. Five fungal species inhabiting both the south-facing "African" slope, and the north-facing "European" slope of the canyon were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, where we measured the fluctuating radial asymmetry and sizes of their colonies. RESULTS: Different species displayed different amounts of radial asymmetry (and colony size. Moreover, there were highly significant slope by species interactions for size, and marginally significant ones for fluctuating asymmetry. There were no universal differences (i.e., across all species in radial asymmetry and colony size between strains from "African" and "European" slopes, but colonies of Clonostachys rosea from the "African" slope were more asymmetric than those from the "European" slope. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that fluctuating radial asymmetry has potential as an indicator of random phenotypic variation and stress in soil microfungi. Interaction of slope and species for both growth rate

  5. Colorado River campsite monitoring, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joe; Parnell, Rod; Hadley, Daniel R.; Grams, Paul

    2014-01-01

    River rafting trips and hikers use sandbars along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons as campsites. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on campsite areas on sandbars along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Campsite area was measured annually from 1998 to 2012 at 37 study sites between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona. The primary purpose of this report is to present the methods and results of the project. Campsite area surveys were conducted using total station survey methods to outline the perimeter of camping area at each study site. Campsite area is defined as any region of smooth substrate (most commonly sand) with no more than an 8 degree slope and little or no vegetation. We used this definition, but relaxed the slope criteria to include steeper areas near boat mooring locations where campers typically establish their kitchens. The results show that campsite area decreased over the course of the study period, but at a rate that varied by elevation zone and by survey period. Time-series plots show that from 1998 to 2012, high stage-elevation (greater than the 25,000 ft3/s stage-elevation) campsite area decreased significantly, although there was no significant trend in low stage-elevation (15,000–20,000 ft3/s) campsite area. High stage-elevation campsite area increased after the 2004 and 2008 high flows, but decreased in the intervals between high flows. Although no overall trend was detected for low stage-elevation campsite areas, they did increase after high-volume dam releases equal to or greater than about 20,000 ft3/s. We conclude that dam operations have not met the management objectives of the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management program to increase the size of camping beaches in critical and non-critical reaches of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead.

  6. Local Mass Transfer Coefficient for Idealized 2D Urban Street Canyon Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka Kit; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2011-09-01

    Human activities in urban areas is one of the major sources of anthropogenic releases in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The mechanism of urban morphology for the heat and mass transfer in built environment is thus an attractive topic in the research community. In this paper, a series of laboratory measurements is conducted to elucidate the mass transfer from hypothetical urban roughness constructed by idealized 2D street canyons. The experiments are carried out in the wind tunnel in the University of Hong Kong. The urban ABL structure inside the wind tunnel is controlled by placing small cubic Styrofoam blocks upstream of the test section. The street canyons are fabricated by movable rectangular acrylic blocks so that different building height to street width (aspect) ratios are examined. The height of building blocks is kept minimum to make sure that the urban ABL over the street canyons is high enough for fully developed turbulent flows. The prevailing wind is normal to the street axis, demonstrating the scenario of least pollutant removal from the street canyons to the urban ABL. The sample street canyon is covered by soaked filter papers to represent uniform mass concentrations on the building facades and ground surface. The wet bulb temperature of the filter papers is continuously monitored to ensure saturated conditions. Their weight before and after an experiment is used to measure the amount of water evaporated. Preliminary results illustrate the local mass transfer coefficient distribution for aspect ratios 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2, which are comparable with those available in literuatre.

  7. The Glen Canyon Dam adaptive management program: progress and immediate challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior

  8. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations

  9. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations.

  10. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by...

  11. Large wave-shaped bedforms in the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon: Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Normark, W. R.; Ussler, W.; Caress, D. W.; Keaten, R.; Barry, J.; Xu, J.; Smith, D.; Covault, J. A.; Maier, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric data show that large wave-shaped bedforms exist on the seafloor within the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon offshore northern California (Smith et al., 2006). These features have wavelengths up to 70 m, amplitudes up to 2 m, and distinct asymmetrical crests that are roughly perpendicular to the channel. Comparisons of repetitive multibeam surveys since 2004 shows that the bedforms are active features because their positions change between surveys. Three complementary studies are underway to understand the origin of these features: (1) Vibracoring - In June 2007, the ROV Ventana collected 18 vibracores up to 2 m in length along a 130-m transect in ~285 m water depth that spanned the crests of two and the flanks of three waves. Sediment in these cores is composed of one or more sequences of coarse gravel or multicolored clay-clasts that fine upward into sand. Sometimes individual gravel-clasts or clay-chips occur within sand. The internal stratigraphy of these waves shows they resemble classic gravity-flow deposits. (2) Sediment Movement - A pilot study was conducted to assess whether sediment within the canyon floor moves by traction from currents or mass transport. On February 8, 2007, three acoustic beacons were deployed in ~290 m water depth within the canyon axis using Ventana. The beacons were placed within recesses in 50-cm-high ~45 kg poured-concrete monuments. These boulder-sized monuments were buried leaving only the top of the beacon standing ~6 cm above the sediment surface. Thus, the monuments were largely entombed within the seafloor. We also placed 3 acoustic beacons mounted on trapezoidal frames at the edge of a terrace on the canyon's lower flank. On February 12th, we returned to the area and determined that all three monuments had moved ~150 m down canyon. Two trapezoidal frames were found on their sides entwined with each other 50 and 75 m down canyon from their deployment site. The third frame was never located. A

  12. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  13. History of geological disposal concept (3). Implementation phase of geological disposal (2000 upward)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important standards and concept about geological disposal have been arranged as an international common base and are being generalized. The authors overview the concept of geological disposal, and would like this paper to help arouse broad discussions for promoting the implementation plan of geological disposal projects in the future. In recent years, the scientific and technological rationality of geological disposal has been recognized internationally. With the addition of discussions from social viewpoints such as ethics, economy, etc., geological disposal projects are in the stage of starting after establishment of social consensus. As an international common base, the following consolidated and systematized items have been presented as indispensable elements in promoting business projects: (1) step-by-step approach, (2) safety case, (3) reversibility and recovery potential, and (4) trust building and communications. This paper outlines the contents of the following cases, where international common base was reflected on the geological disposal projects in Japan: (1) final disposal method and safety regulations, and (2) impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident on geological disposal plan. (A.O.)

  14. Waste disposal aspects of actinide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two recent NRPB reports are summarized (Camplin, W.C., Grimwood, P.D. and White, I.F., The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of disposal of high-level radioactive waste on the ocean bed, Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R94 (1980), London, HMSO; Hill, M.D., White, I.F. and Fleishman, A.B., The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste. Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R95 (1980), London, HMSO). They describe preliminary environmental assessments relevant to waste arising from the reprocessing of PWR fuel. Details are given of the modelling of transport of radionuclides to man, and of the methodology for calculating effective dose equivalents in man. Emphasis has been placed on the interaction between actinide separation and the disposal options rather than comparison of disposal options. The reports show that the effects of actinide separation do depend on the disposal method. Conditions are outlined where the required substantial further research and development work on actinide separation and recycle would be justified. Toxicity indices or 'toxic potentials' can be misleading and should not be used to guide research and development. (U.K.)

  15. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  16. PREPARATION OF U-PLANT FOR FINAL DEMOLITION AND DISPOSAL - 12109E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FARABEE OA; HERZOG B; CAMERON C

    2012-02-16

    The U-Plant is one of the five major nuclear materials processing facilities at Hanford and was chosen as a pilot project to develop the modalities for closure of the other four facilities at Hanford and the rest of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The remedy for this facility was determined by a Record of Decision (ROD) pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). That remedy was to 'Close in Place - Partially Demolished Structure'. The U-Plant facility is identified as the 221-U Building and is a large, concrete structure nominally 247m (810 ft) long, 20 M (66 ft) wide and 24 m (77 ft) high with approximately 9 m (30 ft) being below grade level. It is a robust facility with walls ranging from 0.9 m to 2.7 m (3 ft to 9 ft) thick. One large room extends the entire length of the building that provides access to 40 sub-grade processing cells containing tanks, piping and other components. The work breakdown was divided into three major deliverables: (1) Tank D-10 Removal: removal of Tank D-10, which contained TRU waste; (2) Equipment Disposition: placement of contaminated equipment in the sub-grade cells; and (3) Canyon Grouting: grouting canyon void spaces to the maximum extent practical. A large number of pieces of contaminated equipment (pumps, piping, centrifuges, tanks, etc) from other facilities that had been stored on the canyon operating floor were placed inside of the sub-grade cells as final disposition, grouted and the cell shield plug reinstalled. This action precluded a large volume of waste being transported to another burial site. Finally, {approx}19,000 m3 ({approx}25,000 yd3) of grout was placed inside of the cells (in and around the contaminated equipment), in the major galleries. the ventilation tunnel, the external ventilation duct, and the hot pipe trench to minimize the potential for void spaces and to reduce the mobility, solubility, and/or toxicity of the grouted waste

  17. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  18. EX1206: Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Canyons Exploration on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20121030 and 20121120

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EX1206 was added and is now the final cruise of the 2012 season for Okeanos Explorer (EX). It will be primarily focused on further supplementing Northeast canyon...

  19. EX1205L2: Northeast Canyons and Continental Margins Exploration on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20120728 and 20120803

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EX1205 Leg 2 is the final cruise of the 2012 season for Okeanos Explorer (EX). It will be primarily focused on supplementing Northeast canyon and continental shelf...

  20. Road and Street Centerlines, Spring Creek Canyon, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Spring Creek Canyon'. The extent of...